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Sample records for aqueous nitrate solutions

  1. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  2. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH 3 , hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250 degree C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs 3 or NH 4 NO 3 is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO 3 to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions

  3. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.; Moisy, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with circle NO 2 radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  4. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2012-07-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with {sup circle} NO{sup 2} radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  5. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  6. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was the removal of phosphate and nitrate by sodium alginate seagrass (Cymodocea rotundata) beads from aqueous solutions. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate and nitrate on the seagrass beads were optimized under different operational parameters like adsorbent dosage, initial ...

  7. Densities concentrations of aqueous of uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Fernandez Rodriguez, L.

    1966-01-01

    The ratio density-concentration of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions expressed as U 3 O 8 grams/liter, U grams/liter and hexahydrate uranyl nitrate weight percent at different temperatures, are established. Experimental values are graphically correlated and compared whit some published data. (Author) 2 refs

  8. Chemical denitration of aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1987-11-01

    The Plant for Active Waste Liquids (PAWL) at CRNL will immobilize in glass the fission products in waste from Mo-99 production. The nitrate ions in the waste can be destroyed by heating, but also by chemical reaction with formic acid (HCOOH). Since chemical denitration has several advantages over thermal denitration it was studied in the course of vitrification process development. Two free radical mechanisms are examined here to explain kinetic data on chemical denitration of nitric acid solutions with formic acid. One mechanism is applicable at > 1 mol/L HNO 3 and involves the formate radical (HCOO . ). The second mechanism holds at 3 and involves the hyponitrous radical (HNO . ). Mass balances for various species were written based on the law of mass action applied to the equations describing the reaction mechanism. Analytical and numerical solutions were obtained and compared. Literature data on batch denitration were used to determine some of the rate constants while others were set arbitrarily. Observed stoichiometry and trends in reactant concentrations are predicted accurately for batch data. There are no literature data to compare with the prediction of negligible induction time

  9. Coupled jump rotational dynamics in aqueous nitrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Puja; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-12-21

    A nitrate ion (NO 3 - ) with its trigonal planar geometry and charges distributed among nitrogen and oxygen atoms can couple to the extensive hydrogen bond network of water to give rise to unique dynamical characteristics. We carry out detailed atomistic simulations and theoretical analyses to investigate these aspects and report certain interesting findings. We find that the nitrate ions in aqueous potassium nitrate solution exhibit large amplitude rotational jump motions that are coupled to the hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of the surrounding water molecules. The jump motion of nitrate ions bears certain similarities to the Laage-Hynes mechanism of rotational jump motions of tagged water molecules in neat liquid water. We perform a detailed atomic-level investigation of hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics of water in aqueous KNO 3 solution to unearth two distinct mechanisms of hydrogen bond exchange that are instrumental to promote these jump motions of nitrate ions. As observed in an earlier study by Xie et al., in the first mechanism, after breaking a hydrogen bond with nitrate ion, water forms a new hydrogen bond with a water molecule, whereas the second mechanism involves just a switching of hydrogen bond between the two oxygen atoms of the same nitrate ion (W. J. Xie et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 224504 (2015)). The magnitude as well as nature of the reorientational jump of nitrate ion for the two mechanisms is different. In the first mechanism, nitrate ion predominantly undergoes out-of-plane rotation, while in the second mechanism, in-plane reorientation of NO 3 - is favourable. These have been deduced by computing the torque on the nitrate ion during the hydrogen bond switching event. We have defined and computed the time correlation function for coupled reorientational jump of nitrate and water and obtained the associated relaxation time which is also different for the two mechanisms. These results provide insight into the relation between the

  10. Removal of phosphate and nitrate from aqueous solution using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    water, 3.5 g of NaCl were dissolved to obtain 3.5 g/l salinity final solution. When the ... The nitrate adsorption was highly pH dependent, which affects the ... adsorption mechanism that the optimum pH for phosphate removal by .... Biosorption of copper(ii) from aqueous ... Accumulation and detoxification of toxic elements by ...

  11. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

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    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  12. Investigation of complexing of trivalent lanthanoids in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Proyaev, V.V.; Edinakova, V.

    1985-01-01

    Complexing of trivalent lanthanoids (Ce, Eu) with nitrate-ions in concentrated solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates has been studied in a wide range of ionic forces (1.0-7.0), using the extractional, densimetric and solubility methods. Nitrate complexes registered by the extraction and solubility methods mainly are of second sphere character. During rare earth extraction from concentrated nitrate solutions in the range of nitrate-ion concentrations <= 5 mol/l second sphere neutral nitrate complexes take part in distribution, at higher values of nitrate-ion concentration formation of intrasphere monoligand complexes of lanthanoids should be taken into account

  13. Characterization of aqueous silver nitrate solutions for leakage tests

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    José Ferreira Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH over a period of 168 h and the ionic silver content in various concentrations and post-preparation times of aqueous silver nitrate solutions. Also, the possible effects of these factors on microleakage test in adhesive/resin restorations in primary and permanent teeth were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A digital pHmeter was used for measuring the pH of the solutions prepared with three types of water (purified, deionized or distilled and three brands of silver nitrate salt (Merck, Synth or Cennabras at 0, 1, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h after preparation, and storage in transparent or dark bottles. Ionic silver was assayed according to the post-preparation times (2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 h and concentrations (1, 5, 25, 50% of solutions by atomic emission spectrometry. For each sample of each condition, three readings were obtained for calculating the mean value. Class V cavities were prepared with enamel margins on primary and permanent teeth and restored with the adhesive systems OptiBond FL or OptiBond SOLO Plus SE and the composite resin Filtek Z-250. After nail polish coverage, the permanent teeth were immersed in 25% or 50% AgNO3 solution and the primary teeth in 5% or 50% AgNO3 solutions for microleakage evaluation. ANOVA and the Tukey's test were used for data analyses (α=5%. RESULTS: The mean pH of the solutions ranged from neutral to alkaline (7.9±2.2 to 11.8±0.9. Mean ionic silver content differed depending on the concentration of the solution (4.75±0.5 to 293±15.3 ppm. In the microleakage test, significant difference was only observed for the adhesive system factor (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Under the tested experimental conditions and based on the obtained results, it may be concluded that the aqueous AgNO3 solutions: have neutral/alkaline pH and service life of up to 168 h; the level of ionic silver is proportional to the concentration of the solution; even at 5% concentration, the solutions were

  14. XPS study of the passive layers formed on lead in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Miho; Okuwaki, Akitsugu

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the lead surface immersed in aqueous nitrate solutions by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows the formation of passive oxide layer containing nitrogen compound. The oxide layer formed on the lead surface in aqueous ammonium nitrate solution was hydrolyzed and cracked. (author)

  15. Radiation chemistry of the aqueous aluminium nitrate solution (Preprint no. RC-26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkar, C.D.; Date, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Radiolysis of aqueous aluminium nitrate solution is studied as a function of concentration in the range 10 -4 M to 10 -1 M. The stable radiolytic product of nitrate radiolysis is nitrite. The yield of nitrite linearly increases with absorbed dose. The G(NO 2 ) values are determined at various concentrations of aluminium nitrate. A suitable mechanism is proposed to explain the observed G-value for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  16. Extraction of rare earth metals (3) from aqueous solutions containing thorium and uranyl nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Berinskij, A.E.; Keskinov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Isotherms of extraction of rare earth metals (3) from aqueous solutions containing thorium and uranyl nitrates by solutions of tributylphosphate (TBP) and diisooctylmethylphosphonate (DIOMP) in kerosene at 298.15 Deg C and pH 1 are presented. Equations for description of interphase distribution of components of the systems considered are suggested. These equations describe distribution of components adequately in the systems of thorium nitrate (uranyl nitrate) - rare earth nitrates - (TBP, DIOMP) in the case of wide variation of phase compositions. Dependences of separation factors on composition of aqueous phase are considered [ru

  17. Physicochemical analysis of cryocrystallization processes of aqueous solutions of yttrium, barium, copper nitrates and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, A.B.; Mozhaev, A.P.; Tesker, A.M.; Churagulov, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Products of fast hardening of aqueous solutions of different concentration of yttrium, barium copper nitrates and their mixtures including mixture of three nitrates with molar ratio equal to 1:2:3 used for synthesis of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x HTSC by cryochemical technique, in liquid nitrogen, are studied using low-temperature, differential thermal and X-ray phase analyses. Aqueous solutions of barium, copper, yttrium nitrates are shown to belong to three different classes which differ in behaviour at fast cooling and subsequent slow heating. Cryogranulate at YBa 2 Cu 2 O 7-x synthesis using cryochemical technique represents mixture of X-ray amorphous Ba(NO 3 ) 2 , crystalline Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O and ice, as well as, supercooled aqueous solution of yttrium and copper nitrates

  18. Influence of Acidity on Uranyl Nitrate Association in Aqueous Solutions: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Cui, Shengting; Khomami, Bamin; Ye, Xianggui; Smith, Rodney Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Uranyl ion complexation with water and nitrate is a key aspect of the uranium/plutonium extraction process. We have carried out a molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate this complexation process, including the molecular composition of the various complex species, the corresponding structure, and the equilibrium distribution of the complexes. The observed structures of the complexes suggest that in aqueous solution, uranyls are generally hydrated by 5 water molecules in the equatorial plane. When associating with nitrate ions, a water molecule is replaced by a nitrate ion, preserving the five-fold coordination and planar symmetry. Analysis of the pair correlation function between uranyl and nitrate suggests that nitrates bind to uranyl in aqueous solution mainly in a monodentate mode, although a small portion of bidentates occur. Dynamic association and dissociation between uranyls and nitrates take place in aqueous solution with a substantial amount of fluctuation in the number of various uranyl nitrate species. The average number of the uranyl mononitrate complexes shows a dependence on acid concentration consistent with equilibrium-constant analysis, namely, the concentration of [UO2NO3]+ increases with nitric acid concentration.

  19. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

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    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  20. Comparision of Chitosan Function as Adsorbent for Nitrate Removal Using Synthetic Aqueous Solution and Drinking Water

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    Mohammad Norisepehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nitrate and nitrite compounds pollution of groundwater resources in recent years which recently their mean concentration due to enhancement of different kind of municipal, industrial and agriculture waste water, were increased. The most common source of nitrates entering the water include chemical fertilizers and animal manure in agriculture, septic tank effluent, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, animal and plant residue analysis on the ground of non-sanitary disposal of solid waste and the use of absorbing wells for sewage disposal. Materials and methods: This experimental study is applied to the nitrate removal using chitosan in laboratory scale at ambient temperature and the design of the system was Batch. Effects of parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent concentration of nitrate on nitrate removal from aqueous solution was studied. Results: Function of chitosan in synthetic aqueous solution and drinking water according to the slurry system results, the optimum condition was obtained at pH=4, 20 min contact time and increasing the initial concentration of nitrate enhance the adsorption capacity of chitosan. Also optimum dosage of adsorbent was obtained at 0.5 g/l. The data obtained from the experiments of adsorbent isotherm were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir equation was found to be the best fitness with the experimental data (R2>0.93. Conclusion: Although efficiency of Nitrate removal in synthetic aqueous solution was better than drinking water, adsorption process using chitosan as an option for the design and selection nitrate removal should be considered in order to achieve environmental standards.

  1. Formation of the second organic phase during uranyl nitrate extraction from aqueous solution by 30% tributylphosphate solution in paraffin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yhrkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    For extraction systems aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate-30% solution of tributylphosphate in individual paraffins from C 13 to C 17 the influence of the second organic phase of uranyl nitrate concentration in aqueous and organic phases, the length of hydrocarbon chain of paraffin hydrocarbon and temperature from 25 to 50 deg C on formation conditions has been defected. A special method of achieving the conditions of organic phase stratification from three-phase region, involving definition of equilibrium phases composition by density and refractive index, has been elaborated for more precise definition of organic phase homogeneity region. It has been revealed that without addition of nitric acid to uranyl nitrate solution the organic phase homogeneity limits can be achieved solely on paraffins C 15 , C 16 and C 17 and only under conditions similar to equeous phase saturation in terms of uranyl nitrate. 16 refs., 2 figs

  2. Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution using cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) modified zeolite as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Yanhui; Lin Jianwei; Zhu Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant modified zeolites (SMZ) with different coverage types were prepared by loading the cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) onto the surface of the natural zeolites. The adsorption behavior of nitrate on SMZ was investigated. Natural zeolite and SMZ with monolayer CPB coverage were inefficient for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution. However, SMZ with patchy bilayer or bilayer CPB coverage was efficient in nitrate removal, and the nitrate adsorption capacity of SMZ increased with its CPB loading. For typical SMZ with bilayer CPB coverage, the nitrate adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The presence of competing anions such as chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions slightly reduced the nitrate adsorption efficiency. Anionic exchange and electrostatic interaction were proven to be the main mechanisms that govern the adsorption of nitrate on SMZ.

  3. Preferential solvation, ion pairing, and dynamics of concentrated aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sushma; Chandra, Amalendu

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of preferential solvation of ions, structure of solvation shells, ion pairing, and dynamics of aqueous solutions of divalent alkaline-earth metal nitrate salts at varying concentration by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Hydration shell structures and the extent of preferential solvation of the metal and nitrate ions in the solutions are investigated through calculations of radial distribution functions, tetrahedral ordering, and also spatial distribution functions. The Mg2+ ions are found to form solvent separated ion-pairs while the Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions form contact ion pairs with the nitrate ions. These findings are further corroborated by excess coordination numbers calculated through Kirkwood-Buff G factors for different ion-ion and ion-water pairs. The ion-pairing propensity is found to be in the order of Mg(NO3) 2 lead to the presence of substantial dynamical heterogeneity in these solutions of strongly interacting ions. The current study helps us to understand the molecular details of hydration structure, ion pairing, and dynamics of water in the solvation shells and also of ion diffusion in aqueous solutions of divalent metal nitrate salts.

  4. Interaction of cadmium and indium nitrate mixture with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousova, E E; Krivobok, V I; Gruba, A I [Donetskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of the mixture of cadmium and indium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution is studied using the methods of ''residual concentrations'', pH potentiometry and conductometry. Independent of the ratio of components in the initial solution a mixture of coprecipitated normal tungstates of cadmium and indium is formed in the system. Heat treatment of the precipitates at 800 deg C for 50 hrs with subsequent hardening results in the formation of solid solutions on the basis of normal cadmium and indium tungstates.

  5. Activation of Graphene Oxide with Hydrochloric Acid for Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions

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    Abolghasem Alighardashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term drinking of nitrate-contaminated water poses a serious risk to human health. The present study explores the possibility of enhancing the adsorption capacity of graphene oxide via activation with hydrochloric acid for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed in a batch reactor in which such major factors as pH, reaction time, and concentrations of both graphene oxide (GO and activated graphene oxide (AGO were used as variables. Nitrate removal efficiency was investigated using the One-Way ANOVA statistical test and SPSS-16 software. The chemical composition and solid structure of the synthesized AGO were analyzed using FE-SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS. The micropore volumes of the samples were determined using the BET and BJH. The predominant composition (52% of the synthesized AGO was C and its mean pore diameter was 26.896 nm. The maximum adsorption capacity of AGO was estimated at 3333.33 mg/g. Based on the results, the AGO nano-structure may be recomended as a new means for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  6. Investigation into interaction of mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstates in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozantsev, G M; Krivobok, V I [Donetskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1978-09-01

    The methods of residual concentrations, pH-potentiometry, and conductometry have been used for studying interaction between the mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solutions. It has been established that independent of the ratio between the components the reaction product is a mixture of simultaneously precipitated zinc and neodymium orthotungstates. Thermal treatment of such mixtures at 650-700 deg C for 40 h and subsequent hardening yields solid solution of the structure ..cap alpha..-Eu/sub 2/(WO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ within the concentration range 85-100 mol % of Nd/sub 2/(WO/sub 4/)/sub 3/.

  7. Optimizing Electrocoagulation Process for the Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution

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    Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background High levels of nitrate anion are frequently detected in many groundwater resources in Fars province. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of nitrate from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum and iron electrodes. Materials and Methods A laboratory-scale batch reactor was conducted to determine nitrate removal efficiency using the electrocoagulation method. The removal of nitrate was determined at pH levels of 3, 7, and 11, different voltages (15, 20, and 30 V, and operation times of 30, 60, and 75 min, respectively. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (Chicago, Illinois, USA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the parameters. Results Results of the present study showed that the removal efficiency was increased from 27% to 86% as pH increased from 3 to 11 at the optimal condition of 30 V and 75 min operation time. Moreover, by increasing the reaction time from 30 V to 75 min the removal efficiency was increased from 63% to 86%, respectively (30 V and pH = 11. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between removal efficiency and voltage and reaction time as well (P < 0.01. Conclusions In conclusion, the electrocoagulation process can be used for removing nitrate from water resources because of high efficiency, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  8. Adsorptive Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solution Using Nitrogen Doped Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Motoi; Goto, Tatsuru; Amano, Yoshimasa; Iida, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been widely applied for adsorptive removal of organic contaminants from aqueous phase, but not for ionic pollutants. In this study, nitrogen doped AC was prepared to increase the adsorption capacity of nitrate from water. AC was oxidized with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 solution to maximize oxygen content for the first step, and then NH 3 gas treatment was carried out at 950°C to aim at forming quaternary nitrogen (N-Q) species on AC surface (Ox-9.5AG). Influence of solution pH was examined so as to elucidate the relationship between surface charge and adsorption amounts of nitrate. The results showed that Ox-9.5AG exhibited about twice higher adsorption capacity than non-treatment AC at any initial nitrate concentration and any equilibrium solution pH (pH e ) investigated. The more decrease in pH e value, the more adsorption amount of negatively charged nitrate ion, because the surface charge of AC and Ox-9.5AG could become more positive in acidic solution. The oxidation and consecutive ammonia treatments lead to increase in nitrogen content from 0.35 to 6.4% and decrease in the pH of the point of zero charge (pH pzc ) from 7.1 to 4.0 implying that positively charged N-Q of a Lewis acid was created on the surface of Ox-9.5AG. Based on a Langmuir data analysis, maximum adsorption capacity attained 0.5-0.6 mmol/g of nitrate and adsorption affinity was 3.5-4.0 L/mmol at pH e 2.5 for Ox-9.5AG.

  9. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  10. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660±0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46±0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 x 10 6 ±3.56 x 10 4 at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610±0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412±0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72±1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured

  11. Apparent and partial molal heat capacities of aqueous rare earth nitrate solutions at 250C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spedding, F.H.; Baker, J.L.; Walters, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Specific heats of aqueous solutions of the trinitrates of La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were measured from 0.1 m to saturation at 25 0 C. Apparent molal heat capacities, phi/sub cp/, were calculated for these solutions, and empirical polynomial equations were obtained which expressed phi/sub cp/ as a function of m/sup 1/2/ for each salt. The partial molal heat capacities of the solvent, anti C 1 /sub p/, and solute, anti C 2 /sub p/, were calculated from these equations. Unlike chloride and perchlorate data reported earlier, values of anti C 1 /sub p/ for nitrate solutions across the rare earth series did not show a two series effect. Instead, anti C 1 /sub p/ values at lower concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 m) appear correlated with reported first formation constants for rare earth-nitrate complexes. 31 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  12. LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF CHLORIDES AND NITRATES FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, J.E.

    1963-01-29

    A method is described for reducing the chloride content of a solution derived from the dissolution of a stainless steel clad nuclear fuel element with an aqua regia dissolution medium. The solutlon is adjusted to a nitric acid concentration in the range 5 to 10 M and is countercurrently contacted at room temperature with a gaseous oxide of nitrogen selected from NO, NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ O/sub 3/, and N/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Chlo ride is recovered from the contacted solution as nitrosyl chloride. After reduction of the chloride content, the solution is then contacted with gaseous NO to reduce the nitric acid molarity to a desired level. (AEC)

  13. The direct effect in the gamma radiolysis of frozen aqueous solutions of nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalecinski, J.

    1974-01-01

    The gamma radiolysis of frozen at 77 and 195 K solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, strontium and silver nitrates was examined. The yields of the direct effect G(NO 2 - ) were shown to depend on the type of the nitrate and to correlate with the free volumes of the solutions. (author)

  14. Solubility of some phenolic compounds in aqueous alkali metal nitrate solutions from (293.15 to 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)], E-mail: Adel.anoubigh@ipest.rnu.tn; Cherif, Mourad [IPEIEM, Universite de Tunis-El Manar, BP244. 2096. El Manar II (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France); Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper is continuation of the study concerning the solubility-temperature dependence data for some phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in two nitrate salts (KNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}) aqueous solutions. The solubilities of PhC were determined in the temperature ranging from (293.15 to 318.15) K. It has been observed that the solubility, in aqueous nitrate solutions, increases with increasing temperature. Results showed that alkali metal nitrate has a salting-out effect on the solubility of PhC. The effect of the anion of the electrolyte on the solubility of PhC is observed by comparing these results with values reported in the previous papers for the effect of LiCl, NaCl and KCl. For each cation, the solubilites of the phenolic compounds are higher with nitrate anion than with chloride anion. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The solubility data were accurately correlated by a semi empirical equation. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the nitrate salts have been calculated from the solubility data. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr}G{sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  15. Extraction of uranyl nitrate from aqueous solution by dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takashi; Ohno, Fumiaki; Fukutomi, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of uranyl nitrate from aqueous solution by dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6(DCC) in cyclohexane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene and nitrobenzene has been studied in varying the concentrations of DCC and uranyl nitrate. The extraction equilibria have been discussed in detail based on the law of mass action, and it has been found that the extractions in cyclohexane, toluene and benzene are represented by the equation 2 DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), and the extraction in chlorobenzene is described by the equations DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) and 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), and the extraction in nitrobenzene is expressed by the equations DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org), 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) and DCC UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) = DCC UO 2 NO 3 + (org) + NO 3 - (org). The equilibrium constants of the reaction 2DCC(org) + UO 2 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 - (aq) = (DCC) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (org) increase in the order of cyclohexane < toluene < benzene < chlorobenzene < nitrobenzene. The enthalpy and entropy changes for the extraction reactions into benzene and nitrobenzene were determined from the change of the extraction equilibrium constants with temperature. (author)

  16. Chemical effects induced by dissolving γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous nitrate, permanganate and chromate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phansalkar, V.K.; Bapat, L.; Ravishankar, D.

    1982-01-01

    Dissolution of γ-irradiated alkali halides in aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate, potassium permanganate and potassium chromate at neutral pH induces chemical changes leading to the formation of NO 2 - in nitrate, Mn(IV) and Cr(III) species in permanganate and chromate solutions, respectively. Further, the studies on nitrate and permanganate systems show that the amount of NO 2 - and Mn(IV) formed grows by increasing the dose of γ-irradiation of the salt and the amount of irradiated salt. Moreover, the extent of chemical changes effected by irradiated chlorides has been found to be more than that of bromides. The mesh size of the irradiated salt and the presence of scavengers like I - and methanol in the system, affects the yield of NO 2 - . (author)

  17. Determination of total and extractable hydrogen peroxide in organic and aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in uranyl nitrate solutions is reported. The method involves the measurement of the absorbance at 520 mm of a vanadyl peroxide species. This species was formed by the addition of a reagent consisting of vanadium (V) (50 mmol x dm -3 ) in dilute sulphuric acid (2 mol x dm -3 H 2 SO 4 ). This reagent, after dilution, was also used as an extractant for organic phase samples. The method is simple and robust and tolerant of nitric acid and U(VI). Specificity and accuracy were improved by the application of solid phase extraction techniques to remove entrained organic solvents and Pu(VI). Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to clean-up aqueous samples or extracts which were contaminated with entrained solvent. A solid phase extraction system based upon an extraction chromatography system was used to remove Pu(IV). Detection limits of 26 μmol x dm -3 (0.88 μg x cm -3 ) or 7 μmol x dm -3 (0.24 μg x cm -3 ) for, respectively, a 1 and 4 cm path length cell were obtained. Precisions of RSD = 1.4% and 19.5% were obtained at the extremes of the calibration curve (5 mmol x dm -3 and 50 μmol x dm -3 H 2 O 2 , 1 cm cell). The introduction of the extraction and clean-up stages had a negligible effect upon the precision of the determination. The stability of an organic phase sample was tested and no loss of analyte could be discerned over a period of at least 5 days. (author)

  18. Nitrate adsorption from aqueous solution using granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qili [School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Groundwater Cycle and Environment Evolution,China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100083 (China); Chen, Nan, E-mail: chennan@cugb.edu.cn [School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Groundwater Cycle and Environment Evolution, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100083 (China); Feng, Chuanping [School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of Groundwater Cycle and Environment Evolution, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100083 (China); Hu, WeiWu [The Journal Center, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex had high performance for nitrate adsorption. • Granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex had shorter equilibrium time (1.5 h). • Nitrate adsorption was ascribed to ion exchange and electrostatic attraction. • Granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex could be regenerated using NaCl solution. - Abstract: In the present study, In order to efficiently remove nitrate, granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex with high chemical stability and good environmental adaptation was synthesized through precipitation method and characterized using SEM, XRD, BET and FTIR. The nitrate adsorption performance was evaluated by batch experiments. The results indicated that granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex was an amorphous and mesoporous material. The BET specific surface area and average pore size were 8.98 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 56.94 Å, respectively. The point of zero charge was obtained at pH 5. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 8.35 mg NO{sub 3}{sup −}-N g{sup −1} based on Langmuir–Freundlich model. Moreover, no significant change in the nitrate removal efficiency was observed in the pH range of 3.0–10.0. The adverse influence of sulphate on nitrate removal was the most significant, followed by bicarbonate and fluoride, whereas chloride had slightly adverse effect. Adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental equilibrium data were fitted well with the Langmuir–Freundlich and D–R isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that nitrate adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Granular chitosan-Fe{sup 3+} complex could be effectively regenerated by NaCl solution.

  19. Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)

  20. One pot synthesis of chitosan grafted quaternized resin for the removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, H Thagira; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of chitosan quaternized resin for efficient removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution. The resin was characterized with FTIR, SEM with EDX and XRD. Batch method was carried out to optimize various parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of nitrate and phosphate, dosage, pH, co-anions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The adsorption process illustrated that the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order are the best fitted models for the sorption of both anions. The respective negative values of ΔH° and ΔG° revealed that the adsorption of both the anions were exothermic and spontaneous. The removal efficiency of nitrate and phosphate on chitosan quaternized resin were 78% and 90% respectively with 0.1g of adsorbent and the initial concentration as 100mg/L. Nitrate and phosphate anions adsorbed effectively on chitosan quaternized resin by replacing Cl - ions from quaternary site through electrostatic attraction as well as ion-exchange mechanism. Hydrogen bonding also played important role in adsorption process. Even after 7th regeneration cycle the adsorbent retained its adsorption capacity as 23.7mg/g and 30.4mg/g for both nitrate and phosphate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of composite materials based on various extractants for isolation of lanthanides(III) nitrates from multicomponent aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Pyartman, A.K.; Kesnikov, V.A.; Pleshkov, M.A.; Exekov, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In present work we obtained samples of composite materials mentioned containing tributylphosphate (TBP) and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate (TAMAN). Extraction of lanthanides(III) nitrates of cerium group from multicomponent aqueous solutions by means of these materials was studied. Some systems with different concentration of sodium nitrate up to 5 mol/l and the same systems containing additions of sodium chloride or sulfate along with sodium nitrate was investigated, isotherm of extraction being obtained for all cases. Also we compared in identical conditions extraction process when liquid extractants were used and process with composite materials. It was found that traditional extraction systems and systems based on composite extractants demonstrated almost the same extraction properties in respect to lanthanides(III) nitrates. Extraction isotherms observed in identical conditions and being shown in the same coordinates had no difference with taking into account errors of experiment. This fact allow to use the same mathematical model for those systems. For systems studied it was generated mathematical model that is able to describe extraction process when component concentration vary in wide range, with assumption being used that ratio activity coefficients in organic phase stay constant. (authors)

  2. Adsorption of Nitrite and Nitrate Ions from an Aqueous Solution by Fe-Mg-Type Hydrotalcites at Different Molar Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kariya, Yukine; Nagahashi, Eri; Kobayashi, Yuhei; Nakamura, Takehiro; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we prepared Fe-Mg-type hydrotalcites (Fe-HT3.0 and Fe-HT5.0) with different molar ratios and evaluated their adsorption capability for nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution. Fe-HT is a typical hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide. Adsorption isotherms, as well as the effects of contact time and pH were investigated, and it was found that Fe-HT can adsorb larger amounts of nitrite and nitrate ions than Al-HT (normal-type hydrotalcite). Adsorption isotherm data were fitted to both Freundlich (correlation coefficient: 0.970-1.000) and Langmuir (correlation coefficient: 0.974-0.999) equations. Elemental analysis and binding energy of Fe-HT surface before and after adsorption indicated that the adsorption mechanism was related to the interaction between the adsorbent surface and anions. In addition, the ion exchange process is related to the adsorption mechanism. The adsorption amount increased with increasing temperature (7-25°C). The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The effect of pH on adsorption was not significant, which suggested that Fe-HT could be used over a wide pH range (4-12). These results indicate that Fe-HT is a good adsorbent for the removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from aqueous solution.

  3. Method of denitrification and stabilization of radioactive aqueous solutions of radioisotope nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecak, V.; Matous, V.

    1983-01-01

    The method is solved of denitrification and of the stabilization of aqueous solutions of radioactive isotopes produced during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The aqueous solution is first mixed with the vitreous component, most frequently phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate or boric acid and if needed with the addition of alkalis, possibly with clarifying or anti-foam components, e.g., arsenic trioxide, antimony or cerium oxide. The mixture is further adjusted with ammonia to pH 5 - 9. The liquid mixture is then thermally and pyrolytically processed, e.g., by calcinator or fluid-bed reactor or by pot melting at temperatures of 3O0 to 900 degC while of a powder product or glass melt is formed in the presence of gaseous emissions composed of nitrous oxide - nitrogen. The resulting product is further processed by containerization or is sealed in a metal matrix. (B.S.)

  4. Contribution to the study of the evaporation of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions; Contribution a l'etude de l'evaporation des solutions aqueuses de nitrate d'uranyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work was carried out with a view to define the conditions under which is affected the concentration of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions one of the steps in uranium extraction metallurgy. The first port is devoted to the experimental determination of the physical characteristics of aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions, from dilute to concentrated solutions. The second part of this work is devoted to the isothermal evaporation of solution a west ted-wall column; this chemical engineering study has been more particularly devoted to the definition of the influence of the dynamics of the liquid phase on the exchange of matter between the two phases in contact. (author) [French] La concentration par evaporation des solutions aqueuses de nitrate d'uranyle constitue une etape de la metallurgie de l'uranium dont ce travail a voulu preciser la connaissance. Dans ce but, une premiere partie a ete consacree a la determination experimentale de caracteristiques physiques des solutions aqueuses de nitrate d'uranyle, des solutions diluees aux solutions saturees. Dans une deuxieme partie, ce travail a porte sur l'evaporation isotherme des solutions dans une colonne a paroi mouillee; cette etude de genie chimique a ete plus particulierement orientee de facon a preciser l'influence de la dynamique de la phase liquide sur l'echange de matiere entre les deux phases en contact. (auteur)

  5. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wen [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Baoyu, E-mail: bygao@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei [Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Recycling (Shandong), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao [Jinan Water and Wastewater Monitoring Center, 250033 Jinan (China)

    2016-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Scheme of mechanism for HCl and NaCl regeneration of MAB-CS. - Highlights: • Magnetic amine-crosslinked bio-adsorbent was prepared for nitrate uptake. • The characters of adsorbent were determined by VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. • This novel bio-adsorbent could achieve rapid separation from effluents. • Chemical regeneration of the saturated magnetic bio-adsorbent was conducted. • The adsorption followed the pseudo second order model and Langmuir model. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0∼9.0, and the presence of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R{sup 2} = 0.997–0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R{sup 2} = 0.953–0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118∼147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  6. Removal of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate from aqueous solutions in packed bed filter using biochar augmented sand media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hanandeh Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients from wastewater are a major source of pollution because they can cause significant impact on the ecosystem. Accordingly, it is important that the nutrient concentrations are kept to admissible levels to the receiving environment. Often regulatory limits are set on the maximum allowable concentrations in the effluent. Therefore, wastewater must be treated to meet safe levels of discharge. In this study, laboratory investigation of the efficiency of packed bed filters to remove nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solutions were conducted. Sand and sand augmented with hydrochloric acid treated biochar (SBC were used as packing media. Synthetic wastewater solution was prepared with PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ concentrations 20, 10, 50 mg/L, respectively. Each experiment ran for a period of five days; samples from the effluent were collected on alternate days. All experiments were duplicated. Over the experiment period, the average removal efficiency of PO43−, NO3−, NH4+ were 99.2%, 72.9%, 96.7% in the sand packed columns and 99.2%, 82.3%, 97.4% in the SBC packed columns, respectively. Although, the presence of biochar in the packing media had little effect on phosphate and ammonium removal, it significantly improved nitrate removal.

  7. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedova, T.G.; Ponomareva, A.V.; Zagorets, P.A.; Filippov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lgβ depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6

  8. Determination of stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complex with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedova, T G; Ponomareva, A V; Zagorets, P A; Filippov, E A [Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1984-08-01

    Total stability constants of K and Cs nitrate complexes with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6 in isopropanol aqueous solutions were determined by the method of low-frequency contact conductometry. Clearly defined K/Cs selectivity is observed for the system with dibenzo-18-crown-6. It is shown that lg..beta.. depends on permittivity of the solvent. The decrease of permittivity of isopropanol aqueous solutions results in reduction of K/Cs selectivity of DB18C6.

  9. Electrochemical studies of plutonium(IV) complexes in aqueous nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Yun; Asakura, Toshihide; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry has been used to investigate the behavior of plutonium (IV) in 1-7 M HNO 3 solutions. These Pu(IV) complexes were found to be reduced quasi-reversibly to Pu(III) species. The formal redox potentials (E 0 ) for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couples were determined to be +0.721, +0.712, +0.706, +0.705, +0.704, 0.694, and +0.696 V (vs. Ag/AgCl(SSE)) for Pu(IV) complexes in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 M HNO 3 solutions, respectively. These results indicate that the reduction product of Pu(IV) is Pu(III), which is considerably stable in HNO 3 solution. (author)

  10. Reaction of ammonium triphosphate with gadolinium nitrate in aqueous solution at 273K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodicheva, G.V.; Tananaev, I.V.; Romanova, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The solubility in the system (NW 4 ) 5 P 3 O 10 -Gd(NO 3 ) 3 - H 2 O (273 K) is studied. Depending on the reagent ratio formation of the compounds Gd 5 (P 3 O 10 ) 3 x22H 2 O, NH 4 Gd 3 (P 3 O 10 ) 2 x12H 2 O and (NH 4 ) 3 Gd 4 (P 3 O 10 ) 3 x14H 2 O is established. Gadolinium triphosphates, separated from solution, are studied using the methods of paper chromatography, X-ray diffractometry, thermography. Simultaneously with thermal dehydration of gadolinium triphosphates the processes of triphosphate decomposition and phosphate anion condensation take place. A mixture of crystalline ortho-phosphate and long- chain polyphosphate of gadolinium is the final product of thermal decomposition (1063 K) of normal and doubl e ammonium- containing gadolinium triphosphates [ru

  11. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  12. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  13. Re-evaluation of the thermodynamic activity quantities in aqueous alkali metal nitrate solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partanen, Jaakko I., E-mail: jpartane@lut.f [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    The Hueckel equation used in this study to correlate the experimental activities of dilute alkali metal nitrate solutions up to a molality of about 1.5 mol . kg{sup -1} contains two parameters being dependent on the electrolyte: B [that is related closely to the ion-size parameter (a*) in the Debye-Hueckel equation] and b{sub 1} (this parameter is the coefficient of the linear term with respect to the molality and this coefficient is related to hydration numbers of the ions of the electrolyte). In more concentrated solutions up to a molality of 7 mol . kg{sup -1}, an extended Hueckel equation was used, and it contains additionally a quadratic term with respect to the molality and the coefficient of this term is parameter b{sub 2}. All parameter values for the Hueckel equations of LiNO{sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} were determined from the isopiestic data measured by Robinson for solutions of these salts against KCl solutions [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57 (1935) 1165]. In these estimations, the Hueckel parameters determined recently for KCl solutions [J. Chem. Eng. Data 54 (2009) 208] were used. The Hueckel parameters for RbNO{sub 3} and CsNO{sub 3} were determined from the reported osmotic coefficients of Robinson [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59 (1937) 84]. The resulting parameter values were tested with the vapour pressure and isopiestic data existing in the literature for alkali metal nitrate solutions. These data support well the recommended Hueckel parameters up to a molality of 7.0 mol . kg{sup -1} for LiNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}, up to 4.5 mol . kg{sup -1} for RbNO{sub 3}, up to 3.5 mol . kg{sup -1} for KNO{sub 3}, and up to 1.4 mol . kg{sup -1} for CsNO{sub 3} solutions. Reliable activity and osmotic coefficients of alkali metal nitrate solutions can, therefore, be calculated by using the new Hueckel equations, and they have been tabulated at rounded molalities. The activity and osmotic coefficients obtained from these equations were compared to the values suggested by

  14. Apparent molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of caffeine in aqueous thorium nitrate solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Biswajit, E-mail: biswachem@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India); Roy, Pran Kumar; Sarkar, Bipul Kumar; Brahman, Dhiraj [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India); Roy, Mahendra Nath, E-mail: mahendraroy2002@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Apparent molar volumes phi{sub V} and viscosity B-coefficients for caffeine in (0.00, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) mol . dm{sup -3} aqueous thorium nitrate, Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, solutions were determined from solution density and viscosity measurements over the temperature range (298.15 to 318.15) K as function of concentration of caffeine and the relation: phi{sub V}{sup 0}=a{sub 0}+a{sub 1}T+a{sub 2}T{sup 2}, have been used to describe the temperature dependence of the standard partial molar volumes phi{sub V}{sup 0}. These results have been used to deduce the standard volumes of transfer DELTAphi{sub V}{sup 0} and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer DELTAB for caffeine from water to aqueous Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solutions for rationalizing various interactions in the ternary solutions. The structure-making or breaking ability of caffeine has been discussed in terms of the sign of (delta{sup 2}phi{sub V}{sup 0}/deltaT{sup 2}){sub P}. The Friedman-Krishnan co-sphere model was used to explain the transfer volume of caffeine with increasing Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} molarity. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions were also discussed in terms of transition state theory.

  15. Apparent molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of caffeine in aqueous thorium nitrate solutions at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Biswajit; Roy, Pran Kumar; Sarkar, Bipul Kumar; Brahman, Dhiraj; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2010-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes φ V and viscosity B-coefficients for caffeine in (0.00, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.07) mol . dm -3 aqueous thorium nitrate, Th(NO 3 ) 4 , solutions were determined from solution density and viscosity measurements over the temperature range (298.15 to 318.15) K as function of concentration of caffeine and the relation: φ V 0 =a 0 +a 1 T+a 2 T 2 , have been used to describe the temperature dependence of the standard partial molar volumes φ V 0 . These results have been used to deduce the standard volumes of transfer Δφ V 0 and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer ΔB for caffeine from water to aqueous Th(NO 3 ) 4 solutions for rationalizing various interactions in the ternary solutions. The structure-making or breaking ability of caffeine has been discussed in terms of the sign of (δ 2 φ V 0 /δT 2 ) P . The Friedman-Krishnan co-sphere model was used to explain the transfer volume of caffeine with increasing Th(NO 3 ) 4 molarity. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the ternary solutions were also discussed in terms of transition state theory.

  16. Determination of free acid in highly concentrated organic and aqueous solutions of plutonium (IV) and uranium (VI) nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Lacour, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Free acidity is an important parameter in the nuclear reprocessing control. The accuracy on the determination of free acidity is not really required in the nuclear reprocessing control itself but is necessary for certain types of analysis such as spectrophotometry (Pu (VI), Am (III),...), density determinations. A new titripotentiometric method for free acidity determination in concentrated U(VI) and Pu(IV) solutions is presented. This method is based on the complexing properties of dipicolinic acid (pyridine 2.6 dicarboxylic acid) and medium effect with H 2 O/DMSO mixture. This method can be used either in organic or aqueous phases with ratio /H + I/ metal ≥ 5.10 -2 and a relative standard deviation of 1%

  17. Removal of Nitrate from Aqueous Solutions by Starch Stabilized nano Zero-Valent Iron(nZVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Yaghmaeian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nitrate is one of the inorganic anions derived as a result of oxidation of elemental nitrogen. Urban and industrial wastewater, animal and vegetable waste products in large cities that have organic nitrogen are excreted along the soil. The primary risk of Nitrate in drinking water occurs when nitrate in the gastrointestinal tract switch to nitrite. Nitrite causes the oxidation of iron in hemoglobin of red blood cells, result in red blood cells could not carry the oxygen, a condition called methemoglobinemia. Therefore, achieving the new technologies for nitrate removal is necessary. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at laboratory Scale in non-continuous batches. Stabilized adsorbent was produced through reducing Iron sulfate by sodium borohydride (NaBH4 in presence of Starch (0.2W % as a stabilizer. At first, the effect of various parameters such as contact time (10-90min, pH (3-11, adsorbent dose (0.5-3 g/L and initial concentration of arsenate (50-250 mg/L were investigated on process efficiency. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model equilibrium constant, were calculated. Residual nitrate were measured by using the DR5000 spectrophotometer. Results: The optimum values based on RSM for pH, absorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of nitrate were 5.87, 2.25 g/L, 55.7 min, and 110.35 mg/L respectively. Langmuir isotherm with R2= 0.9932 for nitrate was the best graph for the experimental data. The maximum amount of nitrate adsorption was 138.88mg/g. Conclusion: Stabilized absorbent due to have numerous absorption sites and Fe0 as a reducing agent could have great potential in nitrate removal from water.

  18. Mg-Cu-Al layered double hydroxides based catalysts for the reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Tatjana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary waste and bacterial contamination in physico-chemical and biological separation processes used today for nitrate removal from ground water make novel catalytic technologies that convert nitrates to unharmful gaseous nitrogen, very attractive for scientific research. The Mg-Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH based catalysts with different Mg/Al ratio were investigated in water denitrification reaction in the presence of hydrogen and with solely copper as an active phase. Since LDHs have ion exchange properties and their derived mixed oxides possess memory effect (restoration of layered structure after thermal decomposition, their adsorption capacity for nitrates was also measured in the same model system. All studied samples showed nitrate removal from 23% to 62% following the decrease in Al content, as well as the substantial adsorption capacity ranging from 18% to 38%. These results underlie the necessity to take into account the effects of the adsorption in all future investigations.

  19. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, pH, temperature, and contact time were determined for NO3- removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudofirst-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at pH 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at pH 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater NO3- removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m2/g, and high adsorption capacity.

  20. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khan, Z.; Ashgar, A.; Danish, M. I.; Qazi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, ph, temperature, and contact time were determined for removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at ph 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at ph 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m 2 /g), and high adsorption capacity.

  1. Modelling the performance parameters of a horizontal falling film absorber with aqueous (lithium, potassium, sodium) nitrate solution using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, María E.; Hernández, José A.; Bourouis, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    An ANN (artificial neural network) model was developed to determine the efficiency parameters of a horizontal falling film absorber at operating conditions of interest for absorption cooling systems. The aqueous nitrate solution LiNO_3 + KNO_3 + NaNO_3 with salt mass percentages of 53%, 28% and 19%, respectively, was used as a working fluid. The authors created the ANN from the database they had compiled with the results of experiments that they had performed in a set-up designed and built for this purpose. The ANN structure consisted of 6 input variables: inlet solution and cooling water temperatures, cooling water and solution mass flow rates, absorber pressure and inlet solution concentration; 4 output variables which facilitated the assessment of the performance of the absorber: heat and mass transfer coefficients, absorption mass flux and the degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber. The hidden layer contained 9 neurons which were determined by training and test procedures. The results showed that the deviation between the experimental data and the estimated values was well adjusted. This indicated that the ANN model was an effective tool for predicting the efficiency parameters of the absorber. The solution flow rate was also observed to be the most significant operating variable which affected the performance of the absorber. - Highlights: • An ANN was developed to predict the efficiency parameters of a falling film absorber. • The ANN was created using a database corresponding to a triple-effect absorption chiller. • The ANN predicts the efficiency parameters of falling film absorbers with r"2 > 0.95. • The solution flow rate is the variable that most affects the performance of the absorber.

  2. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.; Stines, William B.

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  3. A method for the determination of free nitric acid in aqueous plutonium nitrate solutions - potassium fluoride method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    Plutonium IV and VI, and certain other hydrolysable metals which may be present, are converted to non-interfering species by the addition of the sample to potassium fluoride solution. The free acid is then titrated with standard sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. (author)

  4. Aqueous-salt system containing ytterbium nitrate and pyridine nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khisaeva, D.A.; Izmajlova, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section method has been used to study solubility in ternary aqueous-salt system Yb(NO 3 ) 3 -C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 -H 2 0 at 25 and 50 deg C. It is established that the system is characterized by chemical interaction. Congruently soluble compound of Yb(NO 3 ) 3 x2[C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 ] composition is discovered in the system. Composition of the compound is confirmed by chemical analysis; its infrared spectra are studied. Interplanar distances are determined; derivatogram of the compound is given. The results of the works are compared with analogous investigations of another rare earth nitrates

  5. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  6. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified [pt

  7. The interplay between hydrogen evolution reaction and nitrate reduction on boron-doped diamond in aqueous solution: the effect of alkali cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo-Robledo, A.; Lévy-Clément, C.; Alonso-Vante, N.

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate ion reduction was studied on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes by real-time on-line differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) coupled with chronoamperometry in K + , Na + cation-containing electrolyte solutions. It was found, via steady state voltammetry, that the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was affected by the presence of K + or Na + . A moderate HER occurs in K + -containing electrolyte solution favoring the reaction between NO 3 − and H 2 species, whereas in Na + -containing electrolyte solutions, the HER kinetics was more important leading to a suppression of molecular nitrogen generation. The use of isotope-labeled nitrogen and DEMS confirmed the influence of alkali cations toward the nitrate ion reduction

  8. Solidification of radioactive aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Hideaki; Kato, Kiyoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1970-09-07

    A process for solidifying a radioactive waste solution is provided, using as a solidifying agent a mixture of calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite. The quantity ratio of the mixture is preferred to be 1:1 by volume. The quantity of impregnation is 1/2 of the volume of the total quantity of the solidifying agent. In embodiments, 10 liters of plutonium waste solution was mixed with a mixture of 1:1 calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite contained in a 20-liter cylindrical steel container lined with asphalt. The plutonium waste solution from the laboratory was neutralized with a caustic soda aqueous solution to prevent explosion due to the nitration of organic compounds. The neutralization is not always necessary. A market available dental gypsum was calcined at 400 to 500/sup 0/C and a vermiculite from Illinois was burnt at 1,100/sup 0/C to prepare the agents. The time required for the impregnation with 10 liters of plutonium solution was four minutes. After impregnation, the temperature rose to 40/sup 0/C within 30 minutes to one hour. Next, it was cooled to room temperature by standing for 3-4 hours. Solidification time was about 1 hour. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Insitute had treated and disposed about 1,000 tons of plutonium waste by this process as of August 19, 1970.

  9. Process for plutonium rextraction in aqueous solution from an organic solvent, especially for uranium plutonium partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.; Gillet, B.; Pasquiou, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The organic solvent containing plutonium is contacted with an aqueous solution of a uranous salt, for instance uranous nitrate, and a hydroxylamine salt, for instance the nitrate. In these conditions uranous nitrate is a reducing agent of Pu III and hydroxylamine nitrate stabilizes Pu III and U IV in the aqueous phase. Performances are similar to these of the U IV-hydrazine nitrate without interference of hydrazine nitrate degradation products [fr

  10. Spectroscopic Characterization of HAN-Based Liquid Gun Propellants and Nitrate Salt Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-15

    spectra were recorded of bubbles of a concentrated aqueous nitrate solution, mineral oil, and an aqueous surfactant solution. Polymethacrylic acid ...FTIR spectra of droplets of a concentrated aqueous nitrate salt based solution (LGP1845), of solid particles cf polymethacrylic acid packing IO, 3... polymethacrylic acid low density packing foam cut to a 3x4 mnn rectangle was levitated with a low acoustic power. The sample was easily I positioned in the

  11. Reverse osmosis separation of radium from dilute aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.S.; Sastri, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Porous cellulose acetate membranes obtained from Osmonics Inc. were characterized in terms of pure water permeability constant, solute transport parameter, and mass transfer coefficient with aqueous sodium chloride solution as the reference system. Reverse osmosis separation behavior of radium-226 as nitrate, chloride, and sulfate salts was studied. Reverse osmosis method of removing radium-226 from aqueous solutions has been compared with other methods, and it has been shown to be one of the best methods for alleviating radium contamination problems

  12. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, S.L.; Michel, R.C.; Terpandjian, P.D.; Vora, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification by Pseudomonas Stutzeri has been chosen as the method for removing nitrate from the effluent stream of the Y-12 uranium purification process. A model was developed to predict bacterial growth and carbon and nitrate depletion during the induction period and steady state operation. Modification of analytical procedures and automatic control of the pH in the reactor are recommended to improve agreement between the prediction of the model and experimental data. An initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) mass ratio of 1.4-1.5 insures adequate population growth during the induction period. Further experiments in batch reactors and in steady state flow reactors are recommended to obtain more reliable kinetic rate constants

  13. Orientational order and dynamics of water in bulk and in aqueous solutions of uranyl ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Manish; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations in canonical ensemble of aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate and bulk water at ambient condition have been carried out to investigate orientational order and dynamics of water. The orientational distributions of water around a central water molecule in bulk water and around a uranyl ion in an aqueous uranyl solution have been calculated. Orientational dynamics of water in bulk and in aqueous uranyl nitrate solution have also been analysed. (author)

  14. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  15. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Meng; Ruijuan, Qu; Jinyan, Liang; Xi, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  16. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  17. Contributions of nonextracting Pu reductants (ferrous sulphamate and hydroxylamine nitrate) and holding reductant (hydrazine nitrate) to the aqueous density in U-Pu partitioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Rajnish Kumar; Koganti, S.B.

    2005-08-01

    As nonextracting Pu reductants and holding reductants contribute to the density of aqueous phase sub-system considerably, to account their contributions in aqueous phase in solvent extraction simulation code is essential. In this regard, in-house generated precise density data on aqueous ferrous sulphamate solutions as well as aqueous density data, reported in the literature, for HAN, hydrazine nitrate and HAN-HNO 3 systems were analyzed and density equation earlier proposed by authors was extended to it. It was observed that the equation earlier proposed by the authors were simple and were easy to extend for multicomponent system. The contributions of ferrous sulphamate, HAN and hydrazine nitrate to the aqueous density were quantified. It was also observed that the classical value of contribution for nonextractible solute to the aqueous density was quite different from the results reported in this work. (author)

  18. Preparation of acid deficient solutions of uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate by steam denitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    Acid deficient heavy metal (HM) nitrate solutions are often required in the internal gelation processes for nuclear fuel fabrication. The stoichiometric HM-nitrate solutions are needed in a sol-gel process for fuel fabrication. A method for preparing such nitrate solutions with a controlled molar ratio of nitrate/metal by denitration of acid-excess nitrate solutions was developed. The denitration was conducted by bubbling a nitrate solution with a mixture of steam+Ar. It was found that steam was more effective for the denitration than Ar. The acid deficient uranyl nitrate solution with nitrate/U=1.55 was yielded by steam bubbling, while not by only Ar bubbling. As for thorium nitrate, acid deficient solutions of nitrate/Th≥3.1 were obtained by steam bubbling. (author)

  19. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  20. Denitrification of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, R.J.; Chao, E.I.; Choi, W.M.; Johnson, B.R.; Varlet, J.L.P.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rates for the denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas Stutzeri were studied to minimize the time necessary to start up a bacterial denitrification reactor. Batch experiments were performed in nine 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks, a 7-liter fermentor, and a 67-liter fermentor. All reactors maintained an anaerobic environment. Initial microorganism inoculum concentration was varied over four orders of magnitude. Initial nitrate and substrate carbon concentrations were varied from 200 to 6000 ppm and from 56 to 1596 ppm, respectively, with a carbon-to-nitrogen weight ratio of 1.18. In all experiments, except those with the highest initial substrate-to-bacteria ratio, no growth was observed due to substrate depletion during the lag period. In those experiments which did exhibit an increase in bacterial population, growth also stopped due to substrate depletion. A model simulating microbe growth during the induction period was developed, but insufficient data were available to properly adjust the model constants. Because of this, the model does not accurately predict microbe growth. The metabolism of Pseudomonas Stutzeri was studied in detail. This resulted in a prediction of the denitrification stoichiometry during steady state reactor operation. Iron was found to be an important component for bacterial anabolism

  1. Aqueous Nitrate Recovery Line at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finstad, Casey Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-15

    This powerpoint is part of the ADPSM Plutonium Engineering Lecture Series, which is an opportunity for new hires at LANL to get an overview of work done at TA55. It goes into detail about the aqueous nitrate recovery line at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates from water-salt solutions with n.-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinov, V.A.; Kudrova, A.V.; Valueva, O.V.; Pyartman, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates (Ln=La-Nd, Sm-Gd) from aqueous-salt solutions at 298.15 K was studied using solution of n.-octanol, its concentration 6.31 mol/l. It was ascertained that at Ln(NO 3 ) 3 concentration in aqueous phase below 0.6 mol/l, there is actually no extraction. At higher concentrations of nitrates in aqueous phase the content of lanthanides(III) in organic phase increases in the series La-Gd. Isotherms of extraction were ascertained, its phase equilibria being described mathematically. It is shown that extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates with n.-octanol should be realized from concentrated aqueous solutions [ru

  3. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shih, Orion [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Rizzuto, Anthony M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Prendergast, David [The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  4. Lanthanide complexation in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The lanthanide elements form an extended series of cations with the same charge, slightly varying radii and useful magnetic and spectroscopic properties. Their use in technology is growing rapidly as their properties are more fully explored. The lanthanides also offer scientists valuable and often unique probes for investigating a variety of chemical and physical phenomena. This review has attempted to call attention to these latter uses without trying to provide a thorough discussion of all the relevant literature. Hopefully, awareness of the more interesting facets of present studies of lanthanide complexes in aqueous solution will spur even more advances in the use of these elements. (Auth.)

  5. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C; Gustafson, R

    1971-04-15

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co gamma-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N{sub 2}O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G = 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N{sub 2}O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H{sub 2}). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  6. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.C.; Gustafson, R.

    1971-04-01

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N 2 O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N 2 O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H 2 ). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  7. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  8. Nitrate Anion Exchange in Pu-238 Aqueous Scrap Recovery Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M.E.; Silver, G.L.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Ramsey, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238 Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to (a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238 Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, (b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238 Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin, and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed

  9. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H

    1964-05-15

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H{sub 2}) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) >> k(H + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. C{sub 6}H{sub 7} {center_dot} + C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C{sub 6}H{sub 6})/k(H + O{sub 2}) was 1.4x10{sup -2}. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  10. (p,V{sub m},T,x) measurements for aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions[Density; Concentration; Electrolyte solutions; Equation of state; Lithium nitrate; Saturated density; Saturated pressure; Temperature; Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulagatov, I.M. E-mail: ilmutdin@boulder.nist.govmangur@datacom.ru; Azizov, N.D. E-mail: Nazim_Azizov@yahoo.com

    2004-01-01

    (p,V{sub m},T,x) properties of four aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions (0.181, 0.526, 0.963, and 1.728) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} H{sub 2}O were measured in the liquid phase with a constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. Measurements were made for 10 isotherms between (298 and 573) K. The range of pressure was from (2 to 40) MPa. The total uncertainty of density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements were estimated to be less than 0.06 %, 0.05 %, 10 mK, and 0.014 %, respectively. The values of saturated density were determined by extrapolating experimental (p,{rho}) data to the vapor-pressure at fixed temperature and composition using an interpolating equation. A polynomial type of equation of state for specific volume was obtained as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition by a least-squares method from the experimental data. The average absolute deviation (AAD) between measured and calculated values from this polynomial equation for density was 0.02 %. Measured values of solution density were compared with values calculated from Pitzer's ion-interaction equation. The agreement is within (0.2 to 0.4) % depending of concentration range.

  11. The study of kinetics of uranyl nitrate extraction and reextraction, di-n-butylphosphoric acid reextraction in the flow mixer in the system aqueous solutions - tri-n-butyl phosphate in diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepetil'nikov, N.N.; Timofeev, A.N.; Kharitonov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetics of uranyl nitrate and HNO 3 extraction and reextraction in a flow-type mixer for the system 30 vol.% TBP in extractant dearomatized diluent (EDD) was studied. Kinetics of dibutylphosphate acid reextraction was considered and the influence of uranium and zirconium presence on the process was investigated. It is shown that in laboratory mixer of continuous action in case of phase contact duration of 1 min. in system 30 % solution of TBP in EDD extraction sufficiently similar to equilibrium extraction of uranyl nitrate and nitric acid during their extraction and reextraction is achieved

  12. On NO3-H2O interactions in aqueous solutions and at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Liem X.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Roeselova, Martina; Garrett, Bruce C.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    Constrained molecular dynamics technique was employed to investigate the transport of a nitrate ion across the water liquid/vapor interface. We developed the nitrate ion-water polarizable potential capable of describing well the solvation properties of the hydrated nitrate ion. The computed free energy profile for the transfer of the nitrate ion across the air/water interface increases monotonically as the nitrate ion approaches the Gibbs dividing surface from the bulk liquid side. The computed density profiles of 1M KNO3 salt solution slab indicate that the nitrate and potassium ions are both found below the aqueous interface. Upon analyzing the results, we can conclude that the probability of finding the nitrate anion at the aqueous interface is quite small

  13. Complexes of pentavalent plutonium in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.; Zaki, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pu 0 2 ion can form nitrate complexes in concentrated solution of lithium nitrate of PH 3.5. Spectrophotometric and ion exchange studies revealed the existence of two complexes, presumably the mono-and the dinitro. The rate of adsorption of the dinitrato complex, formed in 4 to 6 M-lithium nitrate solutions, on De-Acidite FF has been investigated and suggested to be diffusion controlled. The adsorption isotherm found to obey satisfactorily Freundlich equation

  14. Aqueous nitrate flowsheet optimization and enhancement using the ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, S.B.; Punjak, W.A.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) is a pilot plant of all aqueous nitrate plutonium recovery and purification operations within the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The main unit operations include dissolution, anion exchange, precipitations, evaporation, calcination, and waste stream polishing. In the current political environment, the emphasis has been redirected from the traditional goal of recovering a pure plutonium product to that of generating ''clean'' effluents while placing the plutonium into a form suitable for long term storage. The ATLAS facility is uniquely suited to fulfill this new role in the development and demonstration of new or revisited technologies. This report summarizes recent work in equipment improvements to the batch dissolver, an evaluation of homogeneous hydroxide precipitations, a demonstration of nitric acid recycle, and the preparation of neptunium and plutonium standards

  15. Measurement of Nitrate Concentration in Aqueous Media Using an Electrochemical Nanosensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles-Nanocellulose/Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shadfar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate pollution is at the forefront of groundwater contamination which poses serious environmental and public health hazards.  Nitrate is usually released in solution from agricultural activities and finds its way into groundwater resources. The objective of the present study was to determine, accurately concentrations of nitrate ions in water samples from the environment using sensitive electrochemical methods. For this purpose, a modified glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles, nanocellulose, and graphene oxide (Ag/NC/GO-GCE was used. The characterization of the nanocomposite was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The modified Ag/NC/GO-GCE electrode was used as nanosensor for the electrocatalytic determination of nitrate using the voltammetric method. The effects of the parameters of scan rate, pH, and different nitrate concentrations were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained. A limit of detection of 0.016 µM (S/N=3 was found in the linear range of 0.005 to 10 mM nitrate. The Ag/NC/GO-GCE electrode exhibited a synergistic effect toward voltammetric determination of nitrate in the presence of graphene oxide, nanocellulose, and silver nanocatalyst. The nanosensor developed here showed excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward nitrate determination in aqueous solutions without any significant interference.

  16. On the influence of molecular structure on the conductivity of electrolyte solutions - sodium nitrate in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krienke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the conductivity of sodium nitrate in water are presented and compared with experimental measurements. The method of direct correlation force in the framework of the interionic theory is used for the calculation of transport properties in connection with the associative mean spherical approximation (AMSA. The effective interactions between ions in solutions are derived with the help of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics calculations on the Born-Oppenheimer level. This work is based on earlier theoretical and experimental studies of the structure of concentrated aqueous sodium nitrate solutions.

  17. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  18. Nitrates of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Pushkina, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The systematization of experimental data with account of the last achievements in the field of studying the RE nitrate properties is realized. The methods of production, solubility in aqueous solutions structure, thermodynamic characteristics and thermal stability of nitrate hydrates, RE anhydrous and basic nitrates are considered. The data on RE nirtrate complexing in aqueous solutions are given. Binary nitrates, nitrate solvates and RE nitrate adducts with organic compounds are described. The use of RE nitrates in the course of RE production, in the processes of separation and fine cleaning of RE preparations is considered

  19. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.A.; Bess, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas(reg s ign) reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 ± 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter

  1. Radiolysis studies of uranyl nitrate solution in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, Sandra; Mondino, Angel V.

    2005-01-01

    The radiolysis of acidic uranyl nitrate solutions was investigated using Co-60 gamma radiation. Hydrogen peroxide was determined as a function of increasing dose. The UV-vis absorption spectra of the irradiated solutions were measured and the spectral changes were analyzed. The increasing dose increases the absorbance intensities, possibly by an increment in nitrate concentration produced by radiolysis, which can originate the formation of different uranyl complexes in solution. (author)

  2. The extraction of lanthanides and americium by benzyldiakylamines and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates from the nitrate solutions; structure and aggregation of their salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedinakova, V.; Zilkova, J.; Dvorak, Z.; Vojtiskova, M.

    1982-01-01

    Benzyldialkylamine and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates were used for the extraction of lanthanides and americium from aqueous nitrate solutions. The dependence of the extraction performance for Ln(III) and Am(III) on the concentration of nitric acid, the kind and concentration of salting-out agents in the aqueous phase, and the kind of solvent were investigated. The extraction of Am(III) is compared with the extraction of lanthanides. The difference in distribution coefficients for lanthanides and americium can be utilized for the separation of lanthanides and americium. Using vapor phase osmometry and cryoscopy the association of these compounds was measured at 5.5deg, 25deg and 37deg C, allowing rough estimates of ΔH and ΔS for the formation of the aggregates, monomers in the case of benzyldiethylamine, benzyldibutylamine, benzyldihexylamine and benzyldioctylamine, tetramers for the benzyldibutylamine nitrate and tetramers for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium nitrate. (author)

  3. Removal of uranium from ammonium nitrate solution by nanofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Runci; Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Radiochemistry

    2017-07-01

    Two types of nanofiltration membranes were tested to remove uranium dissolved in ammonium nitrate solution, and the influence of operating parameters as transmembrane pressure, tangential velocity and feed temperature was investigated. Experimental results showed NF270 membrane can reject more than 96% uranium and allow most (90% min) ammonium nitrate solution passed by, and with a permeate flux of 60 L/(m{sup 2}.h). Nanofiltration seems to be a promising technology for the removal of uranium and recovery of ammonium nitrate simultaneously.

  4. Diffusion of aqueous solutions of ionic, zwitterionic, and polar solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaojing; Huang, Qi; Dharmawardhana, Chamila Chathuranga; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2018-06-01

    The properties of aqueous solutions of ionic, zwitterionic, and polar solutes are of interest to many fields. For instance, one of the many anomalous properties of aqueous solutions is the behavior of water diffusion in different monovalent salt solutions. In addition, solutes can affect the stabilities of macromolecules such as proteins in aqueous solution. Here, the diffusivities of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, tri-methylamine oxide (TMAO), urea, and TMAO-urea are examined in molecular dynamics simulations. The decrease in the diffusivity of water with the concentration of simple ions and urea can be described by a simple model in which the water molecules hydrogen bonded to the solutes are considered to diffuse at the same rate as the solutes, while the remainder of the water molecules are considered to be bulk and diffuse at almost the same rate as pure water. On the other hand, the decrease in the diffusivity of water with the concentration of TMAO is apparently affected by a decrease in the diffusion rate of the bulk water molecules in addition to the decrease due to the water molecules hydrogen bonded to TMAO. In other words, TMAO enhances the viscosity of water, while urea barely affects it. Overall, this separation of water molecules into those that are hydrogen bonded to solute and those that are bulk can provide a useful means of understanding the short- and long-range effects of solutes on water.

  5. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  6. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  7. Thermodynamics of uranium and nitric acid extraction from aqueous solution of TBP/diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Freitas, R.F. de.

    1982-06-01

    A thermodynamically consistent procedure for predicting distribution equilibria for uranyl nitrate and nitric acid between an aqueous solution and 30 vol % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in a hydrocarbon diluent is studied. Experimental work is developed in order to obtain equilibrium data for the system uranyl nitrate, nitric acid, water and 30 vol % TBP in n-dodecane, at 25 0 C and 40 0 C. The theoretical equilibrium data, obtained with the aid of a computer, are compared with the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  8. Analysis of 99Mo Production Capacity in Uranyl Nitrate Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor using ORIGEN and MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Isnaeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a very useful radioisotope in medical diagnostic procedure. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Currently, most of 99Mo is produced by irradiating 235U in the nuclear reactor. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. A small additional amount is created from 98Mo neutron activation. Actually 99Mo is also created in the reactor fuel, but usually we do not extract it. The fuel will become spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. 99Mo production system in the aqueous homogeneous reactor offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Fresh reactor fuel solution consists of uranyl nitrate dissolved in water. There is no separation of target and fuel in an aqueous homogeneous reactor where target and fuel become one liquid solution, and there is no spent fuel generated from this reactor. Simulation of the extraction process is performed while reactor in operation (without reactor shutdown. With an extraction flow rate of 3.6 L/h, after 43 hours of reactor operation the production of 99Mo is relatively constant at about 98.6 curie/hour

  9. Molybdenum: the element and aqueous solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the chemistry of the coordination compounds of molybdenum concentrates on the element itself, its recovery from ores and its use in the manufacture of steels. Most of the chapter is devoted to the aqueous solution chemistry of molybdenum in oxidation states II, III and IV. (UK)

  10. Aqueous solutions/nuclear glasses interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, F.; Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions results of the borosilicate glass used in radioactive wastes confinement and aqueous solutions at various temperature and PH show that for the glass components: - the release rate evolution follows an Arrhenius law, - in acid PH, there is a selective dissolution, - in basic PH, there is a stoechiometric dissolution [fr

  11. Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: microscopic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicent-Luna, J.M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Gómez-Álvarez, P.; Calero, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids are of special interest, due to the distinctive properties of ionic liquids, in particular, their amphiphilic character. A better understanding of the structure-property relationships of such systems is hence desirable. One of the crucial molecular-level

  12. Pulse radiolysis of anthraquinone dye aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Gebicki, J.L.; Lubis, R.; Mayer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of argon flushed aqueous solutions of 10 -5 -10 -4 mol dm -3 anthraquinone dye (C.I. Acid Blue 62) gives rise to the transients originated from the reactions of e - aq , OH and H. The rate constants of these reactions are determined. (author)

  13. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  14. Study on the transport behavior of uranyl nitrate in aqueous and non-aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, B.

    1985-01-01

    The analytical ultracentrifuge has proven itself through diffusion measurements to be well suited for studying radioactive compounds. In the framework of this paper the extent to which the UV and schlieren optics of an analytical ultracentrifuge can be used for extraction-kinetic tests was tested. With this method there is also the possibility of determining the distribution coefficients right at the phase boundary. The results show the good possibility of application of the absorption and schlieren optics to the study of the transport behavior of uranyl nitrate in practice oriented solutions. (orig.) [de

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

  16. [Ultrasound induced the formation of nitric oxide and nitrosonium ions in water and aqueous solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, I I; Adamchuk, R I; Stepuro, V I

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide, nitrosonium ions, nitrites, and nitrates are formed in water saturated with air under the action of ultrasound. Nitrosonium ions react with water and hydrogen peroxide to form nitrites and nitrates in sonicated solution, correspondingly. Nitric oxide is practically completely released from sonicated water into the atmosphere and reacts with air oxygen, forming NOx compounds. The oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous medium by hydroxyl radicals and dissolved oxygen is a minor route of the formation of nitrites and nitrates in ultrasonic field.

  17. Electron spectra and mechanism of complexing of uranyl nitrate in water-acetone solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazhogin, A.A.; Zazhogin, A.P.; Komyak, A.I.; Serafimovich, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the luminescence and electronic absorption spectra, the processes of complexing in an aqueous solution of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O with small additions of acetone have been studied. In a pure aqueous solution, uranyl exists as the complex UO 2 ·5H 2 O. It is shown that the addition of acetone to the solution leads to the displacement of some water molecules out of the first coordination sphere of uranyl and the formation of the uranyl nitrate dihydrate complexes UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O. It has been established that the stability of these complexes is determined by the decrease in the water activity and in the degree of hydration of uranyl and nitrate, which is the result of the local increase in the concentration of acetone molecules (due to their hydrophobicity) in the regions of the solution where uranyl and nitrate ions are found. The experimental facts supported the mechanism proposed are presented. (authors)

  18. Preparation of working calibration and test materials: uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, S.S.; Spraktes, F.W.; Baldwin, J.M.; Hand, R.L.; Lash, R.P.

    1977-05-01

    Reliable working calibration and test materials (WCTMs) are essential to a meaningful analytical measurements quality assurance program. This report describes recommended methods for the preparation of uranyl nitrate solution WCTMs for testing analytical methods, for calibrating methods, and for testing personnel. Uranyl nitrate solution WCTMs can be synthesized from characterized starting materials or prepared from typical plant materials by thorough characterization with reference to primary or secondary reference calibration and test materials (PRCTMs or SRCTMs). Recommended starting materials are described along with detailed procedures for (a) preparing several widely-used types of uranyl nitrate solution WCTMs, (b) packaging the WCTMs, (c) analyzing the WCTMs to establish the reference values or to confirm the synthesis, and (d) statistically evaluating the analytical data to assign reference values and to assess the accuracy of the WCTMs

  19. Treatment of uranyl nitrate and flouride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study on the fluoride complexes contained in uranyl and aluminium solutions has been carried out. Likewise concentration limits and Duhring diagrams for those solutions have been experimentally established. As a result, the optimum operation conditions for concentration by evaporation in the treatment plant, have been deduced. (Author) 12 refs

  20. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions below Danish forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    1999-01-01

    leaching in relation to land-use, a national monitoring programme has established sampling routines in a 7x7 km grid including 111 points in forests. During winters of 1986-1993, soil samples were obtained from a depth of 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm. Nitrate concentrations in soil solutions were...... species. A few sites deviated radically from the general pattern of low concentrations. The elevated concentrations recorded there were probably caused by high levels of N deposition due to emission from local sources or temporal disruptions of the N cycle. The nitrate concentration in the soil solution...

  1. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  2. Critical experiment study on uranyl nitrate solution experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Wang Jinrong

    2005-01-01

    The Uranyl Nitrate Solution Experiment Facility was constructed for the research on nuclear criticality safety. In this paper, the configuration of the facility is introduced; a series of critical experiments on uranyl nitrate solution is described later, which were performed for various uranium concentrations under different conditions, i.e. with or without neutron absorbers in the core and with or without water-reflector outside the core. Critical volume and the minimum 235U critical mass for different uranium concentrations are presented. Finally, theoretical analysis is made on the experimental results. (authors)

  3. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.

    1983-01-01

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  4. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 ± 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO 4 at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO 2 F 2 . Studies on the effect of added LiNO 3 or Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF 6 content of WF 6 gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF 6

  5. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  6. Volumetric properties of itaconic acid aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisenbaum, Alexander; Apelblat, Alexander; Manzurola, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities of itaconic acid aqueous solutions in a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. ► The apparent molar volumes and the cubic expansion coefficients. ► The derivatives of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure. ► Changes in the structure of water when itaconic acid is dissolved. - Abstract: Densities of itaconic acid aqueous solutions were measured at 5 K intervals from T = (278.15 to 343.15) K. From the determined densities, the apparent molar volumes, the cubic expansion coefficients and the second derivatives of volume with respect to temperature which are interrelated with the derivatives of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure were evaluated. These derivatives were qualitatively correlated with the changes in the structure of water when itaconic acid is dissolved in it.

  7. Spinning of Fibers from Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    recombinant silk product BioSteel . Publications, patents and presentations 1. Arcidiacono, S., et al., Purification and characterization of recombinant...ABSTRACT Previous funding supporting this research focused primarily on development of the aqueous-based method for processing silk into spin solutions. Much...of this effort consisted of production of recombinant silk protein in bacterial and yeast expression systems. In spite of the small quantities

  8. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  9. Photolysis of imidacloprid in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moza, P.N.; Hustert, K.; Feicht, E.; Kettrup, A.

    1998-01-01

    The photolysis of the insecticide imidacloprid in aqueous solution has been examined. Irradiation at 290 nm resulted in 90 % substrate transformation in 4 h. The degradation approximately followed first order kinetics; the rate constant is 1.6 × 10 −4 s −1 and half-life 1.2 h. 6-Chloronicotinaldehyde, N-methylnicotinacidamide, 1-(6-chloronicotinyl)imidazolidone and 6-chloro-3-pyridyl-methylethylendiamine were the main photoproducts identified by CG-MS analysis. (author)

  10. Radiolysis of anthraquinone dyes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskaya, N.A.; Bortun, L.N.; Ogurtsov, N.A.; Migdalovich, E.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volodko, V.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1986-01-01

    The commercial anthraquinone dyes (Dark Blue, Light Blue, Green) in aqueous solutions were shown to be decoloured and degrade under the action of ionizing radiation. The degree of decolouration and degradation of aromatic rings was found to increase in presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to play the key role in the degradation of the dyes under irradiation. The radiolysis intermediate products were studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. (author)

  11. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianze Wang

    Full Text Available The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO4(2-, NO3(- and Cl(-; however, CO3(2- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions.

  12. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrop, J.; Holder, J.; Sauteron, J.

    1961-01-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  13. Pitting corrosion of zirconium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shayeb, H.A.; Abd El Wahab, F.M.; Abd Elk Meguid, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The open circuit potentials of the Zr electrode are followed as a function of time in various aqueous solutions till attainment of steady state values.The results are discussed on the basis of oxide film thickening and repair. Pitting corrosion of Zr was examined in chloride solutions using the potentiodynamic technique. The effect of some inorganic and organic additives was also investigated for inhibiting the pitting corrosion of Zr and the relative performance is presented and discussed. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  15. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBAMIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Avramenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of measurements of refractometric properties (refractive index n, its temperature factor dn/dt and the ultraviolet spectral absorption in carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions (carbamide depending on solid residue mass fraction md = 0-50 % and on temperaturet = 10-70 °C.Method of Research. Laboratory methods ofliquid-phase medium refractometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were applied for the research. We carried out computational modeling of electronic states spectrum for the carbonic acid diamide molecule and theoretical calculation of the fundamental electronic absorption of the molecule in the ultraviolet wavelenght region.Main Results. We have established that the solution concentration md has a nonlinear character and may be represented by the quadratic polynomial with the error Δn= ± 0,0005. We have shown the refractive indexdependence on temperature n(t changes in linear fashion att = 10-70 °C.At that, the inclination of lines n(t increases at the increase of md; so, the temperature factor dn/dt may be approximated by the quadratic polynomial. Transmission spectra of solutions in the spectral region λ= 225-760 nm have no special features except for the sharp edge in the short-wavelength region; the fundamental electronic absorptionis responsible for it. We have established that dispersion dependences of the refraction index n(λ;md in aqueous solutions of carbamide at λ= 360-760 nm and at md = 0-50 % may be calculated with the satisfactory error without additional adjustable parameters from the ultraviolet absorption data in terms of the one-dimentional oscillator Lorentz model.PracticalRelevance. Representedmeasurements of carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions optical properties may be applied for the adjustment and calibration of commercial refractometers at processing lines of the AdBlue reagent manufacture for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR of motor transport

  16. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions with citrate ions. Compressibility studies in aqueous solutions of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli; Manzurola, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures sound velocities were measured in aqueous solutions of citric acid. • Compressibility properties of citric acid solutions are thermodynamically characterized. • Changes in the structure of water when citric acid is dissolved are discussed. -- Abstract: Sound velocities in aqueous solutions of citric acid were measured from 15 °C to 50 °C in 5 °C intervals, within the 0.1 mol · kg −1 to 5.0 mol · kg −1 concentration range. These sound velocities served to evaluate the isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, the apparent molar compressibilities, the isochoric thermal pressure coefficients, changes of the cubic expansion coefficients with pressure at constant temperature, the changes of heat capacities with volume and hydration numbers of citric acid in aqueous solutions

  17. Research of calcium oxide hydration in calcium nitrate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oliynyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral fertilizers are one of the important factors of agriculture intensification and increasing of food products quantity. The volume of fertilizers production and its domestic consumption in Ukraine indicate that nitrogen fertilizer using only comes nearer to the required number of science-based. One of the most widespread artificial fertilizers is the calcium nitrate. Aim: The aim is to study and theoretically substantiate the processes occurring in the preparation of suspensions of calcium hydroxide Са(ОН2 in solution of calcium nitrate Ca(NО32. Materials and Methods: The technical calcium oxide (quicklime DSTU BV.2.7-90-99, solutions of calcium nitrate of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% Ca(NО32 concentrations were used in the work. The content of lime in the preparation of a suspension in the solution changed (in terms of calcium oxide CaO from 150 g/dm3 to the maximum possible. Each of these solutions saturated at 40°С in lime to maximum concentration. Suitable for use in these experiments and in the technology of calcium nitrate obtaining are considered the solutions (suspensions that within 12 hours did not lose their mobility (transportability. Results: The experimental results show that increasing of the concentration of calcium nitrate in solution within the range 15...40%, the amount of lime that you can put into the solution without loss of transportability decreases. Further increasing of lime quantity in solutions concentrations causes to its solidifying, loss of mobility (transportability. Calculations showed that in the presence of calcium nitrate the solubility of Са(ОН2 is reduced nearly by order that can lead to the formation of calcium oxide CaO the solid phase Са(ОН2 on the surface, which also can form hydrogen bonds with the components of the solution. As the probability of formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions is high, there is a possibility of formation of clusters.

  18. Properties of concentrated plutonium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Swanson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Selected properties were measured for solutions containing about 500 and 700 g/l plutonium (IV) in 4--5M nitric acid: density, viscosity, vapor pressure, boiling point, radiolytic gas (H 2 ) evolution rates, and corrosion rate on Ti and 304L stainless steel. Pu solubility was determined to be 550 to 800 g/l in 2.5 to 7M HNO 3 at ambient temperature and 820 to 860 g/l in 3M HNO 3 at 50 0 C

  19. Effects of Radiosterilization on Sealed Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandula, E.L.; Farkas, E.; Rácz, I.

    1967-01-01

    For aqueous solutions sensitive to heat,and in connection with the use of plastic ampoules, the need for applying radiosterilization is growing. Studying the possibilities of radiosterilization, experiments were made with the following: 0.1% atropine, 1.0% morphine, and 2% lidocain in aqueous solutions. The aim of the work was to establish whether the active ingredients of the injections suffer decomposition or not, to study the factors influencing the degradation and, furthermore, to make attempts to prevent decomposition. The samples were irradiated by 420 Ci 60 Co γ-radiation source. The applied doses were 1 to 2.5 Mrad, with a 10 4 to 2.5 x 10 5 rad/h dose intensity. After irradiation the change in colour, pH-value, concentration and UV-spectra were studied. Changes of the last three types were found. Studying the factors influencing decomposition it has been found that the degree of degradation was increased by the increase of radiation dose, increase of concentration, decrease of dose intensity, and increase of oxygen content in the atmosphere over the solution. Attempts were made to prevent degradation. Solutions were prepared with sulphite, ascorbic acid, and AET, and some measure of success was achieved, especially with the sulphite addition. (author)

  20. Design of one evaporation system for uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancilla Romero, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The authors propose an instant evaporation system with recirculation of the concentrated solution to raise the concentration from 50 to 1500 g of uranium per litre of solution. The capacity of the plant is to be 14.1 kg of uranium per hour. The main equipment used in the system is as follows: 1. Ring-type heat exchanger, for increasing the temperature of the mixture of fresh and recirculated solution from 80 to 115 0 C; 2. Separation tank, in which instant evaporation is carried out. The absolute pressure inside the tank will be 500 mmHg, with steam separation from a concentrated (78.5 wt.%) uranyl nitrate solution; 3. Desuperheater-condenser of horizontal tubular type for condensing water vapour and recovering any uranyl nitrate that may have been entrained; 4. Storage tank for the concentrate, with a capacity for one day's normal operation, and a heating coil to prevent crystallization of the concentrated solution; 5. Two storage tanks for feed and condensate with capacity for one day's normal operation; 6. Supporting structure for the above components. Virtually all equipment in contact with the uranyl nitrate solution will be made of 304 stainless steel. Saturated steam at 143.3 0 C will be required. The cost of the proposed system is $543 030.00. (author)

  1. Uranium in aqueous solutions by colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the quantitative determination of uranium in known volumes of aqueous solutions that contain radioactive nuclides. These solutions arise from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel and from laboratory studies on irradiated uranium. The method is applicable to solutions containing a minimum of 30 μg of uranium per sample although as little as 0.5 μg can be detected but with lower precision. Highest precision is obtained with 50 to 75 μg of uranium in the test sample. Dilutions must be made at concentrations above 750 μg/ml. The method includes a discussion of photometers and photometric practice, apparatus, reagents, cell matching, preparation of standard curves, calibration by the method of internal standards, procedure, calculation, and precision

  2. NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir

    2012-06-15

    Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.

  3. Aqueous Binary Lanthanide(III) Nitrate Ln(NO3)3 Electrolytes Revisited: Extended Pitzer and Bromley Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita; Pence, Natasha; Robinson, Troy; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2015-09-11

    To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of the Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.

  4. Derivation of an empirical formula for determining water content of mixed uranyl nitrate-thorium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Kee; Choi, Byung Il; Ro, Seung Gy; Eom, Tae Yoon; Kim, Zong Goo

    1986-01-01

    Densities of a large number of mixed uranyl nitrate-thorium nitrate solutions were measured with pycnometer. By the least squares analysis of the experimental result, an empirical formula for determining water content of mixed uranyl nitrate-thorium nitrate solutions as functions of uranium concentration, thorium concentration and nitric acid normality is derived; W=1.0-0.3580 C u -0.4538 C Th -0.0307H + where W, C u , C Th , and H + stand for water content(g/cc), uranium concentration (g/cc), thorium concentration(g/cc), and nitric acid normality, respectively. Water contents of the mixed uranyl nitrate-thorium nitrate solutions are calculated by using the empirical formular, and compared with the values calculated by Bouly's equation in which an additional data, solution density, is required. The two results show good agreements within 2.7%. (Author)

  5. Radiosensitization of thymidine in deaerated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Maurice.

    1982-09-01

    This work investigates the mode of action of various radiosensitizing agents on the radio-induced degradation of thymidine in deaerated aqueous solution. A special effort was devoted to the separation of addition products formed by one of these substances (a stable nitroxide radical: TAN) with the radio-induced neutral radicals of thymidine. The complex mixture of different diastereoisomers resulting from the covalent addition of the TAN molecule on the thymidine carbons C (5) or C (6) was resolved by HPLC. The structural determination of these adducts (absolute configuration) was achieved by various spectroscopic techniques and specific chemical syntheses. A conformational study has been undertaken [fr

  6. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous...

  7. Corrosion performance of several metals in plutonium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiichiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Yasu, Shozo; Koizumi, Tsutomu

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of several metals exposed in plutonium nitrate solution was studied. Plutonium nitrate solution with the plutonium concentration ranging from 0.01 to 300 g/l was used as a corrosive medium. Specimens tested were type 304 ULC (304 ULC) stainless steel, type 310 Nb (310 Nb) stainless steel, titanium (Ti), titanium-5% tantalum alloy (Ti-5Ta), and zirconium (Zr). Corrosion behavior of these metals in plutonium nitrate solution was evaluated through examining electrochemical characteristics and corrosion rates obtained by weight loss measurement. From the results of the corrosion tests, it was found that the corrosion rate of stainless steels i.e. 304 ULC and 310 Nb, increases by the presence of plutonium in nitric acid solution. The corrosion potential of the stainless steels shifted linearly towards the noble direction as the concentration of plutonium increases. It is thought that the shifts in corrosion potential of the stainless steels to the noble direction results an increase in anodic current and, hence, corrosion rate. Valve metals, i.e. Ti, Ti-5Ta and Zr, showed good corrosion resistance over the whole range of plutonium concentration examined here. (author)

  8. Peroxide coordination of tellurium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey A.; Medvedev, Alexander G. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Churakov, Andrei V.; Grishanov, Dmitry A.; Prikhodchenko, Petr V. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lev, Ovadia [The Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    Tellurium-peroxo complexes in aqueous solutions have never been reported. In this work, ammonium peroxotellurates (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} (1) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 5}Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH).1.28 H{sub 2}O.0.72 H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (2) were isolated from 5 % hydrogen peroxide aqueous solutions of ammonium tellurate and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of 1 comprises ammonium cations and a symmetric binuclear peroxotellurate anion [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}]{sup 4-}. The structure of 2 consists of an unsymmetrical [Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O)O{sub 5}(OH)]{sup 5-} anion, ammonium cations, hydrogen peroxide, and water. Peroxotellurate anions in both 1 and 2 contain a binuclear Te{sub 2}(μ-OO){sub 2}(μ-O) fragment with one μ-oxo- and two μ-peroxo bridging groups. {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopic analysis shows that the peroxo bridged bitellurate anions are the dominant species in solution, with 3-40 %wt H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and for pH values above 9. DFT calculations of the peroxotellurate anion confirm its higher thermodynamic stability compared with those of the oxotellurate analogues. This is the first direct evidence for tellurium-peroxide coordination in any aqueous system and the first report of inorganic tellurium-peroxo complexes. General features common to all reported p-block element peroxides could be discerned by the characterization of aqueous and crystalline peroxotellurates. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Bases for DOT exemption uranyl nitrate solution shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    Uranyl nitrate solutions from a Savannah River Plant reprocessing facility have been transported in cargo tank trailers for more than 20 years without incident during transit. The solution is shipped to Oak Ridge for further processing and returned to SRP in a solid metal form for recycle. This solution, called uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) solution in Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations, is currently diluted about 2-fold to comply with DOT concentration limits (10% of low specific activity levels) specified for bulk low specific activity (LSA) liquid shipments. Dilution of the process solution increases the number of shipments, the cost of transportation, the cost of shipper preparations, the cost of further reprocessing in the receiving facility to first evaporate the added water, and the total risk to the population along the route of travel. However, the radiological risk remains about the same. Therefore, obtaining an exemption from DOT regulations to permit shipment of undiluted UNH solution, which is normally about two times the present limit, is prudent and more economical. The radiological and nonradiological risks from shipping a unit load of undiluted solution are summarized for the probable route. Data and calculations are presented on a per load or per shipment basis throughout this memorandum to keep it unclassified

  10. Study on removing nitrate from uranium solution by ion-exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Genmao

    2004-01-01

    Nitrate of low concentration can interfere with adsorption of uranyl sulfate anion on anion-exchange resins because the anion-exchange resins have a stronger affinity for nitrate in uranium solution. Nitrate can be adsorbed with a high efficiency resin, then desorbed by sodium hydroxide. The nitrate concentration is about 60 g/L in eluate. The research results show that nitrate can be recovered from uranium solution with N-3 anion-exchange resin

  11. Plutonium (IV) complexation by nitrate in acid solutions of ionic strengths from 2 to 19 molal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.M.; Veirs, D.K.; Vaughn, R.B.; Cisneros, M.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Titrations of Pu(IV) with HNO 3 in a series of aqueous HClO 4 solutions ranging in ionic strength from 2 to 19 molal were followed using absorption spectrophotometry. The Pu 5f-5f spectra in the visible and near IR range change with complex formation. At each ionic strength, a series of spectra were obtained by varying nitrate concentration. Each series was deconvoluted into spectra f Pu 4+ (aq), Pu(NO 3 ) 3+ and Pu(NO 3 ) 2 2+ complexes, and simultaneously their formation constants were determined. When corrected for the incomplete dissociation of nitric acid, the ionic strength dependence of each formation constant can be described by two parameters, β 0 and Δ var-epsilon using the formulae of specific ion interaction theory. The difficulties with extending this analysis to higher nitrate coordination numbers are discussed

  12. Principles of interactions in non-aqueous electrolyte solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented on the molecular interactions in non-aqueous media of low dielectric permittivity. Qualitative and quantitative distinctions with aqueous solutions are emphasized. The reviewed themes include dispersion forces, dissociation and association equilibria,

  13. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous magnesium nitrate, strontium nitrate, and manganese nitrate at temperatures from 278.15 K to 393.15 K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.S.; Ziemer, S.P.; Brown, B.R.; Woolley, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes V φ and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ were determined at the pressure 0.35 MPa for aqueous solutions of magnesium nitrate Mg(NO 3 ) 2 at molalities m = (0.02 to 1.0) mol . kg -1 , strontium nitrate Sr(NO 3 ) 2 at m = (0.05 to 3.0) mol . kg -1 , and manganese nitrate Mn(NO 3 ) 2 at m = (0.01 to 0.5) mol . kg -1 . Our V φ values were calculated from solution densities obtained at T = (278.15 to 368.15) K using a vibrating-tube densimeter, and our C p,φ values were calculated from solution heat capacities obtained at T = (278.15 to 393.15) K using a twin fixed-cell, differential, temperature-scanning calorimeter. Empirical functions of m and T were fitted to our results, and standard state partial molar volumes and heat capacities were obtained over the ranges of T investigated

  14. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  16. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-01-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O 2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2–3 times higher in the presence of O 2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: ► Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. ► Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. ► Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  17. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Tuende [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Homlok, Renata [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takacs, Erzsebet [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Wojnarovits, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-09-15

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O{sub 2} is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O{sub 2} due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  18. Formation and disappearance of superoxide radicals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.O.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review of superoxide radicals in aqueous solutions is presented covering the following: history; methods of formation of aqueous HO 2 /HO 2 - by radiolysis and photolysis, electrolysis, mixing nonaqueous solutions into water, chemical reactions, enzymatic generation of O 2 - , and photosensitization; and properties of HO 2 /O 2 - in aqueous solution, which cover spontaneous dismutation rates, pk and absorption spectra, catalyzed dismutation, thermodynamics and the so-called Haber-Weiss Reaction

  19. Studies on the reverse osmosis treatment of uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The aqueous effluent generated in uranium processing, particularly in the nuclear fuel fabrication step, contains mainly uranium nitrate. This requires treatment before discharge into the environment to meet stringent standards. This paper presents the performance of cellulose acetate membranes with regard to rejection of uranium under reverse osmotic conditions for feed concentrations up to 200 mg/l of uranium, which corresponds to the levels normally prevalent in the effluents. The use of additives like the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium sulfate for the improvement of reverse osmosis performance of the above membranes was also investigated. In the light of the experimental results, the suitability of reverse osmosis for the decontamination of uranium effluents is discussed

  20. Pulse radiolysis of bilirubin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.J.W.; Richards, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis study of bilirubin, the breakdown product of heme, has been made. In aqueous solution at pH 12, short-lived transient spectra have been obtained for reaction of bilirubin with e/sub aq//sup -/ and OH. Bimolecular rate constants for these reactions have been measured, namely, k/sub BR+e/sub aq//sup -/ equals 9.5 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 and k/sub BR+OH/ equals 3.45 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 , and the spectrum of a long-lived product resulting from decay of the bilirubin-OH adduct has been obtained. In addition, solute destruction by OH has been investigated in detail. The transient absorption spectrum for reduction of bilirubin with the H atom at neutral pH has been measured. By measuring the rate of reaction with e/sub aq//sup -/ in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the mode of binding of bilirubin to this biologically important compound has been studied

  1. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  2. Preparation standardisation and use of plutonium nitrate reference solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Drummond, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of a plutonium nitrate solution in nitric acid for use as a plutonium master standard. Anion exchange chromatography followed by oxalate precipitation is used to purify the plutonium and the residual cationic impurities are analysed by emission spectroscopy. The plutonium content is accurately and precisely measured by two independent methods, namely by gravimetry as PuO 2 at 1250 0 C and by ceric oxidation, ferrous reduction and dichromate titration. Full details of the purification procedure are given, with recommended methods for storing and using the standard solution. It is concluded that such a solution is the most satisfactory reference material, available for plutonium analysis for reprocessing plants, and is adequately related to other, internationally accepted, standard reference materials. (author)

  3. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  4. Process for the elimination of organic compounds in solution or in suspension from an aqueous solution such as a radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, G.; Gauthier, F.; Perotin, J.P.; Saulze, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Organic compounds such as complexing agents (for instance citric acid, EDTA and tartric acid) are oxidized with Co 3+ ions. For this purpose a cobalt (II) salt is added to the aqueous solution and Co 3+ ions required for oxidation are continuously generated by electrolysis. The cobalt salt is preferentially cobalt nitrate [fr

  5. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  6. Evaluation of natural zeolite clinoptilolite efficiency for the removal of ammonium and nitrate from aquatic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Murkani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surface water and groundwater pollution with various forms of nitrogen such as ammonium and nitrate ions is one of the main environmental risks. The major objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite to remove NO3– and NH4+ from polluted water under both batch and column conditions. Methods: The laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of clinoptilolite as the adsorbent for removal of nitrate (NO3– and ammonium (NH4+ ions from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, clinoptilolite dosage, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration on NO3– and NH4+ removal were investigated in a batch system. Results: Equilibrium time for NO3– and NH4+ ions exchange was 60 minutes and the optimum adsorbent dosage for their removal was 1 and 2.5 g/L, respectively. The adsorption isotherm of reaction (r> 0.9 and optimum entered concentration of ammonium and nitrate (30 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively were in accordance with Freundlich isotherm model. The ammonium removal rate increased by 98% after increasing the contact time. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that natural Clinoptilolite can be used as one of effective, suitable, and low-costing adsorbent for removing ammonium from polluted waters.

  7. Critical experiments on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution with STACY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1996-01-01

    As the STACY started steady operations, systematic criticality data on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution system could be accumulated. Main experimental parameters for the cylindrical tank of 60 cm in diameter were uranium concentration and the reflector condition. Basic data on a simple geometry will be helpful for the validation of the standard criticality safety codes, and for evaluating the safety margin included in the criticality designs. Experiments on the reactivity effects of structural materials such as borated concrete and polyethylene are on schedule next year as the second series of experiments using 10 wt% enriched uranyl solution. Furthermore, neutron interacting experiments with two slab tanks will be performed to investigate the fundamental properties of neutron interaction effects between core tanks. These data will be useful for making more reasonable calculation models and for evaluating the safety margin in the criticality designs for the multiple unit system. (J.P.N.)

  8. Photochemistry and exciplex of the uranyl ion in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcantonatos, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of acidity, temperature, self-quenching and H-donor concentration on the luminescent state of the aqua-uranyl(VI) ion have been studied in aqueous acidic nitrate and perchlorate solution. The detailed results cannot be explained by any single simple mechanism such as radiative, non-radiative or spontaneous collisional quenching, or irreversible hydrogen abstraction from water. Quantitative analysis of the results shows a far more complex mechanism, involving the adiabatic formation of the species *UO 2 H 2+ and *U 2 O 4 H 4+ , as already proposed by the author. This mechanism is supported by state and m.o. correlations. The abstraction of hydrogen from water is shown to take place by H atom transfer in a *uranyl-water complex intermediate, rather than by attack of H + on the fully occupied πsub(u) orbitals of uranium(V) in a well-defined uranyl water complex with strong charge transfer character. A qualitative description of the exciplex *U 2 O 4 H 4+ is shown to be possible in a v.b. formalism and the origin of its radiative properties is discussed on this basis. (author)

  9. Pulse radiolysis study of aqueous cyanamide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, I.G.; Draganic, Z.D.; Sehested, K.

    1978-01-01

    The radiolysis of oxygen-free, aqueous solutions of cyanamide was studied by fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Computer simulation of the reaction mechanisms was used to evaluate the experimental data. Four different species are identified: (1) the radical anion (NH 2 CN) - absorbing light in the UV with lambda/sub max/ 240 = 1500 M -1 cm -1 ; the disappearance is a second-order process with 2k = 1.3 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 ; (2) the hydrogen adduct, NH 2 C(H) double bond N (or NH 2 C double bond NH), with lambda/sub max/ 300 nm and epsilon 300 = 150 M -1 cm -1 decaying by second-order kinetics with 2k = 3.1 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 ; (3) the hydroxyl radical preferentially adds to the cyano group, NH 2 C(OH) double bond N (or NH 2 C double bond NOH). This species rearranges in the submicrosecond scale to NH 2 C ( double bond O) NH (lambda/sub max/ 325 nm and epsilon/sub 325 = 1900 M -1 cm -1 ) and disappears by a second-order process with 2k = 6.3 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (4) It is estimated that about 10% of OH radicals attack the substituent group and by H abstraction produce the NHCN radical (lambda/sub max/ 370 nm and epsilon 370 = 1800 M -1 cm -1 ); it disappears by a pseudo-first-order process attributed to a hydrolysis reaction. At increasing acidities, protonation of this radical takes place, NHCN + H + → + NH 2 CN; the protonated form decays faster and absorbs more strongly. In a cyanamide solution containing S 2 O 8 2- , the SO - 4 . radicals react with cyanamide, k = 1 x 10 8 M -1 s -1 , producing + NH 2 CN radicals. The dependence of the optical density at 325 nm on the dose rate and solute concentration are quantitatively consistent with the assumption that the OH radicals react with the NH 2 C(=O)NH species with k = 4 x 10 9 M -1 s -1

  10. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  11. Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum (III) solutions. I. Titration of acidified aluminum nitrate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, A.C.; Geus, John W.; Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    Acidified aluminum nitrate solutions were titrated with alkali (NaOH or KOH) over a temperature range of 24°C to 90°C. A homogeneous distribution of added base was achieved by: (i) in situ decomposition of urea (90°C); and (ii) a novel method involving injection through a capillary submerged in the

  12. Determination of free nitric acid in uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayankutty, P.C.; Ravi, S.; Nadkarni, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiometric titration of uranyl nitrate solution with sodium hydroxide exhibits two peaks. The first peak characterises the following reaction, UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )+NaOH Na[UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )(OH)]. This reaction, indicating the partial hydrolysis of uranyl oxalate complex, appears to be complete at pH9. If the titration is carried out to this end-point pH, the total alkali consumed can be equated to the sum of uranium content and the free acidity present in the sample volume. Based on this, a method was standardised to determine the free acidity in uranyl nitrate solution. The sample, taken in a solution of potassium oxalate previously adjusted to pH9, is titrated to this pH with standard sodium hydroxide. The free acidity in the sample can be computed by subtracting the alkali reacted with uranium from the total alkali consumed. Analyses of several synthetic samples containing uranium and nitric acid in a wide range of combinations indicate that the free acidity can be accurately determined by this method, if uranium concentration in the sample is known. The results are compared to those obtained by two other widely used methods, viz., (i) titration of pH7 in the presence of neutral potassium oxalate to suppress hydrolysis and (ii) separation of hydrolyzable ions on a cationic resin and alkali titration of the free acid released. The advantages of and the precision obtained with the present method over the above two methods are discussed. (author)

  13. Study on corrosion of carbon steel in DEA aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun Han; Xie, Jia Lin; Zhang, Li

    2018-02-01

    Corrosion of carbon steel in the CO2 capture process using diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solutions was investigated. The effects of the mass concentrations of DEA, solution temperature and CO2 loading on the corrosion rate of carbon steel were demonstrated. The experimental results provided comprehensive information on the appropriate concentration range of DEA aqueous solutions under which low corrosion of carbon steel can be achieved.

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Aqueous Solutions Used as Secondary Working Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Melinder, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Secondary working fluids (secondary refrigerants, heat transfer fluids, antifreezes, brines) have long been used in various indirect re-frigeration and heat pump systems. Aqueous solutions (water solu-tions) have long been used as single phase (liquid only) secondary working fluids for cooling in supermarkets, ice rinks, heat recovery systems, heat pumps and other applications. However, aqueous solutions are increasingly used also for freezers in supermarkets and other applications in low tem...

  15. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of insulin. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foitik, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Fyzikalni Chemie a Elektrochemie J. Heyrovskeho; Kopoldova, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Isotopova Laborator Biologickych Ustavu

    1976-08-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on diluted aqueous solutions of insulin is analyzed. The rate of decrease in its level (the loss of polarographic activity) is described by a first-order kinetic equation. The results lead to the concept of a direct effect on macromolecules in 'excited volumes'. The amount of inactivated molecules (i.e., the yield) in this volume is proportional to the solute concentration. In diluted aqueous solutions indirect radiation effects also take place. The paper evaluates these effects.

  16. Terbium nitrate luminescence quenching by eosin in he presence of lithium perchlorate in sulfolane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostakhov, S.S.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Krasnogorskaya, N.N.; Kazakov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Quenching of terbium nitrate luminescence by anionic dye, eosin, in the presence of lithium perchlorate in sulfolane solutions was studied. Temperature dependence of terbium nitrate luminescence in sulfolane solutions in the presence of perchlorate anions were considered. The values of energy required for water molecular substitution in Tb 3+ ion coordination sphere for solvent molecule in electrolyte solution were ascertained [ru

  17. Ammonia complexes of metals in aqueous solutions with high concentrations of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padar, T.G.; Novikov, L.K.; Stupko, T.V.; Isaev, I.D.; Pashkov, G.L.; Mironov, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Potentiometric method, glass electrodes and Bierrum function were used to study the formation of ammonia complexes of magnesium, calcium, cadmium, zinc, copper(2) and silver in 2.0 mol/dm 3 aqueous solutions of ammonia nitrate with 0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations at 25.0 deg C. Step constants of stability of studied complexes were calculated and their compositions were determined with account of nonideal character of aqueous-salt solutions with ammonia concentrations above 1.0 mol/dm 3 . Values of correction effects on salting out ammonia action for Bierrum function in solutions with 1.0-18 mol/dm 3 ammonia concentrations were found

  18. Thermodynamics of Dissolution for Crystalline Racemic Tartaric and Glutaric Acids and Isatin in KOH Aqueous Solutions at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Litvinenko, V. E.; Volkov, A. V.; Bychkova, S. A.; Skvortsov, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Enthalpies of dissolution are found for crystalline racemic tartaric and glutaric acids and isatin in water and in potassium hydroxide solutions at 298.15 K via direct calorimetry. The protolytic equilibria in isatin aqueous solutions are studied at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5 (relative to potassium nitrate) by potentiometric means. Standard enthalpies of formation are calculated for racemic tartaric and glutaric acids, isatin, and the products of their dissociation in aqueous solutions.

  19. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by sorption using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by sorption using natural clays from Burkina Faso. ... The high alkaline pH in one of the samples is attributable to the presence of ... The point of zero charge (pHpzc) values of the clays, as determined by ... significant contributions to the removal of metal ions in aqueous systems.

  20. Reactions of alkylnitrosoureas in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, J.K.; Stock, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The acid- and base-catalyzed decompositions of N-methyl-,N,N'-dimethyl-, and N,N',N'-trimethyl-N-nitrosourea in aqueous solution have been studied. Below pH 2, the N-methyl compound undergoes both denitrosation and hydrolysis to yield methylurea, nitrous acid, methylamine, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. The acid-catalyzed denitrosation and hydrolysis of the trimethylnitrosourea are somewhat more rapid than the corresponding reactions of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. The solvent isotope effect, k/sub H 2 O//k/sub D 2 O/ = 1.3, and the absence of chloride ion catalysis suggest that the denitrosation reaction proceeds by a rate-determining proton transfer which is followed by the rapid loss of the nitroso group. The results for the hydrolysis reaction are compatible with a formulation in which a hydrate of the nitrosourea is protonated in a rate-determining step to form a tetrahedral intermediate which subsequently decomposes to yield methyldiazonium hydroxide and a carbamic acid derivative. The base-catalyzed reactions of the mono, di-, and trimethylnitrosoureas are first order in hydroxide ion over a broad pH range. The hydrolysis of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea yields methanol and derivatives of carbamic acid. Salt effects on the reaction rate are negligible except for the influence of lithium ion. The rate constants for the hydrolysis of the mono- and dimethyl compounds depend upon the buffer concentrationat pH 9.5. The rate constants for the hydrolysis of the trimethyl compound also depend upon the buffer concentration, but a limiting value is not achieved. The solvent isotope effect for the base-catalyzed reaction, the exchange reaction of water- 18 O with the carbonyl group of the urea, and the fact that N-methyl-N-nitrosourea is hydrolyzed about 2.2 x 10 4 times more rapidly than N,N',N'-trimethyl-N-nitrosourea suggest that the hydrolysis occurs by a mechanism in which a tetrahedral intermediate is formed

  1. Cast iron deterioration with time in various aqueous salt solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    various aqueous salt solutions have been carried out using total immersion test ... circuit potential, Icorr, Tafel slopes, corrosion rate, have been calculated by standard methods. ..... Rao B V S 1980 in Maintenance for reliability (Bombay: Media.

  2. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... chemical reaction, decay, adsorption and biodegradation. The presence of ... sted coffee (Dakiky et al., 2002), waste tea (Ahluwalia and Goyal, 2005) ..... green removal from aqueous solution by citric acid modified rice straw.

  3. Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available of Water Reuse and Desalination Removal of boron from aqueous solution using cryptocrystalline magnesite Vhahangwele Masindi and Mugera W. Gitari Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using cryptocrystalline magnesite...

  4. Separation of cesium from aqueous solutions using alkylated tetraaryl borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmaier, F.

    1991-01-01

    The water solubility of cesium tetraaryl borates was lowered by introducing hydrophobic aliphatic side chains into corresponding acid-resistant fluorosubstituted tetraaryl borates. This improved cesium spearability both in precipitation and in extraction from aqueous solutions. (orig.) [de

  5. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... ... 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a low- ... and biodegradable effective adsorbents. They were ob- tained from ... pesticide. The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal.

  6. Insight into the electroreduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode, in neutral solution, after determination of their diffusion coefficient by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouina, Nizar; Cachet, Hubert [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Debiemme-chouvy, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.debiemme-chouvy@upmc.f [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Tran, Thi Tuyet Mai [Laboratoire Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques - UPR15 du CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4, place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2010-10-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode in an unbuffered neutral aqueous solution is studied. Using a two compartment electrochemical cell, three stationary cathodic waves, noted P1, P2 and P3, were evidenced by cyclic voltammetry at -0.9, -1.2 and -1.3 V/SCE, respectively. By comparing the electrochemical response of nitrate and nitrite containing solutions, P1 was attributed to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In order to assign P2 and P3 features by determining the number of electrons involved at the corresponding potential, rotating disk electrode experiments at various rotation speeds, combined with linear sweep voltammetry, were performed. Current data analysis at a given potential was carried out using Koutecky-Levich treatment taking into account water reduction. Confident values of the diffusion coefficient D of nitrate ions were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for nitrate concentrations of 10{sup -3}, 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -1} M. For a nitrate concentration of 10{sup -2} M, D was found to be 1.31 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} allowing the number of electrons to be determined as 6 for P2 and 8 for P3, in accordance with nitrate reduction into hydroxylamine and ammonia, respectively. The formation of hydroxylamine was confirmed by the observation of its reoxidation at a Pt microelectrode present at the Cu electrode/nitrate solution interface.

  7. Insight into the electroreduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode, in neutral solution, after determination of their diffusion coefficient by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouina, Nizar; Cachet, Hubert; Debiemme-chouvy, Catherine; Tran, Thi Tuyet Mai

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions at a copper electrode in an unbuffered neutral aqueous solution is studied. Using a two compartment electrochemical cell, three stationary cathodic waves, noted P1, P2 and P3, were evidenced by cyclic voltammetry at -0.9, -1.2 and -1.3 V/SCE, respectively. By comparing the electrochemical response of nitrate and nitrite containing solutions, P1 was attributed to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In order to assign P2 and P3 features by determining the number of electrons involved at the corresponding potential, rotating disk electrode experiments at various rotation speeds, combined with linear sweep voltammetry, were performed. Current data analysis at a given potential was carried out using Koutecky-Levich treatment taking into account water reduction. Confident values of the diffusion coefficient D of nitrate ions were assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for nitrate concentrations of 10 -3 , 10 -2 and 10 -1 M. For a nitrate concentration of 10 -2 M, D was found to be 1.31 x 10 -5 cm 2 s -1 allowing the number of electrons to be determined as 6 for P2 and 8 for P3, in accordance with nitrate reduction into hydroxylamine and ammonia, respectively. The formation of hydroxylamine was confirmed by the observation of its reoxidation at a Pt microelectrode present at the Cu electrode/nitrate solution interface.

  8. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  9. γ-Irradiation-induced radiolysis of inulin in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, I.A.; Revina, A.A.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Radiochemical transformations of inulin in aqueous solutions, in air, in the presence of inert gases, helium, nitrogen and in nitrous oxide exposed to various doses of 60 Co γ-irradiation were investigated. It was shown that interactions in inulin with OH radicals are principally responsible for radiolytic decomposition of inulin. The data on radiolysis of more simple model systems were used to make available decomposition spectra of γ-irradiated aerated aqueous solution of inulin. 9 refs., 6 figs

  10. Adsorption of lead from aqueous solutions by poly (methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, M.; Hussain, R.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorption capability of commercially manufactured poly (methyl methacrylate) for lead in aqueous medium has been investigated. Percent adsorption and distribution coefficient values have been determined in relation to the shaking time, amount of adsorbent, pH effects and concentration of lead in the solution. The experimental results are compatible with Freundlich type of adsorption behavior. It is discernible from the experimental results that poly (methyl methacrylate) can be used for the removal of lead from slightly acidic aqueous solutions. (author)

  11. EXTRACTION OF MONOAZO DYES BY HYDROPHILIC EXTRACTANTS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mono azo dyes E102, E122, E110, E124, E129 from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic solvents (alcohols, esters, ketones and polymers (poly-N-vinylamides, polyethylene glycol was studied. The main regularities of extraction are established. The distribution coefficients and degree of extraction of dyes was estimate. The influence of the nature of solvents and polymers on the extraction of dyes from aqueous solutions are established.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous hydroxyurea solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Sinha, Pranay Kumar; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a novel reductant for uranium-plutonium separation in PUREX process. Little information on its thermophysical properties is available in published literature. In this work, its contributions to aqueous density, apparent molal volume, vapour pressure and thermodynamic water activity values, derived from in-house experiments, are reported. (author)

  13. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Determination of halogens, silicon, phosphorus, carbon, sulfur, tributyl phosphate and of free acid in uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Van Vinh

    2003-01-01

    High-purity uranium compounds are widely used in nuclear field in the form of uranyl nitrate or uranium oxides. In production of uranium material the estimation and the control of products quality is necessary and very important. Halogens was separated from uranium compounds by steam distillation and they were later determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for Cl - , Br - , I - ions. Br - was also determined by spectrophotometric and iodide by the individual pulse polarography. Silicon and phosphorus in uranyl nitrate solutions were determined by the photometric method. Sulfur was determined as sulfate form by the measurement of turbidity by the titrimetry. TBP in kerosene and free acid in aqueous solution were determined by the titration. (author)

  15. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  16. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  17. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  18. Gamma radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of neptunium and plutonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Gogolev, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The paper is a brief review of data obtained by the authors from the study on redox reactions of neptunium and plutonium ions upon γ radiolysis of their aerated alkaline aqueous solutions. It includes the information on radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) ions under various experimental conditions. It was found that the values of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) reduction yields do not depend on alkali concentration. The values considerably increase in the presence of some organic compounds (EDTA and formate were investigated). The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the γ radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(VI) and Np(V) in the presence of nitrate. The mechanism of radiolytic redox reactions of the ions is discussed in some detail

  19. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  20. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates

  1. Extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) from ferric nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.; Grudpan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ferric nitrate acts as a strong salting-out agent in the extraction of thorium(IV), uranyl, europium(III), samarium(III) and zirconium(IV) nitrates as well as of nitric acid with tributyl phosphate in dodecane. Nitric acid, if present in the extraction system together with large amounts of ferric nitrate, markedly suppresses the extraction of thorium(IV) and lanthanides(III) but significantly supports the extraction of zirconium(IV). Separation factors of different metal pairs are presented as functions of the concentrations of ferric nitrate and nitric acid

  2. Improved diffusion technique for 15N:14N analysis of ammonium and nitrate from aqueous samples by stable isotope spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerges, T.; Dittert, K.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) by Dumas combustion and continuous flow mass spectrometry has become a wide-spread tool for the studies of N turnover. The speed and labor efficiency of 15N determinations from aqueous solutions such as soil solutions or soil extracts are often limited by sample preparation. Several procedures for the conversion of dissolved ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate NO3- to gaseous ammonia and its subsequent trapping in acidified traps have been elaborated in the last decades. They are based on the use of acidified filters kept either above the respective solution or in floating PTFE envelopes. In this paper, we present an improved diffusion method with a fixed PTFE trap. The diffusion containers are continuously kept in a vertical rotary shaker. Quantitative diffusion can thus be achieved in only three days. For solutions with NH4+ levels of only 1 mg N kg-1 and NO3- concentrations of 12 mg N kg-1, recovery rates of 98.8-102% were obtained. By addition of 15N labeled and non-labeled NH4+ and NO3- it was shown that no cross-contamination from NH4+ to NO3- or vice versa takes place even when one form is labeled to more than 1 at %15N while the other form has natural 15N content. The method requires no intermediate step of ammonia volatilization before NO3- conversion

  3. Knudsen thermogravimetry approach to the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiraldi, Alberto; Signorelli, Marco; Fessas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Knudsen cells were designed to replace standard TG pans for desorption experiments. ► The Knudsen effusion data allow determination of water activity of aqueous solutions. ► This methods can replace the traditional isopiestic approach for aqueous solutions. ► The Gibbs–Duhem relationship was used to fit the experimental data. -- Abstract: The use of isothermal TGA with Knudsen-like cells allows determination of the thermodynamic activity of water, a W . The typical experiment implies a slow dehydration of the aqueous solution at constant temperature in dynamic vacuum conditions. The method is alternative to the classical isopiestic approach and offers the advantage of a continuous record on increasing the solute concentration. These data can be directly treated according to the classical thermodynamic relationships drawn from the Gibbs–Duhem expression to evaluate the activity and osmotic coefficient of the aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and, in the case of electrolytes, allow determination of solubility of the solute. Discrepancies with respect to the literature data are observed when the viscosity of the systems becomes too high, as in the case of sugars with a very large solubility. Such a mismatch may however be accounted for either slowing the dehydration rate with use of a narrower Knudsen orifice, or correcting the experimental a W with a calibration curve. The same approach can be applied to non-aqueous solutions

  4. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Products of radiation removal of lead from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drtinova, Barbora; Pospisil, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Some metal ions, including Pb 2+ can be gradually reduced by primary reducing products of water radiolysis (solvated electrons e aq - and H radicals) to insoluble, easily separable metals. Conditions of water remediation using irradiation with accelerated electrons were studied. The solutions with initial concentration 100 mg/L of Pb(II) (originally nitrate) containing OH radical scavengers were irradiated under intensive agitation in sealed thin-glass ampoules by accelerated electrons (4.5 MeV) from a linear accelerator. Doses ranging from 0.5 to 60 kGy (dose rate of 0.5 kGy/s) determined by an alanine dosimeter were applied. Subsequent process of centrifugation (5000 revs per minute) was used for the separation of product- finely dispersed particles. The changes in metal concentration were determined with error ± 3% by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with flame atomization. The solid products formed after the irradiation were analyzed by both thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. For the pre-irradiated systems were carried out calculations by using PHREEQC in order to determinate the speciation. Without addition of an OH radical scavenger the radiation-induced removal of lead did not occur. The influence of potassium formate HCOOK (1x10 -3 - 4x10 -2 mol/L) and 10% isopropanol as typical OH radical scavengers was individually studied. The lead can be completely removed from aqueous solutions (pH about 5-6) containing 1x10 - :2 mol/L of HCOOK already at the dose of 2.5 kGy. With increasing concentration of HCOOK (1x10 -3 - 4x10 -2 mol/L) increases the amount of Pb(HCOO) + form in the solution before irradiation. The radiation product is metallic lead at low concentration of HCOOK to PbCO 3 at higher concentration of the OH radical scavenger. In the system with isopropanol dominates the form Pb 2+ and the product of radiation reduction is then metallic lead

  6. Sorption behaviour of uranium and thorium on cryptomelane-type hydrous manganese dioxide from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; El-Absy, M.A.; Abdel-Hamid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous nitrate solutions on cryptomelane-type hydrous manganese dioxide (CRYMO) was studied. The exchange of uranium is particle diffusion controlled while that of thorium is chemical reaction at the exchange sites. Sorption of uranium and thorium by CRYMO has been also studied as a function of metal concentrations and temperature. The sorption of both cations is found to be an endothermic process and increases markedly with temperature between 30 and 60 degree C. The sorption results have been analysed by the langmuir adsorption isotherm over the entire range of uranium and thorium concentrations investigated. 35 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Study of iodine-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Ram, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic exchange of iodine atoms in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine (in KI) is found to obey the rate law R = k [IO 3 - ] 0.4 [I 2 ] 1.2 at 175 o C. The addition of neutral ionic salts, e.g. KCl and KNO 3 , in the reaction mixture showed a slight catalytic effect on the exchange rate. Further, the kinetic salt effect indicated the involvement of at least one neutral species on the rate-determining step. The activation energy in neutral aqueous solutions of iodate ions and iodine is found to be 86 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , which decreases in the presence of KCl (79 ± 3 kJ mol -1 and KNO 3 (82 + 3 kJ mol -1 ). The activation parameters, viz. free energy of activation, enthalpy of activation and entropy of activation, were also calculated. Based on these results, an association-dissociation type of reaction mechanism is proposed for this exchange reaction in neutral aqueous medium, similar to that proposed earlier for iodide-iodate isotopic exchange reaction in neutral aqueous solutions, nitrate eutectic melts and iodide-iodate melts. (author)

  8. In Situ Structural Characterization of Ferric Iron Dimers in Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Mengqiang; Puls, Brendan W.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ferric iron (Fe3+) dimers in aqueous solutions has long been debated. In this work, we have determined the dimer structure in situ in aqueous solutions using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. An Fe K-edge EXAFS analysis of 0.2 M ferric nitrate solutions...... at pH 1.28–1.81 identified a Fe–Fe distance at ∼3.6 Å, strongly indicating that the dimers take the μ-oxo form. The EXAFS analysis also indicates two short Fe–O bonds at ∼1.80 Å and ten long Fe–O bonds at ∼2.08 Å, consistent with the μ-oxo dimer structure. The scattering from the Fe–Fe paths interferes...... confirmed by Mössbauer analyses of analogous quick frozen solutions. This work also explores the electronic structure and the relative stability of the μ-oxo dimer in a comparison to the dihydroxo dimer using density function theory (DFT) calculations. The identification of such dimers in aqueous solutions...

  9. Sonolysis of chlorinated compounds in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myung Hee; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Uk; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2007-02-01

    To examine the reaction rates of sonochemical degradation of aqueous phase carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and 1,2,3-trichloropropane at various temperatures, power intensities, and saturating gases, the batch tests were carried out. The degradations of chlorinated hydrocarbons were analyzed as pseudo first order reactions and their reaction rate constants were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)/min. The reaction was fast at the low temperature with higher power intensity. Also, the reaction went fast with the saturating gas with high specific heat ratio, high solubility and low thermal conductivity. The main mechanism of destruction of chemicals was believed the thermal combustion in the bubble.

  10. Investigation of ionizing radiation effect on albumin aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizikov, A.M.; Adeeva, L.N.; Ogryzkova, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma radiation effect on 0.1-0.5%-albumin aqueous solutions has been investigated; variations of viscosity and optical density of solutions at pH medium different values and completeness of protein separation owing to radiation coagulation have been determined. It is shown that due to radiation coagulation it is possible to quantitatively separate albumin from irradiated aqueous solutions. The albumin coagulation is caused by OH radicals the action of which on albumin macromolecules results in destruction of intramolecular bonds and albumin conformation transformations

  11. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  12. Stability constant determinations for technetium (IV) complexation with selected amino carboxylate ligands in high nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, Trevor; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    The stability constants for Tc(IV) complexation with the ligands IDA, NTA, HEDTA, and DTPA were determined in varied nitrate concentrations using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The determined log β{sub 101} stability constants at 0.5 M NaNO{sub 3} were found to be 9.2±0.3, 10.3±0.3, and 15.3±0.3 for IDA, NTA, and HEDTA, respectively. The log β{sub 111} stability constant for DTPA was determined to be 22.0±0.6. These determined stability constants show a slight decrease in magnitude as a function of increasing NaNO{sub 3} concentration. These stability constants were used to model the total dissolution of Tc(IV) in acidic aqueous solutions in the presence of each ligand. The results of these predictive models indicate that amino carboxylic ligands have a high potential for increasing the aqueous dissolution of Tc(IV); at pH 2.3, 0.01 M ligand yield dissolved Tc(IV) concentrations of 1.42.10{sup -5} M, 1.33.10{sup -5} M, 6.07.10{sup -6} M, 9.65.10{sup -7} M, for DTPA, HEDTA, NTA, and IDA, respectively.

  13. Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution by Hard-Shell Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Shamohammadi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is one of the heavy metals which commonly can be found in industrial wastewater. Many studies have been done on agricultural waste for the removal of nickel from aqueous solutions. The purpose of this study is to identify hard-shell pistachios as a local attraction for removal of nickel from aqueous solution. Nickel adsorption isotherm models are studied using shell pistachios. Pistachio shell was chosen which its particle size is between 800-600 microns. The stock solution of nickel ions was prepared mixing nickel nitrate with distilled water. The results showed that the maximum absorption efficiency occurs (73.3% at pH=8. Also, it was shown that with increasing adsorbent dose, equilibrium time decreased within constant concentration. Examination of uptake isotherm models showed that models of Freundlich, BET, Radke-Praunitz, Redlich-Peterson and Sips describe data in 97% level of confidence well,  however Freundlich and Sips isotherm models has the lowest error factor 0.10597 and 0/10598 respectively and the highest correlation coefficient (0.9785. Comparison of adsorbent capacity within removal of nickel from aqueous solution shows that Pistachio shell with special absorbent surface of 1.7 m2/g and uptake capacity of 0.3984 mg/g is proper than adsorbents of Kaolinite, Bagasse, sludge-ash.

  14. Structure of water and the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemethy, G.

    1970-10-26

    This report represents the summary of a series of lectures held at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Laboratori di Fisica, from 18 September to 26 October 1970. The topics discussed were: Intermolecular forces, the individual water molecule and the hydrogen bond, the structures of the solid phases of water, experimental information on the strucuture of liquid water, theoretical models of water structure, experimental properties and theoretical models of aqueous solutions of nonpolar solutes, polar solutes, and electrolytes, the conformational stability of biological macromolecules.

  15. Flotation separation of hafnium(IV) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.M.; Narick, C.N.; Cohen, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for the separation of hafnium from aqueous solutions was investigated using sup(175+181)Hf tracer. Cationic hafnium complex ions were floated from dilute acid solutions with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and anionic hafnium complexes were floated from basic and oxalic acid solutions with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTMAB). The conditions necessary for quantitative recovery of the metal and mechanisms of flotation are described. (author)

  16. Flotation separation of hafnium(IV) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, D.M.; Narick, C.N.; Cohen, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    A simple, rapid method for the separation of hafnium from aqueous solutions was investigated using sup(175 + 181)Hf tracer. Cationic hafnium complex ions were floated from dilute acid solutions with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and anionic hafnium complexes were floated from basic and oxalic acid solutions with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HTMAB). The conditions necessary for quantitative recovery of the metal and mechanisms of flotation are described. (author). 21 refs.; 5 figs.

  17. Self-aggregation of liquids from biomass in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, Laura; Giner, Beatriz; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Moya, Juana; Lafuente, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aggregation behaviour of liquids from biomass in aqueous solution has been studied. • Standard Gibbs free energies of aggregation have been calculated. • Solubility in water of these compounds has been determined. • Critical aggregation concentration decreases as the solubility in water does. -- Abstract: Aggregation of several chemicals from biomass: furfural derived compounds (furfural, 5-methylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol), lactate derived compounds (methyl lactate, ethyl lactate and butyl lactate), acrylate derived compound (methyl acrylate) and levulinate compounds (methyl levulinate, ethyl levulinate and butyl levulinate) in aqueous solution has been characterised at T = 298.15 K through density, ρ, speed of sound, u, and isentropic compressibilities, κ S , measurements. In addition the standard Gibbs free energies of aggregation have been also calculated. Furthermore, in order to deepen insight the behaviour of these chemicals in aqueous solution, the solubility of these compounds has been measured at T = 298.15 K

  18. Study of free acidity determinations in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergreis, A.

    1966-04-01

    The object of this work is the study of the principal methods which can be applied to the measurement of 'free' acidity. In the first part, we define the various types of acidity which can exist in aqueous solution; then, after having studied some hydrolysis reactions, we compare the value of the neutralisation pH of the hydrated cation and that of the precipitation of the hydroxide. In the second part we have started to study the determination of the acidity of an aqueous solution. After having rapidly considered the 'total' acidity determination, we deal with the problem of the 'free' acidity titration. We have considered in particular certain methods: extrapolation of the equivalent point, colorimetric titrations with or without a complexing agent, and finally the use of ion-exchange resins with mixed aqueous and solvent solutions. (author) [fr

  19. Decomposition kinetics of aminoborane in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, I.B.; Erusalimchik, I.G.

    1984-01-01

    Kinetics of aminoborane hydrolysis has been studied using the method of polarization galvanostatical curves on a platinum electrode in buffer solutions at pH 3; 5; 7. The supposition that the reaction of aminoborane hydrolysis is the reaction of the first order by aminoborane is proved. The rate constant of aminoborane decomposition in the solution with pH 5 is equal to: K=2.5x10 -5 s -1 and with pH 3 it equals K=1.12x10 -4 s -1

  20. Photochemical degradation of the carbapenem antibiotics imipenem and meropenem in aqueous solutions under solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Alejandro Cabrera; Martínez-Piernas, Ana B; Bertakis, Yannis; Brebou, Christina; Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P; Agüera, Ana; Sánchez Pérez, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the photochemical fate of two representative carbapenem antibiotics, namely imipenem and meropenem, in aqueous solutions under solar radiation. The analytical method employed for the determination of the target compounds in various aqueous matrices, such as ultrapure water, municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents, and river water, at environmentally relevant concentrations, was liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry. The absorption spectra of both compounds were measured in aqueous solutions at pH values from 6 to 8, and both compounds showed a rather strong absorption band centered at about 300 nm, while their molar absorption coefficient was in the order from 9 × 10 3 -10 4  L mol -1  cm -1 . The kinetics of the photochemical degradation of the target compounds was studied in aqueous solutions under natural solar radiation in a solar reactor with compound parabolic collectors. It was found that the photochemical degradation of both compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations follows first order kinetics and the quantum yield was in the order of 10 -3  mol einsten -1 . Several parameters were studied, such as solution pH, the presence of nitrate ions and humic acids, and the effect of water matrix. In all cases, it was found that the presence of various organic and inorganic constituents in the aqueous matrices do not contribute significantly, either positively or negatively, to the photochemical degradation of both compounds under natural solar radiation. In a final set of photolysis experiments, the effect of the level of irradiance was studied under simulated solar radiation and it was found that the quantum yield for the direct photodegradation of both compounds remained practically constant by changing the incident solar irradiance from 28 to 50 W m -2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Chukwudebe, A.C.; Wrzesinski, C.; Allen, L.R.S.; Luffer-Atlas, D.; Arison, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    The half-life of [ 14 C]4'-deoxy-4'-(epi-methylamino)avermectin B1a (MAB1a) benzoate (1 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7), natural pond water, and sensitized buffer (1% acetone in pH 7 buffer) determined at Three Bridges, NJ (latitude approximately 40 degrees N) during the fall season under natural sunlight was 22, 7, and 1 days, respectively. The half-life of [ 14 C]MAB1a benzoate (10-12 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7) containing 1% (v/v) acetonitrile, ethanol, or acetone as cosolvent under continuous exposure with a xenon lamp was 64.5, 8.5, or 0.5 days, respectively. The photoisomer 8,9-Z-MAB1a, 8a-hydroxy-MAB1a, and unknown polar residues were found in light-exposed samples of MAB1a in buffer and natural pond water. In light-exposed sensitized buffer samples, 8a-oxo-MAB1a and MAB1a-10,11-14,15-diepoxide were additional products. Very polar residues found in the organic and aqueous phases after extraction increased with time, and their formation followed the order sensitized buffer natural pond water buffer. (author)

  2. Photochemical properties of Ysub(t) base in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszyc, S.; Rafalska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Photoreactivity of Ysub(t) base (I) has been studied in aqueous solution (pH-6) saturated with oxygen. Two photoproducts (II,III), resulting from irradiation at lambda = 253.7 nm and lambda >= 290 nm were isolated and their structures determined. The quantum yield for Ysub(t) base disappearance (rho dis) is 0.002 (lambda = 313 nm). It was shown that dye- sensitised photo-oxidation of Ysub(t) base in aqueous solution occurs according to a Type I mechanism as well as with participation of singlet state oxygen. Quantum yields, fluorescence decay times and phosphorescence of Ysub(t) base have also been determined. (author)

  3. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  4. Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of acetonitrile and propionitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushtarian, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions is a branch of radiation chemistry dealing with chemical changes in water and aqueous solutions induced by high energy radiations. High energy radiations of interest in radiation chemistry are short-wave electromagnetic radiations (X- and γ-rays) and fast charged particles (α- and β-particles, electrons, deuterons and fission fragments). The energy of the particles and photons bringing about chemical reactions in the field of modern radiation chemistry is much higher than that of photons causing photochemical reactions

  5. Removal of Phenol in Aqueous Solution Using Kaolin Mineral Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Kaolin clay were tested for phenol removal as toxic liquid waste from aqueous waste water. Several experimental conditions such as weight and particle size of clay were investigated to study batch kinetic techniques, also the ph and concentration of the phenol solution were carried out. The stability of the Langmuir adsorption model of the equilibrium data were studied for phenol sorbent clay system. Infrared spectra, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to characterize the behavior of kaolin clay and kaolin clay saturated with phenol. The results obtained showed that kaolin clay could be used successfully as an efficient sorbent material to remove phenol from aqueous solution

  6. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  7. Separation of trace amounts of thorium from cerous nitrate solutions by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozanski, A.

    1977-01-01

    Cerous nitrate containing 3 ) 3 in 40% TBP in n-heptane, the extract was scrubed with 8 n HNO 3 . The process is described by a mathematical model which enables control of product purity under various compositions of aqueous feed. (author)

  8. Glasslike behavior in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, David A; Hunger, Johannes; Hefter, Glenn; Buchner, Richard; Wynne, Klaas

    2008-04-28

    When salts are added to water, generally the viscosity increases, suggesting that the ions increase the strength of the water's hydrogen-bond network. However, infrared pump-probe measurements on electrolyte solutions have found that ions have no influence on the rotational dynamics of water molecules, implying no enhancement or breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Here, we report optical Kerr effect and dielectric relaxation spectroscopic measurements, which have enabled us to separate the effects of rotational and transitional motions of the water molecules. These data show that electrolyte solutions behave like a supercooled liquid approaching a glass transition in which rotational and translational molecular motions are decoupled. It is now possible to understand previously conflicting viscosity data, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation, and ultrafast infrared spectroscopy in a single unified picture.

  9. Contact nuclei formation in aqueous dextrose solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Michael K.; Berglund, Kris A.

    1990-06-01

    A laser Raman microprobe was used in situ to observe the growth of alpha dextrose monohydrate on alpha anhydrous dextrose crystals. The Raman spectra indicate growth of the monohydrate below 28.1°C, but the presence of only the anhydrous form above 40.5°C. Contact nucleation experiments with parent anhydrous crystals yielded only monohydrate nuclei below 28.1°C, while contacts in solutions between 34.5 and 41.0°C produced both crystalline forms, and contacts in solutions above 43.5°C produced only anhydrous nuclei. The inability of the monohydrate to grow on anhydrous crystals in the same solution that forms the two crystalline phases with a single contact precludes a simple attrition mechanism of nuclei formation. For the same reason, the hypothetical mechanism involving parent crystal stabilization of pre-crystalline clusters, allowing the clusters to grow into nuclei, is also contradicted. A third, mechanism, which may be a combination of the two, is believed to apply.

  10. Equilibrium studies on aqueous polyvanadate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Mehmke, J.

    1983-01-01

    A reaction scheme for the hydrolysis of the vanadate ion VO 4 3 - in aqueous media derived from theoretical investigations on the formation mechanisms and structures of polymetalate ions has been tested by means of the potentiometric data (z, log c/sub OH - /, C/sub V(V)/) for the polyvanadate system given by Ingri and Brito. Whereas the set of species proposed by these authors only produced an agreement factor σ/sub Z/ = 0.0091, our model realizes σ/sub Z/ = 0.0071 at a level of the random errors of σ/sub Z/ = 0.0064 and leads to a rather more well-balanced deviation diagram δZ(Z). We thus see for the first time a self-contained and detailed picture of the polyvanadate system free of contradictions: The monomeric, tetrahedral vanadate ions polymerize on protonation at first forming an unbroken sequence of chains of VO 4 tetrahedra sharing corners as far as ring closure of the chains, mainly formation of the tetrameric ring, is possible. The driving forces for polymerization are the condensation of water molecules (an entropy effect) and the formation of π-bonds in the V-O-V bridges (strengthening of the bondings), both of them reaching a maximum in rings. The smallest possible, the trimeric ring does not occur because of unfavourable (to small) angles in the V-O-V bridges; the pentameric ring is handicapped for statistical reasons (meeting of the ends of the chain, law of mass action and others). All the species occur according to their basicity as determined mainly by the charge number and by the number of the terminal oxygen atoms in unprotonated, mono- and diprotonated form (chains) or only in unprotonated form (rings). On stronger protonation, as is well known, the V 10 O 28 6 - ion and its protonated forms as well as the VO 2+ ion composed of VO 6 octahedra appear. (author)

  11. Ruthenium release from thermally overheated nitric acid solution containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate and sodium nitrate to solidify

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kayo; Ueda, Yasuyuki; Enokida, Youichi [Nuclear Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648603 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Radioactive ruthenium (Ru) is one of the dominant elemental species released into the environment from a fuel reprocessing plant in a hypothetical design accident due to its relatively higher fission yield and longer half-life. After the hypothetical accident assuming the loss of all electric power and cooling functions, high-level liquid waste (HLLW) may be overheated by the energetic decays of many fission products in it, and Ru may be oxidized to the volatile tetroxide, RuO{sub 4}, which is released through the off-gas pathway. At a reprocessing plant in Japan, alkaline solution from the solvent scrubbing stream is sometimes mixed with the HLLW followed by vitrification, which can be influenced by the addition of sodium nitrate to a simulated HLLW containing ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate that was experimentally evaluated on a small scale using the overheated nitric acid solution of 2 mol/dm{sup 3}, which was kept at 180 Celsius degrees in a glass evaporator placed in a thermostatic bath. The release fraction of Ru increased by approximately 30% by the addition of sodium nitrate. This may be partially explained by the existence of relatively highly concentrated nitrate ions in the liquid phase that oxidize the ruthenium species to RuO{sub 4} during the drying process. (authors)

  12. Preliminary study on lithium-salt aqueous solution blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Naruse, Yuji; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Ohara, Atsushi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shigetada.

    1992-06-01

    Aqueous solution blanket using lithium salts such as LiNO 3 and LiOH have been studied in the US-TIBER program and ITER conceptual design activity. In the JAERI/LANL collaboration program for the joint operation of TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly), preliminary design work of blanket tritium system for lithium ceramic blanket, aqueous solution blanket and liquid metal blanket, have been performed to investigate technical feasibility of tritium demonstration tests using the TSTA. Detail study of the aqueous solution blanket concept have not been performed in the Japanese fusion program, so that this study was carried out to investigate features of its concept and to evaluated its technical problems. The following are the major items studied in the present work: (i) Neutronics of tritium breeding ratio and shielding performance Lithium concentration, Li-60 enrichment, beryllium or lead, composition of structural material/beryllium/solution, heavy water, different lithium-salts (ii) Physicochemical properties of salts Solubility, corrosion characteristics and compatibility with structural materials, radiolysis (iii) Estimation of radiolysis in ITER aqueous solution blanket. (author)

  13. A method for the gravimetric determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate concentrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Plutonium nitrate solution is treated with sulphuric acid before being heated and finally ignited. The stoichiometric plutonium dioxide so formed is weighed and hence the plutonium content is calculated. (author)

  14. γ-radiation induced tetracycline removal in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fei; Guo Zhaobing; Zhang Chaozhi; Lin Mingyue; Wu Menglong; Zhao Yongfu

    2012-01-01

    Degradation effect of tetracycline (TC) by γ-radiation was investigated in an aqueous solution. The effects of initial concentrations of TC, pH values, combining with H 2 O 2 or CH 3 OH on degradation of TC were studied. Results showed that TC can be effectively degradated by γ-irradiation in an aqueous solution. Degradation of TC could be remarkably improved both in acid solution and alkaline solution, especially when pH value was 9.0. In addition, H 2 O 2 could gently promote degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation. While, CH 3 OH markedly restrained degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation. The degradation mechanism of TC was supposed by results of quantum chemical calculations and LC-MS. Results proved that degradation of TC induced by γ-radiation was mainly ascribed to · OH oxidation. (authors)

  15. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily.

  16. Heterogeneous primary nucleation of ice in water and aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, H.A.C.; Vorstman, M.A.G.; Roels, J.A.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of the volume of the liquid sample, the degree of turbulence in the liquid, and the rate of cooling upon the probability of nucleation has been studied for water and aqueous solutions. Nucleation rates were measured for droplets nearly instantaneously cooled to a predetermined

  17. The coacervation of aqueous solutions of tetraalkylammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugnier de Trobriand, Anne.

    1979-09-01

    The coacervation of aqueous solutions of tatraalkylammonium halides in the presence of not of inorganic halides and acids has been studied, considering thermodynamic and spectroscopic aspects. The importance of dispersion forces as well as forces resulting from hydrophobic hydration has been assessed. The analogy between these systems and anionic ion exchange resins has been shown especially for Uranium VI extraction [fr

  18. Ion from Aqueous Solution using Magnetite, Activated Carbon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Thermodynamic studies on Adsorption of lead (II) Ion from Aqueous Solution using. Magnetite ... process industries and agricultural activities, which tends to ... osmosis. These processes are however, not economically feasible for small scale industries .... Freundlich coefficient. ..... from binary component system, Beni-suef.

  19. from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  20. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  1. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hexavalent chromium exists in aquatic media as water soluble complex anions and persist. These are concentrated in industrial waste water especially from the tannery industries and release of effluents from industries adversely affects the environment. The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions is carried ...

  2. The biosorption of cadmium and lead ions from aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption potentiality of Musa paradisiaca stalk at removing cadmium and lead ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The biosorption experiment was carried out as a function of contact time, initial pH, initial metal ion concentration and biosorbent dose. Adsorption equilibria were obtained from batch ...

  3. Biosorptive removal of cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using Amaranthus hybridus L. stalk as an alternative to high cost commercial adsorbent materials for the removal of Co (II) from aqueous solution. The experiment was carried out by batch method at 33°C. The influence of pH, contact time and initial metal ion ...

  4. Pulse radiolysis of pyridine and methylpyridines in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solar, S.; Getoff, N.; Sehested, K.

    1993-01-01

    The radicals formed from pyridine, 3-methylpyridine, 3,5-dimethylpyridine, 2,6-dimethylpyridine and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine by attack of H, e(aq)-, OH and O.- in aqueous solutions were investigated by pulse radiolysis in the pH-range 1-13.8. The UV-vis. absorption spectra as well as the formation...

  5. NMR study of thermoresponsive block copolymer in aqueous solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Konefal, Rafal; Čadová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 12 (2016), s. 1370-1375 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aqueous solutions * NMR * NOESY Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  6. DETERMINATION OF CHLORHEXIDINE IN SALIVA AND IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Ruben, J; Arends, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is presented for the determination of chlorhexidine in centrifuged saliva and in aqueous solutions by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The method relies on complex formation between chlorhexidine and eosin. The fluorescence value of the chlorhexidine-eosin system decreases with

  7. Degradation of Para-Phenylenediamine in Aqueous Solution by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research Photo-Fenton Oxidation of Para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in aqueous solution by UV/Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ and H2O2) was investigated. ... lower concentration of Phenylenediamines and UV-C assisted photo-Fenton showed that the photo-Fenton process was very effective than the normal Fenton process ...

  8. Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Hg (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of swamp arum (Lasimorpha senegalensis) seeds as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The influence of initial metal concentration on the percent adsorption of Hg (II) ions onto powdered swamp arum seeds was studied in a batch system ...

  9. Kinetics of absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous ammonia solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, P. W. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of carbon dioxide into aqueous ammonia solutions has been studied in a stirred cell reactor, at low temperatures and ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.1 to about 7 kmol m-3. The absorption experiments were carried out at conditions where the so-called pseudo

  10. Transitions in aqueous solutions of sucrose at subzero temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikora, Antonín; Dupanov, V. O.; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Zámečník, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-85 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aqueous sucrose solutions * subzero temperature * glass transitions Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2007

  11. Accurate Description of Calcium Solvation in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 28 (2014), s. 7902-7909 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LH12001 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium chloride * aqueous solution * molecular dynamics * neutron scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  12. Arsenic (III Adsorption Using Palladium Nanoparticles from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Arsiya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Arsenic in drinking water is the greatest threat to health effects especially in water. The purpose of this study is application of green palladium nanoparticles for removal of trivalent Arsenic from aqueous solutions and also the impact of some factors such as retention time, pH, concentration of palladium nanoparticles and Arsenic concentrations was studied. The values for Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions were measured by furnace atomic adsorption spectrometry (Conter AA700. In the study, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and pseudo-second order kinetic model were studied. The results of  optimization is shown that 0.5 g of nanoparticles can removed %99.8 of Arsenic with initial concentration of  0.5 g/l, in 5 minutes at pH=4. Langmuir model, Freundlich model (R2=0.94 and pseudo-second order kinetic model (R2=0.99 shown high correlation for removing of Arsenic from aqueous solutions. It was found, palladium nanoparticles can be used as an efficient method to remove Arsenic from aqueous solutions in a short time.

  13. Analysis and modeling of alkali halide aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kang, Jeong Won

    2016-01-01

    on calculations for various electrolyte properties of alkali halide aqueous solutions such as mean ionic activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and salt solubilities. The model covers highly nonideal electrolyte systems such as lithium chloride, lithium bromide and lithium iodide, that is, systems...

  14. A study of precipitation from pure solutions of uranyl nitrate; Etude de la precipitaion de solutions pures de nitrate d'uranyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decrop, J; Holder, J; Sauteron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Usine du Bouchet, Service des Lab. de Recherches et de Controle, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After its purification by extraction of the uranyl nitrate from the organic solvent, uranium has to be converted into solid form again: uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}). It can be done either by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate or by precipitation of uranium, followed by filtration and calcination. Only the second method has been studied for now at the Bouchet plant. This paper reports the bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments of the studies of the precipitation of pure solutions of uranyl nitrate using ammonia (gaseous or in solution) or ammonium carbonate. These have been carried out at the Bouchet plant. It investigates the chemical aspect (pH, precipitates chemical composition) and the technical aspect of the different ways of precipitation (conditions of precipitation, decantation and filtration of precipitates). (M.P.)

  15. Examination of rheological properties of aqueous solutions of sodium caseinate

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Gawałek; Piotr Wesołowski

    2012-01-01

    Application of sodium caseinate as a functional additive in manufacturing processes requires production of its concentrated aqueous solutions which, in industrial conditions, presents a number of difficulties. In order to develop an effective and optimal industrial process of mixing – manufacturing a concentrated solution of sodium caseinate, it is essential to know rheological properties in a definite range of concentrations changing in the course of the dissolving process. The materia...

  16. Assembly of DNA Architectures in a Non-Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Proctor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the procedures for the creation of self-assembled DNA nanostructures in aqueous and non-aqueous media are described. DNA-Surfactant complex formation renders the DNA soluble in organic solvents offering an exciting way to bridge the transition of DNA origami materials electronics applications. The DNA retains its structural features, and these unique geometries provide an interesting candidate for future electronics and nanofabrication applications with potential for new properties. The DNA architectures were first assembled under aqueous conditions, and then characterized in solution (using circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy and on the surface (using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Following aqueous assembly, the DNA nanostructures were transitioned to a non-aqueous environment, where butanol was chosen for optical compatibility and thermal properties. The retention of DNA hierarchical structure and thermal stability in non-aqueous conditions were confirmed via CD spectroscopy. The formation and characterization of these higher order DNA-surfactant complexes is described in this paper.

  17. Electrostatic interactions in aqueous solutions of polyelectrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, Luc

    1982-01-01

    In this study, the structure, equilibrium and transport properties of poly-electrolytes solutions are reported. These dissymmetric systems are studied in the context of a primitive model (Charged hard spheres and rods in a solvent continuum). The first phenomenon studied is the strong electrostatic attractive interaction of counterions on the poly-ion surface. The model used considers the poly-ions on a matrix and the different concentrations are calculated using the P.B. equation. Auto-diffusion coefficients obtained give a good description of experimental slowing down of the counterions. The model allows a correlation between the theoretical limits represented by Bjerrum's and Manning's models and gives a physical significance to the concept of condensation. In the second part, the complete structure is calculated using only slightly restrictive H.N.C. approximation. This theory enables all the pair correlation functions to be calculated as well as thermodynamic data and structure factors. The last part of this study treats transport phenomena. Quasi-elastic light scattering gives information on the autocorrelation function of the scattered light intensity. Analysis using cumulants leads to an effective diffusion coefficient which is theoretically related to the structure factor and the hydrodynamic interactions. A crude approximation of the last contribution allows to fit the experimental data. (author) [fr

  18. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  19. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  20. Protein aggregation in aqueous casein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    From the vast amount of research efforts dealing with various aspects of radiation effects on foods and food components (11, 18, 5, 12, 19, 8, 9, 6, 13, 15, 17, 20), it is apparent up to now that much remains to be studied in depth, much may have to be added or corrected about radiation-induced physico-chemical changes in foods. A great many reactions that take place when foodstuffs are subjected to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. The better understanding of some of the radiation-induced changes in pure proteins as such or in mixture with other food constituents could yield much data which could be meaningfully extrapolated to intact foods and consequently could help to improve the assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. It was the purpose of our investigations to elucidate some of the changes in the chemical structure of a pure protein (casein), irradiated as such or which added carbohydrate and/or lipid. The effect of subsequent storage of the irradiated solutions has been also examined. The formation of protein aggregates was studied by gel filtration technique. The application of thin-layer gel filtration, its speed and adaptability to very small samples facilitated the measurements of the extent of aggregation which occurred in protein molecules after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  1. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  2. Experimental measurements of U60 nanocluster stability in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Shannon L.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Gao, Yunyi; Liu, Tianbo; Burns, Peter C.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the aqueous behavior of isolated U60 nanoclusters (K16Li25[UO2(O2)OH]60)-19 was studied under several pH conditions and nanocluster concentrations to determine if the nanoclusters exhibit solid phase buffering behavior or if they exhibit behavior more like aqueous complexes. U60 is a cage cluster consisting of 60 (UO2)(O2)2(OH)2 uranyl polyhedral which share OH and O2 groups with their neighboring uranyl polyhedral, resulting in negatively charged cage clusters whose charge is at least partially offset by K+ and Li+ in the aqueous phase. Batch experiments to monitor nanocluster stability were conducted for 16 days at pH 7.5, 8.0 and 8.5 at nanocluster suspension concentrations of 1.4, 2.8 and 6.0 g/L. The aqueous concentrations of U, Li, and K, determined after 10 kDa molecular weight filtration, achieved steady-state with the nanoclusters within 24 h. The steady-state aqueous U, Li, and K concentrations were independent of solution pH, however they increased with increasing nanocluster concentration, indicating that the nanoclusters do not buffer the aqueous activities as a bulk solid phase would, but exhibit behavior that is more characteristic of dissolved aqueous complexes. The ion activity product (I.A.P.) value was calculated using two approaches: (1) treating the nanoclusters as a solid phase with an activity of one, and (2) treating the nanoclusters as aqueous complexes with a non-unit activity equal to their concentration in solution. The I.A.P. values that were calculated with non-unit activity for the nanoclusters exhibited significantly less variation as a function of nanocluster concentration compared to the I.A.P. values calculated with a nanocluster activity of one. The results yield a calculated log dissociation constant for the U60 nanoclusters of 9.2 + 0.2/-0.3 (1σ). Our findings provide a better understanding of the thermodynamic stability and behavior of U60 nanoclusters in aqueous systems, and can be used to estimate the

  3. Radiation resistance of organic azo dyes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabarov, V.N.; Kozlov, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The resistance to the action of the ionizing radiation of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions of organic mono- and diazo dyes was studied. The radiation chemical yield of decolorization of the dye, determined from the kinetic decolorization curves served as a quantitative criterion of the radiation resistance. The influence of pH, addition of ethanol, hydroquinone, thiourea, glucose and oxygen on the radiation resistance of the azo dyes was studied. An attempt was made to relate the efficiency of radiation decolorization to the chemical nature of the dye

  4. Degradation of alachlor in aqueous solution by using hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xikui; Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-15

    The degradation of alachlor aqueous solution by using hydrodynamic cavitation was systematically investigated. It was found that alachlor in aqueous solution can be deomposed with swirling jet-induced cavitation. The degradation can be described by a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation rate was found to be 4.90x10(-2)min(-1). The effects of operating parameters such as fluid pressure, solution temperature, initial concentration of alachlor and medium pH on the degradation rates of alachlor were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation rates of alachlor increased with increasing pressure and decreased with increasing initial concentration. An optimum temperature of 40 degrees C existed for the degradation rate of alachlor and the degradation rate was also found to be slightly depend on medium pH. Many degradation products formed during the process, and some of them were qualitatively identified by GC-MS.

  5. Complex chemistry of Np(V) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi

    1989-01-01

    Despite the importance of Np(V) in both the nuclear chemical engineering and the actinoid chemistry, little work has been performed on the complex chemistry of Np(V) in aqueous solutions, since Np(V) reacts less readily with various ligands. The author has directed his effort to understand the chemical behavior of Np(V) in aqueous solutions, especially the determination of the stability constants of Np(V) complexes with various ligands. A part of the results obtained so far is presented in the following order. (1) The synergistic extraction of Np(V) as a method for studying the complex chemistry of Np(V): TTA-MTOA(methyltrioctylammonium chloride), TTA-phen and TTA-TOPO. (2) The determination of the stability constants of Np(V) complexes with 22 organic- and 5 inorganic ligands by means of the solvent extraction. (3) The distribution of the chemical species of Np(V) in solutions under various conditions

  6. Molecular mechanism of the viscosity of aqueous glucose solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabashta, Yu. F.; Khlopov, A. M.; Khorol'skii, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental relations are obtained for the viscosity of aqueous glucose solutions in the temperature range of 10-80°C and concentration range 0.01-2.5%. It is found that the concentration dependence of fluidity is linear when the concentration is higher than a certain value and varies at different temperatures. The existence of such a dependence indicates that the mobilities of solvent and solute molecules are independent of the concentration of solutions. This assumption is used to construct a theoretical model, in which the structure of an aqueous glucose solution is presented as a combination of two weakly interacting networks formed by hydrogen bonds between water molecules and between glucose molecules. Theoretical relations are obtained using this model of network solution structure for the concentration and temperature dependence of solution viscosity. Experimental data are used to calculate the activation energies for water ( U w = 3.0 × 10-20 J) and glucose molecules ( U g = 2.8 × 10-20 J). It is shown that the viscosity of a solution in such a network structure is governed by the Brownian motion of solitons along the chains of hydrogen bonds. The weak interaction between networks results in the contributions to solution fluidity made by the motion of solitons in both of them being almost independent.

  7. Electrocnecical behaviour of zirconium during its anodic polarization in nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabrovskij, A.I.; Karasev, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during its anodic polarization in nitrate solutions is investigated in detail to find the method of its complete dissolution. A study has been made of the influence of varioUs factors: current density electric potential, composition and temperature of the solution, anodic polarization duration on the Zr anodic polarization in nitric acid, on the maximum permissible current density and on the zirconium yield to the solution. The zirconium polarization decreases with an acid concentration and temperature increase and increases with the current density. Iron nitrate additions to nitric acid decrease, while ammonium fluoride additions increase zirconium yield into the solution

  8. The research of technology and equipment for a microwave denitration process of the uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Weimin; Wang Xuejun; Ma Xuquan; Shi Miaoyi; Zhang Zhicheng; Bao Zhu Tian.

    1991-01-01

    In order to improve the present process of converting the plutonium nitrate into oxide powder in the nuclear fuel cycle, a new conversion process for the direct denitration using microwave heating has been developed. Microwave denitration is based on intramolecular polarization of a material in electric field and has no need of a process of heat transfer during microwave heating, so that the whole material can be heated quickly and uniformly. The thermal decomposition reactions of Pu, U, Th and RE nitrate have been analyzed and compared. The uranyl nitrate solution was chosen as imitative plutonium nitrate solution. The performance parameters ε r tanδ of U, Th and RE nitrate and oxide in microwave field were measured. The data obtained show that all of them could absorb microwave energy well and cause heating decomposition reactions. The microwave denitration test unit was designed and made. Denitration tests for rare-earths nitrate and uranyl nitrate solutions were performed. It could be completed in one step that the uranyl nitrate solution was evaporated, dryed and denitrated in a vessel. The denitrated products are a porous lump and easy to scrape off from the denitration vessel. The main forms of the products UO 3 ·0.8H 2 O and U 3 O 8 which have excellent powder properties. The capacity of the denitration unit is 1.3 kg UO 3 /h. According to the experimental results the simplicity, feasibility and good repeatability of the process have been fully proved. The unit operates easily and is adaptable to conversion of nitrate in nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Gogolev, A.V.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation ( 60 Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions [ru

  10. Cobalt separation present in aqueous solution using shell tamarind as bio sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez L, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work a new carbonaceous material is presented with improved adsorption properties obtained by a heart treatment about 5 min from the shell tamarind. It was found that the samples obtained carbonaceous adsorbents are effective in removing Co 2+ (41 mg / g) ions in aqueous solutions. These samples were prepared from tamarind shell, urea, ammonium nitrate and water. The solution was subjected to a combustion process at different temperatures. Carbonaceous samples prepared in this manner were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and surface area measurements by Physisorption of N 2 . Changes in structure, morphology and texture were studied. The results show that this material is of great importance to the applications of adsorption of metal ions. The measurements of specific surface area (Bet) were 2.35 to 203.76 m 2 g -1 with pore diameters between 2.31 and 15.63 nm, indicating that the samples obtained are predominantly meso porous. The combustion process of the solution proved to be advantageous to improve the textural properties of the tamarind shell. The obtained carbonaceous material plays an important role in adsorption to remove cobalt in aqueous solutions. (Author)

  11. Multi-Scale Modeling of the Gamma Radiolysis of Nitrate Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Gregory P; Donoclift, Thomas A; Sims, Howard E; Orr, Robin M; Pimblott, Simon M

    2016-11-17

    A multiscale modeling approach has been developed for the extended time scale long-term radiolysis of aqueous systems. The approach uses a combination of stochastic track structure and track chemistry as well as deterministic homogeneous chemistry techniques and involves four key stages: radiation track structure simulation, the subsequent physicochemical processes, nonhomogeneous diffusion-reaction kinetic evolution, and homogeneous bulk chemistry modeling. The first three components model the physical and chemical evolution of an isolated radiation chemical track and provide radiolysis yields, within the extremely low dose isolated track paradigm, as the input parameters for a bulk deterministic chemistry model. This approach to radiation chemical modeling has been tested by comparison with the experimentally observed yield of nitrite from the gamma radiolysis of sodium nitrate solutions. This is a complex radiation chemical system which is strongly dependent on secondary reaction processes. The concentration of nitrite is not just dependent upon the evolution of radiation track chemistry and the scavenging of the hydrated electron and its precursors but also on the subsequent reactions of the products of these scavenging reactions with other water radiolysis products. Without the inclusion of intratrack chemistry, the deterministic component of the multiscale model is unable to correctly predict experimental data, highlighting the importance of intratrack radiation chemistry in the chemical evolution of the irradiated system.

  12. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  13. Nonlinear-Optical and Fluorescent Properties of Ag Aqueous Colloid Prepared by Silver Nitrate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear-optical properties of metal Ag colloidal solutions, which were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate, were investigated using Z-scan method. Under picosecond 532 nm excitation, the Ag colloidal solution exhibited negative nonlinear refractive index (n2=−5.17×10−4 cm2/W and reverse saturable absorption coefficient (β=4.32 cm/GW. The data fitting result of optical limiting (OL response of metal Ag colloidal solution indicated that the nonlinear absorption was attributed to two-photon absorption effect at 532 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence emission spectra of Ag colloidal solution were recorded under excitations at both 280 nm and 350 nm. Two fluorescence peaks, 336 nm and 543 nm for 280 nm excitation, while 544 nm and 694 nm for 350 nm excitation, were observed.

  14. Water Evaporation from Acoustically Levitated Aqueous Solution Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Nicole A; Donaldson, D James

    2017-09-28

    We present a systematic study of the effect of solutes on the evaporation rate of acoustically levitated aqueous solution droplets by suspending individual droplets in a zero-relative humidity environment and measuring their size as a function of time. The ratios of the early time evaporation rates of six simple salts (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO 3 , KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 ) and malonic acid to that of water are in excellent agreement with predictions made by modifying the Maxwell equation to include the time-dependent water activity of the evaporating aqueous salt solution droplets. However, the early time evaporation rates of three ammonium salt solutions (NH 4 Cl, NH 4 NO 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) are not significantly different from the evaporation rate of pure water. This finding is in accord with a previous report that ammonium sulfate does not depress the evaporation rate of its solutions, despite reducing its water vapor pressure, perhaps due to specific surface effects. At longer evaporation times, as the droplets approach crystallization, all but one (MgCl 2 ) of the solution evaporation rates are well described by the modified Maxwell equation.

  15. Rapid determination of fluoride in uranyl nitrate solution obtained in conversion process of uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.; Feldman, R.; Sahar, E.

    1976-01-01

    In uranium production the conversion of impure uranium tetrafluoride by sodium hydroxide was chosen as a current process. A rapid method for determination of fluoride in uranyl-nitrate solution was developed. The method includes precipitation of uranium as diuranate, separation by centrifugation, and subsequent determination of fluoride in supernate by titration with thorium nitrate. Fluoride can be measured over the range 0.15-2.5 gr/gr U, with accuracy of +-5%, within 15 minutes. (author)

  16. Pulse Radiolysis of Adrenaline in Acid Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, Erling

    1976-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of adrenaline in acid aqueous solutions (pH 1–3) was carried out. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenaline with H and OH were determined: k(H + adr.) = (0·9±0·1) × 109 dm3 mol−1s−1; k(OH + adr.) = (1·65±0·15) × 1010 dm3 mol−1s−1. The H-adduct of adrenaline has two λmax...

  17. Gelatin behaviour in dilute aqueous solution : designing a nanoparticulate formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claude; Groves, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Although it has been claimed that nanoparticles can be produced from gelatin, a naturally occurring polypeptide, the commercial conversion of animal collagen to gelatin results in a heterogeneous product with a wide molecular-weight range. This is probably responsible for the widely observed variation in the experimental conditions required for nanoparticle formation. In this study, 0.2% w/v aqueous B225 gelatin solutions were incubated under various conditions of time, temperature, pH an...

  18. Plasma induced degradation of benzidine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinzhang; Gai Ke; Yang Wu; Dong Yanjie

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of benzidine in aqueous solution by the low temperature plasma was examined. The results showed that the concentration of medium and the value of pH have an appreciable effect on the degradation of benzidine. What is more important is that iron ions acting as a catalyst play an important role in this reaction. For exploring the degradation mechanism of benzidine, some of the intermediate products were recorded by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography)

  19. Volumetric studies of some amino acids in binary aqueous solutions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    0 values of glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine in aqueous MgCl2⋅6H2O solutions at. 298⋅15 K in order to describe the temperature dependence behaviour of partial molar quantities. Group contributions to partial molar volumes have been determined for the amino acids. The trends of transfer volumes (∆Vφ. 0) have been ...

  20. Tyrosine-sensitized photodimerization of thymine in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.; Matsuyama, A.; Nagata, C.

    1978-01-01

    Photodimerization of thymine in aqueous solution in the presence of tyrosine was studied with monochromatic UV irradiation. The total dimer formation was sensitized in the presence of tyrosine. The action spectrum of sensitized total dimer formation has a peak near 280 nm corresponding to the absorption maximum of tyrosine. Triplet quenchers reduced the sensitization substantially. It seems probable that tyrosine-sensitized photodimerization of thymine occurred via triplet-triplet energy transfer from tyrosine to thymine. (author)

  1. An Evaluation of Four Electrolyte Models for the Prediction of Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalodin Momeni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of four electrolyte models for prediction the osmotic and activity coefficients of different aqueous salt solutions at 298 K, atmospheric pressure and in a wide range of concentrations are evaluated. In two of these models, (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid e-NRTL and Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid MSA-NRTL, association between ions of opposite charges for simplification purposes is ignored and in the other two ones, (Associative Mean Spherical Approximation-Non-Random Two-Liquid AMSA-NRTL and Binding Mean Spherical Approximation BiMSA association and solvation effects are considered. The predictions of these four models for the osmotic and activity coefficients of electrolyte solutions at 298 K and atmospheric pressure are compared with the experimental data reported in the literature. This comparison includes, 28 different aqueous salt solutions including thio-cyanates, perchlorates, nitrates, hydroxides, quaternary ammonium salts and others. The results show, the performance of models that consider association effects are better than others especially for higher salt concentrations. However, the best performance belongs to BiMSA model which has some parameters with physical meaning.

  2. ISOCHORIC HEAT CAPACITY OF 1% AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dvoryanchikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to conduct an experimental study of isochoric heat capacity of 1% aqueous solution of magnesium chloride along the phase boundary curve.Method. In order to determine the isochoric heat capacity at the phase boundary curve we used the adiabatic calorimeter of KH. I. Amirkhanov.Results. Results of the study of the isochoric heat capacity depending on the temperature are given in tables and figures; the findings are compared with those of other researchers. When evaluating a complex system, we ought not to evaluate its effectiveness on the basis of only one criterion, even a very important, in this case must take into account the requirements of the technical, economic, environmental and of other natures.Conclusions. When solving optimization problems of efficiency in geothermal energy it is necessary to take into account the fact of the temperature dependence of the heat and density. The temperature dependence of the density and heat capacity in the calculations significantly affect the value of the efficiency criterion to be taken into account, otherwise the calculation error can be up to 20%. The data obtained from the isochoric heat capacity of aqueous solutions of magnesium chloride is compared with the data for water and aqueous solutions of NaCl and NaOH, obtained previously, which may be represented as a model of geothermal and sea water.

  3. Luminescence properties of tetravalent uranium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirishima, A.; Kimura, T.; Nagaishi, R.; Tochiyama, O.

    2004-01-01

    The luminescence spectra of U 4+ in aqueous solutions were observed in the UV-VIS region at ambient and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The excitation spectrum indicates that the luminescence is arising from the deexcitation of a 5f electron at the 1 S 0 level and no other emissions of U 4+ in aqueous solutions were detected for other f-f transitions. All the luminescence peaks were assigned to the transitions from 1 S 0 to lower 5f levels. To estimate the luminescence lifetime, luminescence decay curves were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. At room temperature, the decay curve indicated that the lifetime was shorter than 20 ns. On the other hand, the frozen sample of U 4+ in aqueous solution at liquid nitrogen temperature showed the same emission spectrum as at room temperature and its lifetime was 149 ns in H 2 O system and 198 ns in D 2 O system. The longer lifetime at liquid nitrogen temperature made it possible to measure the spectrum of U 4+ at the concentration as low as 10 -6 M. The difference in the anion species (ClO 4 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) affected the structure of the emission spectrum to some extent. (orig.)

  4. Dermal absorption of a dilute aqueous solution of malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharf John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide commonly used on field crops, fruit trees, livestock, agriculture, and for mosquito and medfly control. Aerial applications can result in solubilized malathion in swimming pools and other recreational waters that may come into contact with human skin. To evaluate the human skin absorption of malathion for the assessment of risk associated with human exposures to aqueous solutions, human volunteers were selected and exposed to aqueous solutions of malathion. Participants submerged their arms and hands in twenty liters of dilute malathion solution in either a stagnant or stirred state. The "disappearance method" was applied by measuring malathion concentrations in the water before and after human exposure for various periods of time. No measurable skin absorption was detected in 42% of the participants; the remaining 58% of participants measured minimal absorbed doses of malathion. Analyzing these results through the Hazard Index model for recreational swimmer and bather exposure levels typically measured in contaminated swimming pools and surface waters after bait application indicated that these exposures are an order of magnitude less than a minimal dose known to result in a measurable change in acetylcholinesterase activity. It is concluded that exposure to aqueous malathion in recreational waters following aerial bait applications is not appreciably absorbed, does not result in an effective dose, and therefore is not a public health hazard.

  5. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution problem is the main obstacle for the value-added modification and depolymerization of industrial lignin. Here, a green urea aqueous solution for complete dissolution of various lignin is presented and the dissolution mechanism is analyzed by AFM, DLS and NMR. The results show that the molecular interaction of lignin decreases from 32.3 mN/m in pure water to 11.3 mN/m in urea aqueous solution. The immobility of 1H NMR spectra and the shift of 17O NMR spectra of urea in different lignin/urea solutions indicate that the oxygen of carbonyl in urea and the hydrogen of hydroxyl in lignin form new hydrogen bonds and break the original hydrogen bonds among lignin molecules. The shift of 1H NMR spectra of lignin and the decrease of interactions in model compound polystyrene indicate that urea also breaks the π-π interactions between aromatic rings of lignin. Lignin dissolved in urea aqueous has good antioxidant activity and it can scavenge at least 63% free radicals in 16 min.

  6. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ), and entropy (ΔS o ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  7. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  8. Ultrafast dynamics of hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous ionic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Odelius, Michael; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2009-06-04

    The structural and dynamical properties of aqueous ionic solutions influence a wide range of natural and biological processes. In these solutions, water has the opportunity to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules and anions. Knowing the time scale with which these configurations interconvert represents a key factor to understanding the influence of molecular scale heterogeneity on chemical events in aqueous ionic solutions. We have used ultrafast IR spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond (H-bond) structural dynamics in aqueous 6 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) solution. We have measured the H-bond exchange dynamics between spectrally distinct water-water and water-anion H-bond configurations with 2DIR spectroscopy and the orientational relaxation dynamics of water molecules in different H-bond configurations with polarization-selective IR pump-probe experiments. The experimental H-bond exchange time correlates strongly with the experimental orientational relaxation time of water molecules. This agrees with prior observations in water and aqueous halide solutions, and has been interpreted within the context of an orientational jump model for the H-bond exchange. The CPMD simulations performed on aqueous 6 M NaClO4 solution clearly demonstrate that water molecules organize into two radially and angularly distinct structural subshells within the first solvation shell of the perchlorate anion, with one subshell possessing the majority of the water molecules that donate H-bonds to perchlorate anions and the other subshell possessing predominantly water molecules that donate two H-bonds to other water molecules. Due to the high ionic concentration used in the simulations, essentially all water molecules reside in the first ionic solvation shells. The CPMD simulations also demonstrate that the molecular exchange between these two structurally distinct subshells proceeds more slowly than the H

  9. Enthalpy of solution of rubidium nitrate in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weintraub, R.; Apelblat, A.; Tamir, A.

    1984-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of solution of RbNO 3 in water at 298.15 K were measured in an LKB calorimeter. The molar enthalpies of solution extrapolated to infinite solution are: (36788 +- 30)J. mol -1 (Alfa) and (36539 +- 52)J.mol -1 (Aldrich). (author)

  10. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  11. WHATIF-AQ, Geochem Speciation and Saturation of Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Ole John; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: WHATIF-AQ is part of a family of programs for calculations of geochemistry in the near-field of radioactive waste with temperature gradients. The program calculates speciation and saturation indices for an aqueous solution at temperatures in the range 0 - 125 degrees C. The chemical equilibrium is determined by solving a set of nonlinear equations consisting of the equilibrium constant and mass balance constraints. 2 - Method of solution: The set of equations is solved using a generalized Newton-Raphson technique

  12. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  13. Recovery of Ionic Liquids from aqueous solution by Nanofiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Dámaso, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The T-SAR methodology was combined with membrane characterization methods. An application of the combined approach was demonstrated with two commercial nanofiltration membranes and it was possible to successfully predict their performance for the recovery of ionic liquids from aqueous solution. Using model solutions of Pyr16 (CF3SO2)2N, it could be evidenced the formation of a new phase of ionic liquid during the concentration process. In this case, 66% of the ionic liquid was separated and t...

  14. [Extraction of lambda-cyhalothrin from aqueous dioxan solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

    2011-01-01

    The results of extraction of lambda-cigalotrin from dioxan aqueous solutions by hydrophobic organic solvents are presented. It is shown that the degree of extraction depends on the nature of the extractant, the water to dioxan ratio, and saturation of the water-dioxan layer with the electrolyte. The highest efficiency of lambda-cigalotrin extraction was achieved using chlorophorm as a solvent under desalination conditions. The extraction factor was calculated necessary to obtain the desired amount of lambda-cigalotrin from the water-dioxan solution (4:1) with the help of the extractants being used.

  15. The blue complexes of U in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikas, C.

    1976-01-01

    Mixed-valence uranium complexes were synthesized. Hydrolysis of hexavalent U leads to anionic species soluble in aqueous solutions when the UO 2 ++ ions are neutralized by tetraalkylammonium hydroxides. These complexes are polynuclear and the size and interatomic distances found for the polyanions are those of macromolecules. By hydrazine of these complexes, solutions were obtained and their absorption spectra studied. The spectra of U(VI) and U(V) ions are observed, together with new bands attributable to a charge transfer. It may be concluded that the blue complexes of uranium are type II composite-valence complexes for which the delocalization coefficient α can be calculated [fr

  16. Some reactions of oxidizing radicals with enzymes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundall, R.B.; Bisby, R.H.; Hoe, S.T.; Sims, H.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A range of oxidizing radicals including some inorganic radical anions and the superoxide radical, can be generated by radiolysis of aqueous solutions. These radicals are more selective in their reactions with amino acids than the hydroxyl radical. Factors controlling the apparent reactivity of radical anions with proteins, such as free radical equilibria and ion-binding, are described. The superoxide radical inactivates papain by reaction with the cysteine residue. This reaction has been studied in solutions subjected to radiations of varying linear energy transfer. (Auth.)

  17. Free radicals generated by radiolysis of aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The free radicals produced in the radiolysis of aqueous solutions span the range of redox potentials from -2.9 to +2.65 volts. The identity and nature of these radicals were discussed. Most of the discussion was results obtained with low LET radiation sources ( 60 Co gamma radiation or electron accelerators). Water radiolysis provides the synthesis of many radicals and radical ions in aqueous solution. The primary radicals, e/sub aq/ - H, OH, are well characterized. The radical population can be made to be 90% pure OH (or O - ) if N 2 O solutions are irradiated, the remaining 10% being H atoms. 55% of the radicals can be converted to H atoms in acid solution or in neutral phosphate solutions(e/sub aq/ - reacts with H 2 PO 4- to produce H). The remaining 45% (OH radicals) are difficult to convert to H by reaction with H 2 , due to the slow rate of the reaction. About 100 atmospheres of H 2 are required to do the conversion in less than 10 - 6 sec. 3 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

  18. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rizzuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re-used for mercury biosorption. The results indicate that all six peat types biosorb mercury from aqueous solutions extremely well (92−100 % removal and that their mercury removal capacities are not significantly affected by manipulation of the various factors tested. The factor that had the greatest impact on the mercury removal capacities of the peats was the pH of the mercury solution. The optimal mercury solution pH for mercury removal was in the range 5−7 for four of the peats and in the range 2−3 for the other two. The desorption results indicate that it may be possible to recover up to 41 % of the removed mercury. All of the peat types tested can be repeatedly re-used for additional mercury biosorption cycles. Hence, their disposal should not become a hazardous waste problem.

  19. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolite types, from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Dušan K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant alkaloid, nicotine, is a strongly toxic heterocyclic compound: the lethal dose for an adult human being (40-60 mg is importantly lower in comparison with the other known poisons such as arsenic or strychni­ne. Cigarettes represent "the most toxic and addictive form of nicotine". Besides the negative effects of nicotine on public health produced by self-administration, recently another potentially very dangerous effect has been recognized: because of its miscibility with water, nicotine can be found in industrial wastewaters, and consequently, in groundwater. Therefore, the problem of nicotine removal from aqueous solutions has became an interesting topic. In this work, the removal of nicotine has been probed by adsorption on solid materials. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolites (clinoptilolite, ZSM-5 and β zeolite and on activated carbon was investigated from aqueous solutions, at 298 K. The obtained results are presented as adsorption isotherms: the amount of adsorbed nicotine as a function of equilibrium concentration. These data were obtained from the residual amount of nicotine in the aqueous phase, by the use of UV spectroscopy. The highest amounts of adsorbed nicotine was found for activated carbon and p zeolite (~ mmol·g-1. The attempt to modify the adsorption properties of ZSM-5 zeolite has been also done: ZSM-5 was modified by ion-exchange with VIII group metal (Cu2+ and Fe3+. In addition, the adsorption of nicotine on ZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios has been done. It has been noticed that ion-exchange did not improve the adsorption possibilities, while the adsorption was importantly lower in the case of higher silicon content in ZMS-5 structure. 13C NMR spectra were collected for suspensions formed of solid adsorbent and aqueous solution of nicotine; in this way, the part of nicotine molecule which is most probably connected with the adsorbent was recognized.

  20. Hydrate phase equilibria of CO2+N2+aqueous solution of THF, TBAB or TBAF system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfaxi, Imen Ben Attouche; Durand, Isabelle; Lugo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We report hydrate dissociation conditions of CO2 (15 and 30mol%)+N2 (85 and 70mol%) in the presence of aqueous solutions of THF, TBAB or TBAF. The concentrations of TBAB and TBAF in the aqueous solutions are 5wt% and 9wt% while THF concentration in aqueous solution is 3mol%. Two different experim...

  1. Pulse radiolysis studies of iron(I) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenadovic, M.T.; Micic, O.I.; Muk, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption spectrum and decay kinetics of the products of the reactions of iron(II) ions with hydrated electrons and hydrogen atoms have been studied in aqueous solution using pulse-radiolysis techniques. Iron(I) is formed by reaction with hydrated electrons and its absorption spectrum is reported and discussed. The formation of molecular hydrogen by reaction of Fe + with water is suppressed by other solutes present in the solutions. In acidic solutions containing [SO 4 ] 2- , the intermediates formed in the reaction with H atoms decay by a first-order process and produce molecular hydrogen, but the rate of their decay does not depend only on the oxonium ion concentration but also on intermolecular rearrangement in the [FeSO 4 -H] complex. (author)

  2. Estimation of nitrate in aqueous discharge streams in presence of other anionic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Amrita; Sonar, N.L.; Valsala, T.P.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the PUREX process the spent fuel is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid for the recovery of U and Pu using 30% TBP solvent system. The added nitrates are reporting in the waste streams of reprocessing plant. In view of the environmental concern for nitrate discharges, it is essential to monitor the nitrate content in the radioactive waste streams. An analytical method based on nitration of salicylic acid in acidic medium was studied for its applicability in the estimation of nitrate in radioactive waste containing various other anions. The yellow colored complex formed absorbs at 410 nm in alkaline media. Interference of various anionic species like sulphide, chloride, ferrocyanide, phosphate etc present in different waste streams on the estimation of nitrate was studied. Nitrate could be estimated in radioactive waste in presence of other anionic species within an error of less than 6%. (author)

  3. Critical Experiments With Aqueous Solutions of 233UO2(NO3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides the critical experimenter's interpretations and descriptions of informal critical experiment logbook notes and associated information (e.g., experimental equipment designs/sketches, chemical and isotopic analyses, etc.) for the purpose of formally documenting the results of critical experiments performed in the late 1960s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility. The experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions of 97.6 wt % 233 U uranyl nitrate having uranium densities varying between about 346 g U/l and 45 g U/l. Criticality was achieved with single simple units (e.g., cylinders and spheres) and with spaced subcritical simple cylindrical units arranged in unreflected, water-reflected, and polyethylene reflected critical arrays

  4. Chemical metallization of KMPR photoresist polymer in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeb, Gul [MiQro Innovation Collaborative Centre (C2MI), 45, boul. de l' Aéroport, Bromont, QC, J2L 1S8 (Canada); Mining & Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610,University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Duong, Xuan Truong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, QC, H3C 3T5 (Canada); Thai Nguyen University of Technology, 3-2 Street, Thai Nguyen City (Viet Nam); Vu, Ngoc Pi; Phan, Quang The; Nguyen, Duc Tuong; Ly, Viet Anh [Thai Nguyen University of Technology, 3-2 Street, Thai Nguyen City (Viet Nam); Salimy, Siamak [ePeer Review LLC, 145 Pine Haven Shores Rd, Suite 1000-X, Shelburne, VT 05482 (United States); Le, Xuan Tuan, E-mail: xuantuan.le@teledyne.com [MiQro Innovation Collaborative Centre (C2MI), 45, boul. de l' Aéroport, Bromont, QC, J2L 1S8 (Canada); Thai Nguyen University of Technology, 3-2 Street, Thai Nguyen City (Viet Nam)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electroless deposition of Ni-B film on KMPR photoresist polymer insulator with excellent adhesion has been achieved. • This metallization has been carried out in aqueous solutions at low temperature. • Polyamine palladium complexes grafts serve as seeds for the electroless plating on KMPR. • This electroless metallization process is simple, industrially feasible, chromium-free and environment-friendly. - Abstract: While conventional methods for preparing thin films of metals and metallic alloys on insulating substrates in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include vapor deposition techniques, we demonstrate here that electroless deposition can be considered as an alternate efficient approach to metallize the surface of insulating substrates, such as KMPR epoxy photoresist polymer. In comparison with the physical and chemical vapor deposition methods, which are well-established for metallization of photoresist polymers, our electroless nickel plating requires only immersing the substrates into aqueous solutions in open air at low temperatures. Thin films of nickel alloy have been deposited electrolessly on KMPR surface, through a cost-effective and environmental chromium-free process, mediated through direct grafting of amine palladium complexes in aqueous medium. This covalent organic coating provides excellent adhesion between KMPR and the nickel film and allows better control of the palladium catalyst content. Covalent grafting and characterization of the deposited nickel film have been carried out by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques.

  5. Opto-electrochemical spectroscopy of metals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, holographic interferometry was utilized for the first time to determine the rate change of the electrical resistance of aluminium samples during the initial stage of anodisation processes in aqueous solution. In fact, because the resistance values in this investigation were obtained by holographic interferometry, electromagnetic method rather than electronic method, the abrupt rate change of the resistance was called electrical resistance–emission spectroscopy. The anodisation process of the aluminium samples was carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in different sulphuric acid concentrations (1.0%–2.5% H 2 SO 4 ) at room temperature. In the meantime, the real time holographic interferometry was used to determine the difference between the electrical resistance of two subsequent values, dR, as a function of the elapsed time of the EIS experiment for the aluminium samples in 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% H 2 SO 4 solutions. The electrical resistance–emission spectra of the present investigation represent a detailed picture of not only the rate change of the electrical resistance throughout the anodisation processes but also the spectra represent the rate change of the growth of the oxide films on the aluminium samples in different solutions. As a result, a new spectrometer was developed based on the combination of the holographic interferometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for studying in situ the electrochemical behavior of metals in aqueous solutions.

  6. Synthesis of sub-millimeter calcite from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi, M. A.; Morrison, J. M.; Burns, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    A novel aqueous synthesis that leads to the formation of calcite (CaCO3) crystals, up to 500μm in diameter, will be used to facilitate the study of contaminant transport in aqueous environmental systems. Existing processes tend to be complicated and often yield nanometer-sized or amorphous CaCO3. The synthesis method presented here, which involves slow mixing of concentrated solutions of CaCl2 ¬and (NH4)2CO3, produces single crystals of rhombohedral calcite in 2 to 4 days. Variations on the experimental method, including changes in pH and solution concentration, were explored to optimize the synthesis. Scanning Electron Microscope images show the differences in size and purity observed when the crystals are grown at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The crystals grown from solutions of pH 2 were large (up to 500 micrometers in diameter) with minimal polycrystalline calcium carbonate, while crystals grown from solutions with pH values beyond 4 were smaller (up to 100 micrometers in diameter) with significant polycrystalline calcium carbonate. The synthesis method, materials characterization, and use in future actinide contaminant studies will be discussed.

  7. Aqueous solution of basic fuchsin as food irradiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Naz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Dosimetric characterization of aqueous solution of basic fuchsin has been studied spectrophotometrically for the possible application in the low-dose food irradiation dosimetry. Absorption spectra of unirradiated and irradiated solutions were determined and decrease in the absorption with the radiation dose was noted down. Radiation-induced bleaching of the dye was measured at wavelengths of maximum absorption λ max (540nm) as well as 510, 460 and 400 nm wavelengths. At all these wavelengths, the decrease in the absorbance of the dosimeter was linear with respect to the absorbed dose from 0.05 to 0.6 kGy. The stability of dosimetric solution during the post-irradiation storage in the dark at room temperature showed that after initial bleaching during first eight days, the response was almost stable for about 34 days. The effect of different light and temperature conditions also showed that the response gradually decreased during the storage period of 34 days, which shows that the basic fuchsin dye is photosensitive as well as thermally sensitive. The possibility of using aqueous solution of basic fuchsin as food irradiation dosimeter will be discussed. (authors)

  8. Influence of particles on sonochemical reactions in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, A; Gilbert, E; Köster, R

    2002-05-01

    Numerous publications deal with the possible application of ultrasound for elimination of organic pollutants as a tool for water pollution abatement. Most of the experiments were performed in pure water under laboratory conditions. For developing technologies that hold promise it is necessary to investigate the effect of ultrasound in natural systems or waste water where particulate matter could play an important role. In this paper the influence of quartz particles (2-25 microm) on the chemical effects of ultrasound in aqueous system using a high power ultrasound generator (68-1028 kHz, 100 W, reactor volume 500 ml) is reported. In pure water in dependence on particle size, concentration and frequency the formation rate of hydrogen peroxide under Ar/O2 (4:1) shows a maximum using 206 kHz in presence of 3-5 microm quartz particles (4-8 g/l). Under these conditions the yield of peroxide is higher than without quartz. Additionally under N2/O2 (4:1) besides hydrogen peroxide the formation of nitrite/nitrate was measured. Compared to pure water quartz particle depressed the formation of nitrite/nitrate up to 10-fold but not the formation of H2O2. According to the results of H2O2 formation the elimination of organic compounds by sonolysis (206 kHz) and the influence of quartz particles were investigated. As organic compounds salicylic acid, 2-chlorobenzoic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid were used. The influence of quartz on the oxidation of organic compounds (206 kHz) is similar to that on the formation of H2O2.

  9. Graph Theory and Ion and Molecular Aggregation in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Hochan; Choi, Hyung Ran; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-04-01

    In molecular and cellular biology, dissolved ions and molecules have decisive effects on chemical and biological reactions, conformational stabilities, and functions of small to large biomolecules. Despite major efforts, the current state of understanding of the effects of specific ions, osmolytes, and bioprotecting sugars on the structure and dynamics of water H-bonding networks and proteins is not yet satisfactory. Recently, to gain deeper insight into this subject, we studied various aggregation processes of ions and molecules in high-concentration salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation methods. It turns out that ions (or solute molecules) have a strong propensity to self-assemble into large and polydisperse aggregates that affect both local and long-range water H-bonding structures. In particular, we have shown that graph-theoretical approaches can be used to elucidate morphological characteristics of large aggregates in various aqueous salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions. When ion and molecular aggregates in such aqueous solutions are treated as graphs, a variety of graph-theoretical properties, such as graph spectrum, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, minimum path length, and graph entropy, can be directly calculated by considering an ensemble of configurations taken from molecular dynamics trajectories. Here we show percolating behavior exhibited by ion and molecular aggregates upon increase in solute concentration in high solute concentrations and discuss compelling evidence of the isomorphic relation between percolation transitions of ion and molecular aggregates and water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the combination of graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation methods will be of exceptional use in achieving a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical chemistry of dissolution and in describing the interplay between the self-aggregation of solute

  10. Graph Theory and Ion and Molecular Aggregation in Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Hochan; Choi, Hyung Ran; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-04-20

    In molecular and cellular biology, dissolved ions and molecules have decisive effects on chemical and biological reactions, conformational stabilities, and functions of small to large biomolecules. Despite major efforts, the current state of understanding of the effects of specific ions, osmolytes, and bioprotecting sugars on the structure and dynamics of water H-bonding networks and proteins is not yet satisfactory. Recently, to gain deeper insight into this subject, we studied various aggregation processes of ions and molecules in high-concentration salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions with time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation methods. It turns out that ions (or solute molecules) have a strong propensity to self-assemble into large and polydisperse aggregates that affect both local and long-range water H-bonding structures. In particular, we have shown that graph-theoretical approaches can be used to elucidate morphological characteristics of large aggregates in various aqueous salt, osmolyte, and sugar solutions. When ion and molecular aggregates in such aqueous solutions are treated as graphs, a variety of graph-theoretical properties, such as graph spectrum, degree distribution, clustering coefficient, minimum path length, and graph entropy, can be directly calculated by considering an ensemble of configurations taken from molecular dynamics trajectories. Here we show percolating behavior exhibited by ion and molecular aggregates upon increase in solute concentration in high solute concentrations and discuss compelling evidence of the isomorphic relation between percolation transitions of ion and molecular aggregates and water H-bonding networks. We anticipate that the combination of graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation methods will be of exceptional use in achieving a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical chemistry of dissolution and in describing the interplay between the self-aggregation of solute

  11. Radiation dechlorination of PCE in aqueous solutions under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.; Lizalova, B.; Pospisil, M.; Silber, R.; Polakova, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation technology of water purification from chlorinated compounds seems to be one of the promising method (Getoff, 1996), analogously as it was shown (Mueka et al., 2000) with radiation degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A systematic study of dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in aqueous solutions (initial concentrations ranging from 9.2 x 10 -6 to 2.5 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 ), initiated by γ-rays of 60 Co or by accelerated electrons (EB, 4.5 MeV) in presence of various modifiers (atmospheric oxygen, N 2 O-oxide, HCO 3 - - and NO 3 - - ions as well as various pH-values), was the aim of this paper. The studies showed that both actual concentration c of PCE and radiation yield G(Cl - ) decreased rapidly with increasing dose up to the dose of 2 kGy and the degree of dechlorination raised sharply in this dose-interval. The dechlorination was slightly promoted by atmospheric oxygen. Similarly, a promotion effect was detected in the case of the PCE-solutions saturated, prior to their irradiation, with the N 2 O-oxide. On the other hand, a presence of NO 3 - - or HCO 3 - -ions in irradiated samples led to an inhibiting effect. The inhibiting effect increased markedly with increasing concentration of both at above-mentioned ions up to the concentration of about 100 mg dm -3 . A pronounced inhibition of γ-radiation dechlorination of PCE was observed in alkaline aqueous solutions. The results obtained in this paper support the idea that the radiation dechlorination of PCE in aqueous solutions proceeds via an oxidative mechanism in which the γ-irradiation was found to be more effective than the EB-irradiation

  12. Physical chemistry of the interface between oxide and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior and properties of small oxide particles in aqueous suspension are dominated by the physico-chemistry of their surface. It is electrostatically charged and strongly solvated. The origin of the surface charge is discussed through the MUSIC model [Hiemstra 1996], allowing to estimate the acid-base behavior of surface oxygen atoms. The stability of aqueous dispersions of particles is analysed following the DLVO model, with a special attention on the hydration layers allowing the peptization of flocs. Different adsorption mechanisms of metal cations are presented in terms of coordination chemistry (outer- and inner-sphere complexes) emphasizing the coordinating ability of the surface towards metal complexes in solution. The anion adsorption is also studied in relation with some interesting consequences on spinel iron oxide nano-particles. (author)

  13. Actinide removal from aqueous solution with activated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochen, R.L.; Thomas, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    An actinide aqueous waste treatment process using activated magnetite has been developed at Rocky Flats. The use and effectiveness of various magnetites in lowering actinide concentrations in aqueous solution are described. Experiments indicate that magnetite particle size and pretreatment (activation of the magnetite surface with hydroxyl ions greatly influence the effective use of magnetite as an actinide adsorbent. With respect to actinide removal, Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was more effective over a broader pH range than was NaOH-activated magnetite. About 50% less Ba(OH) 2 -activated magnetite was required to lower plutonium concentration from 10 -4 to 10 -8 g/l. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Valada, Teresa I.C.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N.; Azevedo, Eduarda E.F.G.; Azevedo, Maria L.G.; Ribeiro, Ana C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm −3 . The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

  15. Synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7-y from nitrate solutions with urea additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, V.I.; Naumov, V.S.; Mozhaev, A.P.; Lyashchenko, A.K.; Pobedina, A.B.; Khajlova, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    Solubility of bariun nitrate is studied in the Y(NO 3 ) 3 -Ba(NO 3 ) 2 -Cu(NO 3 )-CO(NH 2 ) 2 -H 2 O system at the ratio Y:B:Cu-1:2:3 and variable concentration of urea in the solution. Mentioned aqua-salt compositions are used in cryochemical synthesis of HTSC. Solutions of yttrium, barium and copper nitrates with urea additions were demonstrated to be recommended to improvements in the process during development of alternative synthesis from aqua-salt compositions. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. First start-up of nuclear criticality safety experiment facility for uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Shen Leisheng; Hu Dingsheng; Zhao Shouzhi; He Tao; Sun Zheng; Lin Shenghuo; Yao Shigui

    2005-01-01

    The uranyl nitrate solution experiment facility for the research on nuclear criticality safety is described. The nuclear fuel loading steps in the first start-up for water-reflected core are presented. During the experiments, the critical volume of uranyl nitrate solution was determined as 20479.62 mL with count rate inverse extrapolation method, reactivity interpolation method, and steady power method. By calculation, critical mass of 235 U was derived as 1579.184 g from experimental data. The worth of control rods was also calibrated in the first start-up of the facility. (authors)

  17. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with ∼3 wt% NO 3 - solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200 degrees C to 350 degrees C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia ∼ methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics

  18. Adsorption and colloidal behaviour of carrier-free 7Be in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Jiranek, V.

    1974-01-01

    The state of carrier-free 7 Be in aqueous nitrate solutions was studied by electrophoresis, centrifugation and dialysis. In solutions of pH 2+ cation. At pH > 4 hydrolysis of beryllium proceeds which results in the formation of BeOH + ions and Be(OH) 2 molecules. The larger part of these molecules is adsorbed on the surface of colloidal impurities present in the solution. The pseudocolloids thus formed are positively charged up to pH 11. In alkaline solutions (pH > 11), negatively charged pseudocolloids and anionic hydroxocomplexes of beryllium exist. Adsorption and desorption of carrier-free beryllium was studied on glass, plexiglass and polyethylene as a function of pH, age and ionic strength (NaNO 3 ) of the solution. It has been found that the adsorption begins at pH 3-5, passes through a maximum at pH 8-11 and decreases to a very low value at pH 14. Probable mechanismus of the adsorption were discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Peter; Neilson, Jr., Robert M.; Becker, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99.degree. C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump.

  20. Determination of Ga in aqueous uranium solution by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, V.; Purohit, P.J.; Goyal, Neelam; Seshagiri, T.K.; Godbole, S.V.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A method has been developed using EDXRF technique for the determination of gallium in aqueous solution using a set of solution standards in the concentration range 20-5000 μg/ml. When this method was applied to U containing solutions, the estimated values were found to be lower due to matrix effects. Hence the method was modified in order to determine gallium in the presence of uranium using lower tube current and another set of standards with U concentration at 100 mg/ml. The method was applicable for the estimation of Ga from 50 μg/ml to 5mg/ml (i.e.0.05-5% Ga in U). Three synthetic samples were analysed by the present methods in order to evaluate the method for its reliability and reproducibility. (author)

  1. Rapid structural analysis of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Tsutsui, Makusu; He, Yuhui; Yokota, Kazumichi; Arima, Akihide; Morikawa, Takanori; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2017-04-01

    Rapid structural analysis of nanoscale matter in a liquid environment represents innovative technologies that reveal the identities and functions of biologically important molecules. However, there is currently no method with high spatio-temporal resolution that can scan individual particles in solutions to gain structural information. Here we report the development of a nanopore platform realizing quantitative structural analysis for suspended nanomaterials in solutions with a high z-axis and xy-plane spatial resolution of 35.8 ± 1.1 and 12 nm, respectively. We used a low thickness-to-diameter aspect ratio pore architecture for achieving cross sectional areas of analyte (i.e. tomograms). Combining this with multiphysics simulation methods to translate ionic current data into tomograms, we demonstrated rapid structural analysis of single polystyrene (Pst) beads and single dumbbell-like Pst beads in aqueous solutions.

  2. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Becker, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99 0 C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump

  3. Preparation of fluorescent polyaniline nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Kleber G. B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (Brazil); Melo, Etelino F. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Quimica Fundamental (Brazil); Andrade, Cesar A. S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Bioquimica (Brazil); Melo, Celso P. de, E-mail: celso@df.ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    We report the synthesis of stable polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI{sub N}Ps) based on the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in aqueous solutions of surfactants. Surfactants of three different types-cationic (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide-DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS), and non-ionic (Triton X-405-TX-405)-were used. The resulting PANI{sub N}Ps{sub s}urfactant samples were characterized through UV-Vis, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). We have verified that the color of the PANI{sub N}Ps{sub s}urfactant dispersions is affected by a change in the pH of the solution. The PANI-NPs{sub s}urfactant colloidal suspensions in aqueous solution present a surprising high fluorescence quantum yield value (ranging from 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}) that can be controlled as a function of the pH, a fact that we associate to the corresponding protonation degree of the PANI polymeric chains. We suggest that these fluorescent nanocomposites can find important technological applications in different areas such as organic light emitting devices, biosensors, and pigments for coatings.

  4. Preferential adsorption of uranium ions in aqueous solutions by polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Masako; Ichimura, Kunihiro; Fujishige, Shoei; Kato, Masao

    1981-01-01

    Amidoxime fiber and triazine fiber were prepared by chemical modification of commercially available polyacrylonitril fiber. It was found that the Amidoxime fiber is efficient to adsorb uranium ions in the artificial sea water. The efficiency of the preferential adsorption decreases by treatment the material with an acid-or an alkaline-solution. The triazine fiber adsorbs uranium ions only in aqueous solutions of such uranyl acetate, in the absence of other ions. In the artificial sea water, it adsorbs other ions instead of uranium. The preferential adsorption of uranium ions was further investigated with a series of polystyrenesulfonamides. Among the polystyrene derivatives, those having carboxyl groups, derived from imino diacetic acid (PSt-Imi), β-alanine (PSt-Ala), glycine (PSt-Gly), and sarcosine (PSt-Sar) were qualified for further discussion. However, it was found that the amount of adsorption of uranium ions by PSt-Imi decreases with increasing the volume of the artificial sea water and/or the duration of the treatment. Taking into account the facts, the preferential adsorption of uranium ions by PSt-Imi in aqueous solution was discussed in detail. (author)

  5. The radiolytic reduction of mercuric chloride in aqueous sugar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of HgCl 2 has been measured in Co-60 γ-irradiated aqueous glucose, fructose and sucrose solutions. G-values for reduction, G(R), are substantially greater than 6 molecules per 100 eV in all systems from 1% by weight sugar to greater than 50%. Chain reduction occurs in glucose and fructose solutions with maximum G(R) values of 18-20 molecules per 100 eV occurring at 24% (1.0 M) sugar. The results are consistent with a mechanism in which HgCl radicals react with the organic solute to produce chain propagating free radicals. A dose rate independence of the chain length, after a brief ''induction'' period, is explained in terms of a chain termination by the incorporation of HgCl in growing Hg 2 Cl 2 particles. Reduction of Ag(I) and Cu(II) in aqueous sucrose and fructose systems took place with G(R) < 6 indicating the absence of reaction chains in these cases. (author)

  6. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi A. O. Meriluoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103 and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583, to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.

  7. Preparation of fluorescent polyaniline nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Kleber G. B.; Melo, Etelino F. de; Andrade, César A. S.; Melo, Celso P. de

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of stable polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI N Ps) based on the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in aqueous solutions of surfactants. Surfactants of three different types—cationic (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide—DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate—SDS), and non-ionic (Triton X-405–TX-405)—were used. The resulting PANI N Ps s urfactant samples were characterized through UV–Vis, fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). We have verified that the color of the PANI N Ps s urfactant dispersions is affected by a change in the pH of the solution. The PANI-NPs s urfactant colloidal suspensions in aqueous solution present a surprising high fluorescence quantum yield value (ranging from 1.9 × 10 −3 to 6.9 × 10 −3 ) that can be controlled as a function of the pH, a fact that we associate to the corresponding protonation degree of the PANI polymeric chains. We suggest that these fluorescent nanocomposites can find important technological applications in different areas such as organic light emitting devices, biosensors, and pigments for coatings.

  8. NMR studies of proton exchange kinetics in aqueous formaldehyde solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Michal; Eliav, Uzi; Navon, Gil

    2014-05-01

    Aqueous solutions of formaldehyde, formalin, are commonly used for tissue fixation and preservation. Treatment with formalin is known to shorten the tissue transverse relaxation time T2. Part of this shortening is due to the effect of formalin on the water T2. In the present work we show that the shortening of water T2 is a result of proton exchange between water and the major constituent of aqueous solutions of formaldehyde, methylene glycol. We report the observation of the signal of the hydroxyl protons of methylene glycol at 2ppm to high frequency of the water signal that can be seen at low temperatures and at pH range of 6.0±1.5 and, at conditions where it cannot be observed by the single pulse experiment, it can be detected indirectly through the water signal by the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiment. The above finding made it possible to obtain the exchange rate between the hydroxyl protons of the methylene glycol and water in aqueous formaldehyde solutions, either using the dispersion of the spin-lattice relaxation rate in the rotating frame (1/T1ρ) or, at the slow exchange regime, from the line width hydroxyl protons of methylene glycol. The exchange rate was ∼10(4)s(-1) at pH 7.4 and 37°C, the activation energy, 50.2kJ/mol and its pH dependence at 1.1°C was fitted to: k (s(-1))=520+6.5×10(7)[H(+)]+3.0×10(9)[OH(-)]. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing organics by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Gamare, Jayashree S.; Vaidya, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of nitrate from ammonium hydroxide solution containing HMTA (hexamethyltetramine) and Urea was studied using indigenously available anion exchange resins. This type of waste is produced during nuclear fuel preparation by internal gelation process. The resins used are Tulsion A-27(MP) and Duolite A. 102D. The time of equilibration and capacity of the resins were determined from distribution ratios obtained by equilibrating resin with nitrate solution. The loading, washing and elution behavior of nitrate on these resins were studied using synthetic mixture having similar composition of the waste produced. Elution studies were carried out using sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride. The studies were also carried out at higher temperature of around 60 degC. The data was compared with that obtained using Dowex 1x4 for the same purpose. (author)

  10. Potentiometric determination of free nitric-acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Saey, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    A potentiometric method of determination of the free nitric acid in trilaurylamine solutions containing plutonium or thorium nitrates is described. The potentiometric titration is carried out in a mixture of benzene and 1,2-dichloro ethane with a standard solution of trilaurylamine as the titrant. When thorium nitrate is present the metal complex is not dissociated then the titration has a single end-point. In the case of plutonium nitrate the partial dissociation of the plutonium complex corresponds to a second point. The experimental error in duplicate analyses of 50 samples is about 1 per cent for free acid concentrations in the range of 0,03 to 0,1 N and plutonium concentrations between 1 to 5 g/l. (authors) [fr

  11. Sonochemical Degradation Kinetics of Methyl Violet in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sonochemical degradation in aqueous solution of methyl violet, chosen as a model of a basic dye, was studied. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficient is 1.35×10-2 min-1 (R= 0.9934, n=8 at 20±1°C. The influence of the initial concentrations, reaction temperature and the pH of medium on the ultrasonic decomposition of methyl violet were also investigated.

  12. Thermal decomposition studies of aqueous and nitric solutions of hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar Kumar; Pranay Kumar Sinha; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyurea and its derivatives are important nonsalt forming reductants in partitioning of uranium and plutonium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. There is no experimental data available in open literature describing pressurization due to the thermal decomposition of aqueous and nitric solutions of hydroxyurea at elevated temperatures. Authors studied thermal decomposition of hydroxyurea-nitric acid system and resultant pressurization at various concentrations of nitric acid in an adiabatic calorimeter in closed-vent conditions. During these experiments, pressurization was observed. In this paper, results of these experiments have been discussed. (author)

  13. Volumetric and calorimetric properties of aqueous ionene solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšič, Miha; Hribar-Lee, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric (partial and apparent molar volumes) and calorimetric properties (apparent heat capacities) of aqueous cationic polyelectrolyte solutions - ionenes - were studied using the oscillating tube densitometer and differential scanning calorimeter. The polyion's charge density and the counterion properties were considered as variables. The special attention was put to evaluate the contribution of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects to the properties studied. The contribution of the CH 2 group of the polyion's backbone to molar volumes and heat capacities was estimated. Synergistic effect between polyion and counterions was found.

  14. Micellar effects on positronium lifetime in aqueous SDS solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vass, Sz.; Kajcsos, Zs.; Molnar, B.; Stergiopoulos, Ch.

    1981-09-01

    Positron lifetime measurements have been performed in aqueous SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate) solutions. The lifetime distributions measured by fast-slow coincidence technique have been found to be influenced by surfactant concentration, which varied in the range of 1.25x10 -3 - 3.2x10 -1 mol/dm 3 (i.e. 2.27x10 -5 - 5.82x10 -3 mole fractions). The lifetime of the long living component connected to positronium formation and decay increases with increasing surfactant concentration. Lifetime data suggest that a direct positronium-micelle electron-exchange reaction leading to pick-off annihilation is contraindicated. (author)

  15. The characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-11-01

    This literature review deals with characterization methods for colloids in aqueous solutions and in groundwater. The basis for the review has been the needs of nuclear waste disposal studies and methods applicable in such studies. The methods considered include non-destructive laserspectroscopic methods (e.g. TRLFS, LPAS, PALS), several separation methods (e.g. ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, field-flow-fractionation) and also some surface analytical methods, as well as some other methods giving additional information on formation and migration properties of colloids. (au.) (71 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.)

  16. Effect of γ-radiation on hypophosphite in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Mahajan, C.T.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure to γ-radiation of aqueous solutions of hypophosphite ions at neutral pH showed the formation of phosphite and phosphate ions. The G[P(III)] value (=4.1) was independent of P(I) concentration over the range 0.25-100 mM. Beyond a critical dose which was concentration dependent, the G[P(V)] value increased sharply from 0.1 to 3.5. A mechanism is envisaged to explain the P(I)→P(III)→P(V) transformations. (author)

  17. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  18. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-05-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  19. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D' Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo, E-mail: nikolap@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-27

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  20. Fluorescence of aqueous solutions of commercial humic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosteva, O. Yu.; Izosimov, A. A.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Yuzhakov, V. I.; Yakimenko, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the spectral luminescence characteristics of aqueous solutions of humic products obtained from different raw material sources, and their behavior as the excitation wavelength increases from 270 nm to 355 nm. We have identified differences in the spectral properties of industrial humic products from coalified materials, lignin-containing organic waste, and humic products from plant raw material (peat, sapropel, vermicompost). We have shown that humic products from plant raw material have spectral properties closer to those for humic substances in natural water or soil than humic products from coalified materials.

  1. Radiolysis of human gastric glycopolypeptides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrani, S.; Bisby, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The degradation of human gastric glycopolypeptides by hydroxyl radicals formed in irradiated N 2 0-saturated aqueous solution has been investigated. Gel exclusion chromatography shows the formation of lower molecular weight degradation products after irradiation and the appearance of unsaturated carbonyl-containing products which absorb in the ultra-violet. The radiation-induced destruction of individual monosaccharides in three human glycopolypeptides having different oligosaccharide chains has been measured. The results indicate that the structure of the oligosaccharide chain determines the extent of destruction of each type of monosaccharide present. (author)

  2. Volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of glutaric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Hamo, Meyrav [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Densities of aqueous solutions with molalities up to 6 mol . kg{sup -1} were determined at 5 K temperature intervals, from T = 288.15 K to T = 333.15 K. Densities served to evaluate the apparent molar volumes, V {sub 2,{phi}}(m, T), the cubic expansion coefficients, {alpha}(m, T), and the changes of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure, ({partial_derivative}C {sub P}/{partial_derivative}P) {sub T,m}. They were qualitatively correlated with the changes in the structure of water when glutaric acid is dissolved in it.

  3. Volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of glutaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamo, Meyrav; Apelblat, Alexander; Manzurola, Emanuel

    2007-01-01

    Densities of aqueous solutions with molalities up to 6 mol . kg -1 were determined at 5 K temperature intervals, from T = 288.15 K to T = 333.15 K. Densities served to evaluate the apparent molar volumes, V 2,φ (m, T), the cubic expansion coefficients, α(m, T), and the changes of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure, (∂C P /∂P) T,m . They were qualitatively correlated with the changes in the structure of water when glutaric acid is dissolved in it

  4. Radiolysis of phenol in aqueous solution at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Toyoaki; Katsumura, Yosuke; Lin Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Kudo, Hisaaki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Asano, Masaharu; Yoshida, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    γ-Radiolysis and pulse radiolysis of phenol in aqueous solution up to supercritical condition have been carried out. G-values of phenol consumption and product formation have been determined. While dihydroxybenzenes were major products at room temperature, multi-ring compounds and benzene were formed above 300 deg. C. This indicates reaction mechanism was changed above 300 deg. C, where phenoxyl radical plays a predominant role. This is supported by the observation of phenoxyl radical in pulse radiolysis. In supercritical water, the G-values increased with decrease of density

  5. Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Toptygina, G.M.; Soklakova, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions was studied, using methods of potentiometry, isothermal solubility and physicochemical computer simulating. The Gibb's energy value for crystal indium trihydroxide formation was calculated on the basis of experimental data on In(OH) 3 solubility. The value obtained was used for estimating equilibrium composition of InCl 3 -HCl-CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system at a temperature of 25 deg C and carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.05 to 1 at

  6. Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphate Sorption to and Solute Leaching from Biochars Prepared from Corn Stover ( L.) and Oak Wood ( spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, C Colin; Bisogni, James J; Lehmann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Biochar (BC) was evaluated for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal from aqueous solution to quantify its nutrient pollution mitigation potential in agroecosystems. Sorption isotherms were prepared for solutions of ammonium (NH), nitrate (NO), and phosphate (PO-P) using BC of corn ( L.) and oak ( spp.) feedstock, each pyrolyzed at 350 and 550°C highest treatment temperature (HTT). Sorption experiments were performed on original BC as well as on BC that went through a water extraction pretreatment (denoted WX-BC). Ammonium sorption was observed for WX-Oak-BC and WX-Corn-BC, and Freundlich model linearization showed that a 200°C increase in HTT resulted in a 55% decrease in * values for WX-Oak-BC and a 69% decrease in * for WX-Corn-BC. Nitrate sorption was not observed for any BC. Removing metals by water extraction from WX-Oak-350 and WX-Oak-550 resulted in a 25 to 100% decrease in phosphate removal efficiency relative to original Oak-350 and Oak-550, respectively. No PO-P sorption was observed using any Corn-BC. Calcium (Ca) leached from BC produced at 550°C was 63 and 104% higher than from BC produced at 350°C for corn and oak, respectively. Leaching of P was two orders of magnitude lower in WX-Oak-BC than in WX-Corn-BC, concurrent with similar difference in magnesium (Mg). Nitrate and NH leaching from consecutive water extractions of all tested BCs was mostly below detection limits. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Simulating Osmotic Equilibria: A New Tool for Calculating Activity Coefficients in Concentrated Aqueous Salt Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Michael; Duvail, Magali; Guilbaud, Philippe; Dufrêche, Jean-François

    2017-10-19

    Herein, a new theoretical method is presented for predicting osmotic equilibria and activities, where a bulk liquid and its corresponding vapor phase are simulated by means of molecular dynamics using explicit polarization. Calculated time-averaged number density profiles provide the amount of evaporated molecules present in the vapor phase and consequently the vapor-phase density. The activity of the solvent and the corresponding osmotic coefficient are determined by the vapor density at different solute concentrations with respect to the reference vapor density of the pure solvent. With the extended Debye-Hückel equation for the activity coefficient along with the corresponding Gibbs-Duhem relation, the activity coefficients of the solutes are calculated by fitting the osmotic coefficients. A simple model based on the combination of Poisson processes and Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distributions is introduced to interpret statistical phenomena observed during the simulations, which are related to evaporation and recondensation. This method is applied to aqueous dysprosium nitrate [Dy(NO 3 ) 3 ] solutions at different concentrations. The obtained densities of the liquid bulk and the osmotic and activity coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental results for concentrated and saturated solutions. Density profiles of the liquid-vapor interface at different concentrations provide detailed insight into the spatial distributions of all compounds.

  8. Modeling of critical experiments employing Raschig rings in uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Four critical experiments employing borated glass rings in concentrated uranyl nitrate solution yielded k eff higher by 0. 04 when modeled with a flux-weighted, homogenized cross section set than when modeled with discrete rings. k eff varied by 0.014 for a 10% boron uncertainty and by up to 0.04 for a 10% packing fraction uncertainty

  9. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution... intended to be filtered through a silver-containing water filter. (g) Bottled water must meet the quality...

  10. Nuclear fuel technology - Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the mass fraction of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality containing more than 100 g/kg of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method

  11. Electronic spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid and in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid have been described. There is a characteristic change in the absorption spectra of Pu v in lithium nitrate solutions. In 2 M-lithium nitrate a new peak at 969 nm and high absorption at 1200 nm are noticed. A decrease in the absorption by about 20% and the appearance of a new shoulder at 1120 nm in 6 M-lithium nitrate are found. There is no change in the spectrum in 4 M-lithium nitrate. The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in the spectral range 200 - 400 nm are interesting. All plutonium ions have an intense band in the region 250 - 260 nm as well as a less intense and rather diffuse band at 320 - 330 nm in lithium nitrate solutions the sharp band at 250 - 260 nm has disappeared. This suggests that this band is very sensitive to the environmental field. The band is probably produced by 5 F q → 5 f q-1 6 d transition as well as electron transfer. It is believed that the spectrum of Pu V at pH 6.5 represents the hydrolysis product Pu O 2 (O H). 9 fig., 4 tab

  12. γ-radiolysis of aqueous and aqueous-ethanol solutions of cobalt(3) cyanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsaev, V.G.; Potapov, I.A.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Sakharovskij, Yu.A.; Bulgakova, G.P.; Zagorets, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The method of stationary γ-radiolysis has been used to investigate Na 3 [Co 3 (CN) 6 ] and K 2 [Co 3 (CN) 5 H 2 O] reduction in aqueous solutions in the presence of NaCN, KCN, KCl and C 2 H 5 OH additions. [Co 2 (CN) 5 ] 3- ion is shown to be the product of reduction. Radiation-chemical yield increases in the presence of alkali metal cyanides and large quantities (10-20 vol.%) of C 2 H 5 OH. Energy consumption for radiation-chemical reduction of Co 3 cyanide complexes is 50 times lower than for photochemical one

  13. Neutron studies of paramagnetic fullerenols’ assembly in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. T.; Szhogina, A. A.; Suyasova, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Recent results on structural studies of aqueous solutions of water-soluble derivatives of endofullerenes encapsulating 4f- and 3d-elements have been presented. Neutron small angle scattering experiments allowed recognize subtle features of fullerenols assembly as dependent on chemical nature (atomic number) of interior atom, pH-factor and temperature of solutions. It was observed a fractal-type fullerenols’ ordering at the scale of correlation radii ∼ 10-20 nm when molecules with iron atoms are integrated into branched structures at low concentrations (C ≤ 1 % wt.) and organized into globular aggregates at higher amounts (C > 1 % wt.). On the other hand, for Lanthanides captured in carbon cages the supramolecular structures are mostly globular and have larger gyration radii ∼ 30 nm. They demonstrated a good stability in acidic (pH ∼ 3) and neutral (pH ∼ 7) media that is important for forthcoming medical applications.

  14. Radiation chemistry of amino acids and peptides in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation chemistry relevant to radiation preservation of high protein foods is reviewed. Some conclusions concerning the chemistry of irradiated amino acids, peptides, and proteins have been derived from product analysis of γ-irradiated solutions while the main mechanistic considerations result from the chemistry and kinetics of free radical intermediates observed by pulse radiolysis. The precursors of chemistry in not too concentrated solutions ( - , OH, and H. Their reactivity with molecules and their preference for characteristic groups within the molecule are discussed. The reviewed reactions of the model systems are accountable for a variety of radiolytic products found in irradiated foods. From detailed understanding of radiation chemistry in aqueous and frozen systems formation of many classes of compounds can be predicted or entirely eliminated in order to corroborate and extend the conclusions reached from the animal feeding experiments concerning the formation of toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds and/or reduction of the nutritional value of foods

  15. Molecular-dynamics simulations of urea nucleation from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perego, Claudio; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-06

    Despite its ubiquitous character and relevance in many branches of science and engineering, nucleation from solution remains elusive. In this framework, molecular simulations represent a powerful tool to provide insight into nucleation at the molecular scale. In this work, we combine theory and molecular simulations to describe urea nucleation from aqueous solution. Taking advantage of well-tempered metadynamics, we compute the free-energy change associated to the phase transition. We find that such a free-energy profile is characterized by significant finite-size effects that can, however, be accounted for. The description of the nucleation process emerging from our analysis differs from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation of crystal-like clusters is in fact preceded by large concentration fluctuations, indicating a predominant two-step process, whereby embryonic crystal nuclei emerge from dense, disordered urea clusters. Furthermore, in the early stages of nucleation, two different polymorphs are seen to compete.

  16. Molecular-dynamics simulations of urea nucleation from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perego, Claudio; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Despite its ubiquitous character and relevance in many branches of science and engineering, nucleation from solution remains elusive. In this framework, molecular simulations represent a powerful tool to provide insight into nucleation at the molecular scale. In this work, we combine theory and molecular simulations to describe urea nucleation from aqueous solution. Taking advantage of well-tempered metadynamics, we compute the free-energy change associated to the phase transition. We find that such a free-energy profile is characterized by significant finite-size effects that can, however, be accounted for. The description of the nucleation process emerging from our analysis differs from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation of crystal-like clusters is in fact preceded by large concentration fluctuations, indicating a predominant two-step process, whereby embryonic crystal nuclei emerge from dense, disordered urea clusters. Furthermore, in the early stages of nucleation, two different polymorphs are seen to compete. PMID:25492932

  17. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of simple RCN compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, I.G.; Draganic, Z.D.; Markovic, V.M.

    1976-01-01

    Fast kinetic spectrophotometry was used to study the absorption spectra of short-living intermediates produced by reactions of RCN molecules with H, esub(aq) - and OH. The spectra were obtained on the microsecond time scale after an electron pulse from a Febetron 707 accelerator in aqueous solutions of the following compounds: hydrocyanic acid, acetonitrile, propionitrile, malononitrile and succinonitrile. It has been found that all intermediates absorb in the U.V. range (lamba 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . In the presence of an efficient scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, the same transient spectra were registered in acid and neutral solutions suggesting that the protonations of esub(aq) - adducts of these RCN molecules were complete within a submicrosecond time interval. (author)

  19. Ionizing radiation induced degradation of salicylic acid in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrán, Guadalupe; Mendoza, Edith

    2018-06-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of salicylic acid (SA-) in aqueous solutions (1.0 and 0.1 mmol dm-3) saturated with N2O or air or without oxygen were studied. Irradiation was carried out using a cobalt-60 source. With a 1 mmol dm-3 solution saturated with N2O a seemingly total degradation occurred at about 18 kGy, although small quantities of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechol and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were present at that dose at concentrations of 67, 22 and 6 μmol dm-3 respectively. Under air and when free oxygen, the three radiolytic products were present at 18.54 kGy while SA- was destroyed only to 90% and 62%, respectively. In the case of 0.1 mmol dm-3 SA- solutions, the acid was degraded at 3.5 kGy if the solution contained N2O, at 5.8 kGy in air and at 7 kGy without oxygen. The concentration of the radiolytic products increased with increasing dose and after a maximum they decreased. The oxidation was followed by measuring the chemical oxygen demand; the slopes were 0.48 and 0.11, 0.21 and 0.07, 0.15 and 0.03 mmol dm-3 kGy-1 for 1.0 and 0.10 mmol dm-3 solutions saturated with N2O or air or without oxygen, respectively.

  20. Radiation crosslinking of methylcellulose and hydroxyethylcellulose in concentrated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, Radoslaw A.; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of cellulose ethers, methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) were investigated. The well-established knowledge states that cellulose and its derivatives belong to degrading type of polymers. However, in our study intermolecular crosslinking initiated by gamma rays or electron beam leaded to the formation of insoluble gel. This is an opposite effect of irradiation to the degradation. Paste-like form of the initial specimen, i.e. concentration 20-30%, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer; and a high dose rate were favorable for hydrogel formation. Gel fraction up to 60% and 70% was obtained from solutions of HEC and MC, respectively. Produced hydrogels swell markedly in aqueous media by imbibing and holding the solvent. Radiation parameters of irradiation, such as yields of degradation and crosslinking and the gelation dose, were evaluated by sol-gel analysis on the basis of Charlesby-Rosiak equation. Despite of the crosslinked structure, obtained hydrogels can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. They undergo decomposition by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost

  1. Solar photo-Fenton mineralization of antipyrine in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; Carrasco, A

    2013-11-30

    The mineralization of an aqueous solution of antipyrine (C11H12N2O), an emerging contaminant, using a solar photocatalytic oxidation process assisted with ferrioxalate was evaluated in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) pilot plant. Under the selected operating conditions ([H2O2] = 250 ppm, [Fe] = 14 ppm, pH = 2.7, and [(COOH)2·2H2O] = 80 ppm), 60% of TOC is removed just 5 min after treating an aqueous solution containing 50 ppm of antipyrine. The addition of oxalic acid up to a maximum concentration of 80 ppm significantly increases the mineralization rate during the first 15 min of the reaction. The synergism between the solar and dark H2O2/ferrioxalate process was quantified at 79%, calculated from the pseudo first-order mineralization rate constants. The operational costs due to the consumption of electrical energy, reagents and catalysts were calculated from the optimal conditions and compared with a novel sono-photocatalytic process using artificial UV-light. The results showed that the ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton process was economically feasible, being able to achieve up to 60% mineralization with a total cost of 4.5 cent €/g TOC removed (1.1 €/m(3)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Complex formation in aqueous trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Buchner, Richard; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

    2012-04-26

    We study aqueous solutions of the amphiphilic osmolyte trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy. Both experiments provide strong evidence for distinctively slower rotation dynamics for water molecules interacting with the hydrophobic part of the TMAO molecules. Further, water is found to interact more strongly at the hydrophilic site of the TMAO molecules: we find evidence for the formation of stable, TMAO·2H2O and/or TMAO·3H2O complexes. While this coordination structure seems obvious, the lifetime of these complexes is found to be extraordinarily long (>50 ps). The existence of these long-lived complexes leads to pronounced parallel dipole correlations between water and TMAO, reflected in enhanced amplitudes in the dielectric spectra. The strong interaction between water and TMAO also results in a red-shifted band for the O-D stretching vibration of HDO molecules in an isotopically diluted aqueous TMAO solution. This O-D stretching vibration has a vibrational lifetime of 670 fs, which is significantly shorter than the lifetime of the O-D stretch vibration of bulk-like HDO molecules, presumably due to efficient coupling to vibrational modes of TMAO. The rotational dynamics of these O-D groups are slowed down dramatically, and are limited by the rotation of the whole complex, while the O-D vector oriented away from TMAO probably shows an accelerated reorientation.

  3. Chemical dosimetry by UV spectrophotometry of aqueous ascorbic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; El-Assay, N.B.; Abdel-Rehim, F.; Amin, N.E.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Roushdy, H.

    1984-01-01

    The decrease in the ultraviolet absorption of aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid brought about by large doses of gamma radiation has been investigated as a means of developing a new chemical dosimeter. Because of spontaneous ring opening under various conditions after dissolution in water, some additives were examined as possible stabilizers against such denaturing of aqueous ascorbic acid. At an ascorbic acid concentration of 10 -4 M, either 1 to 2% glycine or 0.2 M NaCl was found to be a good stabilizer. A mechanism of radiation chemistry has been proposed based on hydroxyl radical and hydroxyl adduct intermediates, leading to dehydroascorbic acid through the ascorbate complex. The optimum dosimeter solution covers an absorbed dose range approx. 50 to 350 Gy, when measured at 264 nm wavelength. The G-values for dehydroascorbic acid production were determined to be 2.94 +- 0.33 and 2.43 +- 0.11 (100 eV) -1 , with glycine and NaCl used respectively as stabilizers. (author)

  4. Radiolysis of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo, Y; Ono, I [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan); Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    The dissolution state of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution is different according to the pH. The yellowish brown titanium complex produced by the reaction of titanium potassium oxalate and hydrogen peroxide seems to be different in its structure according to the pH. Considering these points, gamma-ray irradiation was carried out on the sample by dissolving titanium potassium oxalate in purified water under the conditions of oxygen saturation and nitrogen saturation, and the relation between irradiation dose and the production of titanium complex was determined. On the basis of the experimental result, the mechanism of forming hydrogen peroxide was presumed. The radiation source used was 2,000 Ci of /sup 60/Co. For photometric analysis, a 139 type photoelectric spectrophotometer of Hitachi Ltd. was used. From the experimental results, in neutral water, titanium potassium oxalate exists in the state that two oxalic acid ions are coordinated to titanyl ion, while in case of the pH lowered by the addition of sulfuric acid, it can exist in the state that one oxalic acid ion is coordinated to titanyl ion. The yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by irradiating titanium potassium oxalate aqueous solution with gamma-ray is the sum of the molecular product from water and the radiolysis product from titanium potassium oxalate.

  5. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemţanu, Monica R., E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Braşoveanu, Mirela, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Iacob, Nicuşor, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Electron Accelerators Laboratory, 409 Atomiştilor St., PO Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  6. Dimethoate and atrazine retention from aqueous solution by nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Tan, L S; Shukor, S R Abd

    2008-02-28

    In order to produce sufficient food supply for the ever-increasing human population, pesticides usage is indispensable in the agriculture sector to control crop losses. However, the effect of pesticides on the environment is very complex as undesirable transfers occur continually among different environmental sections. This eventually leads to contamination of drinking water source especially for rivers located near active agriculture practices. This paper studied the application of nanofiltration membrane in the removal of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution. Dimethoate was selected as the subject of study since it is being listed as one of the pesticides in guidelines for drinking water by World Health Organization. Nevertheless, data on effectiveness of dimethoate rejection using membranes has not been found so far. Meanwhile, atrazine is classified as one of the most commonly used pesticides in Malaysia. Separation was done using a small batch-type membrane separation cell with integrated magnetic stirrer while concentration of dimethoate and atrazine in aqueous solution was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Four nanofiltration membranes NF90, NF200, NF270 and DK were tested for their respective performance to separate dimethoate and atrazine. Of all four membranes, NF90 showed the best performance in retention of dimethoate and atrazine in water.

  7. The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10 -4 M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10 -4 M and 1 x 10 -2 M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA 2- ) : k(OH + CO 3 2- ) : k(OH + HCO 3 - ) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

  8. Adsorption of Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Riahi Samani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New group of polymers have been synthesized that are conductive of electricity so they are called conducting polymers. One of the most conducting polymers is "polyaniline". In the present study, polyaniline was synthesized by oxidizing aniline monomer under strongly acidic conditions using potassium iodate as an initiator of oxidative polymerization. Synthesized polyaniline as a powder used as an adsorbent to remove chromium from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted in batch mode with variables such as amount of polyaniline, chromium solution pH and adsorbtion isotherms. Due to presence of Cr (III in solution after using polyaniline, removal mechanism is the combination of surface adsorption and reduction. It seems that polyaniline reduces the Cr(VI to Cr(III and adsorbs the Cr(III and a part of remaining  Cr(VI. It is well known that nitrogen atom in compounds of amine derivative makes co-ordinate bond with positive charge of metals due to the presence of electron in sp3 orbital of nitrogen. The majority of total chromium removal  occurred at 30minute for polyaniline  and the optimum  time for  hexavalent chromium  removal was about 5 min. Polyaniline has the maximum total cheomiume removal at pH, 3-9. The maximum hexavalent chromium removal occurred at acidic pH for polyanilines. The equilibrium adsorption data for polyaniline fitted both Freundlich’s and Langmuir’s isotherms. This research shows that polyaniline can be used as an adsorbent  for removal chromium from aqueous solution.

  9. Ammonia volatilization from surface-applied nitrogen solution of urea and ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivellin, Paulo Cezar Ocheuze; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Lima Filho, Oscar Fontvo de; Tziboy, Edgar Alfredo Tzi; Oliveira Junior, Jovo Alberto de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino

    1996-08-01

    The urea is one of the fertilizers more utilized in modern agriculture. One of the problems in the urea utilization is the ammonium volatilization, resulting in low utilization of N-fertilizers by the plants.The objective of this study it was to evaluate and to compare in laboratories conditions , utilizing the 15 N technic the soil's ammonium lost by volatilization associated a superficial application of nitrogen corresponding doses like urea solution and urea and ammonium nitrates solution

  10. Improvement of INVS Measurement Uncertainty for Pu and U-Pu Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marlow, Johnna Boulds [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makino, Risa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Nakamura, Hironbu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan)

    2017-04-27

    In the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF), a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution which is recovered from light water reactor (LWR) and advanced thermal reactor (ATR), FUGEN are being stored. Since the solution is designated as a direct use material, the periodical inventory verification and flow verification are being conducted by Japan Safeguard Government Office (JSGO) and International Atomic Agency (IAEA).

  11. A bibliographical review on the radiolysis of uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri, Sandra; Mondino, Angel V.

    2004-01-01

    A bibliographical study on the effects of ionizing radiation on uranyl nitrate solutions in nitric acid medium was performed, and the state of knowledge on this subject is presented. The main experimental and theoretical results on water, nitric acid and uranium solutions radiolysis are reviewed and critically evaluated. This paper provides a collection of references as an aid to the development of practical applications, and to stimulate new research on fundamental processes in these systems. (author) [es

  12. Corrosion evaluation of uranyl nitrate solution evaporator and denitrator in Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kowa; Uchida, Toyomi; Shirato, Yoji; Isozaki, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    The Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP) adopted the PUREX method in 1977 and has reprocessed spent nuclear fuel of 1140 tHM (tons of heavy metals) since then. The reprocessing equipment suffers from various corrosion phenomena because of high nitric acidity, solution ion concentrations, such as uranium, plutonium, and fission products, and temperature. Therefore, considering corrosion performance in such a severe environment, stainless steels, titanium steel, and so forth were employed as corrosion resistant materials. The severity of the corrosive environment depends on the nitric acid concentration and the temperature of the solution, and uranium in the solution reportedly does not significantly affect the corrosion of stainless steels and controls the corrosion rates of titanium steel. The TRP equipment that handles uranyl nitrate solution operates at a low nitric acid concentration and has not experienced corrosion problems until now. However, there is a report that corrosion rates of some stainless steels increase in proportion to rising uranium concentrations. The equipment that handles the uranyl nitrate solution in the TRP includes the evaporators, which concentrate uranyl nitrate to a maximum concentration of about 1000 gU/L (grams of uranium per liter), and the denitrator, where uranyl nitrate is converted to UO 3 powder at about 320degC. These equipments are therefore required to grasp the degree of the progress of corrosion to handle high-temperature and high-concentration uranyl nitrate. The evaluation of this equipment on the basis of thickness measurement confirmed only minor corrosion and indicated that the equipment would be fully adequate for future operation. (author)

  13. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  14. Determination of uranium in uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear grade quality - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This international Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the uranium content in uranyl nitrate product solutions of nuclear grade quality at concentrations above 100 g/l of uranium. Non-volatile impurities influence the accuracy of the method. Uranyl nitrate is converted into uranium octoxide (U 3 O 8 ) by ignition in air to constant mass at 900 deg. C ± 10 deg. C. Calculation of the uranium content in the sample using a gravimetric conversion factor which depends on the isotopic composition of the uranium. The isotopic composition is determined by mass spectrometry

  15. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  16. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  17. Study of vapour pressure of lithium nitrate solutions in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany); Safarov, Javid [Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: javids@azdata.net; Bich, Eckard [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany); Hassel, Egon [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik, Fakultaet Maschinenbau und Schiffstechnik, Universitaet Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Heintz, Andreas [Abteilung Physikalische Chemie, Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Rostock, Hermannstrasse, 14, D-18055 Rostock (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Vapour pressure p of (LiNO{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) solutions at T = (298.15 to 323.15) K were measured, osmotic, activity coefficients ({phi}, {gamma}) and activity of solvent a {sub s} have been evaluated. The experiments were carried out in the molality range m = (0.19125 to 2.21552) mol . kg{sup -1}. The Antoine equation was used for the empirical description of the experimental vapour pressure results and the (Pitzer + Mayorga) model with inclusion of Archer's ionic strength dependence of the third virial coefficient for the calculated osmotic coefficients were used. The parameters of the Archer for the extended Pitzer model was used for the evaluation of activity coefficients.

  18. The movement of solutes through aqueous fissures in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueckauf, E.

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical treatment has been given for the movement of materials dissolved in water flowing through narrow fissures of a micro-porous substrate. As there is no water flow in these micro-pores, equilibrium between the aqueous solution and the micro-porous substrate proceeds only by diffusion, with the result that there arises a gross disequilibrium. Two major effects arise: first, the hold-up in the substrate - even when there is no adsorption taking place - is orders of magnitude larger than on non-porous substrate, and increases even further, if adsorption takes place. Secondly, dispersion caused by non-equilibrium is also orders of magnitude greater than dispersion arising from convection effects of the water flow in interconnecting fissures. As a result, the solutes arrive very much later at the end of the underground fissures, and in concentrations which are very much lower than have been calculated in previous modelling experiments. The significance of these effects is discussed in detail, and this can be helpful in the selection of sites for underground disposal of radioactive waste. It is now quite feasible to specify sites with conditions, where even solutes with minimal adsorption would not return to the surface within a million years, and where solutes of moderately strong adsorption would be effectively immobile. (author)

  19. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrabolulu, Hande; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun; Şen, Murat

    2018-03-01

    In our previous study, we have investigated the effect of gamma rays on xanthan gum in the solid state and it was determined that dose rate was an important factor effecting the radiation degradation of xanthan gum. In the present study, in order to provide a better understanding of how ionizing radiation effect xanthan gum, we have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of xanthan at various concentrations (0.5-4%). Xanthan solutions were irradiated with gamma rays in air, at ambient temperature, at different dose rates (0.1-3.3-7.0 kGy/h) and doses (2.5-50 kGy). Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. It was determined that, solution concentration was a factor effecting the degradation chemical yield and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Chain scission reactions were more effective for lower solution concentrations.

  20. Corrosion control of vanadium in aqueous solutions by amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rabiee, M.M.; Helal, N.H.; El-Hafez, Gh.M. Abd; Badawy, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of vanadium in amino acid free and amino acid containing aqueous solutions of different pH was studied using open-circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion current density, i corr , the corrosion potential, E corr and the corrosion resistance, R corr , were calculated. A group of amino acids, namely, glycine, alanine, valine, histidine, glutamic and cysteine has been investigated as environmentally safe inhibitors. The effect of Cl - on the corrosion inhibition efficiency especially in acid solutions was investigated. In neutral and basic solutions, the presence of amino acids increases the corrosion resistance of the metal. The electrochemical behavior of V before and after the corrosion inhibition process has shown that some amino acids like glutamic acid and histidine have promising corrosion inhibition efficiency at low concentration (≅25 mM). The inhibition efficiency (η) was found to depend on the structure of the amino acid and the constituents of the corrosive medium. The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface and the adsorption process follows the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption free energy for valine on V in acidic solutions was found to be -9.4 kJ/mol which reveals strong physical adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the vanadium surface

  1. On the state of phosphomolybdenovanadic heteropolyblue in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, L.I.; Yurchenko, Eh.N.; Maksimovskaya, R.I.; Kirik, N.P.; Matveev, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect has been investigated of pH solution on the state of the phosphomolybdenovanadic heteropolyblues of the 12. series, containing n=1,2,3,6 atoms of vanadium (6). It has been shown that the free VO 2+ intrusion into the sphere of heteropolyanions takes place alongside with pH increasing from 1 to 3. At the some time the rate of oxidation of the heteropolyblue solutions by oxygen and the optical density of solutions increase too. The dissociation constants of the heteropolyblue molecule in acid medium increase with increasing of the quantity of vanadium atoms. It has been shown that stability of heteropolyblue in relation to molybdenum decreases with increasing of its quantity in the heteropolyblue molecule. Using precipitation of the heteropolyanions by the cation of tetraethyl ammonium, it has been shown that heteropolyanions can consist of 1,2,3 and 6 atoms of V(6). The state of heteropolyblues in an aqueous solution is characterized by electron absorption spectra

  2. Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Aniline and Substituted Anilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C

    1971-07-01

    The primary reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals with aniline and the aniline cation in aqueous solutions have been studied by the technique of pulse radiolysis and by determination of end products after y-radiolysis. Hydrogen atoms and hydrated electrons react with aniline under formation of the cyclohexadienyl type radical with absorption maximum at 355 nm and an extinction coefficient of 4100/M/cm. A similar radical formed by reaction of hydrogen atoms with the aniline cation has its absorption maximum at 31 0 nm and an extinction coefficient of 3200/M/cm. Hydrogen atoms react with the acid and neutral forms of aniline with rate constants of (1.3 +- 0.2 ) x 109/M/s and (2.9 +- 0.7) x 109/M/s, respectively. OH radicals react with aniline with a rate constant of (1.4 +- 0.3) x 1010/M/s under formation of the cyclohexadienyl radical with absorption maximum at 355 nm and the anilino radical with absorption maxima at 300 and 400 nm. The cyclohexadienyl radical decayed in a first order process with a rate constant of 1.4 x 105/s by elimination of NH{sub 3}, whereas the anilino radical disappeared in a second order reaction under formation of hydrazobenzene. O- radicals react with aniline at pH 13.3 with a rate constant of (3.1 +- 0.6) x 109 under formation of anilino radicals. The reaction of OH radicals with the aniline cation produced the anilino radical cation with a rate constant of (4.8 +- 0.8) x 109 . The absorption maximum was placed at 415 nm, The cyclohexadienyl type radical with absorption maximum at 350 nm was also found in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-1,3-dimethylbenzene but was not formed in solutions of N,N' -dimethylaniline

  3. Pulse Radiolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Aniline and Substituted Anilines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    The primary reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals with aniline and the aniline cation in aqueous solutions have been studied by the technique of pulse radiolysis and by determination of end products after y-radiolysis. Hydrogen atoms and hydrated electrons react with aniline under formation of the cyclohexadienyl type radical with absorption maximum at 355 nm and an extinction coefficient of 4100/M/cm. A similar radical formed by reaction of hydrogen atoms with the aniline cation has its absorption maximum at 31 0 nm and an extinction coefficient of 3200/M/cm. Hydrogen atoms react with the acid and neutral forms of aniline with rate constants of (1.3 ± 0.2 ) x 10 9 /M/s and (2.9 ± 0.7) x 10 9 /M/s, respectively. OH radicals react with aniline with a rate constant of (1.4 ± 0.3) x 10 10 /M/s under formation of the cyclohexadienyl radical with absorption maximum at 355 nm and the anilino radical with absorption maxima at 300 and 400 nm. The cyclohexadienyl radical decayed in a first order process with a rate constant of 1.4 x 10 5 /s by elimination of NH 3 , whereas the anilino radical disappeared in a second order reaction under formation of hydrazobenzene. O - radicals react with aniline at pH 13.3 with a rate constant of (3.1 ± 0.6) x 10 9 under formation of anilino radicals. The reaction of OH radicals with the aniline cation produced the anilino radical cation with a rate constant of (4.8 ± 0.8) x 10 9 . The absorption maximum was placed at 415 nm, The cyclohexadienyl type radical with absorption maximum at 350 nm was also found in aqueous solutions of 2-amino-1,3-dimethylbenzene but was not formed in solutions of N,N' -dimethylaniline

  4. LASERS, ACTIVE MEDIA: The aqueous-polyelectrolyte dye solution as an active laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, A. I.; Saletskii, A. M.

    2000-11-01

    The spectral, luminescent, and lasing properties of aqueous solutions of a cationic dye rhodamine 6G with additions of anion polyelectrolytes — polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids — are studied. It is found that the energy and spectral properties of lasing of these solutions depend on the ratio of concentrations of polyelectrolyte and molecules. It is also found that the lasing parameters of aqueous-polyelectrolyte dye solutions can be controlled by changing the structure of the molecular system. The variation in the structure of aqueous-polyelectrolyte dye solutions of rhodamine 6G resulted in an almost five-fold increase in the lasing efficiency compared to that in aqueous dye solutions.

  5. The use of a digital density meter for reprocessing plant analysis of aqueous uranyl nitrate in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.L.; Coubrough, A.; Allan, C.G.

    1980-11-01

    The application of a commercial digital density meter, to control analysis of uranyl nitrate process streams, is described. Its operation under high α and high βγ active conditions is considered. Sources of error inherent in the equipment and in the recommended operating procedure are discussed. Density equations for the uranyl nitrate - nitric acid - water system, and its component sub-systems, are reported. These can be used to measure the acidity of pure HNO 3 solutions, with a precision comparable to that achieved in a high precision acidimetric titration. They also enable uranium concentrations in acidic solutions to be estimated, with a precision of better than 4 gram U per litre, provided that the solution acidity is known to within p.14 molar. The densimeter technique is therefore applicable to process control analysis, with less than 5% coefficient of variation in uranium estimate, at uranium concentrations above 40 grams litre -1 . (U.K.)

  6. Minimum critical values of uranyl and plutonium nitrate solutions calculated by various routes of the french criticality codes system CRISTAL using the new isopiestic nitrate density law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Jacques; Rouyer, Veronique; Leclaire, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides for various cases of 235 U enrichment or Pu isotopic vectors, and different reflectors, new minimum critical values of uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate solutions (H + =0) obtained by the standard IRSN calculation route and the new isopiestic density laws. Comparisons are also made with other more accurate routes showing that the standard one's results are most often conservative and usable for criticality safety assessments. (author)

  7. A Solution-Based Approach for Mo-99 Production: Considerations for Nitrate versus Sulfate Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Youker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 is the parent of Technetium-99m, which is used in nearly 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures. The medical community has been plagued by Mo-99 shortages due to aging reactors, such as the NRU (National Research Universal reactor in Canada. There are currently no US producers of Mo-99, and NRU is scheduled for shutdown in 2016, which means that another Mo-99 shortage is imminent unless a potential domestic Mo-99 producer fills the void. Argonne National Laboratory is assisting two potential domestic suppliers of Mo-99 by examining the effects of a uranyl nitrate versus a uranyl sulfate target solution configuration on Mo-99 production. Uranyl nitrate solutions are easier to prepare and do not generate detectable amounts of peroxide upon irradiation, but a high radiation field can lead to a large increase in pH, which can lead to the precipitation of fission products and uranyl hydroxides. Uranyl sulfate solutions are more difficult to prepare, and enough peroxide is generated during irradiation to cause precipitation of uranyl peroxide, but this can be prevented by adding a catalyst to the solution. A titania sorbent can be used to recover Mo-99 from a highly concentrated uranyl nitrate or uranyl sulfate solution; however, different approaches must be taken to prevent precipitation during Mo-99 production.

  8. Forced Spreading of Aqueous Solutions on Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Surfaces for Rapid Evaporation and Solute Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Singh, Vickramjeet; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-08-01

    Solute separation of aqueous mixtures is mainly dominated by water vaporization. The evaporation rate of an aqueous drop grows with increasing the liquid-gas interfacial area. The spontaneous spreading behavior of a water droplet on a total wetting surface provides huge liquid-gas interfacial area per unit volume; however, it is halted by the self-pinning phenomenon upon addition of nonvolatile solutes. In this work, it is shown that the solute-induced self-pinning can be overcome by gravity, leading to anisotropic spreading much faster than isotropic spreading. The evaporation rate of anisotropic spreading on a zwitterionic sulfobetaine surface is 25 times larger as that on a poly(methyl methacrylate) surface. Dramatic enhancement of evaporation is demonstrated by simultaneous formation of fog atop liquid film. During anisotropic spreading, the solutes are quickly precipitated out within 30 s, showing the rapid solute-water separation. After repeated spreading process for the dye-containing solution, the mean concentration of the collection is doubled, revealing the concentration efficiency as high as 100%. Gravity-enhanced spreading on total wetting surfaces at room temperature is easy to scale-up with less energy consumption, and thus it has great potentials for the applications of solute separation and concentration.

  9. Iron(III) citrate speciation in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andre M N; Kong, XiaoLe; Parkin, Mark C; Cammack, Richard; Hider, Robert C

    2009-10-28

    Citrate is an iron chelator and it has been shown to be the major iron ligand in the xylem sap of plants. Furthermore, citrate has been demonstrated to be an important ligand for the non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) pool occurring in the plasma of individuals suffering from iron-overload. However, ferric citrate chemistry is complicated and a definitive description of its aqueous speciation at neutral pH remains elusive. X-Ray crystallography data indicates that the alcohol function of citrate (Cit4-) is involved in Fe(III) coordination and that deprotonation of this functional group occurs upon complex formation. The inability to include this deprotonation in the affinity constant calculations has been a major source of divergence between various reports of iron(III)-citrate affinity constants. However the recent determination of the alcoholic pKa of citric acid (H4Cit) renders the reassessment of the ferric citrate system possible. The aqueous speciation of ferric citrate has been investigated by mass spectrometry and EPR spectroscopy. It was observed that the most relevant species are a monoiron dicitrate species and dinuclear and trinuclear oligomeric complexes, the relative concentration of which depends on the solution pH value and the iron : citric acid molar ratio. Spectrophotometric titration was utilized for affinity constant determination and the formation constant for the biologically relevant [Fe(Cit)2]5- is reported for the first time.

  10. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Salvadora persica Stem Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of Salvadora persica (S. persica stem ash in a batch system for the removal of As(V from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (20–240 min, pH (2–11, initial arsenic concentration (50–500 μg/L, and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.33% and 99.32% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 3.5 g/L, initial As(V concentration 500 μg/L, and contact time 80 and 60 min for S. persica stem ash at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for S. persica stem ash at both 300 °C and 500 °C (R2=0.8983 and 0.9274, resp.. According to achieved results, it was defined that S. persica stem ash can be used effectively for As(V removal from the aqueous environment.

  11. Chemical metallization of KMPR photoresist polymer in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Gul; Duong, Xuan Truong; Vu, Ngoc Pi; Phan, Quang The; Nguyen, Duc Tuong; Ly, Viet Anh; Salimy, Siamak; Le, Xuan Tuan

    2017-06-01

    While conventional methods for preparing thin films of metals and metallic alloys on insulating substrates in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include vapor deposition techniques, we demonstrate here that electroless deposition can be considered as an alternate efficient approach to metallize the surface of insulating substrates, such as KMPR epoxy photoresist polymer. In comparison with the physical and chemical vapor deposition methods, which are well-established for metallization of photoresist polymers, our electroless nickel plating requires only immersing the substrates into aqueous solutions in open air at low temperatures. Thin films of nickel alloy have been deposited electrolessly on KMPR surface, through a cost-effective and environmental chromium-free process, mediated through direct grafting of amine palladium complexes in aqueous medium. This covalent organic coating provides excellent adhesion between KMPR and the nickel film and allows better control of the palladium catalyst content. Covalent grafting and characterization of the deposited nickel film have been carried out by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques.

  12. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, T. T., E-mail: agteca@hotmail.com [AGTECA S.A., 230 Oceanbeach Road, Mount Maunganui, Tauranga 3116 (New Zealand); Cochrane, T. A., E-mail: tom.cochrane@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  13. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, T. T.; Cochrane, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N f ,” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N f was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N f , the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N f using recorded

  14. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.

    1964-07-01

    Aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with Co γ-rays with doses of up to 2.3 Mrad in the temperature region 100 - 200 C. At 100 C a linear relationship between the phenol concentration and the absorbed dose was obtained, but at 150 C and at higher temperatures the rate of the phenol formation increased significantly after an initial constant period. With higher doses the rate decreased again, falling almost to zero at 200 C after a dose of 2.2 Mrad. The G value of phenol in the initial linear period increased from 2.8 at 100 C to 8.0 at 200 C. The reaction mechanism is discussed and reactions constituting a chain reaction are suggested. The result of the addition of iron ions and of a few inorganic oxides to the system is presented and briefly discussed

  15. Radiation-induced degradation of 4-chloroaniline in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Wolfger, H.; Getoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of 4-chloroaniline (4-ClA) was studied under steady-state conditions using aqueous solutions saturated with air, pure oxygen, N 2 O, argon and argon in the presence of t-Butanol. Using HPLC-method, the initial G-values of the substrate degradation as well as of a number of radiolytic products were determined. The formation of aminophenols, chlorophenols, aniline and phenol in addition to chloride, ammonia, formaldehyde and mixture of aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids was studied as a function of absorbed dose. Based on the experimental data, probable reaction mechanisms for the degradation of 4-ClA by γ-rays and the formation of the identified products are presented

  16. Paracetamol degradation in aqueous solution by non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloul, Yasmine; Aubry, Olivier; Rabat, Hervé; Colas, Cyril; Maunit, Benoît; Hong, Dunpin

    2017-08-01

    This study deals with paracetamol degradation in water using a non-thermal plasma (NTP) created by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The effects of the NTP operating conditions on the degradation were studied, showing that the treatment efficiency of the process was highly dependent on the electrical parameters and working gas composition in the reactor containing the aqueous solution. A conversion rate higher than 99% was reached with an energy yield of 12 g/kWh. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) measurements showed that the main species produced in water during the process were nitrogen compounds, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  17. Partial molar volume of anionic polyelectrolytes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Constain; Contreras, Martín; Gamboa, Consuelo

    2007-05-15

    In this work the partial molar volumes (V) of different anionic polyelectrolytes and hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes (PHM) were measured. Polymers like polymaleic acid-co-styrene, polymaleic acid-co-1-olefin, polymaleic acid-co-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, and polyacrylic acid (abbreviated as MAS-n, PA-n-K2, AMVP, and PAA, respectively) were employed. These materials were investigated by density measurements in highly dilute aqueous solutions. The molar volume results allow us to discuss the effect of the carboxylic groups and the contributions from the comonomeric principal chain. The PAA presents the smaller V, while the largest V value was for AMVP. The V of PHM shows a linear relationship with the number of methylene groups in the lateral chain. It is found that the magnitude of the contribution per methylene group decreases as the hydrophobic character of the environment increases.

  18. Radiation-induced degradation of chlorophenols in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Jianlong

    2005-01-01

    Radiation processing is a promising technology for applications in environmental protection, which includes wastewater treatment, micro-polluted drinking water treatment and the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various toxic and nonbiodegradable pollutants, municipal sewage and sludge disinfection, and flue gas desulfuration, etc. The paper reviews manly the recent progresses in radiolysis of chlorinated phenols in aqueous solution. Advantages and existing problems of the method in this particular application ar discussed. Mechanisms of radiation-induced degradation of chlorophenols, and the factors affecting the degradation efficiency, are discussed, too. It is concluded that combined approaches, such ozone oxidation and other methods, are of great help to the radiation processing application, in terms of lowering down the dose and increasing the efficient of pollutant removal. (authors)

  19. Pulse radiolysis of Triton X-100 aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Mayer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of 4 · 10 -5 -2.4 · 10 -3 mol · dm -3 Triton X-100 gives rise to a transient species originating from the reactions of OH radicals and H atoms. The rate constants of these reactions were found to be 8.8 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 and 1.25 · 10 9 mol -1 · dm 3 · s -1 , respectively, for Triton X-100 concentrations below CMC. The corresponding transient species were found to decay according to second order kinetics. The mechanism of the reactions, including concentration effects is discussed. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.

    2010-01-01

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  1. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A.; Penzkofer, A.; Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P.

    2010-03-01

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  2. Degradation of malachite green in aqueous solution by Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Lee, T W

    2009-05-30

    In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton's reagent was investigated for degradation of malachite green (MG). The effects of different reaction parameters such as the initial MG concentration, initial pH, the initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, the initial ferrous concentration and the reaction temperature on the oxidative degradation of MG have been investigated. The optimal reacting conditions were experimentally found to be pH 3.40, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration=0.50mM and initial ferrous concentration=0.10mM for initial MG concentration of 20mg/L at 30 degrees C. Under optimal conditions, 99.25% degradation efficiency of dye in aqueous solution was achieved after 60 min of reaction.

  3. Conformation of poly(γ-glutamic acid) in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroga, Yoshio; Nakaya, Asami; Inoue, Atsuki; Itoh, Daiki; Abiru, Masaya; Wada, Kaori; Takada, Masako; Ikake, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Local conformation and overall conformation of poly(γ-DL-glutamic acid) (PγDLGA) and poly(γ-L-glutamic acid) (PγLGA) in aqueous solution was studied as a function of degree of ionization ε by (1) H-NMR, circular dichroism, and potentiometric titration. It was clarified that their local conformation is represented by random coil over an entire ε range and their overall conformation is represented by expanded random-coil in a range of ε > ε(*) , where ε(*) is about 0.3, 0.35, 0.45, and 0.5 for added-salt concentration of 0.02M, 0.05M, 0.1M, and 0.2M, respectively. In a range of ε acidic media. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  5. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions at higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H

    1964-07-15

    Aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with Co {gamma}-rays with doses of up to 2.3 Mrad in the temperature region 100 - 200 C. At 100 C a linear relationship between the phenol concentration and the absorbed dose was obtained, but at 150 C and at higher temperatures the rate of the phenol formation increased significantly after an initial constant period. With higher doses the rate decreased again, falling almost to zero at 200 C after a dose of 2.2 Mrad. The G value of phenol in the initial linear period increased from 2.8 at 100 C to 8.0 at 200 C. The reaction mechanism is discussed and reactions constituting a chain reaction are suggested. The result of the addition of iron ions and of a few inorganic oxides to the system is presented and briefly discussed.

  6. Infrared spectroscopy for monitoring gas hydrates in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, G.T.; Luzinova, Y.; Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Raichlin, Y.; Katzir, A. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Tel-Aviv (Israel). Shool of Physics and Astronomy

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduced the first principles for monitoring gas hydrate formation and dissociation in aqueous solution by evaluating state-responsive infrared (IR) absorption features of water with fiberoptic evanescent field spectroscopy. A first order linear functional relationship was also derived according to Lambert Beer's law in order to quantify the percentage gas hydrate within the volume of water probed via the evanescent field. In addition, spectroscopic studies evaluating seafloor sediments collected from a gas hydrate site in the Gulf of Mexico revealed minimal spectral interferences from sediment matrix components. As such, evanescent field sensing strategies were established as a promising perspective for monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrates in oceanic environments. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Ionic conductivity in aqueous solutions: deuterium isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Alok; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    1997-01-01

    A simple theoretical investigation of the calculation of ionic conductivity in aqueous solution is presented. The dipolar hard sphere model for the solvent which has been successful elsewhere has been employed here and it has been possible to reproduce the experimental results quite accurately for both water and heavy water using only two parameters. In a more detailed theoretical approach one should employ better models for water with proper account of its vibrations, liberations and also hydrogen bonding. It is also of interest to study the temperature effect and the concentration dependence of the conductivity. The time-dependent friction can also be calculated from the present formalism and be used for the study of isotope effect in proton transfer reactions or other aspects of chemical dynamics

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity of aqueous solutions of some natural polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tan Man; Truong Thi Hanh; Le Quang Luan; Le Hai; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2000-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on viscosity of aqueous solution of alginate and carbon xylmethyl cellulose (CMC) irradiated in solid state has been carried out. the viscosity of aqueous solution of alginate and CMC decreased remarkably with increasing dose and the viscosity of 2% solution of above polymers irradiated at 50 kGy was about 100 times lower than the original one. (author)

  9. Turbidimetric determination of polyacrylamide in aqueous solutions with the use of oxidizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, A.D.; Kolyada, N.S.; Pshenichnikova, E.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Polyacrylamide is widely used in industry. For example, one of the methods for obtaining microspheres of metal oxides, particularly a mixed nuclear fuel, is based on a process involving the ammoniacal precipitation of hydroxides from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates in the presence of polyacrylamide (PAA), which promotes the formation of spheres in the initial stages of the process. Monitoring the industrial process, the course of the treatment of the production waste products, and the composition of the waste water calls for determination of the content of PAA in industrial solutions. The existing methods for determining PAA are based on its chemical properties, which are specified by the presence of amide groupings in its molecule. The use of the classical methods of analysis, which are based on the reactions of PAA with formaldehyde, sulfuric acid, etc. and the hydrolysis of PAA, do not provide reliable results, since PAA is partially or completely hydrolyzed in industrial solutions. In addition, industrial solutions contain various modifiers, including urea and urotropin, and the method of determining PAA from the amount of ammonia evolved is consequently unacceptable. Turbidimetric methods of analysis, in which the content of PAA is evaluated from the turbidity caused by the formation of suspension during hydrolysis or upon the introduction of NaClO 4 or diisotubylphenoxyethoxyethyldimethylbenzyl chloride, are known. The purpose of the present work was to develop a simple quick method for determining polymers in solutions, including solutions from the production and treatment of nuclear fuel. The following reagents were proposed for the turbidimetric determination of PAA: cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate, and potassium permanganate. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Behaviors of nitrato complexes of nitrosylruthenium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Takasaki (Japan)

    1979-11-01

    Nitrato nitrosylruthenium complexes (RuNO(NO/sub 3/)sub(x)(H/sub 2/O)sub(5-x))sup((3-x)+) readily dissociate in aqueous solutions with decrease in pH and increase in electrical conductivity of the solutions. This study aimed to elucidate the behaviours of dissociation of the complexes with time. The change in the amount of undissociated complexes was determined with time. The results indicated that the dissociation was a multi-order reaction involving both protolysis and hydrolysis. The protolysis completed in relatively short period within (several tens of minutes), but it depended on the concentration of the complexes in the solution. The completion of the protolysis and the formation of the resulting dissociation products were observed by absorption spectrometry. The dissociation products, which were assumed as aquohydroxy complexes, underwent the successive step-wise dissociation for a prolonged period as revealed by pH measurements. The rate constants involved in the step-wise dissociation, process were obtained. The degree of dissociation and dissociation constant of the complexes were measured by conductometry.

  11. Behaviors of nitrato complexes of nitrosylruthenium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Senichi

    1979-01-01

    Nitrato nitrosylruthenium complexes [RuNO(NO 3 )sub(x)(H 2 O)sub(5-x)]sup((3-x)+) readily dissociate in aqueous solutions with decrease in pH and increase in electrical conductivity of the solutions. This study aimed to elucidate the behaviours of dissociation of the complexes with time. The change in the amount of undissociated complexes was determined with time. The results indicated that the dissociation was a multi-order reaction involving both protolysis and hydrolysis. The protolysis completed in relatively short period within (several tens of minutes), but it depended on the concentration of the complexes in the solution. The completion of the protolysis and the formation of the resulting dissociation products were observed by absorption spectrometry. The dissociation products, which were assumed as aquohydroxy complexes, underwent the successive step-wise dissociation for a prolonged period as revealed by pH measurements. The rate constants involved in the step-wise dissociation, process were obtained. The degree of dissociation and dissociation constant of the complexes were measured by conductometry. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced reduction of ditetrazolium salt in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Chaychian, Mahnaz; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; McLaughlin, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Color formation in aqueous solutions of the ditetrazolium salt blue tetrazolium (BT 2+ ) in the absence or presence of oxygen is a complex radiation chemical reaction. The final stable product is the poorly soluble diformazan violet to blue pigment having a broad spectral absorption band (λ max =552 nm). The reaction of BT 2+ with the hydrated electron proceeds by rapid reduction of BT 2+ followed by protonation at the nitrogen closest to the unsubstituted phenyl group, via the two intermediate tetrazolinyl radicals shared by the ditetrazole ring nitrogens. The effect of solution pH, N 2 O saturation, and the presence of the reducing agent dextrose are examined. The system serves as a radiochromic sensor and a dosimeter of ionizing radiations. Solutions of 5 mmol l -1 BT 2+ at pH 7.3 serve as dosimeters over an absorbed-dose range of approximately 0.2-6 kGy (dearated, with a range of 1-8 mmol l -1 dextrose) and of about 1-15 kGy (aerated, with 0.1 mol l -1 sodium formate and 5 mmol l -1 dextrose)

  13. Gamma-radiolysis of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrani, S

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the radiation-induced damage of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions. By use of specific radical scavengers, the roles of the individual free radicals, formed by ..gamma..-radiolysis, in causing damage has been assessed. The most effective radical in causing damage to human and porcine glycopolypeptide is the OH radical. The structure of the different blood group glycopolypeptides determines the sensitivity towards the free radical attack. The glycopolypeptide shows depolymerization and a characteristic absorption at approximately 270 nm due to the formation of additional products on irradiation. Chemical changes of the irradiated glycopolypeptide solutions revealed significant damage to the oligosaccharide chain and the polypeptide core of the glycopolypeptide. The radiation-induced inactivation of another glycoprotein, external yeast invertase, due to different radical species at pH 7.0 decreases in the following order: ea-barq > OH radical > (SCN) radical/sub 2//sup -/ > Br radical/sub 2//sup -/. The structure of this enzyme, accounts for the mechanism of enzyme inactivation and the relative damage of carbohydrate and amino acid residues. The irradiated enzyme solutions show significant changes in their electrophoretic behaviour on cellogel electrophoresis due to the formation of radiolysis products, which also show characteristic absorption maxima at approximately 275 nm. (author).

  14. Neutron dosimetry using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovan, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal neutron dosimetry system using the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction and liquid scintillation counting of tritium was developed. Lithium acetate was chosen to supply the 6 Li in the aqueous dosimetry solutions. Neutron irradiations were completed using The Ohio State University Research Reactor. After two sets of samples were irradiated, variables in the system such as the mass of lithium acetate in the solutions and the counting window of the liquid scintillation counter used to analyze the sample were chosen. The system was evaluated by completing two sets of 23 minute irradiations with the reactor at 500 kW, 50 kW, 5 kW, and one irradiation at 500 W. The samples irradiated at 500 W were below the threshold of the system, and could not be used. Prompt analysis was essential due to loss of detectable emissions in the dosimetry solutions over time. The thermal neutron fluences calculated with the data from the samples were compared to the fluences determined from gold wire irradiations. The fluence values differed at most by 6%. The fluence values calculated from the samples were consistently less than those determined from the gold wires

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of caffeine aggregation in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W

    2011-09-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molecules, which was not sensitive to the water model used. As expected, extensive aggregation of the caffeine molecules was observed, with the molecules stacking their flat faces against one another like coins, with their methylene groups staggered to avoid steric clashes. A dynamic equilibrum was observed between large n-mers, including stacks with all eight solute molecules, and smaller clusters, with the calculated osmotic coefficient being in acceptable agreement with the experimental value. The insensitivity of the results to water model and the congruence with experimental thermodynamic data suggest that the observed stacking interactions are a realistic representation of the actual association mechanism in aqueous caffeine solutions.

  16. Hydrophobicity and thermodynamic response for aqueous solutions of amphiphiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Romaní, Luis; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous behavior of aqueous solutions of amphiphiles in the water-rich region is analyzed via a phenomenological approach that utilizes the isobaric heat capacity Cp as an experimental probe. We report extensive data for solutions of 14 amphiphiles as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. Beyond that, Cp data but also isobaric thermal expansivities and isothermal compressibilities for three solutions of tert-butanol as a function of both temperature and pressure are presented. Results rule out the possibility that the observed phenomenology is associated with the anomalous thermodynamics of pure water. Indeed, our Cp data, quantitatively consistent with recent spectroscopic analyses, suggest that water-mediated interactions between the nonpolar parts of amphiphiles are at the origin of anomalies, with the effects of such "hydrophobic aggregation" being observed at mole fractions as small as 0.01. Physicochemical details like the size, the electronic charge distribution and the geometry of amphiphile molecules as well as third-order derivatives of the Gibbs energy and the associated Koga lines support the above claims while they further contribute to characterizing the role of hydrophobicity in these phenomena. Progress with a view to gain a deeper, more concrete understanding remains.

  17. Aqueous solution of basic fuchsin as food irradiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Naz, S.

    2007-01-01

    Dosimetric characterization of aqueous solution of basic fuchsin was studied spectrophotometrically for possible application in the low-dose food irradiation dosimetry. Absorption spectra of unirradiated and irradiated solutions were determined and the decrease in absorbance with the dose was noted down. Radiation-induced bleaching of the dye was measured at wavelengths of maximum absorption λ max (540nm) as well as 510nm and 460 nm. At all these wavelengths, the decrease in absorbance of the dosimeter was linear with respect to the absorbed dose from 50 Gy to 600 Gy. The stability of dosimetric solution during post-irradiation storage in the dark at room temperature showed that after initial bleaching during first ten to twenty days, the response was almost stable for about 34 days. The study on the effect of different light and temperature conditions also showed that the response gradually decreased during the storage period of 34 days, which shows that basic fuchsin dye is photosensitive as well as thermally sensitive. (authors)

  18. Interaction of gypsum with lead in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astilleros, J.M.; Godelitsas, A.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D.; Fernandez-Diaz, L.; Prieto, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sorption processes on mineral surfaces are a critical factor in controlling the distribution and accumulation of potentially harmful metals in the environment. This work investigates the effectiveness of gypsum (CaSO 4 .2H 2 O) to sequester Pb. The interaction of gypsum fragments with Pb-bearing solutions (10, 100 and 1000 mg/L) was monitored by performing macroscopic batch-type experiments conducted at room temperature. The aqueous phase composition was periodically determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Regardless of the [Pb aq ] initial , a [Pb aq ] final aq ] initial ≥ 100 mg/L and significantly slower (t > 1 week) for [Pb aq ] initial = 10 mg/L. Speciation calculations revealed that after a long time of interaction (1 month), all the solutions reached equilibrium with respect to both gypsum and anglesite. For [Pb aq ] initial ≥ 100 mg/L, sorption takes place mainly via the rapid dissolution of gypsum and the simultaneous formation of anglesite both on the gypsum surface and in the bulk solution. In the case of [Pb aq ] initial = 10 mg/L, no anglesite precipitation was observed, but surface spectroscopy (proton Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, p-RBS) confirmed the formation of Pb-bearing surface layers on the (0 1 0) gypsum surface in this case also. This study shows that the surface of gypsum can play an important role in the attenuation of Pb in contaminated waters.

  19. Supercharging Protein Complexes from Aqueous Solution Disrupts their Native Conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Harry J.; Kintzer, Alexander F.; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Cassou, Catherine A.; Krantz, Bryan A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of aqueous solution supercharging on the solution- and gas-phase structures of two protein complexes were investigated using traveling-wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIMS-MS). Low initial concentrations of m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA) in the electrospray ionization (ESI) solution can effectively increase the charge of concanavalin A dimers and tetramers, but at higher m-NBA concentrations, the increases in charge are accompanied by solution-phase dissociation of the dimers and up to a ~22% increase in the collision cross section (CCS) of the tetramers. With just 0.8% m-NBA added to the ESI solution of a ~630 kDa anthrax toxin octamer complex, the average charge is increased by only ~4% compared with the "native" complex, but it is sufficiently destabilized so that extensive gas-phase fragmentation occurs in the relatively high pressure regions of the TWIMS device. Anthrax toxin complexes exist in either a prechannel or a transmembrane channel state. With m-NBA, the prechannel state of the complex has the same CCS/charge ratio in the gas phase as the transmembrane channel state of the same complex formed without m-NBA, yet undergoes extensive dissociation, indicating that destabilization from supercharging occurs in the ESI droplet prior to ion formation and is not a result of Coulombic destabilization in the gas phase as a result of higher charging. These results demonstrate that the supercharging of large protein complexes is the result of conformational changes induced by the reagents in the ESI droplets, where enrichment of the supercharging reagent during droplet evaporation occurs.

  20. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by pseudogemini surfactants in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Zheng, Liqiang

    2014-08-14

    The phase behavior of a kind of pseudogemini surfactant in aqueous solutions, formed by the mixture of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and butane-1,4-bis (methylimidazolium bromide) ([mim-C4-mim]Br2) or butane-1,4-bis(methylpyrrolidinium bromide) ([mpy-C4-mpy]Br2) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, is reported in the present work. When [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 is mixed with SDBS in aqueous solutions, one cationic [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 molecule "bridges" two SDBS molecules by noncovalent interactions (e.g. electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions), behaving like a pseudogemini surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of pseudogemini surfactant, determined by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) or cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The mixed system of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 was also constructed, and only micelles were observed. We infer that a pseudogemini surfactant is formed under the synergic effect of electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions in the SDBS/[mim-C4-mim]Br2/H2O system, while electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interactions may provide the directional force for vesicle formation in the SDBS/[mpy-C4-mpy]Br2/H2O system.

  1. Thermodynamics of dilute aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejwant [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India); Kumar, Arvind, E-mail: arvind@csmcri.or [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: The thermodynamic behaviour of aqueous imidazolium ILs has been investigated. Volumetric and ultrasonic results indicated the hydrophobic hydration of ILs. Viscometric studies revealed studied ionic liquids as water-structure makers. Hydration number increased with increase in alkyl chain length of the cation. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density {rho}, speed of sound u, and viscosity {eta} of aqueous solutions of various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) solutions have been performed in dilute concentration regime at 298.15 K to get insight into hydration behaviour of ILs. The investigated ILs are based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [C{sub n}mim] having [BF{sub 4}]{sup -}, [Cl]{sup -}, [C{sub 1}OSO{sub 3}]{sup -}, and [C{sub 8}OSO{sub 3}]{sup -} as anions where n = 4 or 8. Several thermodynamic parameters like apparent molar volume {phi}{sub V}, isentropic compressibility {beta}{sub s}, and viscosity B-coefficients have been derived from experimental data. Limiting value of apparent molar volume has been discussed in terms of intrinsic molar volume (V{sub int}) molar electrostriction volume (V{sub elec}), molar disordered (V{sub dis}), and cage volume (V{sub cage}). Viscosity B-coefficients have been used to quantify the kosmotropic or chaotropic nature of ILs. Hydration number of ILs obtained using elctrostriction volume, isentropic compressibility, viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry have been found to be comparative within the experimental error. The hydrophobic hydration has found to play an important role in hydration of ILs as compared to hydration due to hydrogen bonding and electrostriction. Limiting molar properties, hydration numbers, and B-coefficients have been discussed in terms of alkyl chain length of cation or nature of anion.

  2. Thermodynamics of dilute aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejwant; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The thermodynamic behaviour of aqueous imidazolium ILs has been investigated. → Volumetric and ultrasonic results indicated the hydrophobic hydration of ILs. → Viscometric studies revealed studied ionic liquids as water-structure makers. → Hydration number increased with increase in alkyl chain length of the cation. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density ρ, speed of sound u, and viscosity η of aqueous solutions of various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) solutions have been performed in dilute concentration regime at 298.15 K to get insight into hydration behaviour of ILs. The investigated ILs are based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [C n mim] having [BF 4 ] - , [Cl] - , [C 1 OSO 3 ] - , and [C 8 OSO 3 ] - as anions where n = 4 or 8. Several thermodynamic parameters like apparent molar volume φ V , isentropic compressibility β s , and viscosity B-coefficients have been derived from experimental data. Limiting value of apparent molar volume has been discussed in terms of intrinsic molar volume (V int ) molar electrostriction volume (V elec ), molar disordered (V dis ), and cage volume (V cage ). Viscosity B-coefficients have been used to quantify the kosmotropic or chaotropic nature of ILs. Hydration number of ILs obtained using elctrostriction volume, isentropic compressibility, viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry have been found to be comparative within the experimental error. The hydrophobic hydration has found to play an important role in hydration of ILs as compared to hydration due to hydrogen bonding and electrostriction. Limiting molar properties, hydration numbers, and B-coefficients have been discussed in terms of alkyl chain length of cation or nature of anion.

  3. Humic acid removal from aqueous solutions by peroxielectrocoagulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural organic matter is the cause of many problems associated with water treatment such as the presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs and membrane fouling during water filtration. In this study, the performance of the peroxi-electrocoagulation process (PEP was investigated for the removal of humic acids (HAs from aqueous solutions. Methods: PEP was carried out for the removal of HA using a plexiglas reactor with a volume of 2 L and fitted with iron electrodes and a direct current supply (DC. Samples were taken at various amounts of pH (2-4, current density (1 and 2A/cm2, hydrogen peroxide (50-150 mg/L and reaction time (5-20 minutes and then filtered to remove sludge formed during reaction. Finally, the HA concentration was measured by UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254. Results: Results indicated that increasing the concentration of H2O2 from 50 to 150 mg/L increased HA removal efficiency from 83% to 94.5%. The highest removal efficiency was observed at pH 3.0; by increasing the pH to the alkaline range, the efficiency of the process was reduced. It was found that HA removal efficiency was high in current density 1A/cm2. Increasing current density up to 1 A cm-2 caused a decrease in removal efficiency. Results of this study showed that under the optimum operating range for the process ([current density] = 1A/cm2, [hydrogen peroxide concentration] = 150 mg/L, [reaction time]= 20 minutes and [pH]= 3.0, HA removal efficiency reached 98%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that PEP has the potential to be utilized for cost-effective removal of HA from aqueous solutions.

  4. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  5. Influence aqueous solutions on the mechanical behavior of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakim, J.

    2005-12-01

    The hydration of the shale with an aqueous solution induces a swelling deformation which plays an important role in the behaviour of the structures excavated in this type of grounds. This deformation is marked by a three-dimensional and anisotropic character and involves several mechanisms like adsorption, osmosis or capillarity. Several researches were dedicated to swelling and were often much debated due to the complexity of the implied phenomena. The goal of this thesis is therefore to contribute to a better understanding of shale swelling when the rock is confined and hydrated with an aqueous solution. The main part of the work accomplished was related to the Lorraine shale and to the Tournemire shale. To characterize swelling and to identify the main governing parameters, it was necessary to start the issue with an experimental approach. Many apparatus were then developed to carry out tests under various conditions of swelling. In order to facilitate the interpretation of the tests and thereafter the modelling of the behaviour, the experimental procedure adopted consisted of studying first the mechanical aspect and then the chemical aspect of swelling. In the mechanical part, swelling was studied by imposing on the sample a mechanical loading while maintaining during the tests the same aqueous solution. The principal parameters which were studied are the effect of the lateral conditions on axial swelling (impeded strain or constant stress) as well as the influence of the axial stress on radial swelling. The anisotropy of swelling was studied by carrying out, for different orientations of the sample, tests of free swelling, impeded swelling and uniaxial swelling. These various mechanical tests allowed to study the three-dimensional anisotropic swelling in all the conditions and to select the most appropriate test to be used in the second phase of the research. The precise analysis performed to explain the mechanisms behind the swelling of an argillaceous rock

  6. Calculated k-effectives for light water reactor typical, U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T. III; Mincey, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program has as a goal the design of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment. In order to validate computer codes used for criticality analyses in the design of such equipment, k-effectives have been calculated for several U + Pu nitrate solution critical experiments. As of January 1981, descriptions of 45 unpoisoned, U + Pu solution experiments were available in the open literature. Twelve of these experiments were performed with solutions which have physical characteristics typical of dissolved, light water reactor fuel. This paper contains a discussion of these twelve experiments, a review of the calculational procedure used to determine k-effectives, and the results of the calculations

  7. Plans and equipment for criticality measurements on plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D.; Durst, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Data from critical experiments are required on the criticality of plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions to accurately establish criticality control limits for use in processing and handling of breeder type fuels. Since the fuel must be processed both safely and economically, it is necessary that criticality considerations be based on accurate experimental data. Previous experiments have been reported on plutonium-uranium solutions with Pu weight ratios extending up to some 38 wt %. No data have been presented, however, for plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions beyond this Pu weight ratio. The current research emphasis is on the procurement of criticality data for plutonium-uranium mixtures up to 60 wt % Pu that will serve as the basis for handling criticality problems subsequently encountered in the development of technology for the breeder community. Such data also will provide necessary benchmarks for data testing and analysis on integral criticality experiments for verification of the analytical techniques used in support of criticality control. Experiments are currently being performed with plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions in stainless steel cylindrical vessels and an expandable slab tank system. A schematic of the experimental systems is presented

  8. EPR study of the production of OH radicals in aqueous solutions of uranium irradiated by ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKO DAKOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether hydroxyl radicals (•OH were produced in UV-irradiated aqueous solutions of uranyl salts. The production of •OH was studied in uranyl acetate and nitrate solutions by an EPR spin trap method over a wide pH range, with variation of the uranium concentrations. The production of •OH in uranyl solutions irradiated with UV was unequivocally demonstrated for the first time using the EPR spin-trapping method. The production of •OH can be connected to speciation of uranium species in aqueous solutions, showing a complex dependence on the solution pH. When compared with the results of radiative de-excitation of excited uranyl (*UO22+ by the quenching of its fluorescence, the present results indicate that the generation of hydroxyl radicals plays a major role in the fluorescence decay of *UO22+. The role of the presence of carbonates and counter ions pertinent to environmental conditions in biological systems on the production of hydroxyl radicals was also assessed in an attempt to reveal the mechanism of *UO22+ de-excitation. Various mechanisms, including •OH production, are inferred but the main point is that the generation of •OH in uranium containing solutions must be considered when assessing uranium toxicity.

  9. Heavy-metal-induced Inhibition of Aspergillus niger nitrate reductase: Applications for Rapid Contaminant Detection in Aqueous Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William Arnold; Aiken, Abigail Marie; Peyton, Brent Michael; Petersen, James N.

    2003-03-01

    Enzyme inhibition assays have the potential to rapidly screen and identify heavy metals in environmental samples. Inhibition of nitrate reductase (NR) was examined as a method for detecting toxic metals. The activity of NR (EC 1.6.6.2) from Aspergillus niger was assayed as a function of metal concentration in the presence of Cd2+, Cr3+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+. NR exhibited sensitivity to these metals at concentrations below 10 µM. Various buffers were screened for their ability to protect NR activity from metal inhibition, and 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) was selected as the buffering system for the NR assays as it exhibited the least interference with metal inhibition, thus providing increased assay sensitivity. The hypothesis that chelating agents could prevent the inhibition of NR activity by metal ions was also tested. Results indicated that 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could protect NR activity from inhibition by Cr3+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ at concentrations below 100 µM, but that the EDTA had no effect on NR inhibition by Cr6+. An amount of 10 mM nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) prevented NR inhibition by Cd2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ at metal concentrations below 100 µM. However, 10 mM NTA was unable to protect the enzyme from inhibition by either Cr3+ or Cr6+. These results indicated that through specific metal chelation, a NR-based method for individually quantifying Cr3+ and Cr6+ species in aqueous solutions could be developed. The ability to restore activity to NR which been previously inhibited by exposure to 100 µM Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Cr3+ was explored to determine whether NR activity could be recovered by EDTA additions for use in consecutive metal inhibition assays. The results showed NR activity could not be regained after exposure to Cr3+ or Cu2+, but did partially recover activity after Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ exposure.

  10. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  11. Corrosion behavior of 321 stainless steel in low-acidity uranium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Junsheng; Sun Ying; Zhang Wanglin; Ding Ping; Yang Jiangrong; Wu Lunqiang

    2003-01-01

    Weighing and electrochemical methods have been used to investigate the high-temperature uniform corrosion and electrochemical corrosion behavior of lCr18Ni9Ti (321) stainless steel in uranium nitrate solution at different concentrations and pH values. The uniform corrosion results showed that the corrosion rate of 321 stainless steel was less than 0.04 g/m 2 .h, and the visible change of surface smoothness was not observed through 960 h. It was perfect corrosion-resisting in obtained conditions. The electro-chemical corrosion behavior study has been performed to investigate 321 stainless steel in uranium nitrate solutions of the dissolved and saturated oxygen. The corrosion potential and corrosion current density were obtained. Auger photoelectron spectroscopy for measurement of uranium in specimen was used to indicate that uranium is in corrosion product. The corrosion film was measured by Ar ion gun sputter, and the thickness is 10-15 nm. (authors)

  12. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar was investigated in a range of temperatures and cesium concentrations. {yields} The pseudo-second order kinetic model produced a good fit with the experimental kinetic data. {yields} Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. {yields} The interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar was dominated by chemical adsorption. - Abstract: The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L{sup -1} and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L{sup -1} while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol{sup -1} suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  13. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Terumi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Satoru; Tagai, Tokuhei

    2007-01-01

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  14. Role of electrodes in ambient electrolytic decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Kai Seng; Chin, Jitkai; Wahida Ku Chik, Tengku F.

    2013-01-01

    Decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) solution with electrolytic decomposition method has attracted much attention in recent years due to its efficiencies and practicability. However, the phenomenon has not been well-studied till now. By utilizing mathematical model currently available, the effect of water content and power used for decomposition was studied. Experiment data shows that sacrificial material such as copper or aluminum outperforms inert electrodes in the decomposition ...

  15. Radiation degradation of Congo Red in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongjuan; Wang Min; Yang Ruiyuan; Wang Wenfeng; Shen Zhongqun; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    About one-half of the dyes used in textile industry are azo dyes, and as a consequence a lot of azo dyes are released into the environment with industrial wastewater. Because of complex structures of the dyes, biological, physical and chemical treatments of dye effluents are inefficient. In this study, radiation degradation of Congo Red in aqueous solutions was investigated in different reaction systems. Both pulsed radiolysis and laser flash photolysis experiments were carried out for better understandings of degradation mechanisms involved in the treatments. Congo Red solutions saturated by air, N 2 O, O 2 , N 2 O or N 2 and added with tert-butanol were irradiated to 0-14.8 kGy. The absorption spectra, degradation efficiency, TOC (total organic carbon) removal and pH changes of the solutions were investigated. The main radiolytic products from Congo Red samples irradiated in steady-state were determined by HPLC-MS. And probable reaction mechanisms were proposed. Effects of primary species from water radiolysis, such as e aq - , . OH and . O 2 . /HO 2 . on the degradation behavior of the dye were discussed. Below 5 kGy in γ-rays irradiation, the bleaching efficiency of Congo Red was (N 2 +tert-butanol) >O 2 >air>N 2 O>N 2 . Complete degradation of Congo Red was observed at 4.0, 5.5 and 10.2 kGy irradiation of the aqueous solutions saturated by N 2 with tert-butanol added, O 2 and N 2 O, respectively. With just oxidative or reductive species, highly conjugated part of Congo Red molecules could be destroyed. While oxidative species produced from water radiolysis could oxidize the Congo Red more effectively, making the dye to break into fatty acids and CO 2 finally. In the solution saturated with N 2 and air, the primary active species were both of oxidative and reductive and the highly conjugated part of Congo Red molecules could not be destroyed completely up to 14.8 kGy of γ-ray irradiation. It was more difficult to achieve high TOC removal in comparison with

  16. Direct and indirect photodegradation of estriol in the presence of humic acid, nitrate and iron complexes in water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Kai [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Zuo, Yuegang, E-mail: yzuo@umassd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The photochemical behavior of a natural estrogen estriol (E3) was investigated in the presence of the natural photoreactive constituents including nitrate, iron(III), and humic acid (HA). The direct photodegradation of E3 increased with increasing incident light intensity, decreasing initial concentration of E3 and increasing pH in the range of 6.0 to 10.0. The direct photodegradation of the deprotonated speciation of E3 was much faster than that of its protonated form. The presence of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and iron(III) promoted the photochemical loss of E3 in the aqueous solutions. The quenching experiments verified that hydroxyl radicals were predominantly responsible for the indirect photodegradation of E3. HA could act as photosensitizer, light screening agent and free radical quencher. For the first time, the enhancement or inhibition effect of HA on photodegradation was found to depend on the irradiation light intensity. HA enhanced the photodegradation of E3 under sunlight or weak irradiation of simulated sunlight. In contrast, under high irradiation light intensity, HA inhibited the photodegradation. The hydroxylation photoproducts were identified using GC-MS and the photodegradation pathway of E3 was proposed. - Highlights: • Direct and indirect photodegradation of estriol (E3) were first investigated. • The direct photodegradation of E3 increased with increasing pH of the solutions. • The light intensity affected the photosensitization effect of humic acid. • Nitrate and iron(III) promoted the photodecomposition of estriol in water. • The ·OH oxidation products of E3 was first determined.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on rice protein aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Stefania; Bal, Oya; Cemmi, Alessia; Di Sarcina, Ilaria

    2018-05-01

    The use of proteins as natural biopolymers are sensibly increasing in several application fields such as food industry, packaging and environment protection. In particular, rice proteins (RP) present good nutritional, hypoallergenic and healthful properties very interesting for human consumption. Since ionizing radiation can be successfully applied on protein containing systems involved in different industrial processes, this work aims to determine the effect of gamma radiation on 5 wt%-7.5 wt% RP aqueous solutions in a wide range of absorbed doses up to around 40 kGy. The changes of RP secondary and tertiary structures and their chemical composition were followed by UV-VIS absorbance spectroscopy, luminescence analysis and pH measurements. The experimental data showed the occurrence of the unfolding of RP chains with the increase of the absorbed dose and the formation of new molecules, due to the reaction among tryptophane and tyrosine amino acids and the radical species induced by gamma radiation. The results are also confirmed by the modification of the pH values measured for the irradiated solutions.

  18. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, W.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.; Deutzmann, R.; Hochmuth, E.

    2005-01-01

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are φ D (riboflavin, pH 8) ∼ 7.8 x 10 -3 , φ D (FMN, pH 5.6) ∼ 7.3 x 10 -3 , φ D (FMN, pH 8) ∼ 4.6 x 10 -3 , φ D (FAD, pH 8) ∼ 3.7 x 10 -4 , φ D (lumichrome, pH 8) ∼ 1.8 x 10 -4 , and φ D (lumiflavin, pH 8) approx. 1.1 x 10 -5 . In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out

  19. Degradation of diuron in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zheng Zheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: zzheng@nju.edu.cn; Sun Yabing; Luan Jingfei; Wang Zhen; Wang Lianhong; Feng Jianfang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Degradation of diuron in aqueous solution was conducted in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor and the proposed degradation mechanism was investigated in detail. The factors that affect the degradation of diuron were examined. The degradation efficiency of diuron and the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) increased with increasing input power, and the degradation of diuron by DBD fitted first-order kinetics. Both strong acidic and alkaline solution conditions could improve diuron degradation efficiency and TOC removal rate. Degradation of diuron could be accelerated or inhibited in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} depending on the dosage. The degradation efficiency increased dramatically with adding Fe{sup 2+}. The removal of TOC and the amount of the detected Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} were increased in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. The concentrations of oxalic and acetic acids were almost the same in the absence and presence of Fe{sup 2+}, but high concentration of formic acid was accumulated in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. The main degradation pathway of diuron by DBD involved a series of dechlorination-hydroxylation, dealkylation and oxidative opening of the aromatic ring processes.

  20. Metal ion removal from aqueous solution using physic seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Masita; Maitra, Saikat; Ahmad, Naveed; Bustam, Azmi; Sen, T K; Dutta, Binay K

    2010-07-15

    The potential of physic seed hull (PSH), Jantropha curcas L. as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated. It has been found that the amount of adsorption for both Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increased with the increase in initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the solution pH (in acidic range), but decreased with the increase in the particle size of the adsorbent. The adsorption process for both metal ions on PSH consists of three stages-a rapid initial adsorption followed by a period of slower uptake of metal ions and virtually no uptake at the final stage. The kinetics of metal ions adsorption on PSH followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted in the three adsorption isotherms-Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data best fit in the Langmuir isotherm indication monolayer chemisorption of the metal ions. The adsorption capacity of PSH for both Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) was found to be comparable with other available adsorbents. About 36-47% of the adsorbed metal could be leached out of the loaded PSH using 0.1M HCl as the eluting medium. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Processes for working-up an aqueous fluosilicic acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha O. Toure

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous fluosilicic acid solutions were once considered to be only adverse by-products of phosphoric acid production, which required treatment to prevent ecosystem destruction when discharged into the sea. However, a range of chemicals can be generated by the transformation of this industrial waste product. Through experiments undertaken in the laboratory, we have shown the possibility of caustic soda production. Volumetric analysis showed caustic soda to be present as a 6%– 7%solution with yields of about 70% – 80%by weight. Two processes were investigated for the caustification of sodium fluoride, using different precipitates: sodium chloride and ethanol and are described by modelling caustification curves. The activation energies of precipitation determined by semi-empirical correlations showed that precipitation by ethanol (EA = 933.536 J/mol was more successful than precipitation by sodium chloride (EA = 7452.405 J/mol. Analyses performed on the precipitates highlighted compositions that are essential and useful constituents in the cement industry.

  2. Thermodynamics of aqueous solutions containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschlad, K. [Technical University of Berlin, Chair of Thermodynamics TK 7, Strasse des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Enders, S., E-mail: sabine.enders@tu-berlin.d [Technical University of Berlin, Chair of Thermodynamics TK 7, Strasse des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Hydrogels undergo reversible and discontinuous volume changes in response to variation of solution conditions such as solvent composition, temperature, salt concentration, and pH. In this contribution we focus our attention on the experimental and theoretical investigation of these swelling equilibria of aqueous cross-linked poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) solutions as well as on the connected demixing behavior of the linear polymer dissolved in water. For the experimental study of the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium an alternative method based on refractive index measurements is suggested. In order to calculate the swelling behavior a model combining an expression for the Gibbs free energy of mixing with an expression for the elastic network is applied. As a model for the Gibbs free energy of mixing the UNIQUAC-approach and the Koningsveld-Kleintjens model are used. For the elastic network contribution again two different theories, namely the phantom network theory and the affine network theory, were applied. Whereas the type of network theory has only a small influence on the calculation results, the Gibbs free energy of mixing has a large impact. Using the UNIQUAC-approach the swelling equilibria can be correlated close to the experimental data, however, this model predicts a homogeneous mixture for linear polymer chains in water. In contrast to this situation the Koningsveld-Kleintjens model does a good job in calculating the swelling equilibria as well as the demixing curve, however, the adjustable parameter must be changed slightly.

  3. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, W.; Shirdel, J.; Zirak, P.; Penzkofer, A.; Hegemann, P.; Deutzmann, R.; Hochmuth, E.

    2005-01-01

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are ϕD(riboflavin, pH 8) ≈ 7.8 × 10 -3, ϕD(FMN, pH 5.6) ≈ 7.3 × 10 -3, ϕD(FMN, pH 8) ≈ 4.6 × 10 -3, ϕD(FAD, pH 8) ≈ 3.7 × 10 -4, ϕD(lumichrome, pH 8) ≈ 1.8 × 10 -4, and ϕD(lumiflavin, pH 8) ⩽ 1.1 × 10 -5. In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out.

  4. Photo-induced degradation of some flavins in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzer, W. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Shirdel, J. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Zirak, P. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A. [Institut II-Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Deutzmann, R. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Hochmuth, E. [Institut fuer Biochemie I, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-01-10

    The blue-light induced photo-degradation of FMN, FAD, riboflavin, lumiflavin, and lumichrome in aqueous solution at pH 8 is studied by measurement of absorption coefficient spectral changes due to continuous excitation at 428 nm. The quantum yields of photo-degradation determined are {phi}{sub D}(riboflavin, pH 8) {approx} 7.8 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FMN, pH 5.6) {approx} 7.3 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FMN, pH 8) {approx} 4.6 x 10{sup -3}, {phi}{sub D}(FAD, pH 8) {approx} 3.7 x 10{sup -4}, {phi}{sub D}(lumichrome, pH 8) {approx} 1.8 x 10{sup -4}, and {phi}{sub D}(lumiflavin, pH 8) approx. 1.1 x 10{sup -5}. In a mass-spectroscopic analysis, the photo-products of FMN dissolved in water (solution pH is 5.6) were identified to be lumichrome and the lumiflavin derivatives dihydroxymethyllumiflavin, formyllumiflavin, and lumiflavin-hydroxy-acetaldehyde. An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of the primary photoproducts of FMN at pH 8 is carried out.

  5. Electrodialysis potential for fractionation of multicomponent aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorzek Martyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed at the evaluation of the batch electrodialysis (ED run in the course of treatment and desalination of various aqueous mixtures containing both mineral (sodium fluoride, sodium chloride and organic substances (dyes or humic acids. The commercial ED stack (PCCell Bed equipped with standard anion-exchange and cation-exchange membranes or monovalent selective anion-exchange membranes was used. The ED experiments were performed at a constant current density (1.56 or 1.72 mA/cm2. The mechanism of ion migration as well as membrane deposition for variable solution composition and various membrane types was analyzed The calculated mass balance and electrical energy demand for each ED run were helpful in evaluating the membrane fouling intensity. It was found that the presence of organic substances in the treated solution had a minor impact on energy consumption, but rather strongly affected chloride flux. The extent of organics deposition was significantly lower for monovalent selective anion-exchange membranes than for classic anion-exchange membranes.

  6. CHROMIUM (III ADSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY Rhizophora apiculata TANNINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Oo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of Cr3+ from aqueous solution by Rhizophora apiculata tannins was investigated in batch shaking experiments. Tannins extracted from R. apiculata mangrove barks was chemically modified with formaldehyde in the basic solution of sodium hydroxide. The performance of the produced adsorbent on the adsorption of Cr3+ was evaluated based on the effect of several parameters like initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial Cr3+ concentration and contact time. Equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Dubinin-Raduskhevich (D-R isotherms. The fitness of the isotherms to the experimental data was determined by non-linear regression analysis. Adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 10.14 mg Cr3+/g of adsorbent at optimum adsorption pH of 4.5. Mean energy of adsorption with the value of 10.35 kJ/mol indicated that adsorption Cr3+ on Rhizophora apiculata tannins followed ion-exchange reaction. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model.   Keywords:  Rhizophora apiculata, tannins, isotherms, kinetic, chromium.

  7. Gamma Radiolysis Studies of Aqueous Solution of Brilliant Green Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Parwate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of γ–radiation on colour intensity of aqueous solution of Brilliant Green has been investigated at two different concentrations. The degradation of Brilliant Green (BG has also been investigated in presence of suspended ZnO, by adding different amounts of ZnO. Simultaneously the conductance and pH of each solution system were measured before and after γ-irradiation. All the γ–irradiations were performed at a dose rate of 0.60 kGyhr-1 in GC-900. The maximum dose required for the complete degradation of the dye was found to be 0.39 kGy. G(-dye values were found to decrease with increase in gamma dose and were in the range 4.26 - 12.81. The conductance (7.6 - 25.3 μS and pH values increased marginally with dose for both the concentrations. The rate of decolouration was found to be high at lower doses and the efficiency of dye removal was higher at low concentration of the dye. This may be attributed to the presence of reaction by-products from the destruction of parent compound build up and compete for reaction intermediate species. The rate of reaction and rate constants were calculated and it was found that the degradation reaction follows first order kinetics. It was found that the decolouration percentage was more in dye systems in absence of ZnO.

  8. Electrodialysis potential for fractionation of multicomponent aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzek, Martyna; Majewska-Nowak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The paper aimed at the evaluation of the batch electrodialysis (ED) run in the course of treatment and desalination of various aqueous mixtures containing both mineral (sodium fluoride, sodium chloride) and organic substances (dyes or humic acids). The commercial ED stack (PCCell Bed) equipped with standard anion-exchange and cation-exchange membranes or monovalent selective anion-exchange membranes was used. The ED experiments were performed at a constant current density (1.56 or 1.72 mA/cm2). The mechanism of ion migration as well as membrane deposition for variable solution composition and various membrane types was analyzed The calculated mass balance and electrical energy demand for each ED run were helpful in evaluating the membrane fouling intensity. It was found that the presence of organic substances in the treated solution had a minor impact on energy consumption, but rather strongly affected chloride flux. The extent of organics deposition was significantly lower for monovalent selective anion-exchange membranes than for classic anion-exchange membranes.

  9. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of salicylates in aerated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induced degradation of acetylsalicylic acid, its hydrolysis product salicylic acid and a salicylic acid derivative 5-sulpho-salicylic acid, was investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by UV–vis spectrophotometry, HPLC separation and diode-array or MS/MS detection, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon content and by Vibrio fischeri toxicity measurements. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to degrade these molecules readily, and first degradation products were hydroxylated derivatives in all cases. Due to the by-products, among them hydrogen peroxide, the toxicity first increased and then decreased with the absorbed dose. With prolonged irradiation complete mineralization was achieved. - Highlights: • In OH induced reactions of salicylates first products are hydroxylated derivatives. • With prolonged irradiation dihydroxy derivatives also form. • In aerated solutions the one-electron oxidant OH induces 3–4 oxidations. • Toxicity first increases and then decreases with dose mainly due to H 2 O 2 formation. • The toxicity in tap water is smaller than in pure water

  10. Catalytic membrane in reduction of aqueous nitrates: operational principles and catalytic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinitch, O.M.; Cuperus, F.P.; Nosova, L.V.; Gribov, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic membrane with palladium-copper active component supported over the macroporous ceramic membrane, and a series of γ-Al 2O 3 supported Pd-Cu catalysts were prepared and investigated. In reduction of nitrate ions by hydrogen in water at ambient temperature, pronounced internal diffusion

  11. Interaction of gypsum with lead in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astilleros, J.M., E-mail: jmastill@geo.ucm.es [Dpto. Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Godelitsas, A. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Rodriguez-Blanco, J.D. [School of Earth and Environments, Faculty of Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Diaz, L. [Dpto. Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Jose Antonio Novais, 2, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, M. [Dpto. de Geologia, Universidad de Oviedo, E-30005 Oviedo (Spain); Lagoyannis, A.; Harissopulos, S. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , GR-15310 Attiki (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    Sorption processes on mineral surfaces are a critical factor in controlling the distribution and accumulation of potentially harmful metals in the environment. This work investigates the effectiveness of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) to sequester Pb. The interaction of gypsum fragments with Pb-bearing solutions (10, 100 and 1000 mg/L) was monitored by performing macroscopic batch-type experiments conducted at room temperature. The aqueous phase composition was periodically determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Regardless of the [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial}, a [Pb{sub aq}]{sub final} < 4 mg/L was always reached. The uptake process was fast (t < 1 h) for [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} {>=} 100 mg/L and significantly slower (t > 1 week) for [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} = 10 mg/L. Speciation calculations revealed that after a long time of interaction (1 month), all the solutions reached equilibrium with respect to both gypsum and anglesite. For [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} {>=} 100 mg/L, sorption takes place mainly via the rapid dissolution of gypsum and the simultaneous formation of anglesite both on the gypsum surface and in the bulk solution. In the case of [Pb{sub aq}]{sub initial} = 10 mg/L, no anglesite precipitation was observed, but surface spectroscopy (proton Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, p-RBS) confirmed the formation of Pb-bearing surface layers on the (0 1 0) gypsum surface in this case also. This study shows that the surface of gypsum can play an important role in the attenuation of Pb in contaminated waters.

  12. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1991-07-01

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 o C. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300 o C. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130 o C, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  13. Degradation of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zarean

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It could be found that the UV/O3 process is a method for DEHP degradation in aqueous solution and may be recommended as a supplement with other processes for treatment of solutions containing low DEHP concentrations.

  14. A thermodynamic model for aqueous solutions of liquid-like density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, K.S.

    1987-06-01

    The paper describes a model for the prediction of the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aqueous solutions and discusses its applications. The model was initially developed for solutions near room temperature, but has been found to be applicable to aqueous systems up to 300/sup 0/C or slightly higher. A liquid-like density and relatively small compressibility are assumed. A typical application is the prediction of the equilibrium between an aqueous phase (brine) and one or more solid phases (minerals). (ACR)

  15. Establishing the traceability of a uranyl nitrate solution to a standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A uranyl nitrate solution for use as a Working Calibration and Test Material (WCTM) was characterized, using a statistically designed procedure to document traceability to National Bureau of Standards Reference Material (SPM-960). A Reference Calibration and Test Material (PCTM) was prepared from SRM-960 uranium metal to approximate the acid and uranium concentration of the WCTM. This solution was used in the characterization procedure. Details of preparing, handling, and packaging these solutions are covered. Two outside laboratories, each having measurement expertise using a different analytical method, were selected to measure both solutions according to the procedure for characterizing the WCTM. Two different methods were also used for the in-house characterization work. All analytical results were tested for statistical agreement before the WCTM concentration and limit of error values were calculated. A concentration value was determined with a relative limit of error (RLE) of approximately 0.03% which was better than the target RLE of 0.08%. The use of this working material eliminates the expense of using SRMs to fulfill traceability requirements for uranium measurements on this type material. Several years' supply of uranyl nitrate solution with NBS traceability was produced. The cost of this material was less than 10% of an equal quantity of SRM-960 uranium metal

  16. Adsorption of Cu 2+ , As 3+ and Cd 2+ ions from aqueous solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and As3+ ions on eggshell from aqueous solution was studied under batch conditions at 30, 40, 50 and 60oC and concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 60 and 80 mg/l. The partition coefficient for the ions between aqueous solution and chicken eggshell increased with time and with increase in the ...

  17. Direct spectrophotometric analysis of low level Pu (III) in Pu(IV) nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageswaran, P.; Suresh Kumar, K.; Kumar, T.; Gayen, J.K.; Shreekumar, B.; Dey, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Among the various methods demonstrated for the conversion of plutonium nitrate to its oxide, the oxalate precipitation process either as Pu (III) or Pu (IV) oxalate gained wide acceptance. Since uranous nitrate is the most successful partitioning agent used in the PUREX process for the separation of Pu from the bulk amount of U, the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation of the purified nitrate solution will not give required decontamination from U. Hence Pu IV oxalate precipitation process is a better option to achieve the end user's specified PuO 2 product. Prior to the precipitation process, ensuring of the Pu (IV) oxidation state is essential. Hence monitoring of the level of Pu oxidation state either Pu (III) or Pu (IV) in the feed solution plays a significant role to establish complete conversion of Pu (III). The method in vogue to estimate Pu(lV) content is extractive radiometry using Theonyl Trifluoro Acetone (TTA). As the the method warrants a sample preparation with respect to acidity, a precise measurement of Pu (IV) without affecting the Pu(III) level in the feed sample is difficult. Present study is focused on the exploration of direct spectrophotometry using an optic fiber probe of path length of 40mm to monitor the low level of Pu(III) after removing the bulk Pu(lV) which interfere in the Pu(III) absorption spectrum, using TTA-TBP synergistic mixture without changing the sample acidity

  18. Separation of Th from aqueous solutions using activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutahyali, C.; Eral, M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the last century, thorium has been extensively used in a variety of applications. These applications produce various gaseous, liquid and solid wastes containing isotopes of thorium. Liquid wastes are freed into the surface or the underground waters of mines. Solid and liquid wastes are also produced during nuclear fuel production. Direct toxicity of thorium is low due to its stability at ambient temperatures; however thorium fine powder is self-ignitable to thorium oxide. When thorium nitrate enters living organisms it is mainly localized in liver, spleen and marrow and it precipitates in a hydroxide form. Investigations concerning the removal or minimization of the thorium concentration in the waste waters are of considerable importance environmental point of view. Adsorption is an important technique in separation and purification processes. Among many types of adsorbent materials, activated carbons are the most widely used, because of their large adsorptive capacity and low cost. Activated carbons are unique adsorbents because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Separation and purification processes based on adsorption technique are also important in nuclear industry where activated carbon is often used for the separation of metal ions from solutions, due to its selective adsorption, high radiation stability and high purity. The activated carbons used in this study were prepared by the chemical activation of acrylic fiber. The chemical composition of acrylic fiber is a copolymer of acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate is called also poliacrylonitryl fiber. The effects of carbonization conditions resulting activated carbon were examined. Precursor/activating agent (KOH and ZnCl 2 ) ratio and carbonization temperature were investigated for the preparation of adsorbent. Adsorption experiments were carried out by a batch technique. The adsorption of thorium was studied as a function of

  19. Speciation analysis on Eu(3) in aqueous solution using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotokezaka, H.; Tanaka, S.; Nagasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of the chemical behaviour of lanthanides and actinides in the geosphere is important for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal. However, determination of speciation for lanthanides and actinides is difficult, because it is too hard to distinguish between metal ion and colloidal metal in aqueous solution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can detect both ions and microparticles of metals in aqueous solution, especially, high sensitive to microparticles. In this study, we analysed Eu(III) ion and Eu 2 O 3 particle in aqueous solution by LIBS, and measured the hydrolysis behaviour of Eu(III) in aqueous solution. Furthermore, we tried to detect the plasma emission of Eu(III) ions sorbed on TiO 2 particles, and also tried to observe the adsorption behaviour of Eu(III) ions onto TiO 2 particles in aqueous solution. (authors)

  20. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  1. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  2. Nitroimidazoles adsorption on activated carbon cloth from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Pérez, R; Orellana-Garcia, F; Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Velo-Gala, I; López-Ramón, M V; Alvarez-Merino, M A

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the equilibrium and adsorption kinetics of nitroimidazoles on activated carbon cloth (ACC), determining the main interactions responsible for the adsorption process and the diffusion mechanism of these compounds on this material. The influence of the different operational variables, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature, and type of water (ultrapure, surface, and waste), was also studied. The results obtained show that the ACC has a high capacity to adsorb nitroimidazoles in aqueous solution. Electrostatic interactions play an important role at pHpH values. Modifications of the ACC with NH3, K2S2O8, and O3 demonstrated that its surface chemistry plays a predominant role in nitroimidazole adsorption on this material. The adsorption capacity of ACC is considerably high in surface waters and reduced in urban wastewater, due to the levels of alkalinity and dissolved organic matter present in the different types of water. Finally, the results of applying kinetic models revealed that the global adsorption rate of dimetridazole and metronidazole is controlled by intraparticle diffusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activated carbons employed to remove ionic liquids from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Tufail, M.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids (ILs) have been separated from aqueous solutions by adsorption using a raw Chinese activated carbon (CAC), a bleached Chinese activated carbon (BAC) and an acid treated Chinese activated carbon (AAC) as adsorbent. Adsorption isotherms data of ionic liquids on activated carbons has been obtained. The influence of both cations and anions was analyzed by studying three different ILs. The role of surface chemistry of the adsorbent was also examined using activated carbons modified by oxidative treatments. The BET surface area of activated carbons was measured by nitrogen adsorption. The results of this work indicate that activated carbon is an attractive adsorbent to remove ionic liquids from water streams. It has also been demonstrated that the adsorption of hydrophilic ionic liquids can be improved by modifying the amount and nature of oxygen groups on the activated carbon surface specially by increasing basic groups. The adsorption data for isotherms was studied at acidic, neutral and basic pH values. (author)

  4. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine molecules and that the binding occurred by the interaction of the aliphatic hydrophobic protons of the sugar with the caffeine face. This intermolecular association via face-to-face stacking, as suggested by simulation studies, is similar to that found for sucrose and for D-glucose, which overwhelmingly exists in the pyranose ring chair form in aqueous solution, as well as for caffeine-caffeine association. The sorbitol molecules, however, exist as relatively extended chains and are, therefore, topologically quite different from the sugars sucrose and glucose. The comparison of the average conformation of sorbitol molecules bound to caffeine with that of molecules in the free state shows a substantial similarity.

  5. Radical-induced dephosphorylation of fructose phosphates in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.; Sonntag, C. von

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen free N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions of D-fructose-1-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate were γ-irradiated. Inorganic phosphate and phosphate free sugars (containing four to six carbon atoms) were identified and their G-values measured. D-Fructose-1-phosphate yields (G-values in parentheses) inorganic phosphate (1.6), hexos-2-ulose (0.12), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.16), tetrulose (0.05) and 3-deoxytetrulose (0.15). D-Fructose-6-phosphate yields inorganic phosphate (1.7), hexos-5-ulose (0.1), 6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose (0.36), 3-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose and 2-deoxyhexos-5-ulose (together 0.18). On treatment with alkaline phosphatase further deoxy sugars were recognized and in fructose-1-phosphate G(6-deoxy-2,5-hexodiulose) was increased to a G-value of 0.4. Dephosphorylation is considered to occur mainly after OH attack at C-5 and C-1 in fructose-1-phosphate and at C-5 and C-6 in fructose-6-phosphate. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.; Penzkofer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous solutions is studied by absorption spectra measurement under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Samples without exogenous reducing agent and with the exogenous reducing agents ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) are investigated. Under anaerobic conditions the photo-induced reduction with and without reducing agents is irreversible. Under aerobic conditions the photo-reduction without added reducing agent is small compared to the photo-degradation, and the photo-reduction of FMN by the reducing agents is reversible (re-oxidation in the dark). During photo-excitation of FMN the dissolved oxygen is consumed by singlet oxygen formation and subsequent chemical reaction. After light switch-off slow re-oxidation (slow absorption recovery) occurs due to air in-diffusion from surface. EDTA degradation by FMN excitation leads to oxygen scavenging. The quantum efficiencies of photo-reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are determined. The re-oxidation of reduced FMN under aerobic conditions and due to air injection is investigated

  7. Observation of electron-transfer-mediated decay in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Isaak; Seidel, Robert; Thürmer, Stephan; Pohl, Marvin N.; Aziz, Emad F.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Muchová, Eva; Slavíček, Petr; Winter, Bernd; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.

    2017-07-01

    Photoionization is at the heart of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which gives access to important information on a sample's local chemical environment. Local and non-local electronic decay after photoionization—in which the refilling of core holes results in electron emission from either the initially ionized species or a neighbour, respectively—have been well studied. However, electron-transfer-mediated decay (ETMD), which involves the refilling of a core hole by an electron from a neighbouring species, has not yet been observed in condensed phase. Here we report the experimental observation of ETMD in an aqueous LiCl solution by detecting characteristic secondary low-energy electrons using liquid-microjet soft XPS. Experimental results are interpreted using molecular dynamics and high-level ab initio calculations. We show that both solvent molecules and counterions participate in the ETMD processes, and different ion associations have distinctive spectral fingerprints. Furthermore, ETMD spectra are sensitive to coordination numbers, ion-solvent distances and solvent arrangement.

  8. Radiolytic studies of the cumyloxyl radical in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neta, P.; Dizdaroglu, M.; Simic, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Formation and reactions of the cumyloxyl radical in aqueous solutions were studied by steady-state and pulse radiolytic techniques. Cumene hydroperoxide reacts with esub(aq)sup(-) (k = 4.4x10 9 M -1 s -1 ) to yield the cumyloxyl radical. The spectrum recorded after the pulse indicates formation of a species absorbing at 250 nm. This product was identified as acetophenone, which is formed by the fragmentation of the cumyloxyl radical. By comparison of the pseudo-first-order rates of esub(aq)sup(-) decay at 600 nm with the rate of production of acetophenone at 245 nm at increasing concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide, it was possible to derive a rate constant of 1.0x10 7 s -1 for the cleavage of cumyloxyl to acetophenone and methyl radical. This value is higher than that measured previously in organic solvents (1x10 6 s -1 ), as expected. HPLC analysis of the radiation products acetophenone and cumyl alcohol permitted determination of rate constants for hydrogen abstraction by the cumyloxyl radical, in competition with the fragmentation. The rate constants for H abstraction from i-PrOH, EtOH, and MeOH by CmO were found to be 9.9x10 6 , 3.8x10 6 , and 8.5x10 5 M -1 s -1 , respectively

  9. THERMODYNAMICS OF ETHANOLAMMONIUM CATIONES DISSOCIATION IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature data on the thermodynamics of ethanolamines onium cations dissociation have been systematized and generalized. The correlation between these cations dissociation thermodynamic functions (DH and DS and physicochemical properties (Tmp., Tbp, Pp, lgPow et al. has been revealed. There was a correlation between lipophilicity determined experimentally and calculated by QSAR. For monoethanolammonium, diethanolammonium, and their N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives it was found dissociation thermodynamic functions to depend on bases lgPow. Acid-base dissociation of TRIS and triethanolamine onium cations does not correspond to said relationship because TRIS (primary amine, TEA (tertiary amine act differently on aqueous solutions of SO2. TEA, unlike MEA, DEA and MMEA, has a salting out effect towards sulfur dioxide because of competing hydration that promotes sulfite «onium» salts hydrolysis. TRIS promotes S(IV → S(VI sulphooxidation, in contrast to another ethanolamines. Enthalpy–enthropy compensation with isothermodynamic temperature 303 K has been recorded. The revealed correlations may be useful in developing of procedures for air sanitary cleaning from acidic gases; chemisorbents immobilized for gas and ion exchange chromatography; potentiometric methods for fluorocomplex acids determinations. The use of monoethanolamine is most promising to obtain chemisorbents because the thermodynamic functions of its onium cation acid-base dissociation are least dependent on temperature compared to other etanolammonium cations.

  10. Sonochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticide in dilute aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robina Farooq; FENG Kai-lin; S. F. Shaukat; HUANG Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was found to accelerate the rate of hydrolysis of omethoate in aqueous solution over the pH range of 2-12. Process parameters studied include pH, steady-state temperature, concentration, and the type of gases. Greater than 96% hydrolysis was observed in 30 minutes through this process and the rate of destruction increased with the help of more soluble and low thermal inert gas. So with Krypton, omethoate was found to undergo rapid destruction as compared with Argon. In the presence of ultrasound, the observed first-order rate of hydrolysis of omethoate is found to be independent of pH. The formation of transient supercritical water(SCW) appears to be an important factor in the acceleration of chemical reactions in the presence of ultrasound. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism for omethoate destruction in water was formulated. Experimental results and theoretical kinetic mechanism demonstrated that the most of the omethoate undergo destruction inside the cavitating holes. A very less effect of temperature on the degradation of omethoate within a temperature range of 20-70℃ proves that a small quantity of omethoate undergoes secondary destruction in the bulk liquid.

  11. The photochemistry of neptunium in aqueous perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.; Osborne, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The photochemistry of neptunium ions in aqueous perchloric acid has been investigated using 254 and 300 nm UV radiation. In the absence of other reagents, Np(IV) and (V) oxidized to Np(VI), in a stepwise fashion, with individual quantum efficiencies for each step that vary from 0.02 to 0.004. Decreasing acid concentration favors the Np(IV) → Np(V) reaction whereas it hinders the Np(V) → Np(VI) photo-oxidation. When ethanol, acetaldehyde and other mild reducing agents are added to neptunium-perchloric acid solutions which are then photolyzed, the Np species are reduced to Np(III) in a stepwise fashion with individual quantum efficiencies that vary from 0.07 to 0.006. The overall photoredox reactions of neptunium are subject to competing secondary product reactions that become significant as the photolysis products accumulate. Absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the changes in Np oxidation states and reference spectra of the various Np oxidation states are given for 1.0 N HClO 4 . The Np species have absorption bands in the 300 to 1320 nm region that obey Beer's law only when they were properly resolved. (author)

  12. Degradation of thymine in aqueous solution containing 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fuji, Izumi

    1985-01-01

    Thymine aqueous solutions were prepared at a concentration of 5 x 10 -4 M (contained 14 C-thymine and buffered at pH 7.0) and were irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays and 3 H beta-rays from 3 HHO, in the presence of N 2 , O 2 , N 2 O or t-BuOH-N 2 . Thin-layer chromatography was carried out bidimensionally and autoradiography was performed. Considerable difference in the dose-yield curves was observed between beta-irradiation and gamma-irradiation. Oxygen enhancement ratio, 1.35 and 1.06 at a dose of 1.5 x 10 3 Gy, were obtained by gamma-rays and by beta-rays, respectively, for thymine degradation. Oxygen effect on product formation was very low in beta-irradiation. The yield of 5-hydroxy-5-methylbarbituric acid + 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin was much higher in beta-irradiation than in gamma-irradiation under N 2 and N 2 O. These results lead to the conclusion that in beta-irradiation there could be a progression of oxidation of materials with some species differed from OH radicals. (author)

  13. Degradation of adenine in aqueous solution containing 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Fuji, Izumi

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous adenine solutions of 5 x 10 -4 M (containing 14 C-adenine and buffered pH 7.0) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays and 3 H beta-rays from tritiated water in the presence of N 2 , O 2 , N 2 O or t-BuOH-N 2 . Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out bidimensionally for separation of the radiolytically produced products and autoradiography was performed. Considerable differences were observed in the dose-yield curves for the decomposition of adenine and for the product formation between gamma- and beta-radiolyses. As for the degradation yield, oxygen enhancement ratios, 3.19 in gamma-irradiation and 1.08 in beta-irradiation, were obtained at a dose of 3.0 x 10 3 Gy. Similar products were produced both under N 2 and O 2 , but there were found a specific reaction of t-butanol radical with adenine, the high yield of hypoxanthine under N 2 O, and the higher degradation of the TLC origin-fixed products in beta-irradiation. The present results on adenine suggest, as reported previously for thymine, that a specific oxidative species is produced from water in beta-radiolysis but not in gamma-radiolysis. (author)

  14. Structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Manish; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes a molecular dynamics simulation study of structure and dynamics of aqueous solution of uranyl ions in water. Structural properties of the system in terms of radial distribution functions and dynamical characteristics as obtained through velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacements have been analyzed. The results for radial distribution functions show the oxygen of water to form the first solvation shell at 2.4 Å around the uranium atom, whereas the hydrogen atoms of water are distributed around the uranium atom with the major peak at around 3.0 Å. Analyses of transport behaviors of ions and water through MSD indicates that the diffusion of the uranyl ion is much less as compared to that of the water molecules. It is also observed that the dynamical behavior of water molecules gets modified due to the presence of uranyl ion. The effect of increase in concentration of uranyl ions on the structure and dynamics of water molecules is also studied

  15. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Ground Pine Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Izanloo, S Nasseri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by pine cone was conducted in batch conditions. Kinetic data and equilibrium removal isotherms were obtained. The influence of different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of cadmium, pine cone mass and particle size, and temperature on the kinetics of cadmium removal was studied. Results showed that the main parameters that played an important role in removal phenomenon were initial cadmium concentration, particle size and pine cone mass. The necessary time to reach equilibrium was between 4 and 7 hours based on the initial concentration of cadmium. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium increased with the decrease of pine cone particle size. The capacity of cadmium adsorption at equilibrium by pine cone increased with the quantity of pine cone introduced (1–4 g/L. Temperature in the range of 20-30°C showed a restricted effect on the removal kinetics (13.56 mg/g at 20°C and a low capacity of adsorption about 11.48 mg/g at 30°C. The process followed pseudo second-order kinetics. The cadmium uptake of pine cone was quantitatively evaluated using adsorption isotherms. Results indicated that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the Freundlich equation.

  16. Pulse radiolysis of adrenaline in acid aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohn, M.; Getoff, N.; Bjergbakke, E.

    1976-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of adrenaline in acid aqueous solutions (pH 1 to 3) was carried out. The rate constants for the reactions of adrenaline with H and 0H were determined: k(H + adr.) = (0.9 +- 0.1) x 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ; k(0H + adr.) = (1.65 +- 0.15) x 10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The H-adduct of adrenaline has two lambdasub(max), at 280 and 355 nm, with epsilon 280 = 420 m 2 mol -1 and epsilon 355 = 390 m 2 mol -1 , which disappears according to a first order reaction, k 1 = 1.4 x 10 3 s -1 . The spectra formed by 0H attack was assigned to the corresponding benzoxy radical with absorption maxima at 285 and 365 nm and epsilon 285 = 620 m 2 mol -1 and epsilon 365 = 105 m 2 mol -1 . Due to the overlapping of the intermediates, no decay kinetics could be obtained. (author)

  17. Flash photolysis of chlorine dioxide in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    The primary process when aqueous solutions of chlorine dioxide are flash photo-lysed by light with a wave length greater than 270 nm is: OClO → hν ClO ( 2 Π) + O ( 3 P). The photochemical decomposition is characterized by the formation of small quantities of O ( 3 P) atoms and of equal amounts of chlorine atoms and molecular oxygen, the latter originating in the reaction: ClOO → Cl + O 2 . The isomer ClOO is formed by the germinate recombination of ClO and O, a process which is twice as important as diffusion of the fragments into the mass of the solution and one which represents 30 per cent of the decomposition of the chlorine dioxide. Under our experimental conditions, the lifetime of the ClOO is less than one microsecond. Chlorine atoms are precursors of Cl 2 O 2 , whose UV absorption spectrum has been determined, and which is formed by the reactions: Cl + OClO → Cl 2 O 2 ; Cl + Cl - → Cl 2- ; Cl 2- + OClO → Cl 2 O 2 + Cl - k = (1,0 ±0,1) 10 9 M -1 s -1 . Cl 2 O 2 disappears by a first-order process which leads to the formation of the ions Cl - and ClO 3 - . Competition between the reactions: O ( 3 P) + O 2 → O 3 ; O ( 3 P) + OClO → ClO 3 . ( k OClO + O)/( k O 2 + O) = 1.85±0.25 has been studied and the molar extinction coefficient of ClO 3 determined at its absorption maximum (255 nm): ε 255 nm = (920 ± 90) M -1 cm -1 . (author) [fr

  18. Pulse radiolysis of butyl acrylate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, P.; Ulanski, P.; Rosiak, J.M.; Mohid, N.; Zaman, K.; Manshol, W.

    1998-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis of n-butyl acrylate (nBA) in aqueous solution was studied. The rate constant of the reaction of nBA with hydroxyl radicals was calculated as 1.5x10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The absorption spectrum of the OH · -nBA adduct appeared to have a broad maximum at 300 nm. This spectrum was attributed to the α-carbon centred radicals. It decayed with the first-order rate constant k=1.5x10 4 s -1 (pH 10.8). The rate constant of the nBA reaction with hydrated electrons was determined as k=1.6x10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The spectrum of H · -nBA adduct was similar to that recorded for OH · adduct. It decayed with first-order kinetics at k=1.0x10 4 s -1 . Spectra of the electron adduct were characterised by the band with a maximum at 285 nm (pH 10.0) or at 280 nm (pH 4.0) with ε=10500 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1 . In acidic solution, radical anion formed upon addition of hydrated electrons to the nBA molecule, undergoes fast, reversible protonation. The decay of the reversibly protonated electron adduct was a second-order process at k=2.5x10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . This reaction took place at the carbonyl oxygen. Slow, irreversible protonation of the electron adduct at high pH takes place at the β-carbon atom at k=2.9x10 4 s -1

  19. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovtsev, N. V. [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K. [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ogienko, A. G.; Manakov, A. Yu. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Drebushchak, V. A. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ancharov, A. I.; Boldyreva, E. V. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Yunoshev, A. S. [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-14

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice I{sub h} was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into {beta}-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice I{sub h} and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine 'X-phase') at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into {beta}-polymorph of glycine. The 'X-phase' was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a= 6.648 A, b= 25.867 A, c= 5.610 A, {beta}= 113.12 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator ); the formation of 'X-phase' from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into {beta}-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  20. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  1. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  2. Effect of nitrate on corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in boiling nitric acid solution containing chromium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kim, Seong-Yun; Ebina, Tetsunari; Ito, Tatsuya; Nagano, Nobumichi; Hitomi, Keitaro; Ishii, Keizo; Tokuda, Haruaki

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of chromium and the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel in boiling nitric acid solution containing highly concentrated nitrates were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic measurements, Raman spectral measurements, immersion tests, and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The oxidation rate measurement of chromium from Cr(III) to Cr(VI) was performed by 1 M boiling nitric acid solution containing each highly concentrated nitrates: Al(NO_3)_3, Nd(NO_3)_3, Ca(NO_3)_2, Mg(NO_3)_2, and NaNO_3 as a simulant of uranium nitrate in uranium concentrator in reprocessing plants. As a result, the rate of chromium oxidation was different depending on the added nitrates even at the same nitric acid concentration. In addition, the oxidation rate of chromium was increased with increasing the calculated partial pressure of nitric acid in consideration of the hydration of cation of nitrates. Furthermore, the corrosion rate of type 310 stainless steel was accelerated by the solution having a high chromium oxidation rate containing nitrates. These results indicated that the acceleration of the corrosion rate in the solutions depending on the oxidation rate of chromium, and the rate is affected by the salt-effect of nitrates. (author)

  3. Investigation of the removal of chromium (VI by Nanocomposites Chitosan-tragacanth solution from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Almasi Nahnaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of chromium (VI by Nanocomposites Chitosan-tragacanth solution from aqueous solution. Methods: In this study, chitosan-tragacanth nanocomposites were synthesized and analyzed by electron microscopy (SEM, (TEM and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR for the size and shape of the surface. The nano-composite of chitosan-tragacanth, for the adsorption of chromium (VI in aqueous solution was used as adsorbent. Results: The optimum conditions with multiple experiments to enhance the absorption were evaluated. The highest absorption of Cr (VI was occurred in the adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g, 8 ppm concentration of chromium ions, the pH=6 and also retention time of 50 min; in 298 ˚K temperature. After determining optimal conditions of adsorption, isotherms equations and study and thermodynamic parameters were applied. Adsorption process of chromium (VI on nano-composite chitosan - Tragacanth was conformed with Temkin isotherm. Conclusion: The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy changes, changes in enthalpy and entropy changes in the standard showed that the adsorption process of Cr (VI is spontaneous and heating, and kinetics studies of models Lagergren, Ho , Alovich and intraparticle is used, the results show that the adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second order.

  4. Solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag and slag–metakaolin cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, Nailia R.; Rakhimov, Ravil Z.; Osin, Yury N.; Naumkina, Natalia I.; Gubaidullina, Alfiya M.; Yakovlev, Grigory I.; Shaybadullina, Arina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effectiveness of an AASC matrix for NaNO 3 solution solidification is stated. • XRD, DTA-TG, and X-ray microtomography experiments were performed. • Crystallization of NaNO 3 reduces the shrinkage of hardened AASC-based waste forms. • Metakaolin shortens the setting time and increases the compressive strength of AASC. - Abstract: The solidification of nitrate solutions with alkali-activated slag (AASC) and slag–metakaolin cements (AASMC) and the resulting setting times, compressive strengths, dimensional stability, water resistance, hydration products, microstructures, and macroporous network structures were evaluated. The influences of the alkali activator concentration, mineral composition of metakaolin, ratio of slag to slag + metakaolin, and concentration of NaNO 3 on the cement performance were all evaluated in detail. The compressive strength of cemented nitrate solutions with AASC and AASMC aged for 28 days was from 13.4 to 42 MPa depending on the NaNO 3 concentration. X-ray diffractometer, differential thermal analyzer, and electron microscope analyses suggested that NaNO 3 crystallizes in cementitious matrices without reacting with the hydration products of AASC and AASMC. X-ray microtomography showed that the solidified NaNO 3 solution with a salt concentration of 700 g/l and AASC had a denser microstructure without shrinkage microcracks, a smaller macropore volume, and smaller macropore sizes than hardened AASC-based paste mixed with water

  5. DETERMINING PARAMETERS OF THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION OF A SUBSTANCE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY SELF-REFERENCED REFLECTION THZ SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining dielectric function of liquid solutions and thereby concentrations of substances in aqueous solution or the volatile/non-volatile nature of the liquid by self-referenced reflection THz spectroscopy. Having the aqueous solution in any container with a window al....... The invention is particularly useful for determining alcohol (ethanol) content in aqueous solution containing other substances and particles....

  6. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwu Zhou

    Full Text Available Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS. Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  7. Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine at elevated temperatures: Pt. 2. Solutions containing oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Stuart, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Here, we investigate the effects of oxygen on the radiation chemistry of hydrazine at elevated temperatures. The chemistry of this system is important to reactor coolant chemistry, particularly under start-up conditions when hydrazine is added to suppress corrosion which would otherwise be caused by the ingress of oxygen. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of hydrazine has been investigated previously in the presence of oxygen by Ershov et al., but only at room temperature. In those experiments, both steady-state γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to deduce the mechanism of decomposition of hydrazine in the presence of oxygen. (author)

  8. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs

  9. Nanoscale Stress-Corrosion of Geomaterials in Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, L. J.; Rimsza, J. M.; Matteo, E. N.; Jones, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting subcritical crack propagation in low-permeability geo-materials is an unsolved problem crucial to assessing shale caprocks at CO2 sequestration sites, and controlling fracturing for gas and oil extraction. Experiments indicate that chemical reactions at fluid-material interfaces play a major role in subcritical crack growth by weakening the material and altering crack nucleation and growth rates. However, understanding subsurface fracture has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms relating chemical environment to mechanical outcome, and a lack of capability directly linking atomistic insight to macroscale observables. We are using both molecular simulation and experiment to develop an atomistic-level understanding of the chemical-mechanical coupling that controls subcritical crack propagation. We are investigating fracture of isotropic silica glass in different environments (air, distilled water, and Na+-rich solutions) and will extend our research to include clay minerals in shales. Molecular simulations are performed with ReaxFF, a reactive force field that allows for explicit modeling of bond breaking and formation processes during crack propagation. A coarse-graining method produces calculated fracture toughness values from the atomistic data. We are performing double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) experiments in aqueous environmental chambers and monitoring crack propagation with either a confocal or atomic force microscope. Our results show that silica fracture toughness decreases as the environment changes from air to distilled water to Na+-rich solutions. These results suggest that our newly developed computational and experimental techniques can be used to investigate the impact of fluid composition on crack growth in geo-materials and that we will be able to use these methods to understand coupled chemo-mechanical processes and predict crack propagation in shale minerals. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission

  10. The molar enthalpies of solution and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of some cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cesium chloride, cesium bromide, cesium nitrate, cesium sulfate, cesium formate, and cesium oxalate were determined as a function of temperature. These vapour pressures were used to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients and molar enthalpies of vapourization. Molar enthalpies of solution of cesium chloride, Δ sol H m (T = 295.73 K; m = 0.0622 mol . kg -1 ) = (17.83 ± 0.50) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium bromide, Δ sol H m (T = 293.99 K; m = 0.0238 mol . kg -1 ) = (26.91 ± 0.59) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium nitrate, Δ sol H m (T = 294.68 K; m = 0.0258 mol . kg -1 ) = (37.1 ± 2.3) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium sulfate, Δ sol H m (T = 296.43 K; m = 0.0284 mol . kg -1 ) (16.94 ± 0.43) kJ . mol -1 ; cesium formate, Δ sol H m (T = 295.64 K; m = 0.0283 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.10 ± 0.26) kJ . mol -1 and Δ sol H m (T = 292.64 K; m = 0.0577 mol . kg -1 ) = (11.56 ± 0.56) kJ . mol -1 ; and cesium oxalate, Δ sol H m (T = 291.34 K; m = 0.0143 mol . kg -1 ) = (22.07 ± 0.16) kJ . mol -1 were determined calorimetrically. The purity of the chemicals was generally greater than 0.99 mass fraction, except for HCOOCs and (COOCs) 2 where purities were approximately 0.95 and 0.97 mass fraction, respectively. The uncertainties are one standard deviations

  11. Seasonal dynamics of nitrate and ammonium ion concentrations in soil solutions collected using MacroRhizon suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabala, Cezary; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Cuske, Mateusz; Sowiński, Józef

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions obtained using MacroRhizon miniaturized composite suction cups under field conditions and to determine potential nitrogen leaching from soil fertilized with three types of fertilizers (standard urea, slow-release urea, and ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 90 and 180 kg ha -1 , applied once or divided into two rates. During a 3-year growing experiment with sugar sorghum, the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions was the highest with standard urea fertilization and the lowest in variants fertilized with slow-release urea for most of the months of the growing season. Higher concentrations of both nitrogen forms were noted at the fertilizer dose of 180 kg ha -1 . One-time fertilization, at both doses, resulted in higher nitrate concentrations in June and July, while dividing the dose into two rates resulted in higher nitrate concentrations between August and November. The highest potential for nitrate leaching during the growing season was in July. The tests confirmed that the miniaturized suction cups MacroRhizon are highly useful for routine monitoring the concentration of nitrate and ammonium ions in soil solutions under field conditions.

  12. Role of electrodes in ambient electrolytic decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Seng Koh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN solution with electrolytic decomposition method has attracted much attention in recent years due to its efficiencies and practicability. However, the phenomenon has not been well-studied till now. By utilizing mathematical model currently available, the effect of water content and power used for decomposition was studied. Experiment data shows that sacrificial material such as copper or aluminum outperforms inert electrodes in the decomposition of HAN solution. In the case of using copper wire to electrolyse HAN solutions, approximately 10 seconds is required to reach 100 °C regardless of concentration of HAN. In term of power consumption, 100 W–300 W was found to be the range in which decomposition could be triggered effectively using copper wire as electrodes.

  13. Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions and ANN modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Soma; Mondal, Abhijit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2017-08-01

    The use of sustainable, green and biodegradable natural wastes for Cr(VI) detoxification from the contaminated wastewater is considered as a challenging issue. The present research is aimed to assess the effectiveness of seven different natural biomaterials, such as jackfruit leaf, mango leaf, onion peel, garlic peel, bamboo leaf, acid treated rubber leaf and coconut shell powder, for Cr(VI) eradication from aqueous solution by biosorption process. Characterizations were conducted using SEM, BET and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of operating parameters, viz., pH, initial Cr(VI) ion concentration, adsorbent dosages, contact time and temperature on metal removal efficiency, were studied. The biosorption mechanism was described by the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm model. The biosorption process was exothermic, spontaneous and chemical (except garlic peel) in nature. The sequence of adsorption capacity was mango leaf > jackfruit leaf > acid treated rubber leaf > onion peel > bamboo leaf > garlic peel > coconut shell with maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 35.7 mg g -1 for mango leaf. The treated effluent can be reused. Desorption study suggested effective reuse of the adsorbents up to three cycles, and safe disposal method of the used adsorbents suggested biodegradability and sustainability of the process by reapplication of the spent adsorbent and ultimately leading towards zero wastages. The performances of the adsorbents were verified with wastewater from electroplating industry. The scale-up study reported for industrial applications. ANN modelling using multilayer perception with gradient descent (GD) and Levenberg-Marquart (LM) algorithm had been successfully used for prediction of Cr(VI) removal efficiency. The study explores the undiscovered potential of the natural waste materials for sustainable existence of small and medium sector industries, especially in the third world countries by protecting the environment by eco-innovation.

  14. Determination of uranyl nitrate diffusion coefficients in organic and aqueous media using the porous diaphragm method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierice, G.O.

    1974-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient is one of the parameters necessary for the obtention of the extraction exponential coefficients, that are contained within the H.T.U. (height of transfer unity) calculation expression, when operating with continuous organic phase. The organic phase used was tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and varsol in the 35% and 65% proportions respectively. After each experiment, the uranium content present in each compartment was spectrophotometrically determined and the quantities contained in the aqueous phases were determined by means of volumetric titration. It was found out that the uranyl ion diffusion coefficient is two and one half times less in organic phase, this just being attributed to the greater interactions of the uranyl ions in organic than in aqueous medium

  15. Water-Reflected 233U Uranyl Nitrate Solutions in Simple Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of critical experiments involving 233 U were performed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 9213 Critical Experiments Facility during the years 1952 and 1953. These experiments, reported in Reference 1, were directed toward determining bounding values for the minimum critical mass, minimum critical volume, and maximum safe pipe size of water-moderated solutions of 233 U. Additional information on the critical experiments was found in the experimental logbooks. Two experiments utilizing uranyl nitrate (UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ) solutions in simple geometry are evaluated in this report. Experiment 37 is in a 10.4-inch diameter sphere, and Experiment 39 is in a 10-inch diameter cylinder. The 233 U concentration ranges from 49 to 62 g 233 U/l. Both experiments were reflected by at least 6 inches of water in all directions. Paraffin-reflected uranyl nitrate experiments, also reported in Reference 1, are evaluated elsewhere. Experiments with smaller paraffin reflected 5-, 6-, and 7.5-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-004. Experiments with paraffin reflected 8-, 8.5-, 9-, 10-, and 12-inch diameter cylinders are evaluated in U233-SOL-THERM-002. Later experiments with highly-enriched 235 U uranyl fluoride solution in the same 10.4-inch diameter sphere are reported in HEU-SOL-THERM-010. Both experiments were judged acceptable for use as criticality-safety benchmark experiments

  16. Benchmark calculation for water reflected STACY cores containing low enriched uranyl nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Takemi

    2001-01-01

    In order to validate the availability of criticality calculation codes and related nuclear data library, a series of fundamental benchmark experiments on low enriched uranyl nitrate solution have been performed with a Static Experiment Criticality Facility, STACY in JAERI. The basic core composed of a single tank with water reflector was used for accumulating the systematic data with well-known experimental uncertainties. This paper presents the outline of the core configurations of STACY, the standard calculation model, and calculation results with a Monte Carlo code and JENDL 3.2 nuclear data library. (author)

  17. Osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50 o C and at molalities up to 0.2 mol·kg -1 . The data were fitted to three- and four-parameter equations containing limiting-law terms for a 4:1 electrolyte. The variation of the osmotic coefficients as a function of temperature was found to be small. The results are compared to published values for the osmotic coefficients. (author)

  18. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  19. Kinetics of the decomposition and the estimation of the stability of 10% aqueous and non-aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stability of 10% hydrogen peroxide aqueous and non-aqueous solutions with the addition of 6% (w/w of urea was evaluated. The solutions were stored at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C, and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide proceeded according to first-order kinetics. With the addition of the urea in the solutions, the decomposition rate constant increased and the activation energy decreased. The temperature of storage also affected the decomposition of substance, however, 10% hydrogen peroxide solutions prepared in PEG-300, and stabilized with the addition of 6% (w/w of urea had the best constancy.

  20. Adsorption behaviors of trivalent actinides and lanthanides on pyridine resin in lithium chloride aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuya Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of trivalent actinides and lanthanides on pyridine resin in lithium chloride aqueous solution were investigated. The adsorbed amounts of lanthanides and the degree of mutual separation of lanthanides increased with an increase in the concentration of lithium chloride in aqueous solution. The group separation of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides was observed. This separation phenomenon is similar in a hydrochloric acid solution. However, the adsorption behavior of lanthanides in lithium chloride is different from their behavior in a hydrochloric acid solution. This fact shows that the adsorption mechanisms of lanthanides in a lithium chloride aqueous solution and in a hydrochloric acid solution are different; the adsorption mechanisms are attributed to the ion exchange in a hydrochloric acid solution, and to the complex formation with pyridine group in a lithium chloride solution. (author)