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Sample records for aqueous garlic extract

  1. An antibacterial assay of aqueous extract of garlic against anaerobic/microaerophilic and aerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Elsom, Giles K.; Hide, Denis; Salmon, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Both the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (expressed in terms of thiosulphinate concentration) of an aqueous extract of garlic was determined against nine species of bacteria. Helicobacter pylori proved to be extremely sensitive to garlic extract, whilst Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus all were moderately sensitive to the garlic extract treat...

  2. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g(-1). Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating

  3. Aqueous garlic extract alleviates liver fibrosis and renal dysfunction in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; Zakaria, Sara; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Garlic was found to lower the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the serum of rats in a diabetic model. We examined the effect of an aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on the ACE activity, cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis, and associated renal dysfunction in comparison with the effect of the standard drug enalapril. Both AGE and enalapril were administered orally for six weeks starting from the third day after bile duct ligation (BDL). BDL significantly increased the serum activities of liver enzymes, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, an indicator of liver cell death, serum total bilirubin (TB) level, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content. BDL was associated with elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels indicating renal dysfunction. BDL also caused an increase in the transcript levels of the genes coding for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a collagenase, in liver tissues. A significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in BDL rats, while serum ACE activity was increased. Both AGE and enalapril counteracted all these deleterious changes, with the exception that only AGE reduced the MPO activity. These findings suggest that AGE possesses hepato- and renoprotective properties, similar to enalapril, probably by modulating the levels of proteins such as TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and MMP-13, and involving a reduction of ACE and of oxidative stress. PMID:24873034

  4. Anti-Bacterial effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) determined by Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, S K; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Gomes, R R; Imtiaz, M; Islam, M M; Nahar, H; Begum, S A; Mirza, T T

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to determine the antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum) against standard strain of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Antibacterial effect of AGE was determined by disc diffusion method. Sensitivity of AGE determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 4 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. From the findings it is clearly determined the extract has definite antibacterial effect upon Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract as well as detail steps of mechanism responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. PMID:26931244

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in 0.5 M HCl by Garlic aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saedah R. Al-Mhyawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of extract of Garlic on aluminium in hydrochloric acid solutions has been evaluated by weight loss techniques. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and temperature. Generally, inhibition was found to increase with inhibitor concentration, half-life, activation energy but decrease with temperature and first-order rate constant at the temperatures studied. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for the inhibition and Langmuir , Temkin adsorption isotherm was obeyed. Garlic is an inhibitor of aluminium corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution.The values of standard free energy of adsorption suggest that the adsorption of inhibitor on aluminium surface occurred by physisorption mechanism. the negative sign of the Free Energy of adsorption indicates that the adsorption of the inhibitors on the aluminum surface was a spontaneous process.the negative values of enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH suggest that the chemical reaction involved in the adsorption of the inhibitors on the metal surface is an exothermic process, hence increase in the reaction temperature of the medium will decrease the inhibition efficiency.

  6. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Lori [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India); Arunachalam, J., E-mail: aruncccm@rediffmail.com [National Center for Chemical Characterization of Materials, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, ECIL-PO, Hyderabad 500 062 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. {yields} Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. {yields} Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. {yields} The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. {yields} Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 {+-} 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for

  7. Sunlight based irradiation strategy for rapid green synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract and their antibacterial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report green synthetic route for the production crystalline silver nanoparticles using garlic as both reducing and stabilizing agent. → Synthesis has been achieved by exposing the solution mixture of [Ag(NH3)2]+ and aqueous garlic extract under sunlight. → Role of light in the synthesis process has been investigated and is discussed in detail. → The antibacterial effect of the synthesized silver nanoparticles has been assessed against both Gram classes of bacteria. → Synthesized silver colloidal solutions were found to be stable for a very long period and retained their bactericidal potential. - Abstract: A green synthetic route for the production of highly stable silver nanoparticles using aqueous garlic extract is being reported for the first time. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by exposing a mixture of 0.1 M [Ag(NH3)2]+ and diluted aqueous garlic extract under bright sunlight for 15 min. The garlic extract components served as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles while the sunlight acted as catalyst in the synthesis process. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrometry. The nanoparticles were found to be poly-dispersed in nature, spherical in shape and of 7.3 ± 4.4 nm in size. The FTIR analysis was suggestive of proteins as capping agents around the nanoparticles. The yield of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be approximately 80% by dry weight and 85% ICP-AES method. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited good antibacterial potential against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains, as measured using well diffusion assay. Most importantly, the silver colloidal solutions thus synthesized were found to be stable for a very long period (more than a year) and retained their

  8. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found t...

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GARLIC, CINNAMON AND TURMERIC AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI ATCC 25922 AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS DSM 3256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Mukhtar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the spices used daily have been documented to be antimicrobial and have medicinal value as well. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from plants such as clove, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. spices such as garlic turmeric and cinnamon has been used as antimicrobial agents in their raw form for the treatment of wounds and injuries and joint pains etc. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of garlic, cinnamon and turmeric. Different concentrations of extracts were prepared by using two solvents water and ethanol. The antibacterial activity was tested against Bacillus subtilus (DSM 3256 and E.coli (ATCC 25922 at different concentration of extracts of spices by using disc diffusion method. According to the results among the selected spices garlic had the best inhibitory activity showing maximum zone of 26mm against Bacillus subtilis DSM and a zone of 22mm against E.coli ATCC 25922. The aqueous extracts of garlic were more effective than ethanolic extract. In the case of cinnamon and turmeric, the ethanolic extracts were more effective exhibiting zones of 16mm against B.subtilis DSM 3256 and 17mm against E.coli , which showed that the cinnamon ethanolic extracts are equally effective against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The widest zones formed by ethanolic extract of turmeric against B.subtilis was measured as 14mm and it was 11mm for E.coli ATCC 25922. The results showed that B.subtilus is more susceptible to test spices as compared to E.coli.

  10. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

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    Sunanda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usefulness and toxic effects of the garlic extracts in high lipid diet (HLD fed rats. It is evident from results that garlic aqueous extracts have hypolipidemic effects in plasma and fatty changes in liver in high lipid diet rats. These hypolipidemic effects of garlic aqueous extracts may be due to its principle sulfur compound DADS

  11. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF GARLIC, CINNAMON AND TURMERIC AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI ATCC 25922 AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS DSM 3256

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Mukhtar; Ifra Ghori

    2012-01-01

    Many of the spices used daily have been documented to be antimicrobial and have medicinal value as well. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from plants such as clove, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. spices such as garlic turmeric and cinnamon has been used as antimicrobial agents in their raw form for the treatment of wounds and injuries and joint pains etc. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity of garlic, cinnamon and turmeric. Diff...

  12. The Effect of Aqueous Garlic Extract on Interleukin-12 and 10 Levels in Leishmania Major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Infected Macrophages

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    M Roozbehani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulation effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE in the cultured macrophages infected by Leishmania major.Methods: After J774 macrophages proliferation in RPMI1640 and incubation with Leishmania for 72 hours, AGE was added in doses of 9.25, 18.5, 37, 74 and 148 mg/ml for 18, 24 and 48 hours and cell culture supernatants were harvested. The Leishmania infected J774 cells to assess the cell viability was examined using trypan blue and methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on cell culture supernatants for measurement of interleukin IL-10 and IL-12.Results: Dose of 37 mg/ml for 48 hours of garlic extract was the most potent dose for activation of amastigotes infected macrophages. In addition, AGE increased the level of IL-12 in Leishmania infected cell lines significantly.Conclusions: AGE treated cell is effective against parasitic pathogens, and AGE induced IL-12 differentially affected the immune response to invading Leishmania parasites.

  13. Allium Sativum (Garlic) Extract as Nontoxic Corrosion Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Rajam, K.; S Rajendran; R. Saranya

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of garlic in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by mass-loss method. The formulation consisting of 2 mL of garlic extract and 25 ppm Zn2+ offers 70% inhibition efficiency to carbon steel immersed in well water. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls the anodic reaction predominantly. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+-allici...

  14. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    Menjívar Marta; Barbachano-Esparza Laura; Albarrán Gabriela; Gil-Ortiz Mariana; Pedraza-Chaverrí José; Medina-Campos Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  15. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on degree of hydration, fructose, sulphur and phosphorus contents of rat eyelens and intestinal absorption of nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, D. R.; CHHOKAR, VINOD; Shilpa

    2003-01-01

    Influence of aqueous garlic extract on degree of hydration, fructose, sulphur and phosphorus contents of rat eyelens and intestinal absorption of nutrients were assessed. Inclusion of garlic extract in culture medium containing glucose and xylose inhibited the hydration of rat eyelens, whereas galactose evinced the reverse trend. Aqueous garlic extract in general decreased the concentration of fructose and phosphorus, whereassulphur concentration increased when rat eyelenses, were incubated w...

  16. Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Rabie, Gamal H; Kenawey, Saied E M; Abd El-Aal, Marwa A

    2012-10-01

    By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Safithri; M. Bintang; M. Poeloengan

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus caus...

  18. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed; Kashif; Zaidi; Shakeel; Ahmed; Ansari; Ghulam; Md.Ashraf; Mohammad; Alam; Jafri; Shams; Tabrez; Naheed; Banu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine immobilization stress-induced antioxidant defense alterations in rat kidney and the antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract in pre and post stress extract treatments. Methods: Albino rats were treated with aqueous extract of garlic both before and 6 h of immobilization stress. Pro-oxidant eminence of rat kidney was assessed by determining the levels of glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant enzymes activities. Results: In response to 6 h of immobilization stress, a significant rise in the level of kidney enzymes was recorded. However, antioxidant enzyme activities showed a sharp decline. Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  19. Allylation of Intraerythrocytic Hemoglobin by Raw Garlic Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bonaventura, Joseph; Rodriguez, Eva N.; Beyley, Veronica; Vega, Irving E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that deoxygenated human red blood cells (RBCs) converted garlic-derived polysulfides into hydrogen sulfide, which in turn produced vasorelaxation in aortic ring preparations. The vasoactivity was proposed to occur via glucose- and thiol-dependent acellular reactions. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of garlic extracts with human deoxygenated RBCs and its effect on intracellular hemoglobin molecules. The results showed that garlic extract covalent...

  20. Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References © Steven Foster Common Name: garlic Latin Name: Allium sativum Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about ... www.naturaldatabase.com on June 16, 2009. Garlic ( Allium sativum L.). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at ...

  1. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  2. In vitro assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic (allium sativum) extracts on pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S K; Saha, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and aqueous extract of garlic (Allium stivum) against standard strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. An interventional study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in collaboration with Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and antibiotic Imipenem were also determined with the help of broth dilution method. Inhibitory effect of crude garlic extract (CGE) was determined by inoculation of bacteria in CGE incorporated nutrient agar (NA) media and for AGE antibacterial effect was determined by disc diffusion method. All experiments except disc diffusion procedure were reconfirmed by subculture in pure NA media. In case of CGE the growth inhibition of test organism was observed in 30% CGE incorporated NA media. On the other hand sensitivity of AGE also determined in disc diffusion and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was 7 mm, 12 mm and 20 mm at 25 μg/10 μl, 50 μg/10 μl and 100 μg/10 μl concentrations respectively. The MICs of AGE and Imipenem were 600 μg/ml and 1μg/ml. The MIC of imipenen was far less in comparison with the MIC of AGE. From the findings it is clearly determined that both the extracts have definite antibacterial effect upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies are required to detect and isolate the active ingredients present in the Garlic extract responsible for antibacterial effect. Then their effects against the studied organism should be studied in vivo separately and its toxicity profile should also be taken into account. Only then the Garlic extracts fulfilled the criteria for its therapeutic use. Still then external application advised for burn and superficial skin infections and may be used in food poisoning, and respiratory tract infection along with conventional antibiotics which are used in those conditions. PMID:26007246

  3. The Effect of Garlic Extract on Expression of INFγ And Inos Genes in Macrophages Infected with Leishmania Major

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    E Bandani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major.Methods: Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER were added to the in-vitro cultured J774 cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74, 148 mg/ml were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method.Results: The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major.Conclusion: Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes con­firmed.

  4. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS IN HIGH FAT HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET FED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda; Kanthaiah; Govindaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Garlic is used widely in food and pharmaceutical preparations in India. The hypolipidemic , anti - atherosclerotic as well fibrinolytic properties of garlic sulphur compounds are known since long time. This principle sulphur compound present in garlic extract and garlic oil is Diallyldisulphide (DADS) an unsaturated aliphatic disulphide , which is thought to be mainly responsible for garlic beneficial effects. The present work was under taken to assess usef...

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Garlic Extract on the Growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella Dysenteric

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Sedeghara; Tahere Farkhonde; Elham Zadeh-hashem; Samira Sabah

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays using plant extracts as antimicrobial additives has got an important role in maintaining the quality of food products. Garlic is one of the plants the antimicrobial effect of which has been proved by biochemical investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different concentrations of garlic powder extract and garlic tablet extract on Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella dysenteric in the same conditions. Methods: To do this investigation fresh garlic ...

  6. Analysis of lifespan-promoting effect of garlic extract by an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Wu, Yuan-Heng; Zhong, Linda; Tseng, Mu-Yun; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of garlic (Allium sativum) consumption in treating human diseases have been reported worldwide over a long period of human history. The strong antioxidant effect of garlic extract (GE) has also recently been claimed to prevent cancer, thrombus formation, cardiovascular disease and some age-related maladies. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, aqueous GE was herein shown to increase the expression of longevity-related FOXO transcription factor daf-16 and extend lifespan by 20%. By employing microarray and proteomics analysis on C. elegans treated with aqueous GE, we have systematically mapped 229 genes and 46 proteins with differential expression profiles, which included many metabolic enzymes and yolky egg vitellogenins. To investigate the garlic components functionally involved in longevity, an integrated metabolo-proteomics approach was employed to identify metabolites and protein components associated with treatment of aqueous GE. Among potential lifespan-promoting substances, mannose-binding lectin and N-acetylcysteine were found to increase daf-16 expression. Our study points to the fact that the lifespan-promoting effect of aqueous GE may entail the DAF-16-mediated signaling pathway. The result also highlights the utility of metabolo-proteomics for unraveling the complexity and intricacy involved in the metabolism of natural products in vivo. PMID:25940980

  7. Effect of onion and garlic on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagda, K K; Ganeriwal, S K; Nagda, K C; Diwan, A M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts of onion and garlic as well as of garlic oil were studied on the process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro. Only onion was found to exhibit anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity while garlic extract as well as garlic oil were inactive. PMID:6885127

  8. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine Fehri; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Jean-Marc Aiache

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10...

  9. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Jakubcova; Petr Mareš; Ladislav Zeman; Pavel Horký; Tünde Juríková; Jiří Mlček; Štefan Balla; Libor Kalhotka; Eva Mrkvicová; Jiří Sochor

    2014-01-01

    In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on anima...

  10. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature, where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray chemical analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that allicin and other carbohydrates in the garlic extract are the primary nanoparticle stabilizing moieties. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomedical applications, owing to (1) enhanced stability in biological media, (2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, (3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and (4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/mL, confirming that silver nanoparticles synthesized with garlic extract are potential candidates for future experimentation and implementation in the biomedical field.

  11. Radioprotective effect of garlic extract on some bacterial strains with different radiation sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of garlic on four bacterial strains with different degrees of radiation sensitivities was investigated. The presence of garlic led to an increase in d-10 value of Ps. Aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. typhimurium by 160%, 50%, and 30% respectively. The protective efficiency of garlic against radiation was noticed to be proportional to its concentration in a given inoculum size. Garlic extract up to 180 micro liter per 108 inoculum size of B. cereus showed no protective effect. This fact was attributed to the existence of sulphur compounds in the given strain. Higher garlic concentrations appeared to affect the cloning efficiency of a given strain. 4fig., 2tab

  12. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  13. Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum).

    OpenAIRE

    Delaha, E C; Garagusi, V F

    1985-01-01

    Thirty strains of mycobacteria, consisting of 17 species, were inhibited by various concentrations of garlic extract incorporated in Middlebrook 7H10 agar. The concentration required ranged from a low of 1.34 mg/ml to a high of 3.35 mg/ml of media. When there were multiple strains of a species, a mean inhibitory concentration was determined for that species. Six strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis required a mean inhibitory concentration of 1.67 mg/ml of media.

  14. Influence of garlic extract on antioxidant status of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the European Union banned the feeding of antibiotic growth promoters because of possible risk of drug resistance in human pathogens bacteria. This is the reason for the study of various phytogenic additives and their extracts as a natural source of biologically important compounds. Antimicrobial substances are a commonly included in chicken feed rations. They are used mainly as prevention against various diseases, and also to stimulate growth. The beneficial effects of garlic on animal organism resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihypertensive properities. Studies focused on growth, conversion and meat quality of different types of animals indicate its positive effects. In our experiment we studied the influence of garlic extract in a dose of 0, 10 g and 15 g per 1 kg of chicken feed mixture. We focused on weight gains and antioxidant status of an organism. The experiment took 39 days. 54 seven-day-old chickens were included in the experiment. The chickens were weighed once a week, when aged 11, 17, 24, 31 and 38 days, at the same time of the day. The chickens had ad libitum access to feed ration and water. The chickens were taken blood sample at the end of the experiment when 39 days old. Their antioxidant status were measured using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH methods. Our results show that owing to higher concentration of garlic extract in feed ration the antioxidant status of observed chickens was increased. DPPH method showed an increase in antioxidant status of both experimental groups by 38% (a group with a dose of 10 g/kg of mixture and by 46% (a group with a dose of 15 g/kg of mixture compared to the control group. When using FRAP method, antioxidant status of both G10 and G15 groups increased by 24%, resp. 16%. No evidential differences in antioxidant activity between the experimental groups and control group were found using ABTS method. The supplement of garlic extract into a feed ration did not have any influence

  15. Selective inhibition of PAF-induced human platelet aggregation by garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic exudate (0.2-2.5 mg) prepared by squeezing fresh garlic cloves inhibited platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) in a dose-dependent manner. No inhibition of aggregation was observed when adenosine-5-diphosphate (ADP) or arachidonic acid (AA) were used as aggregating agents. This selective effect of garlic against PAF-induced aggregation was also seen with aqueous or alcoholic garlic extracts. These results suggest that PAF antagonists are present in garlic. (author)

  16. In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra V. Panpatil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices like turmeric, ginger, alliums are indispensable for the preparation of our daily food and are reported to possess compounds, which have varied beneficial biological effects and also prevent the microbial spoilage of food. This study evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts such as ginger, turmeric and garlic by 2, 2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH Radical Scavenging Method and also to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by Slant method. The antioxidant activities when compared among ginger, turmeric and garlic the potency of these spices was found to be in the order of Vit C > Ginger > Turmeric ≥ Dry garlic > Fresh garlic. The antimicrobial activity of these spices was found to be in the order of Turmeric > Ginger > Garlic. The study indicates that the spices like ginger, garlic and turmeric have antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Further studies are needed to study the biological effects of antioxidant-rich herbs and spices on oxidative stress related diseases.

  17. Reno-protective effect of garlic extract against immobilization stress induced changes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The extract treatment before and after the stress reverted the activities of above mentioned enzymes towards their control values. Hence, garlic extract can be given as nutritional supplement for scavenging the free radicals generated in rat kidney.

  18. Evaluation of the antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on Leishmania tropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Sepahvand, Peyman; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Azadpour, Mozhgan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Treatment of CL by pentavalent antimony compounds remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects and drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antileishmanial and cytotoxic activity of garlic extracts against promastigote forms of Leishmania tropica and murine macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric cell viability (MTT) assay. The results revealed that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic were effective in inhibiting promastigote growth of L. tropica with IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentrations) values 12.3 and 19.2 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, methanolic and aqueous extracts of garlic showed low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50 % of cells) values 291.4 and 348.2 µg/ml, respectively. Findings of present study were the first step in the search for new antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in volunteer human subjects. PMID:27413315

  19. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic has been used as a folk medicine for a long history. Numerous studies demonstrated that garlic extracts and its sulfur-containing compounds inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation induced by various receptor agonist including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These effects suggest that garl...

  1. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  2. Inhibition of clastogenic effects of arsenic through continued oral administration of garlic extract in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A R; Das, T; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

    1997-08-14

    Crude aqueous extract of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. single clove variety) was administered by gavage to mice of both sexes daily for up to 30 and 60 days, in doses corresponding to 6 g for a 60 kg human body. Sodium arsenite (at 1/50 of LD50 dose) was injected subcutaneously to mice on every 7th day of the experiment. Chromosome preparations made from bone marrow following flame drying Giemsa schedule were screened for chromosomal aberrations. The clastogenic affects of prolonged exposure to sodium arsenite --a strong clastogen-- was reduced by a highly significant amount when crude garlic extract, in the dose used, was given daily to the mice by intubation for the same period. PMID:9294023

  3. The effectiveness of garlic extract (Allium sativum linn) in controlling aflatoxicosis in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Romsyah Maryam; Yulvian Sani; Siti Juariah; Rachmat Firmansyah; Miharja .

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a disease generated as the consequence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), a natural spice known to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry. Twenty five laying hens were used to study the effectiveness of garlic extract in reducing aflatoxicosis. The animals were divided into 5 groups i.e (1) control group, (2) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH, (3) group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed, (4) group treated wi...

  4. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Shiju

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.

  5. Antimutagenic effects of garlic extract on chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since ancient times, as a spice and also for its medicinal properties. In present set of investigations antimutagenic effect of garlic extract (GE) has been evaluated using 'in vivo chromosomal aberration assay' in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with 1, 2.5 and 5% of freshly prepared GE was given through oral intubation for 5 days prior to CP administration. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24 and 48 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage. The animals of the positive control group (CP alone) shows a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations both at 24 and 48 h sampling time. GE, alone did not significantly induced aberrations at either sampling time, confirming its non-mutagenicity. However in the GE pre-treated and CP post-treated groups, a dose dependent decrease in cytogenetic damage was recorded. A significant suppression in the chromosomal aberrations was recorded following pretreatment with 2.5 and 5% GE administration. The anticytotoxic effects of GE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index, when compared to positive control group. Reduction in CP induced clastogenicity by GE was evident at 24 h and to a much greater extent at 48 h of cell cycle. Thus results of the present investigations revealed that GE has chemopreventive potential against CP induced chromosomal mutations in Swiss albino mice. PMID:11790451

  6. Incorporation of garlic extract as antifungal agent in psyllium based edible coating for mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez ur Rehman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In present Research work, the mathanolic extract of garlic was incorporated in locally developed Psyllium based edible coating for its application on mandarin. Different concentrations of the extract were used in the coating and quality of the fruit was monitored during storage at room temperature. The results indicated that there was least change (increase in brix, weight loss, brix/acid ratio, pH and acidity of the fruit during storage studies.  The fungal contamination was effectively controlled due to incorporation of garlic extracts at a rate of 6-8%. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the garlic extracts can be used in psyllium based edible coating and it has antifungal significant antifungal potential but at relatively higher concentrations (>6%.

  7. Incorporation of garlic extract as antifungal agent in psyllium based edible coating for mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez ur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In present Research work, the mathanolic extract of garlic was incorporated in locally developed Psyllium based edible coating for its application on mandarin. Different concentrations of the extract were used in the coating and quality of the fruit was monitored during storage at room temperature. The results indicated that there was least change (increase in brix, weight loss, brix/acid ratio, pH and acidity of the fruit during storage studies.  The fungal contamination was effectively controlled due to incorporation of garlic extracts at a rate of 6-8%. On the basis of these results it was concluded that the garlic extracts can be used in psyllium based edible coating and it has antifungal significant antifungal potential but at relatively higher concentrations (>6%.

  8. THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT ON MOUTH MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Mehrabian

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Five strains of mouth normal microflora containing staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus mutant, lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosos and candida albicans, were isolated and identified then cultured and purified on different media by using routine methods in microbiology. Extract of 3 garlic samples south (Khuzestan, north (Mazanderan and Hamedan garlics, were affected on these microbial cultures using Bauer and Kirby method. The effects were compared with antimicrobial effects of erythromycin. The results show all three used extracts have antimicrobial effects. The extract had a bactericidal effect on bacteria but a fungi static on candida albicans.

  9. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  10. Extracts from the history and medical properties of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Bauer Petrovska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time when antibiotics and other pharmacy products did not exist, a bulb of garlic itself represented a whole pharmacy industry due to the broad spectrum of effects. Most different suppositions involving this herb are mentioned; some of them were so pointless that they disappeared in time, but some of them have remained until the present days. The garlic was given different names that are still in use such as ′Russian penicillin′, ′natural antibiotic′, ′vegetable viagra′, ′plant talisman′, ′rustic′s theriac′, ′snake grass′ etc. Presentation of the development of ideas associated with garlic and the evolution of the notions increased the ability of the pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges of their professional services in facilitating human life.

  11. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, M; Javor, G T; Lau, B H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of aqueous garlic extract on the macromolecular synthesis of Candida albicans was studied. Protein and nucleic acid syntheses were inhibited to the same extent as growth, but lipid synthesis was completely arrested. Blockage of lipid synthesis is likely an important component of the anticandidal activity of garlic.

  12. Radioprotection of mice following garlic pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshly prepared aqueous extract of garlic was tested in mice for its possible in vivo protective effect against gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. In the same animals, the changes in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity were evaluated. Three doses of garlic extract [125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 body weight (bw)] were administered orally for five consecutive days and the animals were exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation 2 h after the final feeding. The results of the bone marrow micronucleus test revealed that pretreatment with garlic extract was effective in reducing gamma-radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Against 0.25 Gy gamma-radiation, a high dose of 500 mg kg-1 bw garlic extract was required to significantly reduce the chromosomal damage. All the three doses of garlic extract were effective in exerting a protective effect against 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy gamma-radiation. However a dose-related effect was observed only against 2.0 Gy. The sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity registered a significant increase after either pretreatment with garlic with extract or irradiation. In the garlic extract pretreated irradiated animals, a significant reduction was observed in the sulphydryl content and glutathione S-transferase activity

  13. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  14. Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Basma S. Kamona; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Hashem Taha; Badwan, Adnan A.; Matalka, Khalid Z.

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) p...

  15. The Preventive and Curative Effects of Fresh Garlic Extract And its Aerial Parts on Fibrosarcoma in Balb/c Mice

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    M Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in some studies; however its effect on fibrosarcoma is not evident. This study intends to examine the preventive and curative effects of fresh garlic extract and its aerial parts on the growth of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells in Balb/c mice. Methods: In this preclinical study, 48 female inbred Balb/c mice(6 to 7 weeks old were divided in to 6 groups of 8 each. A single aliquot of WEHI-164 cells(5 × 106 cells/100 μl was injected subcutaneously in the chest of animal. Two weeks before or three weeks after cell injection, 0.2 cc of normal saline or 20 mg/kg extract of garlic or its aerial parts were injected intraperitoneally(IP to the Balb/c mice. The tumors sizes were compared with each other, using ANOVA test. The antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of the extracts were also assessed. Results: The mean sizes of tumor growth in groups which received fresh garlic extract or its aerial parts were smaller than that of control group. However this difference was significant on the 21st day only in garlic extract group(p<0.05. The antioxidant power of fresh garlic involved 35.6%, whereas for its aerial parts it was 15.3%. Moreover, the general amount of phenol in fresh garlic was 12.61 mg/g and in its aerial parts was 2.44 mg/g. Conclusion: Garlic consumption might have a crucial role in prevention and control of fibrosarcoma growth. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of garlic aerial parts are less in comparison to garlic itself, however, higher doses might have anticancer activity

  16. Therapeutic effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices and their mixture on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2016-07-01

    The protective effect of aqueous extracts of three dietary spices, garlic, (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and pepper (Capsicum frutescens) singly and combined was investigated using a rat model of chronic alcohol intake. Rats were given 30% ethanol, with or without aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or mixture of the three administered at 200mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 28 days. Lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, oxidative and antioxidative profiles of serum, faecal, liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues of the rats were analyzed. Alcohol treatment significantly elevated liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation, depleted antioxidant system and induced histopathological changes in the liver. These alterations were markedly ameliorated by treatment with aqueous extracts of the three spices singly or mixed at 200mg/kg body weight. These results suggest that aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, pepper or a blend of the three protects against alcohol- induced hypercholesterolemia, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and liver damage. PMID:27393449

  17. The effectiveness of garlic extract (Allium sativum linn in controlling aflatoxicosis in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romsyah Maryam

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxicosis is a disease generated as the consequence of aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds. Garlic (Allium sativum Linn., a natural spice known to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins in poultry. Twenty five laying hens were used to study the effectiveness of garlic extract in reducing aflatoxicosis. The animals were divided into 5 groups i.e (1 control group, (2 group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH, (3 group treated with 0.4 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed, (4 group treated with 5 mg/kg BH, and (5 group treated with 5.0 mg/kg BH and 4% garlic extract in feed. Body weight gains, eggs production, and the activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, and γ-glutamytransferase (γ- GT enzymes were observed every week. The residue levels of the aflatoxin and metabolites were measured in the eggs using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results indicated that group treated with 0.4 mg AFB1/kg BH dan 5.0 mg AFB1/kg BH resulted in decreasing body weight gains, egg production, and increasing the level of GOT, GPT and γ-GT. The addition of 4% garlic extract in the feed was effective to improve the body weight gain and egg production only in the group of chicken treated with 0.4 mg AFB1/kg BH. However, it decreased the enzymes activities of the GOT, GPT, and γ-GT, as well as reduced the aflatoxin residues and metabolites in the groups at both aflatoxin levels (0.4 and 5.0 mg/kg BH. Aflatoxin residues decreased up to 42.2% for the group treated with the low dose of AFB1 (0.4 mg/kg and 49.0% for the group treated with the high dose of AFB1 (5 mg/kg.

  18. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of caraway, garlic and oregano extracts against filamentous moulds

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    Tanackov Ilija J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of caraway, garlic and oregano extracts (0.07, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2%, against four moulds species was investigated. The caraway extract had the strongest inhibitory effect by inhibiting the germination of Emericella nidulans, Penicillium commune and P. implicatum at the concentration of 0.1% and Aspergillus tamarii at the concentration of 0.5% during 7 days of incubation at 25ºC. The extract of garlic only partially inhibited the growth of A. tamarii and P. commune. However, it inhibited completely the growth of P. implicatum and E. nidulans at the doses of 0.5 and 1%. Oregano partially inhibited all mould species, significantly reducing the growth of colonies, especially of E. nidulans (93.3%.

  20. Effects of fresh, aged and cooked garlic extracts on short- and long-term memory in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Sarkaki; Saeed Valipour Chehardacheric; Yaghoub Farbood; Seyed Mohammad Taghi Mansouri; Bahareh Naghizadeh; Effat Basirian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of fresh, aged, and cooked garlic extracts on blood glucose and memory of diabetic rats induced by streptozocine (STZ). Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg of each garlic extract was given daily for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. Five days after STZ injection, five groups were formed: Control (intact) rats (Cont...

  1. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to the effects of 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in the bile ducts of rabbits. During a 6-months period from April to September 2006 in Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Research Center, we selected 3 equal groups of rabbits. We injected 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline into the bile ducts of each group. The animals were euthanized and autopsied after 4 months and the liver and bile ducts were removed and studied histopathologically. Cholangiography was undertaken to evaluate the presence and extent of any sclerosing cholangitis. Animals showed sclerosing cholangitis in silver nitrate group (7 [58%]), one (8%) in chloroformic garlic extract group and one (7%) in normal saline group. The difference between silver nitrate and chloroformic garlic extract groups were statistically significant and similar results were noticed between chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline groups. Twenty percent of chloroformic garlic extract had fewer complications such as sclerosing cholangitis, compared to other materials. (author)

  2. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyophilized aged garlic extract has been incorporated at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 4% by weight into semi purified powdered diets and fed to hairless mice. Under moderate UVB exposure conditions resulting in 58% suppression of the systemic contact hypersensitivity response in control-fed mice, a dose-responsive protection was observed in the garlic-fed mice; contact hypersensitivity in the UVB-exposed mice fed 4% garlic extract was suppressed by only 19%. If the UVB exposure was replaced by topical application of one of a series of lotions containing increasing concentrations of cis-urocanic acid, a dose-responsive suppression of contact hypersensitivity was demonstrated in control-fed mice (urocanic acid at 25, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms per mouse resulting in 22-46% suppression). Mice fed a diet containing 1% aged garlic extract were partially protected from cis-urocanic acid-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity, with greater protection from the lower concentrations of urocanic acid. Mice fed a diet containing 4% aged garlic extract were protected from all concentrations of urocanic acid. The results indicate that aged garlic extract contains ingredient(s) that protect from UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity and suggest that the mechanism of protection is by antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation of this form of immunosuppression

  3. In vitro evaluation on antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts of ginger, turmeric and garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra V. Panpatil; Nirmala Kota; Kalpagam Polasa

    2013-01-01

    Spices like turmeric, ginger, alliums are indispensable for the preparation of our daily food and are reported to possess compounds, which have varied beneficial biological effects and also prevent the microbial spoilage of food. This study evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of spice extracts such as ginger, turmeric and garlic by 2, 2’-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Method and also to evaluate their antimicrobial effects by Slant method. The antioxidant...

  4. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic) Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Taji; Hedayatollah Shirzad; Kurosh Ashrafi; Neda Parvin; Soleiman Kheiri; Abdolrasul Namjoo; Azam Asgari; Roya Ansari; Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic).Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-mon...

  5. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  6. Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (40~80°C), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at 80°C showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at 60°C (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at 40°C, with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at 80°C, with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin. PMID:27390731

  7. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-01-01

    The radical scavenging activity (RAS), chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple) and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion) to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic). Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48) than garlic extract (0.029). Chain-breaking activ...

  8. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  9. A Comparison between the Antioxidant Strength of the Fresh and Stale Allium sativum (Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits and vegetables are considered as the source of antioxidant and the factor of destroying reactive oxygen species. The effect of this antioxidant might decrease in time. This study was aimed at examining and comparing the antioxidant effect and the level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as allicin level, between fresh and three-month stale Allium sativum (garlic.Materials and Methods: In an experimental study, the ethanolic extract of bushes of fresh and three-month-old Allium sativum was prepared and their antioxidant activities were assessed in linoleic acid and β-carotene linoleate system. The amount of phenolic compounds was measured by Folin-Ciocalteumethod, based on gallic acid; the amount of flavonol and flavonoid compounds by aluminum chloride base on rutin base; and the amount of allicinby spectrophotometry method. SPSS-15 Software and t-statistic tests were used to analyze the mean difference between the results of two groups and p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The efficiency of fresh garlic (35.36 in inhibiting the oxidation was higher (p<0.05 comparing to three-month dated Allium sativum (10.2. Phenolic compounds of the fresh garlic (12.61mg/g were more than the three-month dated Allium sativum (2.89mg/g. The amount of allicin was respectively 15 µg/ml and 8 µg/ml in the fresh and three-month dated Allium sativum (p<0.05.Conclusion: The fresh garlic contains more useful substances and it is recommended to be used in its fresh estate.

  10. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhingra Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae, commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST and forced swim test (FST. The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist, baclofen (GABA B agonist and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o. and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o. in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems.

  11. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

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    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  12. Evaluation of the Capability of Extractants in Determining Garlic Available K for Certain Soils in Hamadan

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Hosseinpur

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium Sativum) is a major crop in Hamadan Province. However, adequete information on K status in this region is not available and no suitable extracting solution can yet be introduced. This experiment was carried out to determine the available K level in 10 soils from Hamadan region. The treatments included two K levels (0 and 200 mg K /kg soil as K2SO4) and 10 Soils in a factorial experiment in a randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that K applicati...

  13. The field efficacy of garlic extract against Dermanyssus gallinae in layer farms of Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihzadeh Gorji, Shohreh; Faghihzadeh Gorji, Sina; Rajabloo, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays. PMID:24481900

  14. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  15. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, M. R.; S Javdan; M FESHARAKI

    2004-01-01

    Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid) improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: Th...

  16. The acceleration of garlic (Allium sativum L ethanolic extract on gingival wound healing process in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Bramanti Ngatidjan Setyo Purwono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L is a medicinal plant traditionally used to relieve pain. Garlic’s active constituents, allicin and triacremonone, have been proven to have antibacterial and antiinflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic ethanolic extract gel in gingival wound healing process of rats. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks with with body weight 200-250 g were subjected in this study. Rats were divided randomly into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I as negative control was given sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na CMC base gel. Group II as positive control was given Benzydamine® gel and Group IV-V were given garlic ethanolic extract gel at dose of 20, 40 and 80%, respectively. Each group was subdivided into two sub groups of three rats according to the decapitation period which were 5th (D-5 and 7th (D-7 day after the garlic extract gel application. Excisional wounds using punch biopsy, 2.5 mm in diameter, were created at the mandibular labial gingiva between right and left incisor teeth of the rats. The garlic extract gel of each preparation dose was then applied on the wound three times a day, starting at 0 day until 7th day. The decapitation was conducted on the D-5 and D-7. Histological slides of wounded tissue were prepared. Epithelial thickness, new blood vessel, and number of fibroblast were examined. The results showed that the epithelial thickness of garlic ethanolic extract gel groups was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05, especially after 5thday application. However, the number of new blood vessels and the amount of fibroblast of those groups were not significantly higher than control group (p>0.05. In conclusion, topical application of garlic ethanolic extract gel accelerates the gingival wound healing process in rats by increasing epithelial thickness.     Keywords: garlic ethanolic extract - gingival wound healing - epithelium thickness

  17. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  18. Garlic in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Pazyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far.

  19. Possible Role of Garlic Oil and Parsley Extract in Ameliorating Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To Investigate the possible protective effect of garlic oil and parsley extract against bone loss resulted in female virgin rats exposed to fractionated doses of gamma-radiation (1 Gy 3 times weekly for 5 weeks). Urinary calcium (U Ca), calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), hydroxyproline and serum phosphorus were measured as bone resorption bio markers, while serum osteocalcine (OST) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as bone formation bio markers. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) which represents the balance in bone remodeling was measured. Malondiadehyde level (MDA) as well as superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was measured as oxidative stress bio markers. Female irradiated rats in the present study had significant increases in both bone resorption and bone formation bio markers after 6 weeks from the last exposure to gamma-radiation. Irradiated rats also had significant decreases in plasma NO indicating imbalance in bone remodeling as well as significant increase in oxidative stress bio markers. Daily treatment with garlic oil extracted in olive oil improved all measured parameters except OST level, while the vehicle used for garlic oil (extra virgin olive oil) significantly decreased bone resorption bio markers. Parsley extract induced normalization to all bone resorption and formation parameters measured in irradiated rats. Daily administration of garlic oil and parsley extract protected the bone from degeneration induced by exposure to fractionated doses of gamma radiation.

  20. Radioprotective Properties of Allium sativum (Garlic Extract on Cultured Human Lymphocytes against Electron Beam Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama N Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effects of naturally occurring compounds from herbs have been investigated in vitro and in vivo considering their ethnopharmacological role in prevention and treatment of cancer. Allium sativum supplementation in diet has been shown to be beneficial to cancer patients. The present study was designed to detect the radioprotective effect of garlic extract (GE on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Garlic bulbs were extracted using ethanol and water separately followed by assays on antioxidant activities to assess the efficiency of radical scavenging capacity of various extracts. Lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of GE for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr periods. Cell survival was determined by tryphan blue dye exclusion assay, single strand DNA damage by alkaline comet assay and in vitro cytogenetic damages were evaluated by micronucleus assays. Ethanol boiled GE showed highest radical scavenging capacity and reducing property. Treatment of GE to lymphocytes before and after exposure to 4Gy of electron beam radiation (EBR the percentage of tail DNA was reduced from 24.06±3.92 to 2.87±0.18. The elevated micronucleus formation in radiation control group (13.15±0.75 was significantly reduced in various concentrations of GE treated groups (10.35±0.44, 7.05±1.17, 6.42±0.47 respectively. Cells treated with GE at 10µg/mL showed maximum viability after exposure to EBR. Present investigations indicate that ethanol boiled GE shows good radiation protection at 10µg/mL concentration. However, increase in concentration above this dose though resulted in higher protection, increased cell toxicity was also noticed.

  1. Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant properties of some selected onions (Allium cepa L. and garlic (Allium sativum L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Benkeblia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The radical scavenging activity (RAS, chain-breaking activity, H2O2-scavenging, reducing capacity and total phenolics of four types of onions (Green onion, Yellow, Red and Purple and garlic were investigated. Total phenolics varied from 30 mg (green onion to 49 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight (garlic. Garlic extract showed the highest RAS, while green onion showed the lowest one. The chain-breaking activity of green onion extract was higher (0.48 than garlic extract (0.029. Chain-breaking activity of yellow, red and purple onion extracts was 0.19, 0.048 and 0.032 respectively. However, heating treatment (90 ºC, 3h caused an increase in this activity. Low ability of green onion extract to scavenge hydrogen peroxide was noted (35%, whereas high ability was noted in other onion and garlic extracts and ranged from 60 to 90%. The lowest reducing capacity was noted in green onion extract (18%, whereas the highest in garlic extract (196%. Statistically, high significant correlations were observed between total phenolics content and reducing power, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and chain-breaking activity of extract

  2. Amelioration of lead induced changes in ovary of mice, by garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the effects of lead acetate and protective role of garlic extract on the histomorphology of the ovary in an animal model. Methods: The experimental trial was conducted at the Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, in association with the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from April to June 2013. It comprised 30 adult non-pregnant female mice (BALBc strain) weighing 25-27gms. They were divided into three equal groups of 10 mice each. Group A, taken as control, was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for two months. Animals were dissected a day after the last dose. Size, shape, colour and consistency of the ovary was observed. The right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Primary follicles were counted and noted. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The primary follicular count decreased significantly in Group B while it relatively increased in Group C. Morphology of the ovary was affected after exposure to lead acetate in Group B, while in Group C results were the same as in the Group A controls regarding gross architecture of the ovary. Conclusion: Lead alters the normal histology and affects the physiology of the ovary. It interferes with the development of growing follicles in the ovary. Lead, being a reproductive toxicant, can be a cause of infertility in exposed females. (author)

  3. 微波辅助丙酮提取大蒜油工艺的研究%Study on the Microwave-Assisted Acetone Extraction of Garlic Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金华; 陈莫林; 董加宝; 胡娜

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the garlic oil yield and add value of garlic,this article made a study on the extraction technology of garlic oil by using microwave-assisted acetone extraction method.Through single factor and orthogonal design of microwave power,garlic and acetone ratio,microwave extraction time and acetone concentration on garlic oil extraction rate effects.The results showed that the optimal conditions for the extraction of garlic oil were the microwave power of 100W,microwave extraction time of 75s,ratio of solvent to material of 25∶1 and acetone concentration of 90%,and the highest rate of the garlic oil was 3.85%,and the ratio of solvent to material was a major influence factor for the extraction yield of garlic oil.%为提高大蒜油的得率,增加大蒜的附加值,采用微波辅助、丙酮提取的方法进行大蒜油提取工艺.通过单因素和正交试验考察微波的功率、大蒜和丙酮的配比、微波提取的时间和丙酮的浓度对大蒜油提取得率的影响.结果表明,大蒜和丙酮的配比为大蒜油提取工艺的最显著影响因素;最佳的工艺条件是,微波功率100 W、微波提取时间75 s、液料比25∶1、丙酮体积分数为90%时,大蒜油的提取率最高,提取率为3.85%.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic...

  5. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Potential of Aged Garlic Extract and Its Constituent, S-Allyl Cysteine, in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq

    2015-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of ...

  6. Natural biosorbents (garlic stem and horse chesnut shell) for removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlayıcı, Şerife; Pehlivan, Erol

    2015-12-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI) by the garlic stem (GS)-Allium sativum L. and horse chesnut shell (HCS)-Aesculus hippocastanum plant residues in a batch type reactor was studied in detail for the purpose of wastewater treatment. The influence of initial Cr(VI) concentration, time, and pH was investigated to optimize Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions and equilibrium isotherms and kinetic data. This influence was evaluated. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS for Cr(VI) was determined with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data was fitted to the Langmuir. The adsorption capacity of the GS and the HCS was found to be 103.09 and 142.85 mg/g of adsorbent from a solution containing 3000 ppm of Cr(VI), respectively. The GS's capacity was considerably lower than that of the HCS in its natural form. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions, and the adsorption process exhibited exothermic enthalpy values. The HCS was shown to be a promising biosorbent for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26581609

  7. EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTED DIETS WITH GARLIC ORGANIC EXTRACT AND STREPTOMYCIN SULPHATE ON INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. DIEUMOU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effects of garlic organic extract and streptomycin sulphate on intestinal microflora and nutrients digestibility in broilers. Forty eight Hubbard line one day-old chicks with equal numbers of males and females were randomly allocated to eight treatment combinations to conduct a 4 x 2 factorial experiment in a completely randomised design. The diets were supplemented with: no supplement (control, garlic organic extract at 40 ppm/kg (GOE 40 ppm, garlic organic extract at 60 ppm/kg (GOE 60 ppm and streptomycin sulphate at 30 ppm/kg (SS 30 ppm administered by oral gavage from day 13 to day 47 of experiment. There were two birds (males or females per experimental unit, replicated three times in twenty four deep litter pens. The colony forming units of Escherichia coli were significantly reduced (P0.05 in nutrients absorption between male and female broilers. Treatment and sex interaction significantly (P<0.05 affected all the parameters studied indicating a synergistic effect of the two factors on nutrients absorption. It could be concluded that GOE even at 40 ppm/kg controlled pathogens and improved nutrients digestibility in birds.

  8. Enzymatic Aqueous Extraction of Soybean Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of enzymatic aqueous extraction of soybean oil was assessed when two-step controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was applied. With aqueous extraction of soybean oil-containing protein, the highest yield of oil was 96.1% at the optimized conditions studied. Soybean oil-containing protein was hydrolyzed and resulted in releasing part of oil. The separated protein that contained 40% oil was enriched due to its adsorption capacity of released oil, the average oil extraction yeild reached 93.5%. Then the high oil content protein was hydrolyzed again to release oil by enzyme, the oil extraction yeild was 80.4%. As a result, high quality of soybean oil was obtained and the content of total oil yield was 74.4%.

  9. Effect of lead acetate on follicular count of mice ovary and the protective role of garlic extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of lead acetate and protective role of garlic extract on the histomorphology of the ovarian follicles in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of Health from April-June 2013 Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Mice were randomly divided into three groups. 10 animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral lavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60th day. Length and width of the ovary were measured, right ovary was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Primary, secondary and graafian follicles were counted and noted. Results: There was reduction in the number of primary and graafian follicles in group B when compared to group A. In group C there was relatively increase in number of follicles, when compared to group B. Number of secondary follicles was almost same in all the groups. The length of ovary was higher in group A as compared to group B. In group C results were same as group A regarding length of the ovary. Width of ovary was same between the respective groups. Conclusion: The follicular count was markedly affected in lead acetate treated group which improved when co treated with garlic extract in experimental group C. Hence, garlic had a protective role against lead induced changes in mice ovary. (author)

  10. Role of Topical Cream Extract Garlic (Allium sativum) in Wound Healing Fibroblasts Judging from the Strain Wistar Rats with Acute Injury Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zaenal Zaenal; Suryani As???ad; Veni Hadju; Agussalim Bukhari

    2016-01-01

    Wound will cause problems if handled poorly, causing chronic wounds. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a typical plant of the tropics, including Indonesia, the tubers are often used in traditional medicine, among them to heal wound. This laboratory experimental study using randomized designs Post Test Control Group aims to determine the effect of the use of Topical Cream Extract garlic (Allium sativum) on wound healing in topical administration, with a view histopathologic consisting of fibroblasts...

  11. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 ± 4 cm and weight of 86 ± 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl2.H2O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and taurine have potential to reduce

  12. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  13. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  14. Garlic extract as an alternative to the growth promoters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Hernando Botía Carreño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of garlic extract (GE and to determine its effect on the absorption surface of the duodenum as a potential alternative to growth promoters in broiler chickens. We used 300 chickens, male and female, which were one day old, commercial stock CobbAvian, and they were distributed at random into three experimental units of 100 chickens each one. The diet of the broiler chickens was supplemented with doses 0 %, 0.5 % and 1 % GE. The variables valuated were: production indicators, intestinal morphometry, heart rate and internal parasites presence. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 % of GE in the diet improved the broiler chickens’ body weight gain (P <0.05 and the feed conversion rate was favorable for the inclusion of 0.5 % GE (P <0.05 however there were no significant differences in feed intake, mortality, heart rate, and presence of internal parasites. For the histological analysis it was determined that the inclusion of 1% GE was statistically larger (P <0.05 on parameters such as the intestinal villus height and width, crypt depth and apparent area of the villus, and no differences were found to the relation between villus/crypt. It can be concluded that the inclusion of GE has an effect on intestinal health, which can be related to an improvement in production indicators, serving as an alternative to growth promoters.

  15. Purif ied Protein Fraction of Garlic Extract Modulates Cellular Immune Response against Breast Transplanted Tumors in BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Zare Mehrjardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum has anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenesis, and immunomodulatory properties that modulate anti-tumor immunity and inhibit tumor growth. In this study we have examined the effect of a protein fraction isolated from fresh garlic on anti-tumor response and intra-tumor lymphocyte infiltration.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study a protein fraction was purified from fresh garlic bulbs using ultra-filtration, followed by chromatofocusing, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Anti-tumor activity was assessed by intra-tumor injection of the protein fraction and garlic extract, itself, into groups of 5 mice each. The percentage of peripheral blood and intra-tumor CD4+ and CD8+ cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Unpaired student’s t test using the SPSS program was applied for all statistical analyses.Results: Garlic extract included different type of proteins with different molecular weight. One of protein’s fraction was immunomodeulator and was composed of three single polypeptides, with molecular masses of ~10-13 kDa and different isoelectric points (pI. These molecules augmented the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response compared to the control group. Intra-tumor injection of the fraction provoked a significant increase in the CD8+ subpopulation of T-lymphocytes, as well as a decrease in tumor size. The fraction increased peripheral blood CD8+ T-lymphocytes in treated animals.Conclusion: The data confirms that protein fractions purified from fresh garlic bulbs augment CD8+ T-cell infiltration into the tumor site, inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently than garlic extract. These fi ndings provide a basis for further investigations on the purified polypeptide as a useful candidate for immunomodulation and tumor treatment.

  16. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sharifi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA and garlic extract with together on plasma concentration of cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL, and formation of fatty streaks through the phenomena called “chelation therapy” in male Rabbit aorta. 32 male Rabbits were used and divided to 4 groups as group 1: cholesterol – rich diet (CRD + EDTA + Garlic Extract (GE, group 2: CRD + EDTA, Group 3: CRD + GE, Group 4: CRD (control group. The animals were under food and drug diet for 5 weeks. Blood samples of Rabbits were taken before and after the test and then plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were measured. Finally, abdominal aorta was studied and pathologically evaluated. Results: The experiments showed the significant decrease of mean cholesterol in case groups and mean triglyceride in the groups which have received EDTA + GE and EDTA. Our results showed that mean LDL and LDL/HDL Ratio in case groups have been decreased in comparison to control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean HDL in the group which has received EDTA + GE. Conclusion: In this study it was shown that the using of fresh garlic and EDTA with together has a reductive effect on cholesterol, Triglyceride, and LDL concentration and also has an increasing effect on HDL concentration. But it seems that concomitant using of these tow substances with together strengthen the effect of each one, and it produces a great reduction of the blood

  17. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. PMID:27283648

  18. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yeong Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG extract (FRGE. In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE2, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD4, and LTE4 production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose, which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVAM AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ELAMATHY AND KANCHANA. D

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic against manypathogenic infections. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from spices such asclove, ginger, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. Spices such as garlic andginger have been used as antimicrobial agents against E.coli and Klebsiella sp by usingwell diffusion method. The spices extracts prepared by using three solvents methanol,ethanol and aqueous. According to the result among the selected spices garlic...

  20. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  1. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  2. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  3. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  4. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. PMID:26471585

  5. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Erik H.; Hansen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J. [Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research, Department of Food Chemistry, Soeborg (Denmark); Lobinski, Ryszard; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena [CNRS UMR 5034, Pau (France); Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Burger-Meyer, Karin; Scholten, Olga [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Kik, Chris [Wageningen University and Research Centre, Plant Research International (PRI), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University and Research Centre, Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands (CGN), P.O. Box 16, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and {gamma}-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  6. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre-) Hypertension?

    OpenAIRE

    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. L...

  7. Aged Garlic Extract Attenuates Neuronal Injury in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemil, Berker; Gokce, Emre Cemal; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gokce, Aysun; Aksoy, Nurkan; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Erdogan, Bulent; Kosem, Bahadir

    2016-06-01

    Garlic has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged garlic extract (AGE) is claimed to promote human health through antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with neuroprotective effects. We evaluated the possible beneficial effect of AGE neurologically, pathologically, ultrastructurally, and biochemically in a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) model of rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham (no I/R), I/R, and AGE (I/R+AGE); each group consisted of eight animals. Animals were evaluated neurologically with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested for pathological and ultrastructural examinations. Oxidative products (Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), inflammatory cytokines (tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1), and caspase-3 activity were analyzed. The AGE group had significantly higher BBB scores than the I/R group. Pathologically, AGE group revealed reduced degree of ischemia and spinal cord edema. Ultrastructural results also showed preservation of tissue structure in the AGE group. Oxidative product levels of the I/R group were significantly higher than both the other groups, and antioxidant enzyme levels of AGE group were significantly higher than the I/R group. There was also significant difference between the sham and AGE groups in terms of total antioxidant enzyme levels. Furthermore, AGE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity than the I/R group. This study demonstrates the considerable neuroprotective effect of AGE on the neurological, pathological, ultrastructural, and biochemical status of rats with I/R-induced spinal cord injury. PMID:27183321

  8. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods:Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results: Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25%against Gram positive and negative were 100%and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25%concentration were 66.6%, 55.6%and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up

  9. Effects of aged garlic extract and endurance exercise on skeletal muscle FNDC-5 and circulating irisin in high-fat-diet rat models

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dae Yun; Kwak, Hyo Bum; Lee, Sung Ryul; Cho, Yeun Suk; Song, In-Sung; Kim, Nari; Bang, Hyun Seok; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is associated with energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aged garlic extract (AGE) and exercise training intervention could improve body weight, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle fibronectin domain containing protein 5 (FNDC-5) levels, and plasma irisin in high-fat diet (HFD). MATERIALS/METHODS Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a ND (normal diet, n = 5) or HFD (n = 28) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, all rats were divided into 5 g...

  10. Study of the effects of ionizing radiation on the biochemical and biological properties of garlic (Allium sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlic is used since sevral hundred years to deal with various health issues. During last decades sevral works was interested to specify these problems, in this work we studied the effects of the gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical and biological properties of Allium sativum. This study was undertaken on the bulb irradiated by implying amounts of differents irradiation from 140 to 260Gy. First we proceeded to analyse the effects of these irradiations on the composition of garlic such as : allicin, protein, reducing sugars, total sugars, triglycerides and polyphenols. Second we tested the effect of these extracts radiotreated on the cell multiplication and the enzymatic activity of salmonella Hadar. The obtained results showed that the irradiated garlic extracts, present a slight nonsignificant reduction in the allicine proteinn sugar reducers, triglyceride and polyphenols concentration. However, this reduction is significant during application of the amount 260Ky. In addition, a deterioration of the growth observed after treatment by different concentrations of aqueous irradiated garlic extract. This inhibition is dependent on the concentration of aqueous extract of garlic used and the used irradiation dose. These observations would be in favor that the irradiations induce a slight midification of physico-chemical properties and they affect the anbacterial activity against salmonella Hdar. (Author)

  11. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Modifies the Effect of L-Carnitine,Curcumin, Garlic Powder and Green tea Extract on Doxorubicin-Induced Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha R. Radwan*, Esmat A. Shaban*, Hesham A. Salem and Sanaa A. Kenawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible protective potential of exposure to low dose of radiation in presence or absence of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract was examined in the present study on doxorubicin (DOX-induced experimental nephropathy in rats. Preliminary study was carried out to select the suitable dose of DOX to induce nephrotoxicity. In the current experiment 5 mg/kg, i.p. was selected as a single dose to induce nephrotoxicity during 15 days. The possible modulating effect of L-carnitine, curcumin, garlic powder or green tea extract on kidney function was examined. Animals were subdivided into three sets. Three groups of the 1st set were exposed to radiation at a single dose level of 0.3 Gy then received DOX, 1, 3 or 7 days postirradiation respectively. The groups of 2nd set daily received L-carnitine (40 mg/kg, i.p., curcumin (50 mg/kg, i.p., garlic powder (100 mg/kg, p.o. and green tea extract (300 mg/kg, p.o. daily for two weeks before induction of nephropathy. Groups of the 3rd set received the same doses of drugs then were injected with DOX, 1, 3 or 7 days following irradiation respectively. Two groups of animals, one of them received saline and served as normal and the other received DOX and served as nephropathic group were included in 1st, 2nd as well as 3rd set. Fifteen days following DOX administration, serum was collected and the animals were then sacrificed. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid were evaluated. Data revealed that, a single DOX dose (5 mg/kg induced marked acute nephrotoxicity manifested as significant increase in the activities of serum creatinine, urea as well as uric acid. Interestingly, pre-exposure to radiation at a dose level of 0.3 Gy, 1 or 3 days before DOX injection exhibited significant improvement in the above altered mentioned parameters. However, exposure to low dose radiation 7 days prior to DOX administration did not show a protective effect. Moreover, pretreatment with L-carnitine, curcumin

  12. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vega-Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L. is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg significantly ( reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, . Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds.

  13. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Ávila, Elisa; Cano-Velasco, José Luis; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Fajardo Ortíz, María del Carmen; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal administration (250 mg/Kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained and blood glucose levels were analyzed employing a glucometer. The data were statistically compared by ANOVA. The most active extract was fractioned. Phytochemical screen and chromatographic studies were also done. Results. The aqueous extracts from C. roseus reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic mice. The aqueous stem extract (250 mg/Kg) and its alkaloid-free fraction (300 mg/Kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced blood glucose in diabetic mice by 52.90 and 51.21%. Their hypoglycemic activity was comparable to tolbutamide (58.1%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The best hypoglycemic activity was presented for the aqueous extracts and by alkaloid-free stem aqueous fraction. This fraction is formed by three polyphenols compounds. PMID:23056144

  14. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Saeki, Tomoko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Nishino, Hoyoku; Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2006-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has manifold biological activities including immunomodulative and antioxidative effects. It is used as a major component of nonprescription tonics and cold-prevention medicines or dietary supplements. Advanced-cancer patients decline in immune functions and quality of life (QOL). The study's subjects were patients with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer. In a randomized double-blind trial, AGE was administered to one group and a placebo was administered to another for 6 mo. The primary endpoint was a QOL questionnaire based on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The subendpoints were changes in the natural-killer (NK) cell activity the salivary cortisol level from before and after administering AGE. Out of 55 patients invited to participate in the trial, 50 (91%) consented to enroll. They consisted of 42 patients with liver cancer (84%), 7 patients with pancreatic cancer (14%), and 1 patient with colon cancer (2%). Drug compliance was relatively good in both the AGE and placebo groups. Although no difference was observed in QOL, both the number of NK cells and the NK cell activity increased significantly in the AGE group. No adverse effect was observed in either group. The study showed that administering AGE to patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved NK cell activity, but caused no improvement in QOL. PMID:16484572

  15. Garlic: A Concise Drug Review with Probable Clinical Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Vineet Singla; Jai Deep Bajaj; Radhika Bhaskar; Bimlesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as an agent for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and other metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and hypoglycemia. This review discusses the possible mechanism of therapeutic actions of garlic, different extraction procedures along with determination of its constituents, its stability and dissolution method of garlic tablet.

  16. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  17. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Nauertz, Andrew; Luong, Nhungoc T; Agrawal, Shivani; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Youssef, Mohammed M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus. The antiviral assay was performed using dilutions of the extracts below the maximum nontoxic concentrations of the extracts to the host cells of FCV, Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No antiviral effect was seen when the host cells were pretreated with any of the extracts. However, pretreatment of FCV with nondiluted clove and ginger extracts inactivated 6.0 and 2.7 log of the initial titer of the virus, respectively. Also, significant dosedependent inactivation of FCV was seen when host cells were treated with clove and ginger extracts at the time of infection or postinfection at concentrations equal to or lower than the maximum nontoxic concentrations. By comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol (29.5%) and R-(-)-1,2-propanediol (10.7%) were identified as the major components of clove and ginger extracts, respectively. The antiviral effect of the pure eugenol itself was tested; it showed antiviral activity similar to that of clove extract, albeit at a lower level, which indicates that some other clove extract constituents, along with eugenol, are responsible for inactivation of FCV. These results showed that the aqueous extracts of clove and ginger hold promise for prevention of foodborne viral contamination. PMID:27296605

  18. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log Kow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  19. 75 FR 22788 - Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... AGENCY Garlic Oil and Capsaicin; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability AGENCY... decisions. Garlic oil is the volatile oil extracted from the bulb of the garlic plant or the entire plant. Garlic oil is used as a repellent for the control of insects, mites, birds, deer, rabbits and...

  20. Extratos de alho e alecrim na indução de faseolina em feijoeiro e fungitoxicidade sobre Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Garlic and rosemary extracts in the induction of phaseollin in beans and fungitoxicity on Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristiane Brand

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais podem auxiliar no controle de doenças de plantas, por sua atividade antimicrobiana ou pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos extratos aquosos de alho e alecrim autoclavados e não autoclavados sobre o crescimento micelial de Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a produção de faseolina em feijoeiro e a severidade de antracnose em campo. O fungo foi incubado em meio de cultura contendo os extratos, e o crescimento foi mensurado por 18 dias. Para avaliação de faseolina, os extratos foram aplicados sobre hipocótilos de feijão, a extração foi feita em etanol e a leitura foi realizada em espectrofotômetro. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada em plantas de feijão pulverizadas com os extratos e inoculadas com o fungo. Para o extrato de alho, a maior redução (57,6% no crescimento micelial foi com a dose de 3,0% do extrato não autoclavado. Já para o extrato de alecrim, a maior redução (18,6% foi com o extrato autoclavado. A autoclavagem não teve efeito sobre a indução de faseolina. À campo, os extratos não reduziram significativamente a severidade de antracnose. O extrato de alho não autoclavado mostrou-se mais eficiente na redução do crescimento de C. lindemuthianum, enquanto que o de alecrim, autoclavado ou não, foi mais efetivo na indução de faseolina.Plant extracts may assist in controlling plants diseases due to its antimicrobial activity and activation of defense mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of garlic and rosemary, autoclaved or non autoclaved, on the mycelial growth of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, production of phaseollin by beans and severity of anthracnose in the field. The fungus was incubated in medium containing the extracts and its growth measured for 18 days. For phaseollin evaluation the extracts were applied on bean hypocotyls, the phytoalexin extracted in ethanol and read in spectrophotometer. The

  1. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extracts from Catharanthus roseus

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Vega-Ávila; José Luis Cano-Velasco; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; María del Carmen Fajardo Ortíz; Julio César Almanza-Pérez; Rubén Román-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Catharanthus roseus (L.) is used in some countries to treat diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of extracts from the flower, leaf, stem, and root in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods. Roots, leaves, flowers, and stems were separated to obtain organic and aqueous extracts. The blood glucose lowering activity of these extracts was determinate in healthy and alloxan-induced (75 mg/Kg) diabetic mice, after intraperitoneal adminis...

  2. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation. PMID:26563916

  3. STUDIES ON METHOD FOR AQUEOUS EXTRACTION OF SOYBEAN OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青

    2001-01-01

    Water extraction of soybean oil was studied to find the optimal conditions for recovery of oil pre-enriched protein and for aqueous extraction of soybean oil. Orthogonal tests were employed in the procedures of oil pre-enrichment and aqueous extraction. Soybeans were crushed to pass a 40 mesh sieve, soaked under the optimum conditions (solid/water=1/5(w/v), 40 ℃, pH 10, 3 h) and water-ground to 100 mesh, stirred in 65 ℃ water for 20 min, and centrifuged at 1400 g to separate oil pre-enriched protein. The protein yield was 17.8 g from 100 g soybeans, which contained 62.8% oil. The oil yield was 69.0%. Optimum conditions for the aqueous extraction procedure were: solid-to-water ratio 1∶2, pH 9.0, time 30 min, stirring in boiling water bath, stationary time 10 min, centrifuge at 3600 g for 10 min. Experimental values showed that the oil yield after aqueous extraction from oil pre-enriched protein reached 88.3%, so the total oil extraction rate was 60.8%.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gull Iram; Saeed Mariam; Shaukat Halima; Aslam Shahbaz M; Samra Zahoor; Athar Amin M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethano...

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVAM AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ELAMATHY AND KANCHANA. D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic against manypathogenic infections. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from spices such asclove, ginger, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. Spices such as garlic andginger have been used as antimicrobial agents against E.coli and Klebsiella sp by usingwell diffusion method. The spices extracts prepared by using three solvents methanol,ethanol and aqueous. According to the result among the selected spices garlic had theinhibitory activity showed maximum zone 0f 26mm against Klebsiella sp and a zone of23mm against E.coli. The aqueous extracts of garlic were more effective than methanoland ethanol extract. In case of ginger ethanol extract showed maximum zone ofinhibition 25mm against klebsiella sp and minimal zone was recorded in 11mm aqueousextract. The minimum inhibitory concentration of different bacterial species varied from0.2mg/ml to 1.0mg/ml.

  6. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aqueous solution containing a reactive extractant, like borate salts, borate complexes, a monosalt of dicarboxylic acid,hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, and silver nitrate, shows limited potential to be used. Another approach, in which the alcohol is chemically modified prior to the extraction into an easy-extractable form, in this case a monoesterlcarboxylic acid, shows much more potential. An environmentally benign aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate can provide a distribution ratio of benzyl alcohol up to 200, leaving the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous solution unchanged relative to pure water and therefore increasing the selectivity with two orders of magnitude. The modification of aromatic, cyclo-aliphatic, and linear aliphatic alcohols can be performed efficiently in the apolar organic solvent without need for a catalyst. The recovery of the modified alcohol can be performed by back-extraction in combination with a spontaneous hydrolysis.

  7. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre- Hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. Lycopene in tomato extract has a protective effect on serum cholesterol similar to low-dose statins, and may also be beneficial for lowering blood pressure in hypertensive people.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF WILD GARLIC (Allium ursinum FROM ROMANIAN SPONTANEOUS FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA LUPOAE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wild Romanian spontaneous garlic’s (Allium ursinum antimicrobial activity was tested in order to establish the inhibition potential of growth of some microorganisms. As test microorganisms were used pure cultures of fungs (Aspergillus glaucus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor mucedo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bacteria (Bacillus subtilis isolated from food microbiota. There were also, used microbial strains isolated from different pathological products: wound secretions (Staphylococcus aureus, throat swab (Streptococcus pyogenes, urine (Escherichia coli and oral mucosa (Candida albicans. The antimicrobial potential of used extracts is highlighted depending on the type of the vegetal tissue (leaves, roots, bulbs and the nature of the solvent used for extraction. Extracts used in these experiments are recommended to use in food industry to preserve the stability and to improve the organoleptic quality of products.

  9. The Analysis of Saccharide in Black Garlic and its Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mengmeng Lei; Mengying Xu; Zesheng Zhang; Min Zhang; Yunfeng Gao

    2014-01-01

    Black garlic was created by keeping whole ordinary garlic in a humidity controlled room at 70-80°C for 10-15 days without any artificial treatments and additives. The black garlic was extracted with 80% ethanol and concentrated to obtain black garlic ethanol extracts. The saccharides of the extracts were analyzed according to the method of Phenol Sulphate colorimetry, DNS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant capacity in vitro of the extracts was assessed by measu...

  10. Quantitation of Allicin in Garlic-based Products: Comparisons among Spectrophotometry, GC and HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Zhou; Xueyan Hu; Chen Chao; Hui Li; Shuiyin Zhang; Xueming Yan; Fengmei Yang; Quanhong Li

    2015-01-01

    Spectrophotometric, GC and HPLC methods were used to determinate allicin concentration in garlic-based products (garlic powder, garlic oil and garlic tablets). Allicin was extracted using a mixture of water and ethanol and analyzed by the three methods. The results revealed that the GC method was unsuitable for allicin quantitation because of high coefficient of variations and high temperatures. The spectrophotometric method was the simplest and most effective method for solid garlic-based pr...

  11. Composition, Stability, and Bioavailability of Garlic Products Being Used in a Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Larry D.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2005-01-01

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) cond...

  12. Garlic flavonoids and organosulfur compounds: the impact on saqunavir's and darunavir's hepatic pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Milisav, Irina; Kristl, Albin; Berginc, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Saquinavir and darunavir therapeutic efficacy depends on the presence of xenobiotics (such as garlic compounds) capable of modifying transporter-enzymeinterplay. To ascertain the mechanism of interactions between antiretroviral drugs and garlic supplements and to identify responsible garlic constituents, hepatic pharmacokinetics of two antiretrovirals was investigated in the presence of garlic phytochemicals and aged garlic extract. For this purpose rat liver slices and isolated rat hepatocyt...

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  14. Photocatalytical oxidation of de-icing agents in aqueous solutions and aqueous extract of jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichevskaya, M; Malygina, T; Preis, S; Kallas, J

    2001-01-01

    Improper handling of jet fuel at abandoned military bases has resulted in heavy pollution of the soil and groundwater. Experimental research of photocatalytical oxidation (PCO) of jet fuel aqueous extract and aqueous solutions of de-icing agents was undertaken. The influence of different parameters - pH, concentration of substances to be oxidised, presence of inorganic admixtures, effect of OH. radical generators--on the PCO of solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract was determined. The role of OH. radicals was found to be less important in determining the PCO rate. The PCO of organic pollutants was also investigated using a catalyst immobilised onto the surface of buoyant hollow glass microspheres. Attached titanium dioxide (TiO2) showed lower photocatalytical activity than when suspended in slurry, although it allows waters to be treated in simple shallow ponds without intensive stirring. The biodegradability of aqueous solutions of de-icing agents and jet fuel aqueous extract increased as PCO proceeded. PMID:11695445

  15. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  16. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less

  17. Actinide recovery using aqueous biphasic extraction: Initial developmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Mertz, C.J.; Rollins, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction systems are being developed to treat radioactive wastes. The separation technique involves the selective partitioning of either solutes or colloid-size particles between two scible aqueous phases. Wet grinding of plutonium residues to an average particle size of one micron will be used to liberate the plutonium from the bulk of the particle matrix. The goal is to produce a plutonium concentrate that will integrate with existing and developing chemical recovery processes. Ideally, the process would produce a nonTRU waste stream. Coupling physical beneficiation with chemical processing will result in a substantial reduction in the volume of mixed wastes generated from dissolution recovery processes. As part of this program, we will also explore applications of aqueous biphasic extraction that include the separation and recovery of dissolved species such as metal ions and water-soluble organics. The expertise and data generated in this work will form the basis for developing more cost-effective processes for handling waste streams from environmental restoration and waste management activities within the DOE community. This report summarizes the experimental results obtained during the first year of this effort. Experimental efforts were focused on elucidating the surface and solution chemistry variables which govern partitioning behavior of plutonium and silica in aqueous biphasic extraction systems. Additional efforts were directed toward the development of wet grinding methods for producing ultrafine particles with diameters of one micron or less.

  18. Extraction of defatted rice bran with subcritical aqueous acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Neoh, Tze Loon; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Defatted rice bran extracts were obtained by subcritical treatment using aqueous acetone as extractant. Treatment with 40% (v/v) acetone at 230 °C for 5 min yielded an extract with the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (0.274 mmol of ascorbic acid/g of bran), total carbohydrate (0.188 g/g of bran), protein (0.512 g/g of bran), and total phenolic contents (88.2 mg of gallic acid/g of bran). The effect of treatment temperature (70-230 °C) was investigated using 40% (v/v) acetone, and the extract under 230 °C treatment showed the highest levels of all the determinations described above. The extracts obtained with various concentrations of aqueous acetone were subjected to UV absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, and the results showed changes in composition and polarity. Antioxidative activity evaluated against oxidation of bulk linoleic acid of the extract obtained with 80% (v/v) acetone was higher than that not only of the extract from subcritical water treatment but also of that obtained 40% (v/v) acetone treatment. PMID:22878207

  19. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Yousef A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders. Methods and Results: In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plateinduced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous ...

  20. ANTIMICROBIALACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVAM AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ELAMATHY; KANCHANA. D

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic against many pathogenic infections. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from spices such as clove, ginger, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. Spices such as garlic and ginger have been used as antimicrobial agents against E.coli and Klebsiella sp by using well diffusion method. The spices extracts prepared by using three solvents methanol, ethanol and aqueous. According to the result among the selected spices g...

  1. Scolicidal effects of squash (Corylus spp) seeds, hazel (Curcurbia spp) nut and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts on hydatid cyst protoscolices

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Eskandarian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because there is no effective drug therapy for hydatid cyst yet, assessment and finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. Hazelnut, squash seeds and garlic chloroformic and hydro-alcoholic extracts′ scolicidal effects were examined. Materials and Methods: Suspension of protoscolices was obtained from infected liver and or lung of sheep...

  2. Extraction of dye from aqueous solution in rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Jayant B; Bhowal, Avijit; Datta, Siddhartha

    2016-03-01

    The influence of centrifugal acceleration on mass transfer rates in liquid-liquid extraction was investigated experimentally in rotating packed bed (RPB) contactor. The extraction of methyl red using xylene was studied in the equipment. The effect of rotational speed (300-900rpm), flow rate of the aqueous (4.17-20.8×10(-6)m(3)/s), and organic phase (0.83-2.5×10(-6)m(3)/s) on the mass transfer performance was examined. The maximum stage efficiency attained was ∼0.98 at aqueous to organic flow rate ratio of 10. The results suggest that contactor volume required to carry out a given separation can be reduced by an order of magnitude with RPB in comparison to conventional extractors. PMID:26571002

  3. Antinociceptive activity of Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae is an herbaceous plant, used in folk medicine for the treatment of several medical disorders.In the present study, the aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaf, at the i.p doses 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed significant analgesic effects against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice, with protection values of 51.79% and 20.21% respectively. On the contrary, the Mentha piperita leaf aqueous extract did not exhibit anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw oedema.These findings indicate that Mentha piperita has a potential analgesic effect that may possibly have mediated centrally and peripherally, as well as providing a pharmacological evidence for its traditional use as a pain reliever.

  4. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  5. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  6. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; HUNT, JAMES R.

    2004-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enha...

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan; Fauzia Rajab El-Garbulli

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activit...

  8. Aged garlic extract and its components protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid β—protein—in—duced neuronal death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ItoY; KosuY

    2002-01-01

    Aged garlic extract and its components such as S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) and sllixin have been shown to possess various biological effects including neurotrophic activity.We characterized the neuronal death induced by amyloid β-protein (Aβ),4-hydroxynoenal (HNE),tunicamycin(TM),and trophic factor-deprivation (TFD),and ivestigated whether these garlic compounds could prevent this in cultured PC12 cells and rat hippocampal neurons.Treatment with SAC protected these cells against Aβ- and TM-induced neuronal death.SAC also attenuated the processing of procaspase-12 induced by Aβ25-35 or TM.In contrast,allixin and its analogue,DHP,afforded no protection against Aβ-induced cell death.SAC afforded no protection against HNE- and TFD-induced cell death,which has been shown to be mediated by caspase-3 dependent pathway.These results suggest that SAC protect against the neuronal cell death that is triggered by ER dysfunction.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of an aqueous extract of Potentilla erecta rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synowiec Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla erecta is a therapeutic plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory states, wounds and diseases of the alimentary tract. The results of the study reveal the effects of an aqueous extract of P. erecta rhizome on certain microorganisms occurring in food. The main components of the extract were catechins. The extract was shown to display an inhibiting effect against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, as well as against yeast such as Candida lipolitica KKP 322 and Hansenula anomala R 26. The extract did inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, however, no inhibiting effects were observed on moulds in the studied range of concentrations, i.e. 0.13 to 64 mg dry matter/ml.

  10. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects. PMID:26892338

  11. Uranium, thorium and rare earth extraction and separation process by processing their chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different steps of the process are the following: uranium and iron extraction by a neutral organic phosphorus compound and thorium and rare earth recovery in an aqueous solution, iron recovery in acid aqueous phase, concentration of the thorium and rare earth aqueous solution followed by thorium extraction with a organic phosphorus compound and rare earth recovery in the aqueous phase, thorium recovery in acid aqueous phase

  12. Garlic Bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:One whole bream weighing about750g,100g garlic,3g salt,15g cookingwine,2g pepper,3g MSG,5g sugar,10g soy sauce,5g sesame oil,optionalamount of clear stock,minced scallionand ginger root and 1000g cooking oil(actual consumption only 100g).Method:1.Clean the bream,slit open bothsides,then smear over the soy sauceand soak for a while.2.Heat the wok and add in cookingoil.Put in the bream when the oil is80% hot.Fry the fish until it turnsgolden yellow.Remove.leaving someoil in the wok.3.Stir-fry the scallion and ginger until

  13. Time to Plant Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Garlic is an important crop for many market growers in Virginia. Though it requires advance site preparation and planning, garlic is generally an easy crop to grow, and one which lends itself well to organic production.

  14. Role of Topical Cream Extract Garlic (Allium sativum in Wound Healing Fibroblasts Judging from the Strain Wistar Rats with Acute Injury Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Zaenal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wound will cause problems if handled poorly, causing chronic wounds. Garlic (Allium sativum is a typical plant of the tropics, including Indonesia, the tubers are often used in traditional medicine, among them to heal wound. This laboratory experimental study using randomized designs Post Test Control Group aims to determine the effect of the use of Topical Cream Extract garlic (Allium sativum on wound healing in topical administration, with a view histopathologic consisting of fibroblasts. This study conducted using 4 laboratories are Biofarmaka Center activity of Research (PKP Hasanuddin University to the process of making Cream Topical garlic extract (EBP10%, Laboratory Animal Medical Faculty of Hasanuddin University for maintenance and treatment of experimental animals, Laboratory of Histopathology Center for Veterinary Maros for manufacturing slide histopathology in September 2015 - February 2016. the study was conducted in 54 rats by making excision of the left and right back diameter of 8 mm by using punc byopsi. Then the mice were divided into 3 groups: negative control 0.9% NaCl, Oksitetracycline positive control group and a treatment group 3% Topical Cream EBP10%. The scar tissue of each group were observed microscopically on days 3, 7, and 14. The results showed wound healing treatment group tend to be better, seen in the mean value and standard deviation of the number of fibroblast cells EBP10% topical cream group on day 3 ( 1.0 ± 0.63, day 7 (1.5 ± 0.55 and day 14 (3.0 ± 0.63. Test results one way ANOVA fibroblast cell counts significantly different all groups based on the time of day 3 (p: 0.025 and day 14 (p: 0.000. Results of post hoc test showed no significant difference in the group EBP10% Topical Cream with negative control day 3 (p: 0.011, day 7 (P: 0.034 and (day 14 p: 0.000. In conclusion, Cream topical EBP 10%. tend to be useful in wound healing, and statistically significant.

  15. Keratinolytic and keratinophilic fungi of mangrove's soil and air in the city of Qena and their response to garlic extract and onion oil treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssuf A. Gherbawy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight species and l variety belonging to 25 genera were collected from 50 soil samples (41 species and l variety and 21 genera and the atmosphere (27 species and l variety and 14 genera of mangrove in the city Qena using hair baiting technique at 28"C. Twenty of these species was dermatophytes and closely related fungi. The most common and frequent species of the latter fungi were Aphanoascus fulvescens (telemorph of Chrysosporium keratinophilum, A. terreus (C. indicum. Aphanoascus sp. (C. tropicum and Chrysosporium xerophilum. Sixty-eight isolates were tested for the abilites for growth on hair - sand medium. Most (73.5 % had moderate growth rate. All keratinophilie fungi recovered in the present investigation were sensitive to garlic extract and onion oil.

  16. In vivo antiprotozoan effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts on experimentally infected mice with Blastocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas H; Ahmad, Azza K; Kamal, Amany M; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Abdelgelil, Noha H

    2015-09-01

    Controversy surrounding the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in humans and lack of well-established diagnostic criteria led to debates concerning the treatment for that organism. Furthermore, some strains develop resistance against the recommended drugs. Thus, using natural medicine has many positive aspects to address these points. In an earlier study, we addressed in vitro effect of garlic and ginger on Blastocystis spp. isolates as an alternative treatment. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate in vivo activities of these two herbs on mice infected with Blastocystis spp. Antiprotozoan activities were determined by monitoring Blastocystis shedding in stools and histopathological changes of the intestine of infected mice. Additionally, assessment of the antioxidant effect (via measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production) of these herbs on the treated groups of mice was done. Also, their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed. In this work, treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and nitazoxanide (NTZ) reduced the shedding of cysts significantly compared to the infected untreated group, P value ≤0.001, 0.0001, and 0.0003, respectively. As well, histopathological examination revealed that Blastocystis was frequently observed within the lumen, at the tip of the epithelium, and/ or infiltrated in an enterocyte in the infected group without treatment compared to that of the infected treated ones. Furthermore, mice infected with Blastocystis exhibited increased levels of NO (440.09 ± 3.7 vs. 276.66 ± 0.8, P ≤ 0.001) and MDA production (106.19 ± 0.43 vs. 63.06 ± 0.45, P ≤ 0.0004) compared to that of the uninfected controls. Treatment of infected mice with garlic, ginger, and NTZ reduced NO levels to 54.41 ± 1.2, 47.70 ± 1.2, and 37.43 ± 0.98 and MDA levels to 22.38 ± 0.17, 63.34 ± 3.89, and 66.76 ± 9.1, respectively. We conclude that using ginger and garlic for treatment of blastocystosis is beneficial

  17. Non-aqueous heavy oil extraction from oil sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George [National Nuclear Security Administration (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Kansas City plant operated by Honeywell has a long history of working with DOE NNSA on engineering and manufacturing services supporting national security requirements. The plant has developed a non-aqueous method for heavy oil extraction from oil sands. This method is environmentally friendly as it does not use any external body of water, which would normally be contaminated in the conventional method. It is a 2 phase process consisting of terpene, limonene or alpha pinene, and carbon dioxide. The CO2 and terpene phases are both closed loop systems which minimizes material loss. The limonene and alpha pinene are both naturally derived solvents that come from citrus sources or pine trees respectively. Carbon dioxide is an excellent co-solvent with terpene. There is also a possibility for heat loss recovery during the distillation phase. This process produces clean dry sand. Laboratory tests have concluded that this using non-aqueous liquids process works effectively.

  18. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  19. Protective effects of garlic extract and vitamin C against in vivo cypermethrin-induced cytogenetic damage in rat bone-marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assayed, M E; Khalaf, A A; Salem, H A

    2010-09-30

    The cytogenetic damage inflicted by the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin (CYP) on the bone-marrow of male white rats, as well as possible protective role of two natural elements: garlic extract (GRE, 500mg/kg) and vitamin C (VTC, 20mg/kg) against the mutagenic potential of the insecticide were assessed. CYP was orally intubated in a single treatment (1/2 LD(50)) or in repeated treatments (1/5 LD(50) daily, for 5 successive days), either alone, or concomitantly with repeated oral intubations (5 successive days) of each individual putative protector, or with their combination (GRE or/and VTC). One hundred and twenty male rats were divided over into five groups of each 24 animals. The groups received nothing, a single dose or repeated treatments with insecticide alone, or associated with putative natural elements, separately or in combinations. Animals were sacrificed at their scheduled times and their femoral bone-marrows were flushed out to be utilized in the micronucleus test and metaphase chromosomal aberration assay. The results show that CYP administration significantly induced clastogenic effects, as revealed by the significant increase in the mean frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and various structural chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow metaphase cells of all groups of treated rats. On the other hand, this investigation clearly revealed the protective role of GRE and VTC, either each alone or in combination, against the mutagenic potential of cypermethrin: the garlic extract was often more efficient in its protective action against the insecticide toxicity than vitamin C. while the combination of both natural elements produced, in most cases, a more pronounced protective effect than when each was administered alone. PMID:20673810

  20. 大蒜提取液对番茄主要病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Garlic Extract of the Major Pathogens in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文静; 赵洪锟; 董英山; 周义发; 李启云

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition of garlic extract of 4 pathogens in tomato was studied by using aimiao, the imported fungicide, and carbendazim, the commonly used fungicide at home, as the contrast. The results indicated the controlled ability of aimiao EC is the highest, and the garlic extract EC is close to carbendazim powder, but garlic extract EC is better compared to carbendazim powder by garlic extract EC,carbendazim powder and aimiao EC control the growth of 4 pathogens in tomato. By analyzing the inhibitory rate and calculating the trend of fungicide concentration, the EC_(95) oiFulvia fulva that aimiao EC controlled turns out to be 5 025-time diluent, and that of other fungi is about 2 220 times; the EC_(90) of Col-letotrichum coccodesthat garlic extract EC controlled is 586-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Fulvia fulva and Botrytis cinerea are 149,173 and 446 times respectively; EC_(90) of Fulvia fulva that carbendazim powder controlled is 178-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum coccodes and Botrytis cinerea are 111,145,107 times respectively. In a word, garlic extract EC and 2 fungicides have very strong ability in controlling the growth of the 4 pathogens in tomato, and the trend of fungicide concentration is consistent with the measured result, but the specificity is different for different fungicides respectively.%以进口杀菌剂爱苗和国内常用杀菌剂多菌灵为对照,研究了大蒜提取液对番茄4种病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:爱苗对4种病菌的抑制作用最大,大蒜提取液抑菌作用好于多菌灵.大蒜提取液对炭疽菌的EC_(90)为586倍稀释液,对早疫菌、叶霉菌和灰霉菌的EC_(90)分别为149,173,446倍.大蒜提取液和2种农药对番茄4种病原真菌有很强的抑制作用,但不同药剂有不同的专一性.

  1. The Effect of Heating on Useful Components of Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shirzad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum. L. is an important dietary herb which its useful compounds may be altered during different processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating on the amounts of allicin, felavonol, felavonoid, total phenolic components, and antioxidant capacity of garlic. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shahr-e-Kord University of Medical Sciences in 2009, the alcoholic extract of fresh, micro waved, and boiled garlic were prepared. Then, their antioxidant capacities were evaluated in linoleic acid and ß-carotene linoleate system. The phenolic contents were measured with Folin–ciocalteu method, felavonoid or felavonol contents with aluminum coloride method, and allicine contents with spectrophotometry method. Collected data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software. Differences between the means of groups were evaluated by a two-tailed t-test for independent samples. Results: The fresh and fresh boiled garlic had the highest and lowest antioxidant activities, respectively (P0.05. The flavonoid and phenolic compounds in fresh garlic were more than micro waved or boiled garlic. The allicin content in fresh garlic was also higher then micro waved or boiled garlic (P<0.05. All of these components were low in boiled garlic. Conclusion: Fresh garlic has the most useful compounds and consumption of this form of the vegetable is recommended.

  2. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L- 1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L- 1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract.

  3. Applications of FETAX: Use in aqueous soil extract testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) testing of a series of diverse hazardous waste site soil samples was performed to evaluate the efficacy of FETAX as a rapid development toxicity screening tool. Soil samples were collected from six different hazardous waste sites, three from eastern and three from western Washington state. The type of waste site samples studied based on the contaminants identified included: heavy metals (2), creosote, petroleum products (2), and chlorinated pesticide contaminated sites. Three to five samples from each site representing baseline and increasing levels of contamination were collected. Aqueous extracts of the soil samples were prepared and used for FETAX studies. Samples collected from the creosote and petroleum product contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryolethal effects, although embryonic malformation was also observed. The metal contaminated sites induced greater levels of embryonic malformation, but induced little embryolethality. The chlorinated pesticide contaminated site samples caused moderate levels of embryonic deformities, but failed to induce embryolethal effects. Results from these studies suggested that FETAX was sensitive enough to detect low levels of developmental toxicants, but robust enough to be suitable for aqueous soil extract testing

  4. EFFECT OF REGULAR GARLIC INGESTION ON BODY WEIGHT AND BLOOD GLUCOSE: A CASE STUDY IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Djankpa, A. Osonuga*, J. Ekpale, C.E. Quaye, P. Otoo, O.A. Osonuga and S.K. Amoah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic a perennial erect plant is known to have sulphur-containing compounds that act on the hypothalamus increasing the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to leptin which alters the set point at which satiety is reached causing an organism to eat less. Nine mice (six of which were obese were used in this study and grouped into three. Groups A and B were made of 3 obese mice each whereas group C consisted of 3 non-obese mice. For group A and group C mice, 20 ml aqueous garlic extract was added to their feed daily whereas no garlic was added to the feed of group B mice. The study was carried out over a period of 44 days. The weight and blood glucose was measured weekly and the average for each group was computed. Results indicated that Group A mice recorded a reduction in mean body weight by 46.5% (p<0.05. Group B mice had significant increase in mean body weight by 46.2% (p<0.05. The blood glucose level dropped significantly by 18.5% (p<0.05 in group A mice. Garlic had weight loss and hypoglycemic effect in obese mice. These effects were absent in non-obese mice.

  5. Extrato de alho no controle in vitro e in vivo da antracnose da videira Garlic extract in the in vitro and in vivo control of anthracnose of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Leite

    2012-01-01

    was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the crude extract of garlic in controlling anthracnose of grapevine (Elsinoe ampelina. In the first experiment in vitro, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mL L-1 crude extract of garlic were added to potato-dextrose-agar medium (PDA before autoclaving for sterilization and to melting media. After 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of incubation at 24 ± 2ºC and photoperiod of 16 hours, the mycelial growth of E. ampelina was measured. In the second experiment in vitro, we repeated the methodology of adding the extract to the melting medium plus 2.5 mL-1 of vegetable oil and an absolute control with PDA only. After two and four hours of incubation at 24ºC and constant light, germination of E. ampelina was assessed. The experimental design for in vitro experiments was completely randomized with four replicates and the experimental plot consisted of a Petri dish. In the field experiment, after pruning of the grapevine cv. Isabel, the levels of crude extract of garlic plus oil were weekly sprayed on the leaves of the plant, except on the absolute control (no treatment. From the first symptoms of anthracnose of grapevine, the severity that was expressed as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC was evaluated. The design was in randomized blocks with five replicates. The crude extract of garlic reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen, especially when added to the culture medium prior to sterilization, when it expressed its maximal antifungal potential. When the vegetable oil was added to the extract levels, there was complete inhibition at the levels 25 or 30 mL L-1. This additive effect of these compounds was also noted for the germination test of E. ampelina. Under field conditions, the crude extract of garlic reduced the AUDPC by 83.59% at 25 mL L-1.

  6. Simultaneous Separation of Manganese, Cobalt, and Nickel by the Organic-Aqueous-Aqueous Three-Phase Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirayama, Sakae; Uda, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    This research outlines an organic-aqueous-aqueous three-phase solvent extraction method and proposes its use in a new metal separation process for the recycling of manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) from used lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The three-phase system was formed by mixing xylene organic solution, 50 pct polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous solution, and 1 mol L-1 sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) aqueous solution. The xylene organic solution contained 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant for Mn ion, and the Na2SO4 aqueous solution contained 1 mol L-1 potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) as an extractant for Co ion. Concentrations of the metal ions were varied by dissolving metal sulfates in the Na2SO4 aqueous solution. As a result of the experiments, Mn, Co, and Ni ions were distributed in the xylene organic phase, PEG-rich aqueous phase, and Na2SO4-rich aqueous phase, respectively. The separation was effective when the pH value was around 4. Numerical simulation was also conducted in order to predict the distribution of metal ions after the multi-stage counter-current extractions.

  7. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L−1 and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L−1 of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic

  8. Ionic liquid-assisted multiwalled carbon nanotube-dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for sensitive determination of inorganic As species in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grijalba, Alexander Castro; Escudero, Leticia B.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar

    2015-08-01

    A highly sensitive dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method combining an ionic liquid (IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for inorganic As species (As(III) and As(V)) species separation and determination in garlic samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed. Trihexyl(tetradecil)phosphonium chloride IL was used to form an ion pair with the arsenomolybdate complex obtained by reaction of As(V) with molybdate ion. Afterwards, 1.0 mg of MWCNTs was dispersed for As(V) extraction and the supernatant was separated by centrifugation. MWCNTs were re-dispersed with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant and ultrasound followed by direct injection into the graphite furnace of ETAAS for As determination. Pyrolysis and atomization conditions were carefully studied for complete decomposition of MWCNTs and IL matrices. Under optimum conditions, an extraction efficiency of 100% and a preconcentration factor of 70 were obtained with 5 mL of garlic extract. The detection limit was 7.1 ng L{sup −1} and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate measurements at 5 μg L{sup −1} of As were 5.4% and 4.8% for As(III) and As(V), respectively. The proposed D-μ-SPE method allowed the efficient separation and determination of inorganic As species in a complex matrix such as garlic extract. - Highlights: • Efficient retention and preconcentration of As by combining an IL with MWCNTs • Determination of As by ETAAS with direct injection of MWCNTs • Thermal degradation of MWCNTs in the graphite furnace of ETAAS • Highly sensitive speciation and determination of As in garlic.

  9. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, S M; Souccar, C; Lima-Landman, M T; Lapa, A J

    1997-02-01

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis Schauer (Verbenaceae) is used in folk medicine to treat gastric and intestinal disturbances. The freeze-dried aqueous extract of the whole plant tested to rodents up to the dose of 2 g kg-1, p.o., did not produce signs of toxicity. The extract (0.5-2 g kg-1, p.o.) increased the intestinal motility and protected mice against ulcers induced by restraintin-cold, ethanol or indomethacin. Injected into the duodenal lumen the extract inhibited the basal acid secretion as well as that induced by histamine and bethanecol in pylorus-ligated mice. Partition of the aqueous extract in organic solvents yielded semipurified fractions whose antiacid activity guided further chemical purification. All the fractions were chromatographically characterized, the main substances in the active extract being flavonoids and amines; some substances were revealed only under UV light. The most purified active fraction obtained presented a specific activity 5-10 times higher than that detected in the original extract. Data from pharmacological studies indicate that the antiulcer activity of S. cayennensis is related to a specific inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation of acid secretion were similarly reduced by the extracts suggesting inhibition of common steps in both pathways, possibly at the level of histamine release/H2 receptor interaction, or at the proton pump. Whatever the mechanisms involved, the present data confirm the plant effectiveness as antiacid/antiulcer and laxative. PMID:9063095

  10. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Ramesh Karkare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1 hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Results: Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  11. Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical view.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorant, E.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Hermus, R. J.; Sturmans, F.

    1993-01-01

    Recently published results of epidemiologic case-control studies in China and Italy on gastric carcinoma in relation to diet suggest that consuming garlic may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. Chemical constituents of garlic have been tested for their inhibiting effect on carcinogenesis, using in vitro and in vivo models. In most experiments inhibition of tumour growth was established using fresh garlic extract, garlic compounds or synthetically prepared analogs. In this review the strengths...

  12. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Rasmussen, Thomas B;

    2005-01-01

    to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics, and protects against the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). It has been previously demonstrated that QS is inhibited by garlic extract. In this study, the synergistic effects of garlic and tobramycin, and PMNs activities have been...... evaluated. P. aeruginosa was grown in vitro in continuous-culture once-through flow chambers with and without garlic extract. The garlic-treated biofilms were susceptible to both tobramycin and PMN grazing. Furthermore, the PMNs showed an increase in respiratory burst activation, when incubated with the...... garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality...

  13. Optimization and orthogonal design of an ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process for extracting chlorogenic acid from dry tobacco leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Tongai Mazvimba; YU Ying; CUI Zhi-Qin; ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Processing parameters for heat reflux and ultrasonic-assisted extraction techniques were optimized.Optimal operating conditions,extraction solvents and extraction yields for both methods were established.Although methanol showed high extraction efficiency in heat reflux extraction,residual amounts of methanol caused adulteration of extracts.To circumvent this drawback,a novel ultrasonic-assisted aqueous extraction process was optimized and orthogonally designed to pave the way for replacing the toxic organic solvent,methanol with water.A new approach which utilizes fractional volumes of an extraction solvent was developed to minimize solvent consumption,improve chlorogenic acid solubility in water and enhance its aqueous extraction from dried tobacco leaves.Desired trajectories for the new ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction process were found.

  14. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  15. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  16. Garlic in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Pazyar; Amir Feily

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were...

  17. Hypotensive Effect of Aqueous Seed Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae on Normotensive Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM BAKO GAYA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypotensive effects of aqueous seed extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. were evaluated in normotensive cat. The effects of the aqueous extract were compared with normal basal rhythm and Acetylcholine. The drugs and various doses of the extracts were injected through a cannula inserted in the femoral artery. The extract produced a significant reduction in cat blood pressure. The potency of the extract seems to be high because it has activity at 500:g/ml. The 1mg/ml of the extract exhibited more effective response, however the standard drug Acetylcholine showed a greater potency than the extract.

  18. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia kola Seeds in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Omage Kingsley; Erifeta O. Georgina; Uhunmwangho S. Esosa; Josiah J. Sunday; Ajeigbe O. Kazeem

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola seed on glucose, superoxide dismutase catalase and malondialdehyde of normal rats were investigated. Oral administration of aqueous seed extract of Garcinia kola at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight, over a period of 21 days, significantly (p

  19. Antiulcer activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Kaniganti

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Both the doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum sanctum leaves exhibited significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation model, whereas only 200 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract was effective in cold restrain stress model. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1353-1358

  20. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  1. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  2. Antigiardial effect of Anethum graveolens aqueous extract in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salih Sahib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Giardia lamblia is the most common intestinal parasite of humans identified worldwide. In spite of metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans, low patient compliance and side effects especially in children encourage efforts to look for new and safe agent; many plants used in folk medicine thought to have antigiardial effect,Anethum graveolens(Dill is an annual herb cultivated in Iraq used both as medicinal agent and as food spice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens leave in the treatment of giardiasis, compared with that of standard drug metronidazole. Patients and Methods:A prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 28 pediatric patients of both sexes with age of less than one year ranging from 3-11 months, who attend to outpatient private clinic in Baghdad for a period of six months from June 2013-December 2013, Patients participate in this study were allocated into two groups: Group A composed of 14 patients treated with Metronidazole 15 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days. Group B composed of 14 patients treated with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract 1ml three times a day for 5 days. Stool samples were collected at zero time before administration of treatment, after five days and after 14 days from starting the treatments to checkthe efficacy of treatment. Results:Administration of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract results in significant decrease in incidence of Giardia lamblia after five days of treatment indicating the efficacy of Anethum graveolensaqueous extract in the treatment of giardiasis a result that is comparable to that of metronidazole. Conclusion:This study showed that pediatric patients with giardiasis may benefit from five days treatment with Anethum graveolensaqueous extract administered as 1 ml three times daily, the improvement in the symptom with this herbal agent was comparable to the standard

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  4. Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

    2014-02-14

    Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented. PMID:24462465

  5. The Mathematics of Garlic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  6. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Yan-xia; LIU; Yu-bing; LIU; Feng; ZHENG; Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC) from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction. Methods The range of the independent variables, namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments. The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments. Subsequently, the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate, and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method. Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone, 5.5 mg ammonium sulfate, with ultrasonic time for 5 min. Under these optimized conditions, the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g, much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE, 29.0 mg/g). And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method. Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions. This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from I. obliquus.

  7. Aqueous Two-phase Systems with Ultrasonic Extraction Used for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Inonotus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-xia; LIU Yu-bing; LIU Feng; ZHENG Wei-fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extracting technology of assessing the maximum yield of phenolic compounds (PC)from Inonotus obliquus by single factor experiments and orthogonal array design methods through aqueous two-phase systems combined with ultrasonic extraction.Methods The range of the independent variables,namely levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were identified by a first set of single factor experiments.The actual values of the independent variables coded at four levels and three factors were selected based on the results of the single factor experiments.Subsequently,the levels of acetone and ammonium sulfate,and ultrasonic time were optimized using the orthogonal array method.Results The optimum conditions for the extraction of PC were found to use 7.0 mL acetone,5.5 mg ammonium sulfate,with ultrasonic time for 5 min.Under these optimized conditions,the experimental maximum yield of PC was 37.8 mg/g,much higher than that of the traditional ultrasonic extraction (UE,29.0 mg/g).And the PC obtained by this method had stronger anti-oxidative activities than those by traditional UE method.Conclusion These results indicate the suitability of the models developed and the success in optimizing the extraction conditions.This is an economical and efficient method for extracting polyphenols from Ⅰ.obliquus.

  8. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  9. Hypotensive Effect of Aqueous Seed Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae) on Normotensive Cat

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM BAKO GAYA; M.A. Mabrouk; I.M. Maje; A.A. Buraimoh and M.S. Abubakar

    2010-01-01

    The hypotensive effects of aqueous seed extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. were evaluated in normotensive cat. The effects of the aqueous extract were compared with normal basal rhythm and Acetylcholine. The drugs and various doses of the extracts were injected through a cannula inserted in the femoral artery. The extract produced a significant reduction in cat blood pressure. The potency of the extract seems to be high because it has activity at 500:g/ml. The 1mg/ml of the extract exhibited m...

  10. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased levels of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them promising therapeutic drugs for free radical induced pathologies. In this study we assessed the antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were divided into two groups: Control and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus treated. Treated rats received P. amarus aqueous extract (PAAEt at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt/day for 8 weeks. After the treatment period of 8 weeks lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, uric acid and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in plasma and antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD were also assayed. Genotoxicity of PAAEt was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE of lymphocytes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The protective role of PAAEt against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , streptozotocin (STZ and nitric oxide generating system induced lymphocyte DNA damage was also assessed by SCGE. Results: PAAEt treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma LPO and a significant increase in plasma vitamin C, uric acid, GSH levels and GPx, CAT and SOD activities. SCGE experiment reveals that PAAEt was devoid of genotoxicity and had a significant protective effect against H 2 O 2 , STZ and nitric oxide (NO induced lymphocyte DNA damage. Conclusion: The results suggest the non-toxic nature of PAAEt and consumption of PAAEt can be linked to improved antioxidant status and reduction in the risk of oxidative stress.

  11. Antistress and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Meera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antistress and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (MC. Antistress activity was evaluated by measuring the swimming time in mice and cold immobilization induced stress for 10 days in rats, using Withania somnifera (100mg/kg as reference standard. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by carbon clearance assay and percentage adhesion of neutrophils to nylon fibers using Levamisole as reference standard. The degree of protection was determined by measuring gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights and by measuring levels of serum glucose, AST and ALT. Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into 4 groups such as normal control, MC lower dose (450 mg/kg, p.o, MC higher dose (900 mg/kg, p.o and standard group, treated with standard drug Levamisole (50 mg/kg, p.o. MC increased the swimming time in mice significantly (P< 0.001 and the results are comparable to that of standard Withania somnifera. MC has also significantly (P< 0.001 reversed the cold immobilization induced changes in glucose, AST, ALT, ulcer score, weight of adrenal gland and spleen. MC improves the phagocytic index in a dose dependent manner. MC at higher dose significantly (P< 0.001 increased the percentage of adhesion of Neutrophils to nylon fibers when compared with the normal control animals. The results were comparable with that of standard drug levamisole. Momordica charantia has significant antistress, immunomodulatory activity.

  12. Hepatotoxicity evaluation of aqueous extract from Scutia buxifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Robson Borba; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Piana, Mariana; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Veloso, Carolina Fantinel; Kober, Helena; Moresco, Rafael Noal; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB)/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH), catalase (CAT) activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD). We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD) in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic. PMID:23812249

  13. Hepatotoxicity Evaluation of Aqueous Extract from Scutia buxifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Linde Athayde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an increase in the number of people taking herbals worldwide. Scutia buxifolia is used for the treatment of hypertension, but little is known about its action on liver. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control and groups treated during 30 days with 100, 200 and 400 mg of lyophilized aqueous extract of S. buxifolia (SBSB/kg of body weight. This study was planned to explore hepatotoxic effect of SBSB, which was assessed by serum transaminases (ALT and AST. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were determined in liver, along with thiols content (NPSH, catalase (CAT activity and, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes. Histopathological studies of liver tissue were performed. Flavonoids and phenolics were quantified in SBSB by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC/DAD. We did not observe alterations on redox status (TBARS, NPSH, CAT and, SOD in the control and experimental groups. An increase on AST activity was only observed at 200 mg of SBSB, whereas ALT score was not affected by SBSB. Moreover, no morphological alterations were observed on the hepatocytes, matching the analysed biochemical parameters. This way, we conclude that SBSB was not toxic.

  14. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2004-02-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air-water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE.

  15. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed. PMID:26471560

  16. Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Phuong Huynh Nhu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction method was applied to extract oil from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.). The commercial enzyme (Viscozyme cassava C) was tested for effectiveness in releasing oil during the aqueous extraction. The effect of several parameters such as material/water ratio, enzyme concentration and duration for enzyme incubation on the oil yield was investigated. The conditions for maximum oil release were found with the material/water ratio of 1:9, enzyme concentration...

  17. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi; Sônia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri; Marli Aparecida Ranal; Denise Garcia de Santana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry) on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion), as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml o...

  18. Evaluating the Anti-Neuroinflammatory Capacity of Raw and Steamed Garlic as Well as Five Organosulfur Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Chen Ho; Min-Sheng Su

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neuroinflammatory capacities of raw and steamed garlic extracts as well as five organosulfur compounds (OSCs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. According to those results, steaming pretreatment blocked the formation of alliinase-catalyzed OSCs such as allicin and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in crushed garlic. Raw garlic, but not steamed garlic, dose-dependently attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor...

  19. Biological Activities of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Tropical Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Turk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island. Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.

  20. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3)...

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monic Shah et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The hydroalcoholic extract had more phenol concentration (116.1 mg/g of extract when compared to aqueous extract (58 mg/g of extract. The flavonoid content was more in hydroalcoholic extract (242.6 mg/g of extract when compared to that of aqueous extract (202.8 mg/g of extract. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. The nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also concentration dependent with IC50 value being 254.70 µg/ml , 934.06 µg/ml and 510.60 µg/ml respectively for Aqueous extract and 169.22 µg/ml, 495.83 µg/ml, 488 µg/ml respectively for hydroalcoholic extract. The order of the antioxidant potency of the whole plant extract is Hydroalcoholic >> aqueous. The results clearly indicate that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri has anti oxidant property which may be due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.

  2. Antihypertensive Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Passiflora nepalensis Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the whole plant of Passiflora nepalensis wall (APN in renal hypertensive rats. Hypertension in experimental animals was induced by renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR. The blood pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous administration of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg APN, suggesting that APN possesses antihypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. Renal IR significantly increased the levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 versus control in kidney, which was altered after intravenous administration of 160 and 320 mg/kg of APN, suggesting that APN protect kidney from IR injury (p<0.001 versus renal IR. Histological evaluation showed that renal IR increased, whereas APN decreased the focal glomerular necrosis, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and congestion of blood vessels.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of high blood pressure because the modern synthetic medicines have side effects. A large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health needs depend on traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have become the focus of intense study in term of conservation as to whether their traditional uses are supported by actual pharmacological effects or merely based on folklore. Herbal medicines are free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of hypertension.

  3. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  4. In vitro Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Rameshkumar; TSivasudha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate invitro antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis leaves (MN). Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoids content was quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. Invitro antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assays and antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method.Results:The phytochemical tests of Mollugo nudicaulis revealed the presence of alkaloid steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugar in the both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Terpenoids were absent in both aqueous and methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis. The total phenolics content of the methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves was 47.01 ± 0.8 and 46.4 ± 0.05 mg/100 g. The total flavonoid content was 41.3 ± 0.04 and 36.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves showed IC50 values of DPPH radical scavenging as 48 and 190 μg/ml respectively. The IC50 values of ABTS radical scavenging for methanolic of aqueous extracts was 83 and 198.3 μg/ml of plant extract respectively. The total phenolics and flavonoids content and invitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was higher compared with aqueous extract. The methanolic extract of Mollugo nudicaulis used to determine antibacterial activity against bacterial species namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp, Streptococcus sp, Entrobacter sp. Conclusion: This investigation suggests that the methanolic extracts of Mollugo nudicaulis possess potential antioxidant and antibacterial compounds.

  5. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  6. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AND GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI, ESCHERICHIA COLI AND BACILLUS CEREUS

    OpenAIRE

    Bandna Chand

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) has been evaluated against four different bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Two methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of garlic and ginger extracts namely disk diffusion method and agar well diffusion method. Garlic extract exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against all four test organisms while ginger extract s...

  7. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Garlic Oil against Cytotoxicity Induced by OX-LDL in Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Yang; Kai Cui; Yutao Diao; Min Du; Shumei Wang,

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To detect the effect of selenium-enriched garlic oil (Se-garlic oil) against cytotoxicity induced by ox-LDL in endothelial cells. Methods. Se-garlic oil was extracted by organic solvent extraction. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect the content of allicin in the Se-garlic oil. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) was used to detect the content of Se in the Se-garlic oil. ECV-304 cells were separated into five groups (blank, ox-L...

  8. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  9. Synergism and antagonism in extracting local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, P. T.; Chibisova, T. V.; Korenman, Ya. I.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of local anesthetics from aqueous media with mixtures of solvent is examined and its synergistic and antagonistic effects are determined. Synergism parameters, separation factors, constants for the formation of anesthetic complexes, and solvate numbers are calculated.

  10. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  11. Formaldehyde migration in aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Sancı, Rukiye

    2015-01-01

    Migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging materials was determined by an ultraviolet visible-spectrophotometric method at 410 nm. Intraday and interday precision of the method, expressed as coefficient of variation, varied between 1.5 to 4.4% and 7 to 8.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.28 mg kg(-1) for formaldehyde in aqueous extracts. The recovery of the method was over 90% for two different concentration levels in aqueous extracts. The method was applied to the migration of formaldehyde to aqueous extracts from 31 different paper and cardboard materials collected from the packaging sector, intended for food contact, such as tea filters, hot water filters, paper pouches and folding boxes. The results were between limit of detection 0.23 mg/kg and 40 mg kg(-1) and were evaluated according to the relevant directives. PMID:26098861

  12. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G; Passreiter, CM; Woerdenbag, HJ; VanLooveren, M

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum

  13. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  14. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  15. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  16. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  17. Bactericidal Effect of Aqueous Extracts of the Bark of the Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Chadli; Aman Bouzid; Khadidja Bouzid; Hamida Nader

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the study of antibacterial properties of different aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Three bacterial strains were used in this test: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella. Very interesting bactericidal properties of aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate were found on bacteria. The inhibition zones have a very large diameter up to 20 mm and the MIC and MBC are low, of the order of 0.78 mg/ml. This work ...

  18. Kinetics of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by an Aqueous Extract of Mentha longifolia Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekhar; Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors are the class of compounds which inhibit cholinesterase enzyme. These are used as drugs for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study, evaluate anti-cholinesterase property of an aqueous extract of Mentha longifolia leaves, which is an aromatic plant traditionally used for several medicinal properties. Ellman’s method was used to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibitory activity of an aqueous extracts of Mentha longifolia...

  19. Cytogenotoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemon grass) aqueous extracts in vegetal test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo M. Sousa; Pâmela S. Silva; Lyderson F. Viccini

    2010-01-01

    The lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, is an important species of Poaceae family commonly used in the folk medicine in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from C. citratus leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce) root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies that have never been done before for lemon grass extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72h with different concentrations of lemon grass aqueous...

  20. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg...

  1. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi Shariatifar; Shahram Shoeibi; Moslem Jaferi Sani; Amir Hossein Jamshidi; Ali Zarei; Abbas Mehdizade; Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2014-01-01

    Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus) in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as...

  2. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Imatomi; Paula Novaes; Maria Augusta Ferraz Machado Miranda; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri

    2015-01-01

    Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf e...

  3. POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTINFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CYNODON DACTYLON

    OpenAIRE

    Amita S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the world and especially in India, contributes significantly to primary health care. Whole plant of the Cynodon dactylon is traditionally used to treat painful and inflammatory condition. We have undertaken this study since no detailed scientific study was available regarding the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of the whole plant. In this study the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon was used to determine the antimicrobial activity...

  4. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks on dental plaque: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Dola Srinivasa Rao; Tanuja Penmatsa; Alapati Kranthi Kumar; M Narendra Reddy; Nalam Sai Gautam; Nalam Radhika Gautam

    2014-01-01

    The anti-microbial efficacy of aqueous extracts of Indian chewing sticks against different kinds of plaque bacteria in vitro was investigated. Supra-gingival plaque is cultured and subjected to the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extracts of chewing sticks (Neem, Acacia, Pongamia glabra, Achyranthes aspera, Streblus asper) separately. The results of the study demonstrate that all the five chewing sticks under study possess inhibitory potential against bacteria present in dental plaque m...

  5. Effect of Aqueous Extracts From Some Plants on Alloxan ­ Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S. Moram

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts from green tea, sage (Salvia officinalis and ginseng panax (panax quinquefolius L. on the insulin sensitivity in the alloxanized diabetic rats. The experiment included twenty four normal male albino rats and 24 diabetic ones. They were classified into eight groups each of 6 rats. Two groups served as control (one normal and one diabetic rats and the other groups were orally given the doses of aqueous extract for four weeks. The chemical analysis included level of blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol, in addition to the influence of these aqueous extracts on the liver glycogen and various enzymes of glucose metabolism (Glucose 6-phosphatase, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase. The results revealed significant decrease (p<0.05 in blood glucose, and highly significant increase in both liver glycogen content and serum insulin level in the diabetic group treated with aqueous extracts of tested plants in this study when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Serum lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol and various enzymes of glucose metabolism (ALT, AST, ALP and glucose-6-phosphatase showed significant decrease in the diabetic group treated with aqueous extracts of tested plants when compared with the diabetic group. It is clear from the current data in this study that ginseng aqueous extract was the most efficient of the three tested plants.

  6. Determination of the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica aqueous extract

    OpenAIRE

    Trifunski Svetlana I.; Ardelean Dorina G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of water extracts from fig leaf. Water extracts were prepared according to traditional medicine. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was spectrophotometrically determined. Using the potassium permanganate colorimetric method it was found that the water extract that was maintained at the refrigerator had lower antioxidant activity than extract that was maintained at the room temperature.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  8. The Analysis of Saccharide in Black Garlic and its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black garlic was created by keeping whole ordinary garlic in a humidity controlled room at 70-80°C for 10-15 days without any artificial treatments and additives. The black garlic was extracted with 80% ethanol and concentrated to obtain black garlic ethanol extracts. The saccharides of the extracts were analyzed according to the method of Phenol Sulphate colorimetry, DNS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity in vitro of the extracts was assessed by measuring the scavenging activities on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Drosophila melanogaster were employed to explore the effect of black garlic extract on lifespan and antioxidant index in vivo. The results showed that the total sugar content in the black garlic extracts was 55.5% including monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide, the content of reducing sugar was 25.22%. The results from this study demonstrated black garlic extracts possessed strong antioxidant capacity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, the longevity of Drosophila melanogaster treated with black garlic extract was prolonged evidently and the content of MDA was decreased by improving SOD (including CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD and CAT activities.

  9. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Moringa Oleifera Linn on Alloxan Induced Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds with respect to its route of administration. The rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I-Rats received only rat chow and water. Group II- Rats received alloxan and were treated with 500mg/kg body weight after 2hours. Group III- Rats receiving alloxan after 2 hours were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially. Group IV- Rats receiving alloxan after 24 hours began receiving aqueous extract of M. oleifera seeds (500mg/kg body weight intraperitonially for 1 week. The result of the study showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level after 12 hours and also after 7 days of both orally and intraperitonially with M. oleifera seed extract. This proves that M. oleifera seed extract have a hypoglycemic effect on both the mild and severe alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats.

  10. Aqueous two-phase system based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds for the extraction of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Xi; Xin, Rui-Pu; Qi, Sui-Jian; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems, based on the use of natural quaternary ammonium compounds, were developed to establish a benign biotechnological route for efficient protein separation. In this study, aqueous two-phase systems of two natural resources betaine and choline with polyethyleneglycol (PEG400/600) or inorganic salts (K2 HPO4 /K3 PO4 ) were formed. It was shown that in the K2 HPO4 -containing aqueous two-phase system, hydrophobic interactions were an important driving force of protein partitioning, while protein size played a vital role in aqueous two-phase systems that contained polyethylene glycol. An extraction efficiency of more than 90% for bovine serum albumin in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase system can be obtained, and this betaine-based aqueous two-phase system provided a gentle and stable environment for the protein. In addition, after investigation of the cluster phenomenon in the betaine/K2 HPO4 aqueous two-phase systems, it was suggested that this phenomenon also played a significant role for protein extraction in this system. The development of aqueous two-phase systems based on natural quaternary ammonium compounds not only provided an effective and greener method of aqueous two-phase system to meet the requirements of green chemistry but also may help to solve the mystery of the compartmentalization of biomolecules in cells. PMID:26447826

  11. In-vitro Sensitivity of Selected Enteric Bacteria to Extracts of Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa O. AREKEMASE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has been used throughout all of recorded history for culinary and medicinal reasons. The portion of the plant most often consumed is an underground storage structure called a head. The antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum (garlic against some bacterial isolates were investigated using the agar diffusion well method. Standard methods were used to carry out the investigation. Photochemical analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites such as saponins, tannins, alkaloid steroids and glycosides. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the agent (garlic was determined for both the aqueous and ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous extract, inhibiting all the test organisms. While the aqueous extracts was effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Garlic extracts are strictly broad-spectrum with immune boosting phytonutrients from Allium ‘family’. Further research will need to be done to carry out the purification of the active ingredients which have potential for combating human disease. Also, toxicological studies need to be evaluated.

  12. ANTIMICROBIALACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVAM AND ZINGIBER OFFICINALE EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ELAMATHY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic against many pathogenic infections. Most bacteria are sensitive to the extracts from spices such as clove, ginger, garlic, mustard, onion, oregano, turmeric etc. Spices such as garlic and ginger have been used as antimicrobial agents against E.coli and Klebsiella sp by using well diffusion method. The spices extracts prepared by using three solvents methanol, ethanol and aqueous. According to the result among the selected spices garlic had the inhibitory activity showed maximum zone 0f 26mm against Klebsiella sp and a zone of 23mm against E.coli. The aqueous extracts of garlic were more effective than methanol and ethanol extract. In case of ginger ethanol extract showed maximum zone of inhibition 25mm against klebsiella sp and minimal zone was recorded in 11mm aqueous extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration of different bacterial species varied from 0.2mg/ml to 1.0mg/ml.

  13. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health.

  14. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health

  15. The extraction of analytes from aqueous solution using supercritical fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is becoming an attractive alternative to conventional solvent extraction for many reasons. These reasons include advantages of speed, the ability to be automated more easily than conventional solvent extractions and the lack of solvent disposal after the extraction has been performed. At this date SFE is performed in a multitude of ways with no one method out performing the others. The different ways in which SFE is performed is reviewed. ...

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Different Caffeine Products

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY; Emad A. SHALABY; Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of water extracts (cold and hot) of six caffeine products were carried out. The extracts were screened for total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS methods and reducing power method at 50 and 100 μg/ml after 15 min and 30 min using DPPH, ABTS BHA and Caffeine as standard compounds. The results indicated that, the hot water extracts for different caffeine products showed higher antioxidant activity than those of cold extracts and this activit...

  17. Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm(3)) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (ptenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:26761876

  18. The Effect of Heating on Useful Components of Garlic

    OpenAIRE

    H Shirzad; F Taji; M Rafieian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Garlic (Allium sativum. L.) is an important dietary herb which its useful compounds may be altered during different processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating on the amounts of allicin, felavonol, felavonoid, total phenolic components, and antioxidant capacity of garlic. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study which was conducted at Shahr-e-Kord University of Medical Sciences in 2009, the alcoholic extract of fresh, micro ...

  19. Sulfur compounds of "sweet garlic" (\\kur{Tulbaghia violacea} Harv.)

    OpenAIRE

    RANGLOVÁ, Karolína

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical part of the Bachelor thesis summarizes the formation pathways of sulfur compounds in plants of the genus Allium and shows the similarity between "regular" garlic (Allium sativum L.) and "sweet" garlic (Tulbaghia violacea Harv.). In the experimental part, marasmicin was extracted from the rhizomes of T. violacea and allicin was synthesized from diallyl disulfide. Antimicrobial properties of both compounds were tested in two ways - by the disk diffusion method against several st...

  20. Garlic biodiversity and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenetsky, R.; Khassanov, F.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Auger, J.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    Garlic clones exhibit a wide variation in vegetative traits, flavor and pungency; bolting capacity, and fertility. Cultivar characteristics differ considerably with the location of cultivation, and climate has a significant impact on garlic bulbing, florogenesis and flavor. All cultivated garlic clo

  1. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  2. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  3. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; César Fernandes Aquino; Eriksen Patric Souza Soares; Lucas Franklin Souza Aquino; Hugo César Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the followi...

  4. Cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plant paico (chenopodium multifidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadano, A; Gurni, A; Nigro López, M; López, P; Gratti, A; van Baren, C; Ferraro, G; Carballo, M

    2000-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium multifidum L. (Paico) were determined by addition of the extracts and fractions to human lymphocyte cultures. Toxicity was evaluated by analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), mitotic (MI) and replication (RI) indexes. The results showed an increase in CA frequency in cultures exposed to infusion decoction, no modification in the CPK values either in the decoction or in the infusion, and a decrease in the MI of lymphocyte cultures exposed to the decoction. These results suggested genotoxic effects of "Paico" aqueous extracts. PMID:21214432

  5. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts. PMID:26353417

  6. Invitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Flower Extract of Nymphaea Alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHUSUDHANAN N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nymphaea alba also known as the European White Waterlily, White Lotus or Nenuphar, is an aquatic flowering plant of the family Nymphaeaceae. The flowers are white and they have many small stamens inside. It contains the active alkaloids nupharine and nymphaeine, and is a sedative and an aphrodisiac/an aphrodisiac.In this study, the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from flower of Nymphaea alba was evaluated by various antioxidant assays including total antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging activities. Both extracts have exhibited significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydroxyl radical induced invitro assay methods. The results indicate that both the extracts firmly possess strong antioxidant effects .Comparatively the ethanolic flower extract showed more antioxidant activity than the aqueous extracts. The results obtained from the present study indicate that the Nymphaea alba flower extract can be a potential source of natural antioxidant

  7. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of four Myrtaceae species on three weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Imatomi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on allelopathic interactions can be useful in the search for phytotoxins produced by plants that may be employed as natural herbicides. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic action of aqueous leaf extract of Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcia multiflora, Myrcia splendens and Myrcia tomentosa on the germination and development of three weeds. The working hypothesis was that leaf extracts of Myrtaceae may negatively influence the development of weed species. Aqueous leaf extracts at 5 and 10% (g mL-1 were tested on the germination and growth of Euphorbia heterophylla, Echinochloa crus-galli and Ipomoea grandifolia and compared with the herbicide oxyfluorfen and distilled water (control. The most extracts caused pronounced delays in seed germination and inhibited the growth of seedlings of E. heterophylla; I. grandifolia and E. crus-galli, with the last target species had no growth shoot inhibited by the extracts. In this study, the potential and efficiency of the tested aqueous leaf extracts were evident because they were more phytotoxic to the weeds than the herbicide. Thus, the aqueous extracts of leaves from Myrtaceae species show potential for the isolation of active compounds that can be used for the production of natural herbicides in the future.

  8. Protection of deoxyribose and DNA from degradation by using aqueous extracts of several wild plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria S. Gião; González-Sanjose, M. L.; Muñiz, Pilar; Rivero-Pérez, M. D.; Kosinska, Monika; Pintado, Manuela E.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aqueous extracts of 48 herbal plants were obtained via alternative extraction protocols, and were assayed for their capacity to protect deoxyribose and DNA itself from degradation (or, conversely, for their capacity to promote DNA degradation), using electrophoresis as analytical tool. RESULTS: For a given (constant) volume of extract, deoxyribose protection ranged from 14.13 ± 1.35% (mean ± SD) inhibition by dwarf mallow powder infusion, up to 106.51 ± 15.93% inhibition by av...

  9. Aqueous enzyme assisted oil extraction from oilseeds and emulsion de-emulsifying methods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Mike; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory, safety, and environmental issues have prompted the development of aqueousenzymatic extraction (AEE) for extracting components from oil-bearing materials. The emulsion resulting from AEE requires de-emulsification to separate the oil; when enzymes are used for this purpose, the method is known as aqueous enzymatic emulsion de-emulsification (AEED). In general, enzyme assisted oil extraction is known to yield oil having highly favourable characteristics. This review covers techno...

  10. Equilibrium Studies of Some Metal Ions onto Modified Orange Mesocarp Extract in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ibezim-Ezeani, Millicent U.; Okoye, Francis A.; Akaranta, Onyewuchi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the equilibrium removal of Zinc, Copper, Nickel and Cobalt ions from aqueous solutions by cation exchange resins synthesized using orange mesocarp extract. The percentage metal ion exchange of Carboxylated-Toluene Di-isocyanate Orange Mesocarp Extract Resin (CTOR) increased with increase in pH of the solution phase, while that of Sulphonated-Toluene Di-isocyanate Orange Mesocarp Extract Resin (STOR) was relatively uniform with increase in solution pH. The results also show...

  11. Extraction Equilibrium of Acrylic Acid by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems Using Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an effective method for extraction of acrylic acid, aqueous two-phase systems based on morpholinium ionic liquids were used in this study. Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation in morpholinium ionic liquids on phase diagram and extraction efficiencies were investigated. Experimental results show that aqueous two phase systems can be formed by adding appropriate amount of morpholinium ionic liquids to aqueous K2HPO4 solutions. It can be found that the ability of morpholinium ionic liquids for phase separation followed the order [HMMor][Br]>[OMMor][Br]>[BMMor][Br]>[EMMor][Br]. There was little difference between binodal curves of imidazolium ionic liquids and those of morpholinium ionic liquids. 50-90% of the extraction efficiency was observed for acrylic acid by aqueous two phase extraction of acrylic acid with morpholinium ionic liquids. It can be concluded that morpholinium ionic liquids/K2HPO4 were effective for aqueous two phases extraction of acrylic acid comparing to imidazolium ionic liquids/K2HPO4 systems because of their lower cost

  12. (31)P NMR phospholipid profiling of soybean emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linxing; Jung, Stephanie

    2010-04-28

    The quantity and composition of phospholipids in full-fat soybean flour, flakes, and extruded flakes and in the cream fraction recovered after aqueous extraction (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAEP) of these substrates were studied with (31)P NMR. Extruded flakes had significantly more phosphatidic acid (PA) than flakes and flour prior to aqueous extraction. The PA content of the cream recovered after AEP and EAEP of extruded flakes was similar to that of the starting material, whereas the PA content of the creams from flour and flakes significantly increased. Changes in the PA content could be explained by the action of phospholipase D during the processing step and aqueous extraction. Total phospholipids in the oil recovered from the creams varied from 0.09 to 0.75%, and free oil yield, which is an indicator of cream stability, varied from 6 to 78%. Total phospholipid did not correlate with emulsion stability when it was lower than 0.20%. Inactivation of phospholipase D prior to aqueous extraction of flour resulted in a cream emulsion less stable toward enzymatic demulsification and containing less PA and total phospholipids than untreated flour. The phospholipid distributions in the cream, skim, and insolubles obtained from AEP flour were 7, 51, and 42%, respectively. PMID:20329795

  13. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous and ethanolic on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study antimicrobial effect of extracts evaluated by two methods, “Collins method” and “disk agar diffusion method” on Escherichia coli PTCC 1330 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337 microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for both species determined by using a dilution method. All ethanolic extract concentrations had inhibitory effect in the disk agar diffusion method. In “Collins method” ethanolic extract in 2000 µg/ml concentration, could prevent the growth of both strains on medium. The aqueous extract, had no antimicrobial significant effect in 2000 µg/ml concentration. The ethanolic extract MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 8 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 16 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MIC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 32 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 64 mg/ml. The ethanolic extract MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 16 mg/ml, and for Escherichia coli was 32 mg/ml. But the aqueous extracts MBC of Satureja bachtiarica for Staphylococcus aureus was 64 mg/ml and for Escherichia coli was 256 mg/ml. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1337. 

  14. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Piper betel LEAVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOPALGHARE DIPALI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be extracted and used for research work and are known to produce and store many Biochemical products. Different types of Herbal extract are commercially available in market. Become a medical use the potency of these extracts should be compatible & as per the standards prescribed in Pharmacopeia. Our aim is to evaluate the marketed extract sample and to check its authenticity and purity as per the standard parameter. The present study deals with preliminary phytochemical analysis & antibactertial activity of leaf with aqueous extract.

  15. Seed extracts impede germination in Brassica rapa plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Barnum; Franks, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important mechanism of interference competition in some plants, but little is known about whether compounds exuded from seeds influence the germination of neighbors. We treated seeds of multiple lines of Brassica rapa (field mustard) with aqueous extracts of Brassica rapa Fast Plant seeds and extracts of seeds of the invasive, allelopathic plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard). Germination patterns differed significantly among populations, with Fast Plants germinating ea...

  16. Aqueous extraction of residual oil from sunflower press cake using a twin-screw extruder: Feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Evon, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Virginie; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves; Rigal, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract the residual oil from sunflower press cakes using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Two different configurations were tested: the expression from whole seeds followed by the aqueous extraction, in two successive apparatus or in the same one. For the aqueous extraction stage, the oil yield depended on the operating conditions including screw rotation speed, screw profile, and inlet flow rates of press...

  17. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Jérôme Pauly; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, we...

  18. Effects of garlic fractions consumption on male reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Imen; Nahdi, Afef; Atig, Fatma; Kouidhi, Wided; Amri, Mohamed; Mokni, Mehrzia; May, Ahmed El; May, Michèle El

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the preventive and curative effects of garlic (Allium sativum), particularly on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, its impacts on the male reproductive system have not been clearly defined. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of two garlic fractions was tested: one soluble in water (aqueous solution obtained by grinding and centrifugation) and the other one precipitated by ethanol (alcoholic precipitate obtained by precipitation of the aqueous solution), on different variables of male rats' reproductive functions. These two fractions were targeted to try to identify the nature of the active garlic compounds responsible for the different modifications observed on testicular parameters. The observation of seminiferous tubules of rats treated with garlic fractions showed an increased number of tubules deprived of spermatozoa. In addition, garlic fractions induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling [TUNEL] approach) and a decrease of serum testosterone levels and seminiferous tubule DNA concentrations. In summary, our histological and molecular results suggest that one or several substances, soluble in water and precipitated by alcohol, impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:23297714

  19. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  20. Spermatotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Akinboro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae is an alternative medicine as well as food condiment in African and Asian countries. Information on its safe consumption is important considering its wide utilization. The potential effects of aqueous extract of this plant on cell division, chromosome structure and sperm morphology in mice were investigated. The Inductions of chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm cells were not dose dependent. However, these were and sperm morphology tests, respectively. Aberrant sperm cell in form of tail folded over head was observed most. These observations suggest possible mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of O. gratissimum in albino mice. Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, chromosome, mitotic index, sperm cells, aqueous extract  

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARK OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia using Eisenia foetida. Various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml was included as standard. The results indicated that the ethanolic and aqueous extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentration as compared to standard references. In conclusion, the use of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  2. Phytochemical properties and cytotoxicity evaluation of the aqueous extracts from Rafflesia cantleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoush, Sumaia Mohamed Mohamed; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Adam, Jumaat; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, phytochemical properties and cytotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Rafflesia cantleyi bud parts were done. Three bud parts including disk, bract and perigone tube were extracted in water to produce crude aqueous extract. Cytotoxic activity of R. cantleyi bud parts was assessed by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against normal cells Vero, 3T3 cell lines and mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The CC50 value against Vero, 3T3 and PBMC cells were equal or more than 125 µg/ml indicating the non-cytotoxic effect of the bud parts extracts. The finding revealed that crude extracts of all the tested bud parts contained potential bioactive compounds which can be used for various biological activities and have no cytotoxicity to selected normal cells.

  3. Solvent extraction of rare earth(3) nitrates with dioctylisoamylphosphine oxide from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of lanthanide(3) and yttrium(3) nitrates (Re(3)) between their aqueous solutions and 30% solution of dioctylisoamylphosphine oxide (DOIAPO, S) in kerosene and n-pentadecane at 298.15 K, pH 2 is studied. Production of [Ln(NO3)3S3] composition solvates is ascertained. Equations for describing isotherms of Re(3)DOIAPO nitrate extraction under a broad variation of aqueous and organic phase composition are proposed. Values of phase extraction equilibria constants are determined. It is ascertained that extraction constant values grow under transition from lanthanum(3) to europium(3), and then are reduced under transition from gadolinium(3) to lutetium(3). Extraction constant value for yttrium is between extraction constant values for thulium(3) and ytterbium(3). 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH, elevated plus maze (EPM and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P 0.05 effect. In open field model, 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg extract doses significantly (P < 0.05 increased locomotion of the mice more than the standard, while rearing and defecation were less in the extract groups. Conclusion: In different experimental models used significant anxiolytic effect was observed of the aqueous extract at different dose levels in comparison to reference standard and normal saline group. This clearly justified its folkloric application in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  5. Extraction of lithium ion from alkaline aqueous media by a liquid surfactant membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of lithium ion from aqueous alkaline media by a liquid surfactant membrane was performed using a mixture of LIX54 and TOPO as the extractant. Stripping of lithium from the kerosene solution to the acid solution was suppressed with increasing content of polyamine (ECA) surfactant. The extraction rate of lithium by the liquid membrane could be interpreted taking account of an interfacial resistance due to ECA. It was confirmed that swelling of the (W/O) emulsion drops by water permeation through the liquid membrane is evaluated in terms of a change in osmotic pressure gradient between the external and internal aqueous phases during the lithium extraction. In the present operation, the extraction ratio of Li+ from the external feed and the uptake into the internal phase reached as high as 95%. (author)

  6. Modeling of aqueous and organic phase speciation for solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRUEX (TRansUranic EXtraction) solvent extraction process has the ability to remove, separate, and recover transuranic (TRU) elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions. A computer model of the TRUEX process is currently being developed for use in flowsheet design and process optimization. The correlations that are to be used in the model for generating extraction distribution ratios are based on chemical mass action principles and require calculation of aqueous and organic phase speciation. Aqueous phase activity coefficients are calculated using methods available in the literature, while the organic phase species are treated in terms of ideal associated solution theory. This approach is demonstrated for the extraction of HNO3, HTcO4, and americium nitrate by n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO)---the primary metal extractant in the TRUEX solvent. 23 refs., 5 figs

  7. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giselle Cristina Silva; Renata Albuquerque Costa; Antonio Adauto Fonteles Filho

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria. Methods:Paper disks were soaked with 100, 200, 300 and 400μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL. All extracts were tested against Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), Salmonella enteritidis (IH) and Aeromonas caviae. The susceptibility tests were performed using the modified disk diffusion method. Results:The strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis (IH) were resistant to all treatments. In general, disks with 400μL extract were the most efficient against S. aureus, V. parahaemolyticus, E. faecalis and A. caviae. Conclusions: The study indicates a promising potential for aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts as alternative treatment of infections caused by the tested strains.

  8. Nanoliposomal formulation of Agrostemma githago aqueous extract shows enhanced cytotoxic effect on gastric cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Bohlooli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of nanoliposomal form of lyophilized aqueous extract of Agrostemma githago (A. githago seeds on gastric cancer cell line (AGS using cell viability tests. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized aqueous extract of A. githago seeds was prepared. Liposomes were also prepared by thin-film hydration method and their stability and size were characterized by SEM. The size and zeta potential were determined by Malvern Zetasizer. Cytotoxic effects of nanoliposomes on gastric cancer cell line was determined using MTT, Neutral Red and Frame methods. Results: The size of liposomes was around 171.5 nm with proper dispersion (PDI=0.268. The morphology of the liposomes was suitable according to SEM images. The IC50 values indicated that the nanoliposomal form of extract was 3-4 times more active than extract alone. Average IC50 values for extract and liposomal form of extract were 13.02 ± 0.95 and 4.43 ± 1.49 ug/ml, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that liposomal form of aqueous extract of A. githago seeds exerts cytotoxic effect at significantly lower concentrations than the extract itself.

  9. ABEC trademark resins: From aqueous biphasic novelties to selective aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins for metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently been allowed patents on the use of polyethylene glycol-grafted resins for chaotropic metal ion separations based on the concepts of aqueous biphasic extraction. The concept and realization of the technology was developed by collaborative research between university and national laboratories. Commercialization of the technology was accomplished by licensing the technology to a specialty separations company itself started based on the foundation of technology transfer. This tripartite interaction was facilitated by the joint interest and membership of all involved parties in the Industrial ampersand Engineering Chemistry Division. This presentation will highlight the research which led to the adaptation of aqueous biphasic partitioning to ABEC trademark resins for metal ion separations. The role of the I ampersand EC Division and its Separation Science ampersand Technology Subdivision in facilitating such technology transfer will also be discussed

  10. Inhibition Effect of Mace Extract Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbullah Hasbullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation in food systems cause nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods less acceptable or unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to know the effectiveness of mace extract microemulsion to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems. Aqueous food systems used are both beverage model system and apple juice beverage, where in each system enriched by 100 ppm vitamin C as substrate and 20 ppm erytrosin as photosensitiser. It is about one percent and two percent of microemulsion that contain mace extract of 0, 500 and 750 ppm were added into each of aqueous food system. Inhibition effect of mace extract microemulsion toward vitamin C photooxidation based on the rate of vitamin C degradation in aqueous food systems that illuminated by fluorescent light with 2000 lux intensity within eight hours. The result indicated the mace extract microemulsion has anti-photooxidation activity and ability to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems.

  11. Some aspects of synergistic extraction of actinides and lanthanides from mixed aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the synergistic extraction and separation of actinides and lanthanides from mixed aqueous-organic solutions (polar media) have been reviewed. Notable recent developments as well as its current status in solvent extraction systems where the aqueous acidic phase contains an organic solvent which is completely miscible with water, are presented briefly. In general, extraction increases in the presence of an organic component. The less polar the additive, the higher is the tendency to form neutral metal complexes which ultimately brings about an increase in the extraction. In a polar media, synergism has mostly been observed, though antagonism is not uncommon. An attempt has been made to classify the factors that play an important role in polar phase extractions. Also, their influence particularly on the extractability of actinides and lanthanides is discussed. The discussion is limited to the factors affecting the extraction equilibria, effect of dielectric constant of the polar medium, solvation of the extracting agent and to the composition and stability of the metal complex in the organic phase. Hydroxyl (OHsup(-)) bearing organic additives, e.g. alcohols, and solvents not containing the hydroxyl group such as acetone, dimethylsulphoxide, tetrahydrofuran, amides and acetonitrile etc. are the two major classes of organic additives considered in these studies. Generally, synergistic effect in extraction of the ion-association (TBP, TOPO, sulphoxides etc.) or anion exchange (amines etc.) type is relatively more pronounced compared to other extractions. A tabular summary concerning extraction of actinides and lanthanides from polar media is appended for ready reference. (author)

  12. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  13. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Tiwari; Bimlesh Kumar; Manoj Kumar; Mandeep Kaur; Pardeep Sharma; Jiban Debnath

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine c...

  14. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; E. Aguirre-Hernández; M. E. González-Trujano; M. González-Andrade; Brindis, F.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K i...

  15. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, GA; Seetharaman, AV; Subramanian, NR; Paddikkala, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1...

  16. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  17. Extraction and characterisation of aqueous organic acids from natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic and fulvic acids were extracted from large volumes of groundwater associated with the Broubster and Needle's Eye natural analogue sites, and the BGS research site at Drigg in Cumbria. Extractions were performed by both batchwise extraction and radial flow chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. Retained humic substances were eluted using NaOH and separated into humic and fulvic components by acidification to pH 1. After separation the humic component was purified by repetitive precipitation and dissolution whilst the fulvic component was purified by absorption chromatography. The resulting humic substances were shown to be of high purity with respect to metallic elements, with less than 1% of available sites being occupied. During elution the association of trace elements with humic substances was monitored and a high degree of association between humic substances, U and the Rare Earth Elements was noted. (author)

  18. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 99.5–290.5 min) and temperature (X2: 30.1–54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant acti...

  19. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and promotes rapid clearing of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Rasmussen, Thomas B;

    2005-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the lungs by forming biofilm microcolonies throughout the lung. Quorum sensing (QS) renders the biofilm bacteria highly tolerant...... garlic-treated biofilm. Garlic extract was administered as treatment for a mouse pulmonary infection model. Mice were treated with garlic extract or placebo for 7 days, with the initial 2 days being prophylactic before P. aeruginosa was instilled in the left lung of the mice. Bacteriology, mortality......, histopathology and cytokine production were used as indicators. The garlic treatment initially provoked a higher degree of inflammation, and significantly improved clearing of the infecting bacteria. The results indicate that a QS-inhibitory extract of garlic renders P. aeruginosa sensitive to tobramycin...

  20. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content

    Science.gov (United States)

    The raw form of garlic and some of its preparations are widely recognized as antiplatelet agents that may contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Herein, we examined the in-vitro antiaggregatory activity (IVAA) of human blood platelets induced by extracts of garlic samples that were ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik; Khouya; Mhamed; Ramchoun; Abdelbassat; Hmidani; Souliman; Amrani; Hicham; Harnafi; Mohamed; Benlyas; Younes; Filali; Zegzouti; Chakib; Alem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of thyme varieties from Moroccan.Methods: The aqueous extracts of tree medicinal plants [Thymus atlanticus(T. atlanticus), Thymus satureioides and Thymus zygis(T. zygis)] were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, radical scavenging activity method, the inhibition of 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride that induces oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts was evaluated in vivo using croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats, respectively. This extracts were evaluated in vitro for their anticoagulant activity at the different concentrations by partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time activated. Results: All thyme varieties were found to possess considerable antioxidant activity and potent anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced edema. Administration of aqueous extracts of two varieties(50 mg/kg)(T. zygis and T. atlanticus) reduced significantly the carrageenaninduced paw edema similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(indomethacin, 10 mg/kg). In partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time tests, T. atlanticus and T. zygis extracts showed the strongest anticoagulant activity. In contrast, Thymus satureioides did not show the anticoagulant activity in these tests. Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  2. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of noni in dilutent for ram semen cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lauren Costa Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is a fruit consumed worldwide because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties resulting from the large amount of phenolic compounds, which has aroused interest of the scientific community. In order to identify new natural sources of antioxidants, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of noni in diluent for ram semen cryopreservation. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments and three repetitions per treatment was used. The treatments differed in terms of the concentration of the aqueous extract of noni added to the diluent: control, no addition of the extract, and three concentrations (24, 72, and 120 µg/mL. The physical and chemical variables of the mature fruit were evaluated: total acidity (8.78, pH (4.12, and soluble solids (8.18%. The vitamin C content was 309.42 mg per 100 g fresh matter. The aqueous extract of noni was also evaluated regarding the quantity of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. The aqueous extract contained a moderate amount of phenolic compounds (47.96 ± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract. The concentrations of the aqueous extract of 72 and 120 µg/mL in diluent used for semen cryopreservation inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21.75% and 51.32%, respectively. There was no positive effect of the lowest concentration (24 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity index of noni was 33.33, corresponding to very strong antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of noni exhibits very strong antioxidant activity and its addition to the diluent for semen cryopreservation at a concentration of 72 µg/mL is able to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  3. In-vitro giardicidal effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Asafoetida on Giardia lamblia cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Rezaiemanesh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Giardia lamblia, Giardiasis causative protozoa, is one of the most common etiologic agents of diarrhea throughout the world especially in Iran. Asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin (called Anjodan in Farsi obtained from an Iranian endemic herb, Ferula Assa-foetida has been used in treating of different diseases, particularly parasitic ones. The aim of this study was in-vitro evaluating of the effect of Asafoetida aqueous and alcoholic extracts on Giardia lamblia cysts. Materials and Methods: 500 µl of each of 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 20 mg/ml concentrtions of asafoetida aqueous and ethanol extracts was added to 500 µl of purified Giardia cysts,respectively. The mixtures were kept at 4, 24 and 37°C. The Giardicidal activity of the extracts was measured 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hour (s after exposure through 0.1% eosin dye staining and microscopic enumeration method. The gathered data was analyzed by means of one- way variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient and Independent T-test. Results: The highest Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida ethanol extract was 100% at 37°C, belonging to 20 mg/ml and in the 4th hour after experiment, while the maximum Giardicidal effect of Asafoetida aqueous extract was 57.23% at the same temperature and with the same concentration, in the 5th hour. There was a significant difference between Giardicidal effect of ethanol and water extracts with all concentrations and at different whiles and temperatures (P<0.005. Giardicidal effect of both extracts significantly increased due to rising the concentration, time and temperature (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Ethanol and aqueous extracts of asafetida have in-vitro Giardicidal effect on Giardia lamblia cysts. Ethanol extract has more Giardicidal effect.

  4. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  5. Enhanced antiproliferative effects of aqueous extracts of some medicinal mushrooms on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shagun; Goyal, Shristhi; Balani, Jay; Tandon, Simran

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the world. Certain edible mushroom species are rich in antioxidants, which perform a vital role in preventing this risk in manifesting itself. Initial screening was followed by qualitative phytochemical analysis; estimation of total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) of the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of 3 edible medicinal mushroom species, namely, Auricularia polytricha, Macrolepiota procera, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Furthermore, based on promising results from studies of antioxidant activities, these extracts were carried forward to study cytotoxic, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects on breast (MCF-7), colon (COLO-205), and kidney (ACHN) cancer cell lines. Among all the extracts, the aqueous extract of P. ostreatus and the ethanolic extract of M. procera showed the highest cytotoxic effect on all 3 cancer cell lines, especially COLO-205. The scientific data obtained so far show that the aqueous extracts of all 3 species of mushrooms have a remarkable irreversible antiproliferative effect on COLO-205 compared with other cancer cell lines. This decrease in cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptotic hallmarks observed upon treatment with the extracts validated the anticancerous property of these mushroom species. PMID:23662617

  6. Phytotoxic activity of crude aqueous extracts and fractions of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Umeda Grisi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of aqueous extract of young leaves of Sapindus saponaria L. (soapberry on the diaspore germination and seedling growth Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce and Allium cepa L. (onion, as well as to determine, by bioassay-guided fractioning, whether the fractionated extracts of those leaves are phytotoxic to Triticum aestivum L. (wheat coleoptiles. The aqueous extract was prepared using 100 g of dried plant material dissolved in 1000 ml of distilled water, resulting in a concentration of 10.0%. Distilled water was added in order to obtain dilutions of 7.5%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. The extraction was carried out with young leaves (in powder form and organic solvents of various polarities. We fractioned the ethyl acetate extract using column chromatography. The phytotoxic potential of the aqueous extract of young leaves S. saponaria varied according to the receiving species and the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. The ethyl acetate extract, specifically fraction 6 (57-70, had the greatest inhibitory effect on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, indicating that the compounds responsible for the phytotoxic effect reside within this fraction.

  7. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodorahook. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; Sahu, Alakh N.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was studied on glucose loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In both the tests, the extract has shown significant and considerable antidiabetic effect in a dose dependent manner. On oral administration of the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, the reduction of blood glucose level was 22.9% a...

  8. Synthesis of Thiosalicylate based Hydrophobic Ionic Liquids and their Applications in Metal Extraction from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new hydrophobic ionic liquids were synthesized through ion exchange metathesis and characterized through spectral data and thermogravimetric analysis. These include 1,3- dibutylimidazolium thiosalicylate (BBIM)(TS) (1) and 1,3-dihexylimidazolium thiosalicylate (HHIM)(TS) (2). The application of these ILs in extraction of seven transition metal ions (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) from aqueous solution has been investigated. High extraction efficiencies were observed. Extraction occurs rapidly at room temperature, no heating is required unlike previous reports. (HHIM)(TS) (2) Showed higher extraction efficiency in almost all metal ions tested as compare to (BBIM)(TS) (1). (author)

  9. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  10. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006 and AGEs formation (P=0.003 significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications.

  11. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. PMID:15173998

  12. Screening of Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous extracts of Leaves, Flower and Stem of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhsimran Singh Sandhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the oldest source of pharmacologically active compounds, and have provided humankind with many medically useful compounds for centuries. In this study aqueous extract of leaves, stem and flower of Eclipta alba were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC25923,Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC10699, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC10741, Proteus vulgaris (ATCC12454 Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC15380 and Staphylococcus. Saprophyticus (ATCC35552 It was shown that leaves extract effective against E. cloacae & K .pneumoniae but not against others, while aquous extract of stem shown good antitimicrobial effect against E. cloacae, E. faecali, K. pneumoniae and S. saprophyticus but E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. aureus were found resistant and The aqueous extract of flower shown reliabe ZOI against P.vulgaris ,S.aureus and S.saprophyticus while resistant against all other microbes.

  13. Investigation of poly-herbal aqueous extract for potential anti-ulcer activity

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    Deepak S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous polyherbal extract of betel, clove, fennel and black catechu was evaluated for gastro-protective (antiulcer activity in rats using the aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models. Efficacy was assessed by determination of ulcer index and percentage of ulcer protection.  Antioxidant activity of extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging procedure. Oral administration of the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg and (500 mg/kg showed dose dependent antiulcer activity and protected gastric lesions by about 65 to 75% respectively compared to standard drug Omeprazole (98%. The findings suggest that the polyherbal extract have significant gastro-protective activity.                                                                   

  14. Gastroprotective effect of the aqueous leaf extract ofGuiera senegalensis in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akuodor GC; Essien AD; David-Oku E; Chilaka KC; Akpan JL; Ezeokpo B; Ezeonwumelu JOC

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract ofGuiera senegalensis(G. senegalensis) on gastric mucosal damage using different ulcer models.Methods:Considering the above claims, the present study was undertaken to validate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous leaf extract of this plant against ethanol, water immersion andAspirin induced ulcer models. Results:The leaf extract(50,100 and200 mg/kg,p.o.) significantly(P<0.05) decreased the ulcer index in all assays used.Conclusions:The results obtained, provide strong evidence of antiulcer activity of the leaf extract ofG. senegalensis and support the traditional uses of the plant for the treatment of ulcer.

  15. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.; Sachleben, R.; Moyer, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop an efficient solvent-extraction and stripping process to remove the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank waste, such as those stored at Hanford and Oak Ridge. As such, this task expands on FY 1995`s successful development of a solvent-extraction and stripping process for technetium separation from alkaline tank-waste solutions. This process now includes the capability of removing both technetium and strontium simultaneously. In this form, the process has been named SRTALK and will be developed further in this program as a prelude to developing a system capable of removing technetium, strontium, and cesium.

  16. Enzymatic aqueous technology for simultaneous coconut protein and oil extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Maria A. Z.; Suely P. Freitas; Sant’Anna, Beatriz P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the following commercial enzymes were evaluated in the enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from coconut: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease. Preliminary experiments were carried out for selection of enzymes, enzyme concentration and incubation time. In order to verify the effects of pH and water/substrate ratio, a response surface methodology was applied based in a 32 full factorial experimental design. The pH is the most meaningful parameter on oil and pr...

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.)

    OpenAIRE

    Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Umretia, Bharti L.; Vaishnav, Pradip U.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process. Aim: To evaluate compa...

  18. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan Kannan; Shanti Manickam; Meher Ali RajaMohammed

    2014-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxi...

  19. Optimisation of the alcoholic fermentation of aqueous jerivá pulp extract

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Arielo Rodrigues Maia; Sandra Regina Masetto Antunes; Pedro Henrique Weirich Neto; Silvia Borba; Rodolfo Lopes Coppo; Dionísio Borsato

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determinate the optimum conditions for the alcoholic fermentation process of aqueous jerivá pulp extract using the response surface methodology and simplex optimisation technique. The incomplete factorial design 3³ was applied with the yeast extract, NH4H2PO4 and yeast as the independent variables and the alcohol production yield as the response. The regression analysis indicated that the model is predictive, and the simplex optimisation generated a formul...

  20. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran Kuppusamy; Annie Shirwaikar; Kishore G. Sam; Srinivasan K. Kaitheri

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ)-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight wer...

  1. Edible oil from Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.): mechanical pressing and aqueous enzymatic extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeh, O.

    2016-01-01

    The tiger nut tuber of the Cyperus esculentus L. plant is an unusual storage system with similar amounts of starch and lipid. The extraction of its oil employing both mechanical pressing and aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) methods was investigated and an examination of the resulting products was carried out. The effects of particle size and moisture content of the tuber on the yield of tiger nut oil with pressing were initially studied. Smaller particles were found to enhance oil yields wh...

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Piper guineense aqueous extract against ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunji E. Oyinloye; Adeyinka A. Ajagbe; Sarah O. Nwozo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G.) on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in ...

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoh Anthony I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents of crude aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium using tests involving inhibition of superoxide anions, DPPH, H2O2, NO and ABTS. The flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and phenolic contents of the extract were also determined using standard phytochemical reaction methods. Results Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The total phenolic content of the aqueous leaf extract was 0.499 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder. The total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of the plant were 0.705 and 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder respectively. The percentage inhibition of lipid peroxide at the initial stage of oxidation showed antioxidant activity of 87% compared to those of BHT (84.6% and gallic acid (96%. Also, the percentage inhibition of malondialdehyde by the extract showed percentage inhibition of 78% comparable to those of BHT (72.24% and Gallic (94.82%. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of H. longifolium is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  4. The Role of Wood Extractives in Aqueous Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out in absence and presence of Eucalyptol sawdust (SD) using sodium bisulphite as an initiator. The data showed that the SD extractives had an inhibiting effect on the polymerization rate of MMA. The rate was found to increase considerably in the presence of solvent pre-extracted SD and was further increased with water and alkali treatment of SD

  5. A Novel Process for the Aqueous Extraction of Linseed Oil Based on Nitrogen Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Ning Wang; Lirong Xu; Xiuzhu Yu

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent the oxidation of linseed oil and emulsification during extraction process, Nitrogen-protected and Salt-Assisted Aqueous Extraction (NSAE) of linseed oil was investigated in this study. Nitrogen-protected and salt-assisted were found to be the most effectively in weakening oil oxidation and improving the oil yield, respectively. The highest oil recovery of 87.55% was achieved under optimal conditions of sodium carbonate solution concentration (2 mol/L), solution-to-flour ra...

  6. In-Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Crude Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds against Some Vibrio Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh, Anthony I.; Dambudzo Penduka; Omobola O. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were screened for their anti-Vibrio activities against 50 Vibrio isolates obtained from wastewater final effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The crude extracts at 10 mg/mL exhibited appreciable inhibitory activities against most of the test Vibrio isolates, with zones of inhibition ranging from 10–19 mm for methanol extract and 8–15 mm for the aqueous extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the metha...

  7. Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng extracts are used in traditional herbal medicines, particularly in eastern Asia, but their effect on natural killer (NK cell activity is not completely understood. This study aimed to examine the effects of P. ginseng extracts on the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. We orally administered P. ginseng extracts or ginsenosides to wild-type (WT C57BL/6 (B6 and BALB/c mice and to B6 mice deficient in either recombination activating gene 2 (RAG-2 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ. We then tested the cytotoxic activity of NK cells (of spleen and liver mononuclear cells against NK-sensitive YAC-1 cells. Oral administration of P. ginseng aqueous extract augmented the cytotoxicity of NK cells in WT B6 and BALB/c mice and in RAG-2-deficient B6 mice, but not in IFN-γ-deficient B6 mice. This effect was only observed with the aqueous extract of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 did not augment NK cell cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway.

  8. The effect of aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium on methylprednisolone pharmacokinetic profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Niken; Garmana, Afrillia Nuryanti; Setiawan, Finna; Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Adnyana, I. Ketut

    2016-03-01

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves had immunosupressant effect on lupus nephritis model. When it combined with methylprednisolone, there is a risk of interaction. In this study rats divided into two groups, a group that received methylprednisolone (MP) (0.72 mg/kgBW) and a group that received MP in combination with extract (0.36 mg/kg BW MP and 140 mg/kg BW extract). These treatment were given everyday for 4 weeks. Methylprednisolone concentration in rats serum was measured using HPLC with extraction method according to Lawson method (1985). The column used was Inertsil C-18 using mobile phase KH2PO4 : metanol (15:85) buffer, flow rate 0.6 mL/minutes, UV detector (λ = 230 nm) and pressure 1319 psi. The result showed that there was an interaction occurred. The combination of MP and aqueous extract of K. pinnata leaves showed interaction which causing methylprednisolone level comparable with methylprednisolone level in MP group. Mean of decreasing MP level in serum was 0.285 ppm. It means that aqueous extract of Kalanchoe Folium could elevate methylprednisolone concentration in plasma. Adjustment of the dose must be considered in this combination.

  9. Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of Achillea millefolium L., Asteraceae, aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo M. Sousa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The yarrow, Achillea millefoilum L. is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in folk medicine of many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts from yarrow leaves on Lactuca sativa (lettuce root tip meristem cells by cytogenetic studies, since studies of this nature do not exist for the yarrow extracts. For this, lettuce seeds were treated for 72 h with different concentrations of yarrow aqueous extracts (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. The percentage of germination, root development and cellular behavior were analyzed and the results showed that the highest concentration of aqueous extracts reduced the mitotic index (MI, the seed germination and the root development of L. sativa. More yet, the extracts also induced chromosome aberrations (CA and cellular death in the roots cells of L. sativa indicating precaution in the therapeutic use of A. millefolium and reinforcing the utilization of L. sativa in the screening of cytogenotoxic substances once that this species showed a good sensibility to the extract application.

  10. Extrato de alho como alternativa na quebra de dormência de gemas em macieiras cv. Fuji Kiku Garlic extract as alternative on bud dormant break of apple trees cv. Fuji Kiku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do extrato de alho (Bioalho® na quebra de dormência de gemas de macieiras 'Fuji Kiku', em comparação ao uso convencional de cianamida hidrogenada (H2CN2, na região de Guarapuava-PR. Logo após a poda de inverno, em setembro de 2005, os seguintes tratamentos foram pulverizados nas plantas durante o estádio fenológico de gema dormente: 1 Testemunha (sem tratamento; 2 EA (extrato de alho 1%; 3 EA 5%; 4 EA 10%; 5 OM (óleo mineral 2%; 6 EA 1% + OM 2%; 7 EA 5% + OM 2%; 8 EA 10% + OM 2%; 9 H2CN2 0,4% + OM 4%. Os tratamentos com extrato de alho e óleo mineral apresentaram efeitos similares ao tratamento convencional com cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral, atingindo mais de 90% de brotação das gemas aos 50 DAT, enquanto o tratamento com óleo mineral isoladamente a 2% e a testemunha atingiram apenas 62,5 e 42,7%, respectivamente. Os tratamentos com EA 5% ou 10%, com ou sem óleo mineral, foram os que apresentaram menores valores para as variáveis número de frutos, produção por planta e produtividade por área, não por ineficiência na quebra de dormência, mas, possivelmente, pela antecipação da floração que coincidiu com período bastante chuvoso no início da primavera.This study aimed to examine the effects of garlic extract (Bioalho® on bud break of 'Fuji Kiku' apple trees in comparison to the conventional use of hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2 at the region of Guarapuava-PR, Brazil. Soon after winter pruning, in September 2005, the following treatments were sprayed on plants at dormant bud stage: 1 control (untreated; 2 1% GE (garlic extract; 3 5% GE; 4 10% GE; 5 2% MO (mineral oil; 6 1% GE + 2% MO; 7 5% GE + 2% MO; 8 10% GE + 2% MO; 9 0.4% H2CN2 + 4% MO. The treatments with garlic extract and mineral oil showed similar effects in comparison to the hydrogen cyanamide treatment, achieving up to 90% of bud sprouting at 50 DAT, while only 2% mineral oil and control, attained only 62

  11. Extraction of certain radionuclides from aqueous schungite solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of 90Sr, 106Ru, 137Cs, and 238Pu from aqueous solutions over a wide pH range was studied. Swelled schungite chips (Nigozero, Kondopozhsk region) (1) and schungite (Onezhsk lake) (2) were tested as sorbents. The minerals were used both untreated and after oxidation (HNO3, 1:1, contact time 1 day). The oxidation, judging from the literature, facilitates the formation of carboxylic and phenolic functional groups on the surface of the carbon-containing sorbents. The presence of such groups is responsible for the high selectivity of the sorbents for multicharged cations. Futhermore, the hydrophobicity of the schungites enormously decreases after the oxidation. The studied sorbents had an average particle size of 0.08-0.1 mm. The schungite was contacted with the solution under static conditions with periodic stirring in order to establish equilibrium. The concentration of the radionuclides was 2-4 MBq/liter. The solution volumes were 10 ml. The sorbent content was 0.01 g. The required pH was set by adding HCl or NaOH

  12. Quails Response to Aqueous Extract of Bush Marigold (Aspilia africana Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Agiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effects of inclusion of aqueous extract of Bush marigold (Aspilia africana leaf in quail diet were investigated. One hundred and fifty Japanese quail chicks were used in the study. Approach: In the 14-weeks feeding experiment, the birds were assigned to five treatments of; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% inclusion of aqueous extract of Bush marigold leaf. Each treatment had 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate in a randomized complete block design. Results: The results indicated that feeding Aqueous extract of Bush Marigold Leaf (AeBML did not affect (p>0.05 daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield. Mortality and % cracked eggs were reduced (p0.05 affected by dietary supplementations with AeBML. Egg number and hen day production increased (pConclusion: The study concluded that dietary inclusion of up to 5% aqueous extract of bush marigold leaf in the diets of growing and laying quails could enhance growth performance and egg production traits.

  13. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L. S. Louros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids. Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS.

  14. Effect of Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract on ethanol withdrawal symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Keawpradub, Niwat; Nuankaew, Watcharin

    2007-04-01

    Administration of the aqueous extract of Mitragyna speciosa at a dose of 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited ethanol withdrawal-induced behaviors that included rearing, displacement and head weaving. The results also showed that at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg M. speciosa showed antidepressant activity without effect on the spontaneous motor activity. PMID:17335995

  15. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

  16. POTENTIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTINFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CYNODON DACTYLON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita S. Rao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in the world and especially in India, contributes significantly to primary health care. Whole plant of the Cynodon dactylon is traditionally used to treat painful and inflammatory condition. We have undertaken this study since no detailed scientific study was available regarding the antifungal and antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of the whole plant. In this study the aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon was used to determine the antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar well diffusion method. The diameter of the clear zone of inhibition surrounding the well was measured. The aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon had antimicrobial activity against all the test organisms except Candida albicans. Phytotoconstituents present included Saponins, Tannins, steroids and Flavonoids. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of whole plant of Cynodon dactylon may be considered as an antibacterial agent and can be used to source antibiotic substances for possible treatment of bacterial infections.

  17. Grinding and cooking dry-mill germ to optimize aqueous enzymatic oil extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil. This report describes an aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method to separate oil from dry-mill corn germ (DMG). The method is an extension of AEE previously developed for wet...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

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    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  19. Comparison and Characterization of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Bulbs Extracts and Their Effect on Mortality and Repellency of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Comparación y Caracterización de Extractos de Bulbos de Ajo (Allium sativum L.) y su Efecto en a Mortalidad y Repelencia de Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Hincapié Ll; Gloria Eugenia López P; Ricardo Torres Ch

    2008-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a pest that causes great economic losses because it attacks a wide range of host plants. Also, some populations have developed resistance against commercial acaricides. This work compares different extracts from garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs measuring their toxicity and repellency effects on T. urticae. Extracts were obtained using as solvents CO2 in supercritical conditions (CSC), ethanol and petroleum ether using soxhlet and soaking methods and soaking in wate...

  20. Radiosensitivity of garlic air bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents data on the radiosensitivity of various sorts of garlic. It is shown that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the irradiated aerial bulbs of stemmed varieties of garlic is directly dependent upon the gmma-ray dose. With increasing dose the germination capacity and the viability of the plants diminishes. A dose of 750 r was found to be critical for the bulbs of the garlic varieties studied

  1. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  2. Influência de diferentes metodologias de esterilização sobre a atividade antifúngica de extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais Influence of different sterilization methods on the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Venturoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados três experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos extratos aquosos de alho, canela e cravo-da-índia, submetidos a diferentes processos de desinfestação e/ou esterilização sobre o desenvolvimento de Fusarium solani. O delineamento experimental utilizado para cada ensaio foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 8 repetições. Utilizaram-se os extratos aquosos na concentração de 20%, submetidos às metodologias de filtragem (FI, banho maria a 65°C (BM, autoclavagem a 100ºC (AT1, autoclavagem a 120ºC (AT2 e a testemunha (somente BDA. Posteriormente os extratos foram incorporados em meio BDA, acondicionados em placas de Petri, onde foram transferidos discos de micélio de F. solani medindo 0,3 cm de diâmetro. Após, as placas foram incubadas a 25ºC, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Os tratamentos foram analisados em relação ao crescimento micelial da colônia, a porcentagem de inibição e a taxa de crescimento de F. solani. Foi observado em todos os ensaios maior crescimento do fungo na testemunha, evidenciando o potencial antifúngico dos extratos. Foi observada influência da metodologia de esterilização sobre a eficiência dos extratos de alho e canela. Para o alho a FI proporcionou os melhores resultados, enquanto que para o extrato de canela não houve diferenças entre as metodologias FI, BM e AT1. As diferentes metodologias utilizadas não interferiram na eficiência do extrato aquoso de cravo-da-índia.Three experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of Federal University of Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, to evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of garlic, cinnamon and clove subjected to different processes of disinfection and/or sterilization against the development of Fusarium solani. The experimental design for each trial was

  3. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

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    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p., and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 180mg/kg, i.p. which was confirmed by the measurement of blood glucose, 7 days after STZ injection. One week after saline or STZ injection, chronic inflammation was induced by implantation of cotton pellets (30 mg on each side of the groin region subcutaneously. Then at the day of 3, the aqueous extract of Z.officinale was added to drinking water (100, 200 and 400 mg/100 ml for 4 days. In another sets of experiments, L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. and indomethacin, an inhibitor of the prostaglandin biosynthesis, (2 mg/kg, i.p. were injected at the day of 5 of implantation. On the 8th day, the mice were killed and the pellets were removed, freed from extraneous tissue and dried at 60 °C for 24h. The increase in the weight of cotton pellets was higher in diabetic mice (control: 160 ± 13.6 mg,diabetic: 271 ± 11.8 mg, P<0.001. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of Z. officinale caused a significant but not dose-dependent reduction in cotton pellet weight in diabetic animals (diabetic + Z.officinale's extract: 181.4 ± 21 mg, P<0.05 vs diabetic. The anti-inflammatory effect of extract was almost the same as L-NAME, but less than indomethacin. Results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Z. officinale are comparable to L-NAME.

  4. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  5. Anti-Stress Potential of Aqueous Root Extract of Cnestis ferruginea

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    I.O. Ishola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the phytochemical screening, acute toxicity testing and anti-stress potential of aqueous root extract of Cnestis ferruginea in mice and rats. The forced swimming endurance test, anoxic tolerance tests and immobilization stress-induced gastric ulcer were utilized as models for the evaluation of the anti-stress property of C. ferruginea. The results from phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and glycosides as the major constituents of the root extract of C. ferruginea. The acute toxicity test showed a wide margin of safety with a median lethal dose (LD50 of 3.6570 g kg-1 in mice. In the forced swimming test, C. ferruginea at a dose range of (300-500 mg kg-1, p.o significantly decreased the duration of immobility in a dose-related manner. These results showed that the extract is a potential anti-stress agent. In the anoxic tolerance test, the extract prolonged the mean time (min before convulsion in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Also in the immobilization stress-induced gastric ulcer, the extract prevented gastric ulcer formation in rats immobilized and subjected to stress (cold at 4°C for 2 h after pretreatment with the aqueous root extract. This further confirmed the anti-stress potential of the extract. In conclusion, the root extract of C. ferruginea is a potential anti-stress agent.

  6. Enzymatic aqueous technology for simultaneous coconut protein and oil extraction

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    Coelho, Maria A. Z.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following commercial enzymes were evaluated in the enzymatic extraction of oil and protein from coconut: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease. Preliminary experiments were carried out for selection of enzymes, enzyme concentration and incubation time. In order to verify the effects of pH and water/substrate ratio, a response surface methodology was applied based in a 32 full factorial experimental design. The pH is the most meaningful parameter on oil and protein extraction yields, with a significance level higher than 90%. The maximal extraction yields of oil and protein emulsion (83% was reached using Viscozyme L and subsequently Neutrase 1.5 MG at concentrations of 0.6% (w/w and 0.3% (w/w, respectively, total incubation time of 60 minutes, substrate/water ratio 1:6 and pH around 7 (no adjustment.En este trabajo diferentes enzimas hidroliticos fueron usados para la extracción de aceite y proteína de coco: Celluclast, Termamyl, Viscozyme, Neutrase y Protease producidos por Novo Nordisk. Experimientos preliminares fueron encaminados a la selección de los extractos enzimaticos, de las concentraciones de las enzimas y de los tiempos de incubación. La técnica de análisis de varianza, mediante un delineamiento factorial en tres niveles, fue usada para la optimización de los procesos con relación a los parámetros pH y razón sustrato/agua. Comparando con la extracción acuosa todos los enzimas hidroliticos incrementan la extracción de aceite y proteína vegetal de coco. Los coeficientes de correlación muestran que el pH fué el parámetro mas significativo (pViscozyme y Neutrase 0.6 % (w/w y 0.3 % (w/w, respectivamente, tiempo de incubación 30 minutos, razón sustrato/agua 1:6 y pH 7.

  7. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents

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    Basri Dayang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml. CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.

  8. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

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    *N. M. Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability. It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract in aqueous and ethanolic extract of rosemary and green tea leaves respectively. The ethanolic extract shows high content of phenolic compounds and in turn highly antioxidative activiy for both rosemary and green tea leaves as compared with aqueous extract.The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves show high reducing power ability comparing with their abilities as chelating agents. Although, the phenolic compounds of green tea leave almost about 3-fold as compared with rosemary leave in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts, their extracts show extremely the same mode of action in both methods of determination (the reducing power and chelating ability. Therefore, we are fully recommended the rosemary leave extracts as a potent food preservative.

  9. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, N; Smith, S M; Eng, R H

    1983-01-01

    A fresh extract of garlic (Allium sativum) was administered orally to human volunteers. At intervals, serum and urine were collected and assayed for antifungal activity. The maximum tolerable dose was determined to be 25 ml of garlic extract. Larger amounts caused severe burning sensations in the esophagus and the stomach and vomiting. After oral ingestion of 25 ml of the extract, anticandidal and anticryptococcal activities were detected in undiluted serum 0.5 and 1 h after ingestion. No det...

  10. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  11. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

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    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  12. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  13. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats. PMID:24892475

  14. A Novel Process for the Aqueous Extraction of Linseed Oil Based on Nitrogen Protection

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    Yuan Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the oxidation of linseed oil and emulsification during extraction process, Nitrogen-protected and Salt-Assisted Aqueous Extraction (NSAE of linseed oil was investigated in this study. Nitrogen-protected and salt-assisted were found to be the most effectively in weakening oil oxidation and improving the oil yield, respectively. The highest oil recovery of 87.55% was achieved under optimal conditions of sodium carbonate solution concentration (2 mol/L, solution-to-flour ratio (10 mL/g and temperature (60°C. Moreover, there were no significant variations in physicochemical properties of Nitrogen-protected and Salt-assisted Aqueous Extracted Oil (NSAEO and Salt-Assisted Aqueous Extracted Oil (SAEO, but NSAEO showed better oxidation stability. Additionally, NSAEO had a higher content of linoleic acid (18.97±0.05%, α-linolenic acid (56.48±0.12%. Therefore, NSAEO is a promising and environmental-friendly technique for oil extraction in the food industry.

  15. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  16. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins

  17. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi, E-mail: wyzss@hnu.edu.cn; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A strategy for the protein purification with a deep eutectic solvent(DES)-based aqueous two-phase system. • Choline chloride-glycerin DES was selected as the extraction solvent. • Bovine serum albumin and trypsin were used as the analytes. • Aggregation phenomenon was detected in the mechanism research. - Abstract: As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n = 3), 1.6057% (n = 3) and 1.6132% (n = 3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV–vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES–protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins.

  18. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed

  19. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  20. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  1. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  2. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Sun ower Seeds in the Presence of Aqueous Acidic

    OpenAIRE

    TOPALLAR, Hüseyin

    2000-01-01

    Oil extraction was performed in aqueous HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 solutions with n-hexane (C6H14) at 30, 40, 50 and 60 oC using 10 gr of sunflower seeds over 1 h with 10-min. sampling intervals. The optimum acid concentration was wt. 10% for each acid, and the highest oil yield was obtained in the extraction procedure with n-hexane containing H2SO4. The extraction process was observed with regard to the percent oil yield versus time, and the reaction order was found to be first-order kinetics by t...

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF WEDELIA CALENDULACEA AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gindi Sumalatha2, 1, 1* and 1; Hwisa T Nagiat; Chandu Babu Rao; Katakam Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The present study was focused to evaluate the protective activity of the Wedelia calendulacea (WC) whole plant aqueous extract against aspirin-pylorus ligation, HCl-ethanol and water immersion stress induced ulcers. In the present study aspirin-pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer was adopted to screen the antisecretory activity of plant extract. WC extract produced 61.76% ulcer inhibition at 400mg/kg body weight, when compared to that of standard (ranitidine, 50mg/kg) which produced 62.6% ...

  4. DIURETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF AERVA SANGUINOLENTA (L. BLUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Reddy K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the diuretic and anti-inflammatory potency of aqueous extract of whole plant of Aerva sanguinolenta in wistar albino rats. Different parameters viz. total urine volume, urine concentration of electrolytes such as sodium; potassium and chloride have been evaluated for assessment of diuretic activity. Anti-inflammatory was performed against carrageenan induced paw oedema method by using indomethacin as standard.The results revealed that the aqueous extract showed significant diuretic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weigh by increasing the total volume of urine and concentration of sodium, potassium and chloride ions in urine and also extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  6. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

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    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-aminohippuric acid and inulin were measured. Results: The K2Cr2O7 caused significant renal dysfunction, but A. sativum extract prevented this condition by improving all measured biomarkers. Conclusions: A single injection of K2Cr2O7 induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but the supply of an Allium sativum aqueous extract prevented the disorders caused by this metal.

  7. Integrated extraction and purification of soy isoflavones by using aqueous micellar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordisco, Estefanía; Haidar, Carla N; Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Nerli, Bibiana B; Malpiedi, Luciana P

    2016-12-15

    In this work, an integration of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems was evaluated as potential tool to purify soy isoflavones. Additionally, the proposed methodology aimed to preserve the protein content of the processed soy flour. The extractive assays were performed in AMTPS formed by Triton X-114 and sodium tartrate. In order to optimize the purification process, temperature and time were evaluated as independent variables. Under optimal working conditions, i.e. 100min and 33°C of incubation, IF were purified with a recovery percentage of 93 and a purification factor of almost 10. More importantly, the obtained sample presented an aglycone proportion superior to the reported by other methodologies. These results open perspectives to the use of aqueous micellar two-phase systems as an integrative methodology to extract, concentrate and purify isoflavones. PMID:27451211

  8. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meyer, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic...... garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 mu g g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in...... garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few...

  9. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  10. Morphological mutants of garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order. (author)

  11. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Aqueous, Ethanol and Acetone extracts of Sesbania grandiflora leaves and its phytochemical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Padmalochana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are being highly explored as a major source of medicinal compounds due to the presence of various phytochemical groups. Leaves of Sesbania grandiflora was consumed in traditional medicinal system of Ayurveda for numerous harmful syndromes and infections. This present study was explored the various phytochemicals present in the plant leaves of S. grandiflora. The qualitative analysis of various phytochemicals was exploited using different solvent systems. The aqueous, 80% ethanol and 70% acetone extraction was carried out in this study. Ethanolic extract shown presence of high amount of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Glycosides and steroids were confirmed by formation of colour intensity during chemical reactions. All the three extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic micro-organisms especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and dermatophytes Candida sp using Agar well diffusion method. Among these three extracts ethanol extracts shows good antibacterial activity compared with aqueous and acetone extracts. Because of the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and steroids ethanol extract shows high antibacterial activity. So these active compounds can be used in the field of medicine as therapeutic agent.

  13. An in vitro assessment of the effect of Athrixia phylicoides DC. aqueous extract on glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellan, N; Muller, C J F; de Beer, D; Joubert, E; Page, B J; Louw, J

    2012-06-15

    Athrixia phylicoides DC. is an aromatic shrub indigenous to the eastern parts of Southern Africa. Indigenous communities brew "bush tea" from dried twigs and leaves of A. phylicoides, which is consumed as a beverage and used for its medicinal properties. Plant polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and obesity. Aqueous extracts of the plant have been shown to be rich in polyphenols, in particular phenolic acids, which may enhance glucose uptake and metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic composition of a hot water A. phylicoides extract and assess its in vitro effect on cellular glucose utilisation. The most abundant phenolic compounds in the extract were 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, a di-caffeoylquinic acid and a methoxy-flavonol derivative. The extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12, Chang and 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. Intracellular glucose was utilised by both oxidation (C2C12 myocytes and Chang cells; p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and by increased glycogen storage (Chang cells; p < 0.05). No cytotoxicity was observed in Chang cells at the concentrations tested. The effects of the extract were not dose-dependent. A. phylicoides aqueous extract stimulated in vitro glucose uptake and metabolism, suggesting that consumption of this phenolic-rich extract could potentially ameliorate metabolic disorders related to obesity and T2D. PMID:22516895

  14. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sing Pei; Stathopoulos, Costas; Parks, Sophie; Roach, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. PMID:26785242

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Aqueous-Alcoholic Extracts and the Essential Oil of Verbascum thapsus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The increasing resistance of human pathogens to the available antimicrobials is a serious threat, resulting in the need for novel antibiotic resources such as plants. Some species of the genus Verbascum have been used by mankind since ancient times as an effective remedy for infectious diseases. Objectives This study was designed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous-alcoholic extracts and the essential oil of Verbascum thapsus L. against different kinds of bacterial and fungal strains, viz. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activities of the V. thapsus extracts were examined in the present study on the basis of disc diffusion and microdilution assays, and their potency was quantitatively assessed in terms of inhibition zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values. Results The disk diffusion test showed that the methanol extract of V. thapsus had more growth inhibitory effects on E. coli and S. pyogenes than the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The methanol and aqueous extracts had no effects on S. aureus. The maximal inhibition zone for the microorganisms sensitive to the methanol extract was in the range of 7 - 16.8 mm, and the MIC value was 31.25 μg/mL. For the ethanol extract, the maximal inhibition zone was 5.3 - 11 mm and the MIC value was 62.5 - 125 μg/mL. The essential oil of V. thapsus did not exhibit any antibacterial and antifungal activities. Conclusions The findings of the present study revealed the V. thapsus extract possesses compounds with antibacterial properties that can be used as novel antimicrobial agents in the development of new drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  16. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic effects of aqueous extract of the fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae

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    George A Koffuor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The effect of Solanum torvum (Fam: Solanaceae on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH response, hemagglutinating antibody (HA titer, white blood cells (WBC, red blood cells (RBC and hemoglobin concentration was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats to establish immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity. Materials and Methods: Sheep red blood cells (SRBC-immunized and challenged rats were treated with Solanum torvum extract, levamisole and dexamethasone. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ-induced anemia in rats was treated with the extract. Results: The aqueous Solanum torvum extract and levamisole significantly enhanced DTH response, increased HA titer and WBC count, while dexamethasone significantly decreased DTH response, did not increase HA titer, and did not enhance WBC profile. The extract and Feroglobin, the reference heamatinic, were able to reverse PHZ-induced anemia, and increase the RBCs and Hb concentration above baseline values within 24 days. Conclusion: Solanum torvum extract showed a concentration-dependent immunostimulant and erythropoietic activity.

  17. Antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Balaji; M Chalamaiah; B Ramesh; Y Amarnath Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiarrhoeal activity of 95% total alcoholic extract (TAE) and total aqueous extract (TAQ) of Carum copticum (C. copticum) seeds. Methods: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. copticum seed extracts at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was evaluated using experimentally induced castor oil diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and enteropooling activity in male wistar rats and compared to standard drugs. Results: At a dose of 100 mg/Kg BW (TAQ and TAE) significantly decreased the diarrhoeal droppings in castor oil induced diarrhoea, the mean distance travelled by charcoal meal showed a significant reduction in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluid accumulation by 39.90% to 50.70%. C. copticum extracts on castor oil induced fluid accumulation showed a greater inhibitory effect on Na+ levels than on K+ concentrations. Conclusions: These results suggest that C. copticum seed extracts could be used for the treatment of diarrhoea.

  18. Regional specificity of genetically diverse garlic varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic is a profitable crop for small to medium-sized vegetable farmers. Despite the increasing market for specialty garlic, it is remarkable how little is known about the diverse types of garlic available. Farmers need to know which garlic types perform well under their growing conditions, and th...

  19. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg si...

  20. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Aqueous Extract on Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A.H. Khattab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bachground: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of various liver diseases. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GbE have been proved to be an effective antioxidant, thereby can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of GbE on acute liver injury induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Material and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal (i.p injection of CCl4 1mL/ kg body weight (b.w. for every 72 h for 14 days, GbE was administered orally at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w., daily started two weeks prior to CCl4 injection and continued until the end of the experiment. Results: CCl4 caused acute liver damage in rats, as evidenced by significant increase serum enzymes activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT & AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as significant decrease in weight gain percent, serum total protein (TP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH. Pretreatment with GbE prior to CCl4 injection elicited hepatoprotetcive activity by significant decreased the activities of liver enzymes and hepatic MDA, and significant increased the levels of TP, and hepatic GSH, as well as induced significant ameliorated in weight gain percent and lipid profile parameters as compared with CCl4 group. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of CCl4 group represented the presence of hepatic necrosis associated with cells infiltration and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, while the pretreatment with GbE overcome these changes, the majority of the cells tend to be normal.Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of GbE against CCl4-induced oxidative damage may be due to its potent antioxidant activity. Therefore, GbE could be of potential

  1. Protective Effect of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Portulaca Oleracea Against Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPortulaca oleracea L. is a herbaceous weed from portulacaceae family. It can be found in many parts of the world. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that P. oleracea have antioxidant effects. The protective effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. oleracea against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity was studied in rats.Materials and MethodsSingle intraperitoneal injection of 4 mg/kg cisplatin was administrated to rats. After 5 days, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum creatinine (Scr concentration were determined. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts, before and after cisplatin injection on BUN and Scr, as well as morphological renal damage, was evaluated. ResultsIt was indicated that treatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. oleracea in the highest dose (0.8 and 2 g/ kg, 6 and 12 hr before cisplatin injection reduced BUN and Scr. Tubular necrotic damage was not observed either. ConclusionResults suggest that P. oleracea extract may protect against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and might serve as a novel combination agent with cisplan to limit renal injury.

  2. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml. The time of paralysis and death was recorded as 9 ± 0.57 and 15.83 ± 0.60 in case of aqueous extract, on the other hand it was recorded as 4.16 ± 0.30 and 10.83 ± 0.60 in case of ethanolic extracts. In conclusion, the use of stem of Tinospora cordifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity

  3. Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale L. Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Huynh Nhu Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction method was applied to extract oil from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.. The commercial enzyme (Viscozyme cassava C was tested for effectiveness in releasing oil during the aqueous extraction. The effect of several parameters such as material/water ratio, enzyme concentration and duration for enzyme incubation on the oil yield was investigated. The conditions for maximum oil release were found with the material/water ratio of 1:9, enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w E/S, and in 3 h of enzyme incubation at 50oC with constant shaking. The maximum oil yield obtained at those conditions (38.88 % raw material was significantly (p <0.05 higher than that of the control (without enzyme (35.92 %, and it represented 86.28 % recovery of the total oil in seed. No hexane and other organic solvents were needed for this process. The cashew nut oil by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction was relatively stable. Both peroxide value and free fatty acid value were lower than those in the oil obtained by Soxhlet method. Total un-saturated fatty acid in the cashew nut oil was about 84.43 %, in which the most abundant was oleic acid (65.0 %, followed by linoleic acid (18.53%. Cashew nut oil is a good dietary source of un-saturated fatty acids.

  4. Synergistic extraction of transition metal cations from aqueous media by two separated organic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have therefore initiated novel approaches to the study of the mechanism of the synergistic extraction of metal ions by means of two separated organic phases, which are brought in contact with the same aqueous phase. The present work is concerned with the extraction of transition metals and actinides ions from nitric acid by chelating agents e.g., HTTA thenoyltrifluoroacetone in a diluent - the first organic phase, and by natural donor, e.g., TBP, tri-butyl phosphate in a diluent the second organic phase. The adduct formation was studied by means of spectrochemical and radiochemical methods. In the first approach the aqueous phase was attacked with both organic phases simultanously (the static or parallel extraction). In this method organic phase are separated one from the other. It was shown that even in the absence of mixing, synergism is observed under this experimental conditions. The results indicate, that adduct formation occurs in both organic phases. Nevertheless the enhanchment of extraction in the TBP phase is by far greater than that in the HTTA containing phase. This approach has one disadvatage, viz., the experiments are very time consuming, a typical experiment requiring over 10 days. In order to overcome this difficulty, the following experiments were carried out: the aqueous phase were first shaken with diluent containing an anionic ligand and the phases were allowed to separate. Then the aqueous solution were shaken with diluent containing a netural donor and the phase again were allowed to separate. The concentration of the metal ions in all the phases were determined. The experiments were repeated with an other diluent replacing the first diluent in one or both organic phases. In this way eight sequences of experiments were carried out for each concentration set chosen. The results thus point out that this experimental approach open new possibilities to investigate the mechanism and the kinetics of synergistic extraction processes. (author) the

  5. Antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ateufack Gilbert; Tadjoua Tchoumbou Herve; Yousseu Nana William; Sama Fonkeng Leonard; Kuiate Jules-Roger; Kamanyi Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the phytochemical test and selected pharmacological activities (antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity) of the aqueous and methanolic leaves extracts of Dissotis thollonii Cogn. (Melastomataceae) (D. thollonii). Methods:The aqueous and methanolic extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial activities on the in vitro growth of 2 clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri), and 5 reference bacteria strains [Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (E. coli), E. coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 and E. coli ATCC 11775] by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and bactericidal concentrations using broth microdilution method as well as on the infectious, secretory and osmotic induced diarrhoea models in rats. Results:The aqueous extract inhibited the in vitro growth of all bacteria tested (the 05 reference bacteria strains and the 02 clinical isolates), with MICs values comprised between 32 and 512 µg/mL, whereas the methanolic extract has done the same with the MICs values located between 128 and 512 µg/mL. In vivo, the methanolic and aqueous extracts provoqued at all doses, a significant decrease (P Conclusions:The leaves of D. thollonii thus have antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects, which could result from their activities on blocking the inhibiting effects of the bacterial enzymes, inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis, allowing the rupture of the lipopolysaccharidic membrane, as well as on inhibiting prostaglandins-E2 synthesis or increasing the hydroelectrolytic reabsorption. These results attestted the ethnopharmacological use of D. thollonii leaves in the treatment of diarrhoea and gastro-intestinal infections.

  6. Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. Methods The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3 cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls. Results Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL. The extract reduced significantly (p Conclusions The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.

  7. Pro-sexual effects of aqueous extracts of Massularia acuminata root in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Awotunde, O S; Ajiboye, T O; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A

    2011-10-01

    Aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata root at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight was investigated for its effect on sexual behaviour in male Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and tannins in the extract. The increased (P 0.05) with the reference drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra). The extract also decreased the mount latency. The intromission latency at all the doses of the extract compared favourably with the distilled water-treated animals. The concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinising and follicle stimulating hormones increased at all the doses. All these are indications of prosexual effects of the extract, mediated by changes in the hormonal levels, brought about possibly by alkaloids, saponins and/or flavonoids. Overall, the present study supported the acclaimed use of M. acuminata root as an aphrodisiac in Yorubic medicine of Nigeria. Therefore, the aqueous extract of M. acuminata roots at 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight may be explored in the management of disorders of desire, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:21951198

  8. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  9. Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Phoenix dactylifera (DATE PALM in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Nosereme Agbon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under age of 5 years. In view of this problem, the World Health Organization has encouraged studies for treatment and prevention of diarrhoeal diseases depending on traditional medicinal practices. Extracts of Phoenix dactylifera (date palm are widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders. In this study, the antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera was investigated by castor oil- induced diarrhoea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility activity in Wistar rats. Like the standard drug (5mg/kg loperamide, the extract (1000 and 1500mg/kg body weight elicited a significant decrease in the severity of diarrhoea. The extract significantly (p<0.05 reduced the frequency of defaecation and as well decreased gastrointestinal motility. In the enteropooling study, the extract administered at 1000mg/kg had greater anti-enteropooling effect than the standard drug (5mg/kg loperamide. The result obtained shows that the aqueous fruit extract of Phoenix dactylifera may contain some pharmacologically active substances with antidiarrhoeal properties. This may be the basis for management of gastrointestinal disorders.

  10. Aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root induce redox imbalance in male rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, T O; Salau, A K; Yakubu, M T; Oladiji, A T; Akanji, M A; Okogun, J I

    2010-08-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Securidaca longepedunculata root on redox homeostasis in male rat liver and kidney was investigated. Rats were grouped into four: A, B, C and D, where A (the control) received orally 1 mL of distilled water; B, C and D (test groups) received orally 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 28 days. Extract administration significantly reduced (p .05) in the serum acid phosphatase activity. There was also significant decrease (p < .05) in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver and kidney. Liver and kidney levels of GSH, vitamins C and E were also significantly reduced (p < .05). Serum malonidialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxide increased significantly (p < .05) in all the extract-treated groups. The available data from this study revealed that aqueous extract of S. longepedunculata root exerted its toxicity in the animals by depleting the antioxidant systems. This may consequently expose the cells and cellular macromolecules to oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species generated either from the metabolism of the extract or other in vivo means. PMID:20144964

  11. chemical studies on the reactivity of some organic extractants for extraction and separation of certain elements from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanide elements such as lanthanum and neodymium are important elements in photo-electronic and metallurgical industries as well as in nuclear technology. The main constituents of the spent nuclear fuel are actinides like uranium, thorium and various fission products including lanthanides. The co-ordination compounds of the trivalent lanthanum and neodymium continues to be an active research area, which includes the specific spectroscopic and magnetic properties of rare earth ions and their applications as super molecular device, contrast-enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging, optical signal amplifiers and electroluminescent (EL) devices. Hence, the separation and purification of these elements is of great concern. Solvent extraction technique is employed to separate and purify rare earth elements in an industrial scale, but the separation of lanthanum and neodymium is a difficult task, as lanthanide ions exhibit similar chemical and physical properties. They have generally common and stable +3 oxidation state that requires synthesis of certain extractants which are able to extract them from different aqueous solutions. During the last twenty years, different publications have pointed out the remarkable properties of alkyl amide in the field of separation chemistry. These extractants are able to form stable co-ordination compounds with different metallic ions. In this concern, this thesis deals with the synthesis of different amide extractants namely N, N diethylacetoamide (DEAA), N, N Teteraphenyl malonamide (TPMA), N, N diphenylbenzamide (DPBA), N, N' diphenylacetoamide (DPAA), and N, N' Teteraethyl malonamide (TEMA), which were synthesized, characterized and compared with Aliquat-336 in kerosene for extraction and separation of La (III) and Nd (III). The effect of the different parameters affecting the extraction of these metals from aqueous nitric acid medium in the different systems has been studied in terms of shaking time, nitric acid, hydrogen

  12. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry;

    2012-01-01

    the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor...... present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration...

  13. Protective Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum Aqueous Extract on Thioacetamide-induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Won; Park, Sang-Jin; Song, In-Bae; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Cho, Eun-Sang; Son, Hwa-Young; Lee, Sang-Wook; Suh, Joo-Won; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yun, Hyo-In

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (BC703) on thioacetamide (TA)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We found that BC703 significantly decreased mortality and the change in serum transaminase following TA administration. The group treated with BC703 at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg produced significant hepatoprotective effects against TA-induced liver damage by decreasing the activities of serum enzymes, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation in dose-dependent manners. Histopathological studies further substantiated the protective effect of BC703. These results show the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract from Platycodon grandiflorum on thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:22319234

  14. Role of Triticum aestivum aqueous extract in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Chiluka, Vijaya Laxmi; Abbagoni, Saidulu

    2014-02-01

    Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 microg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids. PMID:24597148

  15. EVALUATION OF SEDATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF VIGNA TRILOBATA (L. VERDC. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahir Chetan D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedative activity of aqueous extract of Vigna trilobata (L verdc. Leaves using experimental animal models. In the present study aqueous extract of the Vigna trilobata leaves (AEVTL was used to investigate the sedative activity using Rotarod apparatus and Photoactometer in mice at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and compared to standard diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.. The result obtained from this study revealed that AEVTL possessed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01 sedative activity at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by reducing locomotor activity and fall off time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study justify the use of the leaves as sedative in traditional medicine. Further studies may be directed at characterizing the bioactive ingredients that are responsible for the observed sedative activity in the plant.

  16. STUDIES ON ANTIASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF MIMOSA PUDICA LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mali Prabha R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study designed to evaluate the antiasthmatic activity of aqueous extract of Mimosa pudica (AEMP on in vitro and in vivo animal models. Histamine induced contraction in isolated goat tracheal chain showed that aqueous extract of Mimosa pudica (AEMP inhibited the contractile effect of histamine (P<0.05. A dose dependent contraction of goat tracheal chain is observed. Treatment with AECP protected 74% from degranulation of mast cell as compared to control group. AEMP showed excellent protection in guinea pigs against the histamine-induced bronchospasm. Thus, AECP showed antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing and protected guinea pigs against histamine induced PCD and hence possesses potential role in the treatment of asthma.

  17. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  18. Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity of aqueous leaves extract of Desmodium triflorum in mice against pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced convulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhosle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to study an anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract of Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Fabaceae, in mice. Animal models of epilepsy namely the pentylenetetrazole, and maximal electroshock induced convulsion were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant effects of the extracts. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. In the pentylenetetrazole induced convulsion, aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg significant delayed the onset of convulsion, reduced the duration of convulsion (p<0.05 and reduced mortality. The aqueous extract of D. triflorum 800 mg/kg dose reduced hind limb tonic extension phase of maximal electroshock induced convulsion induced convulsion in mice (p<0.05. The pretreated aqueous extract of D. triflorum showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increases the reduced glutathione level in mice brain tissue (p<0.001. The results revealed that D. triflorum possesses a significant dose dependent anticonvulsant activity.

  19. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Iram

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens.

  20. Antispasmodic effects of Citrus aurantium flowers aqueous extract on uterus of non-pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus aurantium is a small citrus tree, with scented white flowers. The C. aurantium is used in Asian herbal medicine primarily to treat digestive problems.Objective: The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of C. aurantium flower's aqueous extract on uterine contraction in presence of some known uterus stimulants.Materials and Methods: In experimental study 30 virgin Wistar rats 200-300gr were obtained. After laparatomy, a piece of Uterus was dissected out and mounted in an organ bath (10ml containing De Jalon (29°C and contracted by KCl (60mM, oxytocin (10mU/ml and barium chloride (4mM then the effect of C. aurantium flower's aqueous extract (1-8 mg/ml on the uterine contractions was investigated. Uterus was separately incubated with propranolol (1M, naloxone (1M and the role of β-adrenoceptors, opioid receptors were evaluated.Results: Cumulative concentrations of the extract (1-8 mg/ml decreased KCl, oxytocin and barium chloride induced uterine contractions, dose-dependently (p<0.001. C. aurantium flower's aqueous extract was unaffected on incubation the tissue with propranolol and naloxone.Conclusion: It seems that the extract induced antispasmodic effect mainly via calcium influx blockade. However, neither β-adrenoceptors nor opioid receptors were involved. Since the extract has antispasmodic effect on uterus contraction therefore we can suggest that more study will be necessary to relief dysmenorrheal

  1. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, A.; Shankar J.; Premendran John; N. Venkatanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of ricinus communis in wistar rats. Methods: Liver, the key organ of metabolism and excretion, is constantly endowed with the task of detoxification of xenobiotics, environmental pollutants and chemotherapeutic agents. The animals were divided into six groups with six rats in each group. First group were taken as control, and they received 0.9% normal saline 10ml/kg body weight orally. Sec...

  2. ANTIPSYCHOTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN AMPHETAMINE CHALLENGED MICE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu nee Giri Jain; Vibhor Kumar Jain; Abhilasha Shete

    2010-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO). The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsy...

  3. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse; Lalitha, P.

    2013-01-01

    An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO) solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO). The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reducti...

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC

    OpenAIRE

    Okoh Anthony I; Aiyegoro Olayinka A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC. [Family Asteraceae] aqueous crude extract. Methods We assessed the antioxidant potential and phytochemical constituents ...

  5. Bioactivity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Laurus nobilis L. from Different Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Barreira, João C.M.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Laurus nobilis L. (Laureaceae), commonly known as laurel, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region. Most widely used as culinary spice, it is also consumed as infusion to treat some gastrointestinal problems (Dall’Acqua et al., 2009) and has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds namely, essential oils and phenolic compounds (Dadalioğlu et al., 2004; Dias et al., 2013). In the present work, methanolic and aqueous extracts of wild and cultivated L. nobilis wer...

  6. Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus aqueous extract against renal oxidative stress in Streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karuna, R.; Vijaya G Bharathi; Reddy, Sreenivasa S.; B. Ramesh; D Saralakumari

    2011-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: In the present study, we have evaluated the antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus (PAAEt) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: PAAEt was administered at 200 mg/kg body weight/day to normal treated (NT-group) and STZ-induced diabetic treated rats (DT-group) by gavage for eight weeks. During the experimental period, blood was collected from fasted rats at 10 days intervals and pla...

  7. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kordmostafapour; Hamed Faridi; Behnam Barikbin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Phenol and its derivatives are toxic pollutants, frequently found in surface and tap waters, and in aqueous effluents from various manufacturing processes such as petroleum and petrochemical, coal conversion, synthetic rubber, plastics, paper, oil refineries and phenol-producing industries. In the present study efficacy of Moringa peregrina seed extract in phenol removal was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present research was an experimental one performed in a...

  8. Antineoplasic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus Amboinicus in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Brandao, Eduardo M.; Brandão, Paulo H. D. M.; Ivone A. Souza; Paiva, Gerson S.; de C. Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M.

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the asciti...

  9. Antiplasmodial activities and cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts and sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, G; Passreiter, C M; Woerdenbag, H J; Van Looveren, M

    1996-04-01

    Aqueous and lipophilic extracts of Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), obtained from Guatemala, were tested against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Moreover, sesquiterpene lactones, of the germacranolide and furanoheliangolide type, isolated from N. lobata, were shown to be active against P. falciparum in vitro. In addition to their antiplasmodial activity, their cytotoxic effects on human carcinoma cell lines were evaluated. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:8657743

  10. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  11. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Armand; Gholamreza Najafi; Farah Farokhi; Ali Shalizar Jalali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days...

  12. Protective effects from Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chieh-ling; Yin, Mei-chin

    2014-01-01

    Background Protective effects of Houttuynia cordata aqueous extract (HCAE) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/cA mice were examined. Methods HCAE, at 1 or 2 g/L, was added into the drinking water for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by acetaminophen treatment intraperitoneally (350 mg/kg body weight). Results Acetaminophen treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH) content, increased hepatic malonyldialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ox...

  13. Allium sativum aqueous extract prevents potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio L. Becerra-Torres; César Soria-Fregozo; Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez; José L. Moreno-Hernández-Duque

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) induces nephrotoxicity by oxidative stress mechanisms. Aims: To study the potential protection of an aqueous extract of Allium sativum against the K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid oxidation in rats. Methods: Twenty four hours after treatment, biomarkers such as proteinuria, creatinine clearance, malondialdehyde production, specific enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminopeptidase, and renal clearance of para-...

  14. Anti-Stress Potential of Aqueous Root Extract of Cnestis ferruginea

    OpenAIRE

    I.O. Ishola; R.B. Ashorobi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of the phytochemical screening, acute toxicity testing and anti-stress potential of aqueous root extract of Cnestis ferruginea in mice and rats. The forced swimming endurance test, anoxic tolerance tests and immobilization stress-induced gastric ulcer were utilized as models for the evaluation of the anti-stress property of C. ferruginea. The results from phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and glycosides as the major cons...

  15. Ulcer Protective and Spasmolytic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Leaves in Experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muthukumar A; Periyasamy M; Manohar R; Chinna RR; Anandm G

    2013-01-01

    Ethno pharmacological relevance: Solanum nigrum Linn. (solanaceae) is a widely growing and cultivated traditional medicinal plant mainly used for the treatment of gastric illness and mouth ulcer. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of aqueous leaves extract of Solanum nigrum Linn on irritable bowel syndrome and gastric ulcers. Materials and methods: Ulcer protective and anti spasmodic effect was investigated in cold restraint stress, aspirin induced and pyloric ligated ulc...

  16. Screening of medicinal natural extracts for their antibacterial activity against salmonella species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was aimed to screen out natural crude extracts exhibiting antibacterial activity against Salmonella causing gastrointestinal problems in humans. Fifteen Salmonella species were isolated from uncooked chicken, polluted water, rotten potatoes, beef, rotten eggs etc. Aqueous plant extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Nigella sativa (kalvanji), Azadirachta indica (neem), Ficus carica (anjeer), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (methi) were checked against Salmonella species by well plate method. In addition to plant extract, Honey was also used for antibacterial activity. Inhibition zones ranging from 2mm to 20mm were obtained with different concentration of plant extracts and honey. The antibacterial sensitivity pattern was in the order of kalvanji > garlic > honey > anjeer > methi > neem. The standard antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin were also used for comparison with natural extract for antibacterial activity. The extracts of Allium sativum, Nigella sativa and Honey were found to be more effective against Salmonella species for which even Ceftriaxone was found ineffective. (author)

  17. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem on the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Afolayan, A J

    2009-12-01

    The phytochemical constituents of aqueous extract of Bulbine natalensis (Baker) stem and its effect on male rat sexual behaviour were evaluated for 7 days. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycoside, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinones. Administration of the extract at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight resulted in the significant increase (p ejaculation frequency, serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, computed indices of sexual behaviour, erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes whereas the mount latency, intromission latency and post-ejaculatory interval were significantly decreased (p management of disorders of desire/libido, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction in males. PMID:18710410

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice

    OpenAIRE

    David Arome; Chinedu Enegide; Solomon Fidelis Ameh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the anxiolytic property of aqueous root extract of Cymbopogon citratus in mice. Materials and Methods: In this study, stress induced hyperthermia (SIH), elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field experimental models were employed. Results: In SIH model, the extract caused a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the body temperature (T2 and ∆T) at doses of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg. Similar reduction in the body temperature was obtained by diazepam 2.5 mg/kg u...

  20. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected m...

  1. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  2. Optimising the Encapsulation of an Aqueous Bitter Melon Extract by Spray-Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Sing Pei Tan; Tuyen Chan Kha; Sophie Parks; Costas Stathopoulos; Roach, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimise the encapsulation of an aqueous bitter melon extract by spray-drying with maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA). The response surface methodology models accurately predicted the process yield and retentions of bioactive concentrations and activity (R2 > 0.87). The optimal formulation was predicted and validated as 35% (w/w) stock solution (MD:GA, 1:1) and a ratio of 1.5:1 g/g of the extract to the stock solution. The spray-dried powder had a high process yield (66.2...

  3. Extraction of uranyl nitrate from aqueous nitrate solutions by open cell polyurethane foam sponge (OCPUFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of uranyl nitrate into open cell polyurethane foam sponge (OCPUFS) from aqueous solution, in the presence of salting agents, was examined. The extraction efficiency was observed to depend on the concentration of uranyl and nitrate ions. The charge of the cation was also found to influence the distribution ratio. The effect of the change in temperature and pH was also studied. The results are interpreted in terms of OCPUFS acting as a viscous organic ether of moderate dielectric constant. (author) 14 refs.; 6 figs

  4. Acute genotoxicity analysis in vivo of the aqueous extract of Maytenus guyanensis Amazonian chichuá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The species Maytenus guyanensis Klotzsch ex Reissek, Celastraceae, present a wide variety of possible pharmacological activities and its roots and stems are used by popular medicine in the western Amazon rainforest. Few studies have demonstrated the genotoxic safety of the popular use of this species, and owing to this, the present study aimed to perform an analysis of the acute genotoxicity in vivo of the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis. Male and female mice from Mus musculus species, of weights ranging from 20 to 40 g, organized in eight groups with different treatments were used. The aqueous extracts of the bark of M. guyanensis were administered orally by gavage with 0.1 ml of the test substance per 10 g of the animal, followed by performance of comet assay in peripheral blood, PCE/NCE correlation and occurrence of micronuclei in the bone marrow. It was found that the aqueous extract of M. guyanensis, with ten times higher concentration than those used in ethnopharmacology, did not present genotoxic effect and, moreover, it has antigenotoxic action in mice treated acutely. Further studies regarding bioaccumulation and chronic effects of this species are suggested, in order to improve the understanding of its mechanism of action, ensuring the efficacy and safety of its utilization and developing phytotherapics and drugs.

  5. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  6. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  7. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. ROOTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Ashwini C.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotula aquatica (Lour. family-Boraginaceae roots are used for the treatment of diabetes traditionally. The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively, serum lipid profile was also examined. The dose of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight p.o. of the aqueous extract were evaluated and the dose of 200 mg/kg was identified as the most effective which reduced blood glucose level upto 40.6% after 4 hr of administration in normal rats and a fall of 38% in blood glucose level within 1 hr during glucose tolerance test (GTT in mild diabetic rats which has almost similar effect as that of standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg bw. Severe diabetic rats were treated daily with 200 mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 56% was observed in fasting blood glucose level respectively, urine sugar level was decreasing with increasing in body weight and total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG levels were decreased by 24, 59 and 41% respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL was increased by 26%. The data showed that aqueous extract has a remarkable hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  8. Thrombolytic Potential of Aqueous and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea: In vitro study

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    Muhammad Ajmal Shah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thrombolytic activityof crude extracts ofCamellia sinensis (Green tea using in-vitrothrombolytic model which is very simple, rapid and easy to do method. Both aqueous crude and methanolic extracts were studied however; the results of methanolic extract were more promising which exhibited maximum 95. 24% clot lysis as compared to aqueous one i.e. 90.34% at 800 μg/ml concentration in 72 hrs of incubation. Various concentrations of leaf extract i.e. 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml, 600ug/ml and 800μg/ml were tested at different time intervals including; 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs duration of incubation at 370 C for observing maximum clot lysis. The result indicated that concentrations of leaf extract enhanced the percentage of clot lysis in dose dependent manner. On the other hand, Streptokinase SK, a reference standard and water were used as a positive and negative control showed clot lysis maximum 96.63% and 41.32% in 72 hrs of incubation respectively. From results, it can be concluded that if further studies reveals the exact molecule from green tea diverse composition, an effective thromolytic candidate can be achieved for the improvement of the patients suffering from Atherothrombotic diseases.

  9. Aqueous extract of Abutilon indicum Sweet inhibits glucose absorption and stimulates insulin secretion in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanapun, Chutwadee; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extract derived from the Thai Abutilon indicum Sweet plant and to explore its effects on intestinal glucose absorption and insulin secretion. The authors hypothesized that the plasma glucose level could be reduced through the inhibition of glucose absorption and/or the enhancement of insulin secretion. Administration of the extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) in an oral glucose tolerance test led to a significant reduction in plasma glucose levels in 30 minutes after the administration in moderately diabetic rats, as compared with untreated rats (P indicum plant has antidiabetic properties, which inhibited glucose absorption and stimulated insulin secretion. Phytochemical screening also revealed that the extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, and saponins that could account for the observed pharmacologic effects of the plant extract. PMID:19761892

  10. The cytogenetic effects of the aqueous extracts of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Incekara, Umit; Güner, Adem; Aydın, Elanur; Dirican, Ebubekir; Togar, Başak

    2014-04-01

    One of the useful and most commonly cultivated commercially species, migratory locust (Locusta migratoria; Orthoptera), was investigated in light of genotoxic damage potentials. For this aim, we evaluated the genotoxic potentials of water soluble extracts of L. migratoria on cultured human blood cells. The micronucleus, sister chromatid exchange and structural chromosome aberration assays were applied to assess DNA and chromosomal damage produced by aqueous extracts in vitro. The extracts were added to the cultures at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 mg/L. Our results indicated that these extracts did not exhibit genotoxicity at tested concentrations. We conclude that this in vitro approach for biomonitoring genotoxicity assessment is useful for comparing the potential health risks of edible insects. PMID:22872633

  11. Study of Jaft Aqueous Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine on Burn Healing in Male Rat

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    L Nikrooze

    2013-05-01

    24 hours post-burn level 2 Silver sulfadiazine cream was treated for the first group and aqueous extract of oak at 1, 4, 7% were used for the second, third and fourth groups the control group was treated with physiology serum. After 30 and 60 days, mice were anesthetized and damaged skin tissues were removed and then transferred to 10% formalin. After histological processing and hematoxylin and eosin staning, the structure of the skin was examined by light microscopy. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Turkey. Results: Thickness of the epidermis, dermis, and the burns extract pairs, in groups of 1%, 4%, 7% in comparison to silver sulfadiazine showed a significant increase (P <0/05. Conclusion: It seemed that the 1% Sulfadiazine Cream compared with oak extract inhibited healing of the skin. Key words: Burn, Jaft (oak extract, silver sulfadiazine, rat

  12. Safety evaluation of the aqueous extract of Leonotis leonurus shoots in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, V; Masika, Pj; Adedapo, Aa

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous extract from Leonotis leonurus (L) R.Br. (Lamiaceae) shoots was evaluated in female rats for its acute, sub acute, and chronic toxicity together with hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes. In the acute toxicity test, the extract caused death in animals receiving 3200 mg/kg dose. The extract also caused significant (P glutamine transference gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alanine transminase in the 400 mg/kg dose in chronic toxicity. Changes were also noted in body weights, but no significant changes were observed in the levels of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride). Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress, and mortality were recorded. The extract also caused various histopathological changes in the organs. The study concluded that farmers need to exercise caution in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes. PMID:19244291

  13. Activity antifungal of the essential oils; aqueous and ethanol extracts from Citrus aurantium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoui, N; Gargouri, S; Amri, I; Fezzani, T; Jamoussi, B; Hamrouni, L

    2015-01-01

    Our study is about the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. in Tunisia and its plant extract. The yield of this essential oil is 0, 56% but the yield of the extract of plant was 17.1% for the aqueous extract ant 18.3% for the ethanolic extract. The analysis of chemical composition by using GC and GC/MS showed the essential oil of C. aurantium L. species to be rich in monoterpenes such as α-terpineol, lianolyl acetate, linalool and limonene. The antifungal activity of this oil showed us an inhibition of the germination of mushrooms, in the same way we could note that the biologic activities are generally assigned to the chemotypes high content in oxygenated monoterpene. PMID:26207731

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Victor B; Adediji, Joseph O; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2005-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata was investigated in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formalin-induced oedema methods. The extract was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. In the carrageenan method the paw oedema was significantly reduced by all the doses of the extract administered, with the 200 mg/kg dose producing the highest oedema inhibition (80.5%). In the cotton pellet method, granuloma weight was significantly reduced from 14 +/- 0.1 to 9.0 +/- 0.1 mg, while in the formaldehyde induced arthritis the extract inhibited the oedema during the 10-day period. In conclusion, this study has established the anti-inflammatory activity of C. odorata and, thus, justifies the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of wounds and inflammation. PMID:16280100

  15. Ionic Liquid-salt Aqueous Two-phase System, a Novel System for the Extraction of Abused Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She Hong LI; Chi Yang HE; Hu Wei LIU; Ke An LI; Feng LIU

    2005-01-01

    A 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-salt aqueous two-phase system was studied on extraction of abused drugs. The effects of sorts of salts, temperature, concentration of salt and drugs on system were investigated systematically. A satisfactory extraction efficiency of 93%was obtained for papaverine while that of morphine was 65%. The extraction mechanism was primarily discussed.

  16. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

    1999-05-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

  17. Acute and subchronic toxicological assessment of Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum. and Thonn. (Connaraceae aqueous leaf extract

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    O O Adeyemi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This study was conducted to determine the safety profile of Byrsocarpus coccineus (Connaraceae by carrying out the acute and subchronic toxicological assessment of its aqueous leaf extract. In the acute toxicity test, mice were administered orally with the extract up to 10 g/kg and intraperitoneally at doses of 50 – 800 mg/kg. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes, signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the subchronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at doses of 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg orally, for 30 days and 60 days. Control animals received distilled water and all animals were weighed at 7 days interval. At the end of the test periods, haematological, biochemical, and urinary parameters were determined in blood, serum, and urine samples respectively and vital organs macroscopically examined and weighed. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 158.4 mg/kg. Administered for 30 days, the extract did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on haematological and biochemical parameters and vital organs. In the 60 day study, the extract elicited significant (P < 0.05 increases in platelet and WBC count and reductions in levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, and total protein. The weight of the kidneys, spleen, epididymis, and testes were not significantly affected but significant changes were observed in the weight of the liver (↑, heart (↓, and lungs (↑. Generally, B. coccineus did not significantly affect body weight and urinary parameters. Results obtained in this study suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of B. coccineus is safe when administered orally with potential beneficial effects as immunostimulant, hepatoprotective

  18. Allelopathic interference of aqueous extracts of chinaberry on the germination and initial growth of tomato

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    Lindamir Hernandez Pastorini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy effects vegetative development and is caused by chemical substances produced and released by surrounding plants. The objective of this work was to investigate the allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of fresh and dried leaves and fruits of chinaberry (Melia azedarach L. – Meliaceae on the germination and initial growth of tomato. The extracts were prepared at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% and analyzed for their pH and osmotic potential. The experiment consisted of four replications of 25 tomato seeds that were distributed in Petri dishes containing two sheets of germitest paper. Each plate received 2mL of an extract. The seeds were evaluated for percentage of germination (PG, germination rate (VG and germination speed index (IVG. The initial growth was assessed based on the length of the radicle, hypocotyl and leaf, and fresh and dry weight. All concentrations of the extracts exhibited inhibitory activity on germination and radicle growth, and the inhibitory effect increased as the concentration of the extract increased. Extracts from dried leaves had the greatest effects. The osmotic potential and pH of the extracts did not vary significantly compared to the control, indicating that the allelopathic effect was due to the allelochemicals in the extracts.

  19. Parameters affecting enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded sunflower meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kerry A; Vaca-Medina, Guadalupe; Glatz, Charles E; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that emulsification of oil and alteration of the geometry of the confining cellular matrix were important mechanisms for improving yields. Protease and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction mixture did not have significant effects, indicating key differences with previously established soy oil extraction mechanisms. Maximum yields attained for oil and protein extraction were 39% and 90%, respectively, with the aid of a surfactant. PMID:27132846

  20. Allelopathic potential of jatropha curcas L. leaf aqueous extracts on seedling growth of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas on seed germination and early seedling growth of wheat cv. Inqlab-91 were investigated. The extracts were applied at 50 percentage, 25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage as seed soaking for 5h prior to sowing of seeds in the pots. The J. curcas leaf characterized for composition of macronutrients showed Na (304 micro g/g), K (267 micro g/g), Mg (92 micro g/g) and Ca (12 micro g/g). Among micronutrients Fe (92 micro g/g), Cr (92 micro g/g), Ni (48 micro g/g), Co (38 μg/g), Cu (23 micro g/g, Mn (12 micro g/g) and Zn (15.22 micro g/g) were found. Phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and were found maximum (8.12 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 50 percentage extract. Lower concentrations (6.25 percentage, 3.25 percentage) of the extracts significantly improved seed germination (percentage), germination index, shoot length, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and root area of wheat plants (p<0.05). At higher concentration of the extract, root length was significantly reduced. It is inferred that lower concentrations (6.25 percentage and 3.12 percentage) of the extracts exhibited beneficial effects on growth of wheat plants. (author)

  1. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

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    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  2. Studies on Antivenom Activity of Ceiba pentandra Leaves’ Aqueous Methanol Extract Against Echis ocellatus’ Snake Venom

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    sarkiyayi shehu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous methanol of Ceiba pentandra leaves extract was tested for antivenom activity against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Among parameters investigated include: LD50 of the Echis ocellatus snake venom, phospholipase A2 activity, percentage hemolysis. In vivo analysis of total protein content, white blood cells, pack cell volume and haemoglobin contents were also investigated. The result reveals that Echis ocellatus has an LD50 of 0.280mg/kg ± 0.065. Haemolysis due to venom has drastically reduced by the extract from 66% to 27.4%. suggesting that the extract is effective in reducing haemolysis in mice. The in vivo studies reveals that there were significant (p<0.05 decrease in packed cell volume, total protein and haemoglobin contents for the venom group and there was only slight changes in the venom/extract and control groups suggesting that the extract has some inhibitory effect on the venom activity. The purified phospholipase incubated with the extract demonstrated neutralization effect against the phospholipase A2 activity. The result has shown that Ceiba pentandra leaves extract possess potent snake venom-neutralizing capacity. The plant leaves extract could be use as an antidote for snakebite envenomation.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of Satureja bachtiarica extracts aqueous, ethanol, methanol and glycerin on streptococcus pyogenes, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Maryam Heidari Sureshjani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian medicinal plants, such as Satureja bachtiarica have been utilized as traditional medicines by the indigenous people of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari in Iran. In this study, Satureja bachtiarica were dried in suitable condition (in shadow after extraction with watery, ethanol 96 %, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin antimicrobial effect of extract were determined by “screening antimicrobial activity” and “disk agar diffusion test” in 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml concentration of the extract against Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extracts were quite effective in 2 mg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous, ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, was inhibited effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but 40 mg/ml  aqueous and 30 and 40 mg/ml ethanol 96%, methanol 96% and 20% glycerin extract concentrations, has inhibited effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing. The results indicate that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Satureja bachtiarica have the greatest effect on gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Satureja bachtiarica, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  4. Honeybee Venom Immunotherapy: A Comparative Study Using Purified and Nonpurified Aqueous Extracts in Patients with Normal Basal Serum Tryptase Concentrations

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    M. Beatrice Bilò

    2012-01-01

    Eighty patients with a history of a systemic reaction were enrolled for immunotherapy using a 5-day rush protocol. Patients treated with the purified extract and those treated with the non purified aqueous extract who developed a systemic reaction underwent maintenance therapy with the purified aluminium hydroxide adsorbed preparations. Patients treated with the nonpurified aqueous extract who did not experience a systemic reaction during the rush phase underwent the maintenance phase with that extract. Systemic reactions during the build-up phase occurred significantly more often in patients treated with nonpurified aqueous extract than in those treated with the corresponding purified aqueous preparations. During the one-year maintenance phase, no systemic reactions occurred in either of the groups. Neither age nor baseline mast cell tryptase concentration presented a significant correlation with the occurrence of a systemic reaction during the treatment, while the type of extract did. In conclusion, nonpurified aqueous extracts induced more frequent systemic reactions than the purified aqueous preparations, during the same rush protocol. The efficacy seemed to be comparable.

  5. ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM BRILLANTAISIA VOGELIANA (NÉES BENTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Aimé Valère SOH OUMBE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brillantaisia vogeliana (Acanthacées is a plant used in the West-Cameroon traditional pharmacopeia. This species have been used to facilitate deliverance and delivery and to treat stomach ailment. The aqueous extract of leaves was studied by conventional pharmacological methods.Twelve female rats were randomly assigned in two groups of 6 animals each designated as control and treated groups. After a sighting study, one group of the fasted animals for 12h received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous solution of Brillantaisia vogeliana while control group received distilled water.Oral consumption of 2 g/kg of Brillantaisia vogeliana produced neither mortality nor significant differences in the body and relative organs weights except relative liver weight between control and treated animals. Moreover, no abnormality and no histopathological changes were detectable between both control and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no difference in any of the parameters tested (WBC count, platelet, total leukocytes, RBC count, hematocrit and hemoglobin estimation in either control or treated groups. No significant change occurred in the blood chemistry parameters, including creatinine, urea nitrogen (UN, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase (ASAT, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, calcium and phosphorus. However, α-amylase and total protein showed a significant difference between control and treated groups. The results showed the innocuity of the aqueous extract of B. vogeliana and thus validated its utilization in Cameroonian traditional pharmacopoeia. The LD50 was higher than 2g/kg of body weight and according to Globally Harmonized Hazard Classification and Labelling Scheme (GHS, aqueous extract of B. vogeliana was classified in group 5.

  6. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Benjamin; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Goldsmith, Chloe D; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract's antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:26783950

  7. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  8. Uptake and specification of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, E.H.; Lobinski, R.; Burger-Meijer, K.; Hansen, M.; Ruzik, R.; Mazurowska, L.; Rasmussen, P.H.; Sloth, J.J.; Scholten, O.E.; Kik, C.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes

  9. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  10. Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (Loranthaceae) aqueous leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewole, S O

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of some mistletoes, specifically Loranthus micranthus Linn, Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) Danser and Globimetula cupulata (DC) Van Tieghem (family: Loranthaceae), are used traditionally in Nigerian folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of Globimetula species, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Globimetula cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal (normoglycaemic) and diabetic (hyperglycaemic) rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. Normotensive Wistar and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Metformin (MFM, 500 mg/kg po) was used as the reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of G cupulata aqueous leaf extract (GCE, 50-800 mg/kg po) caused dose-related, significant (p control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria. PMID:17392989

  11. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  12. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  13. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejón-Orantes José del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL, known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg. This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  15. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA SEEDS IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahurkar N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to carry out the preliminary phytochemical studies and nephroprotective activity of metahanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds, family cucurbitaceae. These studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins (ellagitannins, saponins, polyphenols, triterpenes, lagenin (protein in the extracts. The extract was found to be potent diuretic which causes excretion of sodium and potassium. Gentamicin is an extensively used aminolgycoside antibiotic. It has been reported to produce nephrotoxicity even at normal therapeutic dose level. Gentamicin was administrated intraperitonealy at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight for 9 days. The biochemical parameters viz. serum createnine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum uric acid was found to be significantly increased whereas serum total protein was decreased. Histopathological sections showed marked glomerular, peritubular and blood vessel congestion. These increased levels of biochemical parameters and extent of renal damage were decreased by the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds at a dose of 250mg/kg, Cystone tab. (500mg/kg was used as reference standard to compare with the toxicant and test group animals.

  16. Extraction of nitric acid from aqueous media with OφD(iB)CMPO-n-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the extraction characteristics of nitric acid with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide [OφD(iB)CMPO or, simply, CMPO] was conducted. In the experimental program, CMPO was dissolved in n-dodecane to produce the organic extracting medium. The objectives of the project were to infer extraction stoichiometry and to estimate equilibrium constants for the extraction of nitric acid with the CMPO extractant. Experiments were performed over a limited range of concentrations to avoid conditions favoring formation of a third phase. Aqueous nitric acid concentrations were limited to 0.30 M at 25 C, 1.0 M at 40 C, and 3.0 M at 50 C. The data indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry. The value of the equilibrium constant is estimated at 2.66 ± 0.09 at 25 C. The enthalpy of the extraction is estimated to be -5.46 ± 0.46 kcal/mol

  17. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive...

  18. Antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts Teucrium polium L. on Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium polium L. (Labiatae has long been recognized in folk medicine in the treatment of many pathophysiological implications, such as gastrointestinal disorders, inflammations, diabetes and rheumatism. In this study antimicrobial activity of two crude extracts obtained from Teucrium polium L. was tested against bacterial species. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined using a microdilution analysis method. The antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435 by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. The results showed that aqueous and ethanolic extracts were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and were prevented from growth them on medium, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In “disk agar diffusion method”, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and alcoholic extracts concentrations, was inhibition effect on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 30 and 40 mg/ml aqueous and ethanolic extracts concentrations, has inhibition effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevent them growing, but at 10 and 20 mg/ml concentrations, no inhibitory effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed. The results indicate that ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Teucrium polium L. have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (p Results showed, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium L., have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria.

  19. The Antioxidative Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Rosemary and Green Tea Leaves: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    *N. M. Tariq; S. U. Wisam; H. M. Faik; T. H. Mayson

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of rosemary and green tea leaves, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, have been studied by using two different methods (reducing power and chelating ability). It was found that the total phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rosemary and green tea leaves were 13.44, 18.75, 39.38 and 48.44 mg/ 100 mg dry extract respectively. The flavonoids (which is a part of the phenolic compounds) were found to be 9.54, 12.65, 17.69 and 22.70 mg/ 100 mg dry extract i...

  20. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  1. Biological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero M.P.B. Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phthirusa pyrifolia (Kunth Eichler is claimed in medicinal practice in Brazil, to be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases and liver injury, aphrodisiac effect, and also for to its antimicrobial properties, and is also used in Peru to treat fractures and sprains. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous extract from P. pyrifolia leaves in male rats submitted to oral administration. Animals in experimental protocol were submitted to natural oral ingestion of P. pyrifolia leaves aqueous extract over to 12 days. Total blood aliquots were collected for hormonal and biochemical-hematological analysis. After the treatment period, the rats were subcutaneously anesthetized, euthanized and afterwards orchidectomized. The biochemical parameters revealed a significant decrease in aspartate-aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase and alkaline-phosphatase enzyme levels by about 40%, 27% and 52%, respectively. However, the extract does not cause liver injury and no impairment of renal function as well no affect any hematological parameters, but the histological analysis revealed a somatic action on the testes. The testosterone hormone levels of treated rats were drastically affected and showed a higher decrease (p<0.05 of about 82.31% than compared with the control, 46.0 (± 8.1 ng/dL and 260.0 (±4.1 ng/dL, respectively. We believe that the aqueous extract may be responsible to promote a decrease in the libido and reproduction in male rats, and induces hepatic-protective effects. Our results contribute towards validation of the traditional use of the plant.

  2. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L. Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.

  3. Hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Emejulu Adamma; Nwadike Constance Nnedimma

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Acalypha capitata (A. capitata) leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Methods:Cholesterol diet was administered to Wistar rats at a dose of 40 mg per 0.2 mL 3 times daily for 14 days while the control received distilled water. These animals were treated with extract of A. capitata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Lipid profiles were observed and compared. Results:Administration of A. capitata caused significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol when compared with the control (P<0.05) which was dose dependent. Also, it was observed that high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with the control. Conclusions:This observation suggests that the leaf extract of A. capitata could probably serve as a potential natural product for treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  4. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Munro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g. The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous, methanolic and alkaloid extracts from Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae family) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Suhanya; Bin Azizi, Juzaili; Ramanathan, Surash; Ismail, Sabariah; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Said, Mohd I Mohd; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC(50) values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 microg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms. PMID:19924042

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Aqueous, Methanolic and Alkaloid Extracts from Mitragyna Speciosa (Rubiaceae Family Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd I. Mohd. Said

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mitragyna speciosa leaf extracts are lacking. In this study the antioxidant properties of water, methanolic and alkaloid M. speciosa leaf extracts were evaluated using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The amount of total phenolics and flavanoid contents were also estimated. The DPPH IC50 values of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 213.4, 104.81 and 37.08 μg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content of the aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were 66.0 mg, 88.4, 105.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavanoid were 28.2, 20.0 and 91.1 mg CAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities were correlated with the total phenolic content. This result suggests that the relatively high antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract compared to aqueous and alkaloid extract could be possibly be due to its high phenolic content. The aqueous, alkaloid and methanolic extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. The extracts showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 3.12 to 6.25 mg/mL. The alkaloid extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms.

  7. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  8. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  9. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S.

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  10. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. PMID:24958776

  11. Antiviral Effect Assay of Aqueous Extract of Echium Amoenum-L against HSV-1

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    Malihe Farahani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have been used for different diseases in past. There is an increasing need for substances with antiviral activity since the treatment of viral infections with the available antiviral drugs often leads to the problem of viral resistance. Therefore in the present study Echium amoenum L plant with ethnomedical background was screened for antiviral activity against HSV-1 in different times. Materials and Methods: Flower part of Echium amoenum L plant collected from Iran was extracted with different methods to obtain crude aqueous extract. This extract was screened for its cytotoxicity against Hep II cell line by CPE assay. Antiviral properties of the plant extract were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay.Results: Echium amoenum L extract exhibited significant antiviral activity at non toxic concentrations to the cell line used. Findings indicated that plant extract has the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation.Conclusion: Echium amoenum L plant had not toxic effect at highest concentrations to the cell lines used and showed the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of this plant which may be useful in the development of new and effective antiviral agents.

  12. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

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    Taofik O. Sunmonu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract.

  13. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment

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    Sayede Maryam Naghibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1 control, (2 morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3–5 three groups treated by 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial, and (6 and 7 the two other groups received 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the retention trial. The time latency in morphine-treated group was lower than control (P < 0.01. Treatment of the animals by 150 and 450 mg/kg of saffron extract before the training trial increased the time latency at 24 and 48 hours after the training trial (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01. Administration of both 150 and 450 mg/kg doses of the extract before retention trials also increased the time latency (P < 0.01. The results revealed that the saffron extract attenuated morphine-induced memory impairment.

  14. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

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    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  15. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  16. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats

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    B. Nchegang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment. The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg, haloperidol (1 mg/kg, or atropine (5 mg/kg. Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c. before the test. Results. The extract (days 1–14 had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment, it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  17. Removing Boron from an Aqueous Solution Using Turmeric Extract-Aided Coagulation-Flocculation

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    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boron exists in an environment naturally either through weathering of rocks or volcanic activity but due to anthropogenic activity, boron had been distributed widely into our surroundings. Boron was a problematic pollutant due to the difficulty to remove it from the water. Turmeric which had been widely used as a spice and traditional medicine, were investigated to determine its capabilities to aid in coagulation-flocculation process to remove boron. Optimizing coagulation-flocculation process might be effective to remove boron to a lower concentration. Approach: In this study, the optimum parameter for pH, dose of aluminium sulfate (alum and a dose of turmeric extract were determined by conducting a set of jar test experiment. The coagulation-flocculation process was performed to study the effectiveness of the turmeric extract as a coagulant aid in boron removal. Results: The result demonstrated that coagulation-flocculation process with the aid of turmeric extract can remove boron effectively at optimum conditions rather than coagulation-flocculation process without the aid of turmeric extract. The optimum conditions for boron removal were achieved at pH 7, an alum dosage of 18, 367 mg L-1 and turmeric extract dosage of 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Result showed that removal of boron depends on pH, alum dosage and turmeric extract dosage. The boron removal percentage of the aqueous solution using the coagulation-flocculation process aided by the addition of turmeric extract and without the addition of turmeric extract were 95 and 62%, respectively. In addition, there was a significance difference between both processes. Turmeric extract as a coagulant aid demonstrated promising performance in boron removal and can be used as an alternative treatment to treat boron-containing wastewater.

  18. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:23757943

  19. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the α-tocopherol concentration were studied. The α-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The α-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic α-tocopherol content. (author)

  20. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

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    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  1. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

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    Mittal M Bhanushali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test, convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT. Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1 a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2 significant muscle relaxant activity; (3 a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4 a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5 a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6 increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain.

  2. Discoloration of indigo carmine using aqueous extracts from vegetables and vegetable residues as enzyme sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, A; Perea, F; Solís, M; Manjarrez, N; Pérez, H I; Cassani, J

    2013-01-01

    Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC), completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap. PMID:24151588

  3. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra. PMID:22701375

  4. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  5. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided

  6. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

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    Zahra Armand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs, a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immunosuppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using the SPSS software package for Windows.Results: Cs treatment caused a significant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deficiency of the sperm cells. We observed significant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters.Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model.

  7. Identification of aqueous pollen extracts using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pattern recognition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Stephan; Merk, Virginia; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous pollen extracts of varying taxonomic relations were analyzed with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by using gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions as SERS substrate. This enables a selective vibrational characterization of the pollen water soluble fraction (mostly cellular components) devoid of the spectral contributions from the insoluble sporopollenin outer layer. The spectra of the pollen extracts are species-specific, and the chemical fingerprints can be exploited to achieve a classification that can distinguish between different species of the same genus. In the simple experimental procedure, several thousands of spectra per species are generated. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), it is demonstrated that analysis of the intrinsic biochemical information of the pollen cells in the SERS data enables the identification of pollen from different plant species at high accuracy. The ANN extracts the taxonomically-relevant information from the data in spite of high intra-species spectral variation caused by signal fluctuations and preparation specifics. The results show that SERS can be used for the reliable characterization and identification of pollen samples. They have implications for improved investigation of pollen physiology and for allergy warning. PMID:26249322

  8. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

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    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  9. Phase diagrams of ionic liquids-based aqueous biphasic systems as a platform for extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel ABS based in ionic liquids were determined as a platform for distinct extraction processes. • The effect of pH, IL cation core, alkyl side chain length, IL anion nature, and salt nature on the ABS formation was investigated. • The ability to form ABS increases with the pH and alkyl chain length for all systems studied. • The ILs cation core and anion nature effect on the ABS formation is dominated by the IL (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) nature. • The effect of the different salts depends of the ionic liquid nature and salt valency. - Abstract: In the past few years, ionic liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems have become the subject of considerable interest as a promising technique for the extraction and purification of several macro/biomolecules. Aiming at developing guidelines for more benign and efficient extraction processes, phase diagrams for aqueous biphasic systems composed of ionic liquids and inorganic/organic salts are here reported. Several combinations of ionic liquid families (imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium, quaternary ammonium and cholinium) and salts [potassium phosphate buffer (KH2PO4/K2HPO4 at pH 7), potassium citrate buffer (C6H5K3O7/C6H8O7 at pH 5, 6, 7 and 8) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3 at pH ∼13)] were evaluated to highlight the influence of the ionic liquid structure (cation core, anion and alkyl chain length), the pH and the salt nature on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems. The binodal curves and respective tie-lines reported for these systems were experimentally determined at (298 ± 1) K. In general, the ability to promote the aqueous biphasic systems formation increases with the pH and alkyl chain length. While the influence of the cation core and anion nature of the ionic liquids on their ability to form aqueous biphasic systems closely correlates with ionic liquids capacity to be hydrated by water, the effect of the different salts depends of the ionic liquid nature and salt valency

  10. Pelacakan Gen Aerolysin dari Aeromonas hydrophila pada Ikan Mas yang Diberi Pakan Ekstrak Bawang Putih (DETECTION OF AEROLYSIN GEN FROM AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA IN COMMON CARP FED WITH GARLIC EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iesje Lukistyowati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative and opportunistic bacteria, which could cause fish mortalityin a short time from 80%-100%. One virulent factor of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio Lthat could cause fish mortality is aerolysin. This research used a synthetic primers of oligonukleotide todetect aerolysin, a specific genomes of A. hydrophila on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. The commoncarps have been feed a woof that contain garlic extract during 30 days before they challenged with A.hydrophila. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used to detect an aerolysin gen from A. hydrophila. Theelectrophoresis result showed aerolysin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila from Veterinary Faculty of GadjahMada University (FKH-UGM isolate was amplified with 462 bp of molecule weight. While the aerolysingen was detected in the fish kidney with 900 bp of molecule weight. Further, DNA sequence analysis of thePCR product of A. hydrophila from FKH – UGM isolate showed homolog with isolate A. hydrophila subsphydrophila ATCC 7966 complete genome with score 55.4 (71%.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  12. Acute toxicity and metabolomics analysis of hypocholesterolemic effect of Mentha piperita aqueous extract in Wistar rats

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    Nor Zaini Johari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The oral acute toxicity of the aqueous peppermint extract (APE was assessed and the bio and/or chemo markers for hypocholesterolemic activity of APE were identified through metabolomics approach. No mortality resulted from the present oral acute toxicity study in which the histological changes observed in the selected organs and the biochemical deviation of blood compared to the normal range level were minimal. This study also explored the effect of 290 mg-1 kg body weight of APE against 5% cholesterol-enriched diet within 14 days treatment. Whereby after the treatment, there were reductions exhibited in plasma total cholesterol (44.32%, LDL-cholesterol (69.19% and total triglycerides (55.77%. 1H NMR-metabolomics approach was, employed for better sensitivity and accuracy in evaluating the  potential plasma biomarkers of hyper-and hypo-cholesterolemic properties. β-Hydroxybutarate and α-D-glucose have been identified as the possible hypercholesterolemic markers, whereas taurine, betaine, alanine, glycine and L-leucine were suggested to be the hypocholesterolemic markers of APE.  Industrial relevance. Due to various reports on the side effects of conventional drug-lowering cholesterol available in the market, aqueous peppermint extract at its recommended consumption dosage has been investigated over its toxicity of oral consumption and its efficacy against elevation of cholesterol level in blood. The evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity of aqueous peppermint extract (APE, from which the potential biomarkers could be established, might be useful in the  development of new anti-cholesterol drug and also for quality control of peppermint-based products. Keywords. Mentha piperita; peppermint; hypercholesterolemia; metabolomics; 1H NMR; multivariate data analysis

  13. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  14. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam KD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kantha D Arunachalam, Sathesh Kumar Annamalai Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4 respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. Keywords: nanoparticles, bioreduction, SEM, silver, gold

  15. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of Piper guineense aqueous extract against ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

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    Babatunji E. Oyinloye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Herbal medicinal products play an important role in the management of liver diseases for the lack of satisfactory liver protective drugs in allopathic medical practices. Searching for hepatoprotective drugs with high efficacy and safety is of great need. Our aim is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of aqueous extract of Piper guineense (P.G. on ethanol induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In order to assess the hepatoprotective effect of this extract in experimental animals, twenty-four Wistar male albino rats (weighing 150-170 g were divided into four groups. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w by oral gavage for 21 days. Serum triglyceride (TG levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities were monitored. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST activities were determined in the liver. Results: At the end of the experiment, chronic administration of ethanol resulted in enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO with depletion in the levels of GSH as well as reduction in the activities of SOD and GST. TG levels, ALT and AST activities were elevated. This was attenuated by the co-administration of the P.guineense extract by oral gavage (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. Administration of the plant extract during ethanol exposure inhibited hepatic LPO and ameliorated SOD and GST activities as well as restoring GSH levels significantly. Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that aqueous extract of P.guineense possess some potent antioxidants which can ameliorate hepatic damage associated with chronic ethanol exposure in rat models. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 71-76

  17. A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin via Desmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Ga; Seetharaman, Av; Subramanian, Nr; Paddikkala, J

    2010-04-01

    Many challenges are associated with the oral delivery of insulin, relating to the physical and chemical stability of the hormone, and its absorption and metabolism in the human body. The present study aims to demonstrate the oral delivery of insulin in both normal and steptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with the help of the aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum (DG) root. Human insulin was mixed with the aqueous extract of DG root (0.1 mg/ml) with human insulin (40 IU/ml) in ratio 1:1(v/v), to prepare oral insulin drug. Decreased plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rat suggested the probable absorption of insulin through GI tract when insulin was administered by mixing with DG extract. Indeed, insulin mixed DG potentially stimulates the release of insulin in STZ-induced diabetic rat rather than in normal animal. In vivo insulin secretaguage action of oral insulin drug was determined by isolated rat heart model and the results showed a significant cardio protection in STZ rat. The finding of this study suggests that insulin mixed with DG extract can be a promising vehicle for oral delivery of insulin. However, further studies are required to explore the exact compound(s) responsible for the protective delivery of insulin orally. Increased plasma insulin level by insulin mixed DG extract administration in STZ-treated diabetic rat indicates not only insulin secretaguage action of the mixture but also a probable altered insulin release mechanism in diabetic condition. PMID:21264119

  18. Improved aqueous extraction of microalgal lipid by combined enzymatic and thermal lysis from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Li, Runzhi; Ren, Xiaoli; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    High moisture content in wet algal biomass hinders effective performance of current lipid extraction methods. An improved aqueous extraction method combing thermal and enzymatic lysis was proposed and performed in algal slurry of Nannochloropsis oceanica (96.0% moisture) in this study. In general, cell-wall of N. oceanica was disrupted via thermal lysis and enzymatic lysis and lipid extraction was performed using aqueous surfactant solution. At the optimal conditions, high extraction efficiencies for both lipid (88.3%) and protein (62.4%) were obtained, which were significantly higher than those of traditional hexane extraction and other methods for wet algal biomass. Furthermore, an excessive extraction of polar lipid was found for wet biomass compared with dry biomass. The advantage of this method is to efficiently extract lipids from high moisture content algal biomass and avoid using organic solvent, indicating immense potential for commercial microalgae-based biofuel production. PMID:27132220

  19. PHARMACEUTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF GUDUCHI GHANA (SOLIDIFIED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA MIERS.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhundi S N; Yadav P; Patgiri B J; Prajapati P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana Kalpana (preparation of aqueous extract) is the modified form (Upakalpana) of Kwatha Kalpana. (Method of preparation of decoction) In the present study Guduchi Ghana was prepared in seven consecutive batches. In each batch average 10.17 kg of fresh Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem, already cut into the size of 1.5 to 2.5 inches were taken with the eight times of water and Kwatha was prepared which was further heated to procure the final Ghana. Average temperature of slurry w...

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim:The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along...

  1. Extraction of niobium anions from aqueous solutions by ionic flotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual possibility of niobate (K2NbOF5 and K2NbF7) extraction from aqueous media using the ion flotation method is established. The optimum conditions, when using quaternary ammonium bases and amines as collectors, lie in the pH range 5.0-9.0. The interaction of niobates with cation-active surfactants can follow the ion-exchange mechanism. The presence of acid in a solution suppresses the interaction due to competitive effect of anions present and due to complexing of surfactant collectors

  2. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Bin; Guo, Zhengdong; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Ainong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much attention due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus (AEHE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (55 mg/kg BW.) intraperitoneally. AEHE (100 and 200 mg/kg BW.) was administer...

  3. Dyeing Performance of Aqueous Extract and Flavanone Glycosides from the Flowers of Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze

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    Ruchi Badoni Semwal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract and two flavanone glycosides named 5,7-dihydroxy-4’-methoxy flavanone-5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 5,5’-dihydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxyflavanone-5,5’-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 obtained from the flowers of Butea monosperma were studied for evaluate their dyeing properties on cotton fibers. The stem bark of Myrica esculenta was used as natural mordant whereas SnCl 2 and FeCl 3 as synthetic mordants. The combination of dye with mordants showed interesting shades with excellent washing and light fastness properties.

  4. The radioprotective effects of aqueous extract from chlorococcal freshwater algae (Chlorella kessleri) in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments on mice and rats the effect was studied of a single administration of aqueous extract from chlorococcal freshwater algae - Ivastimul - on their radiosensitivity. After injection of this substance the number of haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen of mice (CFUs) increased, as did their survival after irradiation. Irradiation with a lethal dose of gamma rays 24 hours after the injection of Ivastimul is survived by a larger number of treated mice and rats than untreated ones. On the first day after the administration Ivastimul protects mice against brief and prolonged action of irradiation. The protective effect of Ivastimul was observed after intraperitoneal, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. (orig.)

  5. Antineoplasic effect of aqueous extract of plectranthus amboinicus in ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Eduardo M; Brandão, Paulo H D M; Souza, Ivone A; Paiva, Gerson S; de C Carvalho, Marcos; Lacerda, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    There are 46,000 new cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis per year in the USA and 17,700 in Brazil. New media, including plant derivatives, are being tested in its treatment. Plectranthus amboinicus is a medicinal plant widely used in Brazil, especially in the northeast region, for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. This present study evaluates the intraperitoneal use of aqueous extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus (AEPa) at a dose of 200 mg / kg for the treatment of the ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. It is concluded also the AEPa produced antineoplastic effect in ascitic form of Ehrlich carcinoma. PMID:23983822

  6. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata) Aqueous Leaves Extract

    OpenAIRE

    P. Shivakumar Singh; Vidyasagar, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ra...

  7. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:26770698

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagajjanani Rao, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India); Paria, Santanu, E-mail: santanuparia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  9. Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu nee Giri Jain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO. The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group.

  10. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  11. Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Root Bark Extract Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwaya, Moses Solomon; Vuzi, Peter California; Nandutu, Agnes Masawi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Medicinal plants offer cheaper and safer treatment options to current diabetic drugs. The present study evaluated the effect of aqueous root bark extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum on oral glucose tolerance and pancreas histopathology in alloxanized rats. Method. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Root extract of Z. chalybeum was administered to rats at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW daily for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured by glucometer and pancreatic histopathology evaluated microscopically. Results. Initial increase was observed in blood glucose of the rats after oral administration of glucose from time zero. Two hours after treatment with Z. chalybeum, a significant reduction in blood glucose was observed within treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to 0.5 hr and 1 hr. There was no significant difference between treatment group receiving 400mg/Kg BW extract and the normal groups (p = 0.27), implying that the former group recovered and were able to regulate their blood sugar, possibly via uptake of glucose into cells. The reversal in pancreatic histopathology further supports the protective effect of Z. chalybeum extract towards diabetic damage. Conclusion. Extract of Z. chalybeum is effective in controlling blood glucose in diabetes and protecting pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage. PMID:27069932

  12. A preliminary study on hypolipidemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Clerodendron glandulosum.Coleb

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    Jadeja R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of Clerodendron glandulosum. Coleb (CG (400 mg/kg/day was orally administered to rats rendered hyperlipidemic chronically (by feeding high-fat diet; HL to assess its possible lipid-lowering potential. The hyperlipidemic rats were administered CG extract by oral gavage from 30-90 days along with high fat diet. Plasma lipid profile was monitored on 30 th , 60 th and 90 th days to assess the effect of CG extract. Observations revealed a decrement in body weight (9.6%, plasma TC (15.63%, TG (42.99%, PL (13.91%, LDL-C (81.36% and VLDL-C (43% along with an increase in HDL-C (52.84% at 90 days (after 60 days of CG extract feeding compared to high levels at 30 days. Fecal lipid analysis revealed high content of TC, TG and PL in HL + CG group. Lipid-lowering property of the CG extract in chronic hyperlipidemic rats validates its use traditionally as a part of folklore medicine in North-eastern India, though there is no scientific evaluation to date.

  13. Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

    2006-11-01

    The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

  14. EFFECTS OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA AQUEOUS EXTRACTS ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND SERUM LIPID VARIABLES OF ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. SINHA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of leaves on some haematological and serum lipid parameters in rats during a sevenday administration of the doses of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight orally was investigated. The parametersevaluated include serum lipids, red and white blood cell indices. The results show that the extract administeredsignificantly increased (p<0.05 packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, MCH, MCHC,MCV and platelet count t at the dose of 250mg /kg and 500 mg/kg body weight when compared with control.Whereas Psidium guajava the platelet was significantly increased (p<0.05 at 250mg/kg body weight but at500mg/kg body weight the count significanty reduced (p<0.05. Also, the extract significantly increased (p<0.05white blood cell count at all doses administered when compared with control. Moreover, the extract significantlyreduced (p<0.05 total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol concentration in the serumwhile it had no significant effect on serum LDL-cholesterol concentration at all doses administered when comparedwith controls. The results of this study suggest that the extract may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterolconcentration and triglycerides reduction as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders.

  15. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Farooq; Latif, Sajid

    2008-01-01

    The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme) was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes) and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control (15.41%). Analyses of the oilseed residues (meals) revealed no significant ...

  16. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America.Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose depen...

  17. On-chip aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formation, consequential self-mixing, and their influence on drop-to-drop aqueous two-phase extraction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunga, Pavithra A. L.; Moon, Hyejin

    2015-09-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) allow an advantageous aqueous two-phase extraction process (ATPE), a special type of liquid-liquid extraction. Compared with conventional liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous/organic extraction media, ATPE is known to provide relatively easy mass transfer and a gentle environment for biological separation applications. Considering the recent interest in microscale ATPE, we aimed to study (i) the potential of preparing ATPS droplets on a digital microfluidic device, and (ii) the influence of the fluidic dynamics created during the formation of ATPS, with the goal of enhancing on-chip ATPE process. On-chip ATPS formation was evaluated by preparing a series of ATPSs on electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic chips and comparing their characteristics with the same ATPSs prepared at macroscale using conventional procedures. An enhanced on-chip drop-to-drop ATPE process was achieved by incorporating a self-mixing condition created during ATPSformation. Results indicate a successful on-chip ATPS preparation as well as enhanced extraction performance by self-mixing in the absence of forced mixing. Findings of this research suggest an alternative, simple, yet adequate technique to provide mixing for on-chip applications, such as sample preparation in portable microfluidics, for which it is unfavorable to implement complicated mixing sequences or complex device geometries.

  18. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  20. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec