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Sample records for aquatic viral disease

  1. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192

  2. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD), alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infe...

  3. Molecular analysis of spring viraemia of carp virus in China: a fatal aquatic viral disease that might spread in East Asian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhi Zhang

    Full Text Available Spring viraemia of carp (SVC is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV. To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main

  4. Viral disease in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of infectious disease has been an important issue for poultry breeders, particularly since the introduction of high density rearing. Selection for enhanced genetic resistance to disease is an important factor for poultry breeding companies in gaining market share, maintaining consumer confid...

  5. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio de Souza Leal

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  6. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  7. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Élcio de Souza; Zanotto Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  9. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. PMID:24018033

  10. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C; Calderwood, Michael A; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; Decaprio, James A; Cusick, Michael E; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  11. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Gulbahce

    Full Text Available Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases, are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases, either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV, we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia.

  12. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dricot, Amélie; Padi, Megha; Byrdsong, Danielle; Franchi, Rachel; Lee, Deok-Sun; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Baldwin, Amy; Zhao, Bo; Santhanam, Balaji; Braun, Pascal; Simonis, Nicolas; Huh, Kyung-Won; Hellner, Karin; Grace, Miranda; Chen, Alyce; Rubio, Renee; Marto, Jarrod A.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Kieff, Elliott; Roth, Frederick P.; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer; DeCaprio, James A.; Cusick, Michael E.; Quackenbush, John; Hill, David E.; Münger, Karl; Vidal, Marc; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases), are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases), either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV), we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia. PMID:22761553

  13. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  14. Viral Perturbations of Host Networks Reflect Disease Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Natali Gulbahce; Han Yan; Amélie Dricot; Megha Padi; Danielle Byrdsong; Rachel Franchi; Deok-Sun Lee; Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen; Mar, Jessica C.; Calderwood, Michael A.; Amy Baldwin; Bo Zhao; Balaji Santhanam; Pascal Braun; Nicolas Simonis

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Many “virally implicated human diseases” - diseases for which there is scientific consensus of viral involvement - are associated with genetic alterations in particular disease susceptibility genes. We proposed and demonstrated that for two human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus, topological proximity should exist between host targets of viruses and genes associated with virally implicated diseases on host interactome networks (local impact hypothesis). For ...

  15. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses...

  16. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  17. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  18. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies...

  19. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  20. Genetic vaccination against acute viral disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fleeton, Marina N

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of recombinant vaccines based on the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. Immunisation of mice with recombinant virus particles, a layered DNA/RNA plasmid vector, and recombinant self-replicating RNA were carried out and the protective effect of these recombinant vaccines against viral challenge were examined. The construction of a full-length infectious clone formed the basis for the SFV expression system which has previous...

  1. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk. PMID:21871974

  2. Emerging viral diseases in Latin-American dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Diana S. Vargas; Agustín Góngora-Orjuela; Jairo Jaime Correa

    2012-01-01

    This paper was aimed at updating readers regarding some recently discovered viral diseases or new viral variants affecting dairy-cattle production, with special reference to Latin-America A growing human population’s high demand for milk and its derivatives around the world may lead to as hort-term shortage, thereby increasing human malnutrition indices in many countries Progress must thus be made in epidemiology, diagnosis and monitoring to limit the dairy industry’s financial losses ca...

  3. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bov...

  4. Epidemiology of selected pig viral diseases in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Monger, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    Pig production in a developing country like Bhutan is characterized by traditional small scale subsistence driven production systems. As in most developing countries, very few publications on pig diseases are available. The aim of this thesis was to generate information on selected pig viral diseases in Bhutanese pig farms through seroprevalence study, genetic characterization of virus strains and studying the dynamics of diseases in the government breeding and village backyard farms. The the...

  5. Control and eradication of viral diseases of ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Nuotio, Lasse

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring and control of infectious animal diseases, limiting or prevention of their spread and efforts towards their eradication are central tasks of the veterinary civil service. In addition to the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis over disease and treatment, the animal welfare aspect is also involved. The purpose of this work is to review, describe and assess the available control measures against selected viral infections or diseases of domestic ruminants. The selected infection...

  6. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  7. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  8. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  9. [Prevention of infectious diseases of viral origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre-Hurst, L

    1977-02-23

    In France, smallpox and poliomyelitis have almost disappeared thanks to generalized vaccination, no case of small pox has been reported since 1975. 17 cases of poliomyelitis were reported in 1975. These two vaccinations remain compulsory. The prophylaxis of measles, which is a very common disease, is based on vaccination recommended for young children, particularly those living in groups. The frequency of severe forms of flu is reduced by vaccination which is advised in the elderly and in weak or exposed subjects. Rubella raises the problem of contamination of pregnant women. It is recommended to vaccinate young girls and also, after serological reactions, women who are professionally exposed to the disease. Epidemic virus hepatitis (virus A) is increasing in frequency, whereas transfusion hepatitis is becoming less common since the strict application of measures of prophylaxis. The spread of rabies, mainly in the fox, is worrying for public health workers. No case of human rabies has been noted in France. Preventive anti-rabic treatment is applied in the case of a patient bitten by a suspicious animal. PMID:190696

  10. Analysis of a viral disease model with saturated contact rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A viral disease model with saturated contact rate is introduced and investigated. The model consists a host species, which is divided into two classes the susceptible and infected, and a virus, which causes a viral disease in the host and as the host induces, the infected releases more virus into the environment. Taking the virus replication rate as the bifurcating parameter, we prove that there exists a threshold value beyond which the endemic equilibrium bifurcates from the free disease one. Further increasing the value, the endemic equilibrium loses its stability, Hopf bifurcation occurs and a periodic solution arises from it. The orbital stability of the periodic orbits is analyzed by applying Poore's condition. In the last, numerical simulation of the model is employed to explain the mathematical results of this paper

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  13. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  14. Clinical disease severity of respiratory viral co-infection versus single viral infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Asner

    Full Text Available Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections.We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS. A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses.Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS (mean difference (MD -0.20 days, 95% CI -0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59, or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09 were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001 with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04.No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation.

  15. Viroses emergentes e reemergentes Emerging and reemerging viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    2001-01-01

    resources and infrastructure for disease control activities. Discussions on an international scale have recommended investments in the areas of Epidemiological Surveillance, Research Applied to Public Health, an emphasis on disease prevention and vector control measures, and infrastructure improvements in the health sector at the local, State, and federal level to reduce the impact of these viral diseases.

  16. Investigations of Altered Aquatic Ecosystems: Biomonitoring, Disease, and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, Kevin Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Changes to hydrology, water chemistry, physical habitat, and the landscape surrounding aquatic ecosystems can have profound effects on their biological communities, potentially reducing important ecosystem services and functions provided to wildlife and humans. In this dissertation, I examine how environmental variables, human activities, and management practices have affected stream and wetland biota throughout Northern California. The parasitic trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to...

  17. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  18. Alzheimer's disease gene signature says: beware of brain viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianni Manuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings from a genome wide association investigation in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and non demented controls (CTR showed that a limited set of genes was in a strong association (p > l0-5 with the disease. Presentation of the hypothesis In this report we suggest that the polymorphism association in 8 of these genes is consistent with a non conventional interpretation of AD etiology. Nectin-2 (NC-2, apolipoprotein E (APOE, glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule- 16 (CEACAM-16, B-cell lymphoma-3 (Bcl-3, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (T0MM-40, complement receptor-1 (CR-l, APOJ or clusterin and C-type lectin domain A family-16 member (CLEC-16A result in a genetic signature that might affect individual brain susceptibility to infection by herpes virus family during aging, leading to neuronal loss, inflammation and amyloid deposition. Implications of the hypothesis We hypothesized that such genetic trait may predispose to AD via complex and diverse mechanisms each contributing to an increase of individual susceptibility to brain viral infections

  19. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  20. Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Samaranayake, L P

    2016-04-01

    Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial and transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) and sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses and human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, and the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - and the appearance of some other dangerous and sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, and reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care. PMID:26179810

  1. Epidemiology and Economics Support Decisions about Freedom from Aquatic Animal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, E J; Otte, M J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we review the application of epidemiology and economics to decision-making about freedom from aquatic animal disease, at national and regional level, and recent examples from Europe. Epidemiological data (e.g. pathogen prevalence and distribution) determine the technical feasibility and cost of eradication. The eradication of pathogens which exist in wild populations, or in a latent state, is technically difficult, uncertain and expensive. Notably, the eradication of diseases of molluscs is rarely attempted because host populations (farmed and wild) cannot be completely removed from open water systems. Doubt about the success of eradication translates into uncertain ex-ante cost estimates. Additionally, the benefits of an official disease-free status cannot be estimated with any accuracy. For example, in Europe, official freedom from epizootic ulcerative syndrome and white spot syndrome virus has not been pursued, arguably because the evidence does not exist for the benefits (reduced risk of disease in wild populations) to be estimated and thus weighed against the costs of maintaining disease freedom (e.g. restriction on imports). Economic analysis must assess not only whether the benefits of disease freedom outweigh costs, but whether it is the economically optimal disease control option. Government may also want to compare investment in aquatic animal health with other opportunities. As resources become scarce, governments have sought to share costs of disease control with industry, and thus to ensure equity, the distribution benefits must be known so costs can be borne by those who benefit. The economic principles to support decisions about disease freedom are well established, but their application is constrained by lack of epidemiological data, which may explain the lack of economic analysis in support of aquatic animal management in Europe. The integration of epidemiology and economics in disease control planning will identify research aimed at

  2. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel J.; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purpos...

  3. Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: from enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suan-Sin Foo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Ross River virus (RRV, and the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus pandemic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3 was highly expressed in CHIKV and RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load and disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/- mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression and rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses and viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry and replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity and disease and provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis.

  4. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  6. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  7. DMPD: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18641647 Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune diseases... (.csml) Show Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection andautoimmune diseases....iral infection andautoimmune diseases. Authors Gilliet M, Cao W, Liu YJ. Publication Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 A

  8. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank;

    the total number of participating laboratories 35. The test is primarily designed to assess the ability of participating laboratories to identify and quantify the notifiable non-exotic fish pathogenic viruses: Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and infectious haematopietic necrosis virus...... (IHNV) but also to assess their ability to differentiate other fish viruses as spring viraemia of carp virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, perch rhabdovirus etc. Five coded ampoules are provided to participants containing lyophilised supernatant from infected cell cultures. The CRL collect the...... data and provide a statistically and graphically picture of the performance of the individual laboratory relative to other participants. The proficency test has been used for additional purposes. Participants have been asked to genotype virus isolates and have been encouraged to submit full-lengt G...

  9. Viroses emergentes e reemergentes Emerging and reemerging viral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Schatzmayr, Hermann G.

    2001-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, viroses antes desconhecidas, como o HIV, e o ressurgimento de outras que haviam sido controladas, como o dengue, têm sido observadas. Os mecanismos mais importantes envolvidos são o surgimento de novas amostras virais por modificações genéticas, a transposição da barreira de espécie por um vírus e a disseminação viral a partir de um nicho ecológico. Os principais fatores que facilitam estes mecanismos são a pressão demográfica - com a expansão da área agrícola -, os padrõ...

  10. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-01-01

    Background In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. Objectives The aim of t...

  11. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Chipwaza; Joseph P Mugasa; Majige Selemani; Mbaraka Amuri; Fausta Mosha; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests...

  12. 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce W. Banfield

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, important linkages have been made between RNA granules and human disease processes. On June 8-10 of this year, we hosted a new symposium, dubbed the 1st International Symposium on Stress-Associated RNA Granules in Human Disease and Viral Infection. This symposium brought together experts from diverse research disciplines ranging from cancer and neuroscience to infectious disease. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights current challenges in the field.

  13. Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlmann, V; Martin, C. M.; Sheils, O; Pilkington, L; I. Silva; Killalea, A; Murch, S B; Walker-Smith, J; Thomson, M.; Wakefield, A J; O'Leary, J J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A new form of inflammatory bowel disease (ileocolonic lymphonodular hyperplasia) has been described in a cohort of children with developmental disorder. This study investigates the presence of persistent measles virus in the intestinal tissue of these patients (new variant inflammatory bowel disease) and a series of controls by molecular analysis.

  14. Modeling evolution and persistence of neurological viral diseases in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir T; King, Aaron A

    2008-10-01

    Viral infections are one of the leading source of mortality worldwide. The great majority of them circulate and persist in wild reservoirs and periodically spill over into humans or domestic animals. In the wild reservoirs, the progression of disease is frequently quite different from that in spillover hosts. We propose a mathematical treatment of the dynamics of viral infections in wild mammals using models with alternative outcomes. We develop and analyze compartmental epizootic models assuming permanent or temporary immunity of the individuals surviving infections and apply them to rabies in bats. We identify parameter relations that support the existing patterns in the viral ecology and estimate those parameters that are unattainable through direct measurement. We also investigate how the duration of the acquired immunity affects the disease and population dynamics. PMID:19278278

  15. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  16. Viral and bacterial diseases in livestock in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odontsetseg, Namsraijav; Mweene, Aaron S; Kida, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    This review focuses on the status of infectious diseases that are serious for animal health and have adverse economic effects in Mongolia. Data presented here are limited due to the lack of published or other easily available documents. Foot-and-mouth disease continues to cause substantial economic losses as exemplified by the outbreak of infection with serotype O PanAsia lineage virus. In the case of the 2001 outbreak, a 65% reduction in export revenues was recorded. In order to ascertain the free status of Mongolia from rinderpest, sero-epidemiological surveillance has been carried out since 2001. In 2004, Mongolia was certified free from rinderpest by Office International des Epizooties (OIE). A sharp rise in both animal and human brucellosis incidence has become a serious problem. Rabies and anthrax remain endemic with occasional human cases. Other prevailing infectious diseases are contagious pustular dermatitis, contagious agalactia, enterotoxemia and pasteurellosis. The current programs for the control of infectious diseases in livestock in Mongolia lack a definite policy that would enable rapid implementation. A large-scale surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and management of appropriate preventive measures are urgently required in Mongolia. PMID:15822857

  17. The epidemiology of acute viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Cordoba city, Argentina: an insight of disease burden

    OpenAIRE

    GIORDANO Miguel O.; Leonardo J. FERREYRA; ISA María B.; Martinez, Laura C.; YUDOWSKY Silvia I.; Nates, Silvia V.

    2001-01-01

    Information concerning the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis has important implications for the use and monitoring the impact of public health policies. The present study, carried out in Córdoba city, Argentina, documents the epidemiology of severe viral diarrhea as well as the burden of viral gastrointestinal disease in the hospital children admission. A total of 133 stools were collected from hospitalized children (Town Childhood Hospital) suffering from acute diarrhea and studied for...

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus utilizes an autophagic pathway during viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the type species of the Aphthovirus genus, of the family Picornaviridae. Infection of cells with positive-strand RNA viruses results in a rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes. However, the origin of these membranes remains u...

  19. Viral Load Drives Disease in Humans Experimentally Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    DeVincenzo, John P.; Wilkinson, Tom; Vaishnaw, Akshay; Cehelsky, Jeff; Meyers, Rachel; Nochur, Saraswathy; Harrison, Lisa; Meeking, Patricia; Mann, Alex; Moane, Elizabeth; Oxford, John; Pareek, Rajat; Moore, Ryves; Walsh, Ed; Studholme, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood lower respiratory infection, yet viable therapies are lacking. Two major challenges have stalled antiviral development: ethical difficulties in performing pediatric proof-of-concept studies and the prevailing concept that the disease is immune-mediated rather than being driven by viral load.

  20. Future impact of molecular biology and biotechnology on bacterial and viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    1993-06-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology has already made a significant impact on various aspects related to the basic understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in infectious diseases, as well as practical applications related to diagnostics and prevention. The present paper discusses recent technological innovations and increased analytical capabilities which promise to have an even more significant impact on the control of viral and bacterial diseases. PMID:8350782

  1. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus's viral peptides with LC-ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptides and proteins play a central role in numerous biological and physiological processes in living organisms. Viral capsid peptides are part of the viruses' outer shell of genetic materials. Viruses are recognized by immune system via capsid peptides. Depending on this property of capsid peptides, prototypes synthetic peptide-based vaccine can be developed. In this work, we synthesized three different viral peptide sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus with microwave enhanced solid phase synthesis method. These peptides were characterized by using liquid chromatography electro spray interface mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) with electro spray ionization. We briefly describe the essential facts for peptide characterization. (author)

  2. Rota Viral Infection: A Significant Disease Burden to Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Alkoshi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is a common infection causing 450,000 deaths annually primarily in children 5 years and below. Despite the high burden of disease, little is known about the epidemiology of rotavirus in Libya. The aim of this study was to estimate the rotavirus disease burden among Libyan children.A cross-sectional study was carried out prospectively among children 5 years old and below between August 2012 and April 2013. Stool samples of children with diarrhea attending the outpatient department or admitted to the pediatric wards, at three public hospitals within the northwestern region of Libya were tested for rotavirus. The seasonality, symptomology demographics and outcomes of rotavirus cases were determined and compared to other diarrhea illnesses. An estimated incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 5 years and below was determined.A total of 545 children with diarrhea were identified for participation. Results of rotavirus immunoassays determined 57% of cases were caused by rotavirus. Inpatients were more likely to be rotavirus positive than outpatients (58% vs. 53%, P<0.05, Most rotavirus positive cases (86% were found among children below 2 years of age. Rotaviral cases peaked in the winter, constituting 76% of diarrheal illness in February and very few rotavirus cases in the summer months. The incidence rate of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at 640/100,000 children aged 5 years and below.Rotavirus infection poses a significant disease burden in Libya. Preventive measures such as proper hygiene should be emphasized. Introduction of vaccination against rotavirus into the national immunization program should be examined, as it would likely be a cost-effective investment.

  3. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  4. Vaccine preventable viral diseases and risks associated with waterborne transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Maria Ruggeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and poliovirus are paradigmatic viruses for causing major diseases affecting the human population. The impact of poliovirus is remarkably diminished because of vaccination during the last half century. Poliomyelitis due to wild polio currently affects a limited number of countries, and since 2000 sporadic outbreaks have been associated to neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Conversely, rotavirus is presently very diffuse, accounting for the largest fraction of severe gastroenteritis among children <5 years-old. Vaccination towards rotavirus is still in its dawn, and zoonotic strains contribute to the emergence and evolution of novel strains pathogenic to man. The environment, particularly surface water, is a possible vehicle for large transmission of both viruses, but environmental surveillance of circulating strains can help promptly monitor entry of new virulent strains into a country, their shedding and spread.

  5. Host and viral genetic correlates of clinical definitions of HIV-1 disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Casado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP elite controllers (LTNP-EC, viremic controllers (LTNP-VC, and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC, as well as of chronic progressors (P and rapid progressors (RP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical definitions, summarized in Table 1, using the information provided by a selected number of host genetic markers and viral factors. There is a continuous decrease of protective factors and an accumulation of risk factors from LTNP-EC to RP. Statistical differences in frequency of protective HLA-B alleles (p-0.01, HLA-C rs9264942 (p-0.06, and protective CCR5/CCR2 haplotypes (p-0.02 across groups, and the presence of viruses with an ancestral genotype in the "viral dating" (i.e., nucleotide sequences with low viral divergence from the most recent common ancestor support the differences among principal clinical groups of HIV-1 infected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of host genetic and viral factors supports current clinical definitions that discriminate among patterns of HIV-1 progression. The study also emphasizes the need to apply a standardized and accepted set of clinical definitions for the purpose of disease stratification and research.

  6. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  7. Fc receptors and their influence on efficacy of therapeutic antibodies for treatment of viral diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Ong, Eugenia Z; Mok, Darren ZL; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2015-01-01

    The lack of vaccines against several important viral diseases necessitates the development of therapeutics to save lives and control epidemics. In recent years, therapeutic antibodies have received considerable attention due to their good safety profiles and clinical success when used against viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus and Hendra virus. The binding affinity of these antibodies can directly impact their therapeutic efficacy. However, we and others have also demons...

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease (BVD/MD) in Lesser Mousedeer

    OpenAIRE

    Semrau, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Infections of cattle with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from subclinical infections to fatal disease. Infection of susceptible pregnant cattle can result in early embryonic death, abortion, congenital defects or birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf. An initially normal clinical appearance associated with lifelong shedding of large amounts of virus particles is the hallmark of PI animals. When superinfected with a cytopathoge...

  9. Development of a cost-effective oral vaccination method against viral disease in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companjen, A R; Florack, D E A; Bastiaans, J H M W; Matos, C I; Bosch, D; Rombout, J H W M

    2005-01-01

    Different vaccination methods have been applied to protect fish against the detrimental effects of various pathogens. Several studies have shown the potentials of oral vaccination. In theory oral vaccination is an effortless and stress-free method which can be applied at almost any age. In general, however, the vaccine has to be protected to avoid digestion, which results in high costs for application in aquaculture. In this paper we introduce a cost-effective oral vaccination strategy for viral diseases of fish. The vaccines discussed here include fusion proteins consisting of a gut adhesion molecule and a viral peptide expressed in plants. The adhesion molecule mediates binding to and uptake from the gut, whereas the viral peptide functions as vaccine antigen mediating the induction of a humoral immune response. The first pilot studies using a fusion of the gut adhesion molecule and well-characterised heterologous linear B- and T-cell viral epitopes, produced in potato tubers, showed a promising binding and subsequent uptake in the end gut of carp. The results further indicated that a specific humoral immune response was evoked. PMID:15962477

  10. Viral disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950243 Genotypic investigation of hepatitis C virusin patients with primary hepatic carcinoma liver cir-rhosis and hepatitis.YANG jianmin(杨建民).et al.Dept Gasrroenterol,Southwest Hosp,3rd Milit MedUniv,Chongqing,630038.Chin J Infect Dis 1995;13(1):1—3.Using reverse transcription nested polymerase chainreaction and restriction fragment length poly-morphsim,genotypic invsestigation of hepatitis C virus(HCV)in its 5’—noncoding region was carried out inHCV—infected patients with primary hepatic carcino-

  11. Viral diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005153 Development of multiplex reverse transla-tion-polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of dengue virus type 1-4 and its application in clinical use. REN Rui-wen(任瑞文), et al. Milit Med In-stit Guangzou Milit Region, Guangzhou 510507. Chin J Epidemiol, 2005;26(1):29-32. Objective: To develop multiplex reverse transla-tion-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method for

  12. Viral disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970228 The therapeutic effect of purified human leu-cocytic interferon-a on hemorrhagic fever with renalsyndrome. BAI Jingyu(白敬羽), et al. Changzhou 3rdPeople’s Hosp, Changzhou, 213001. Chin J Intern Med1997; 36(2): 90-93. Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of puri-

  13. Dengue viral RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are associated with disease severity and preexisting dengue immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Srikiatkhachorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue viruses (DENV causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known. METHOD: The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the highest amounts found in B cells. Viral RNA levels in CD14+ cells and plasma were significantly higher in DHF compared to DF, and in cases with a secondary infection compared to those undergoing a primary infection. The distribution of viral RNA among cell subpopulations was similar in DF and DHF cases. Small amounts of negative strand RNA were found in a few cases only. The severity of plasma leakage correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma and in CD14+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: B cells were the principal cells containing DENV RNA in peripheral blood, but overall there was little active DENV RNA replication detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Secondary infection and DHF were associated with higher viral burden in PBMC populations, especially CD14+ monocytes, suggesting that viral infection of these cells may be involved in disease pathogenesis.

  14. Novel Approaches to Implementation of Pumpkin Resistance in Control of Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bulajić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is a growing frequency of viral plant diseases in epidemic proportions, the possibilities for successful control are constantly being explored. Despite the fact that integral and simultaneous employment of numerous control measures may contribute to thedecreasing amount of yield losses, especially concerning non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses, these measures are often not efficient enough. Research into the basis of resistance to viral infection and principles of its inheritance, introduction of sources of resistance in susceptible genotypes, by conventional or genetic manipulations, are very intensive for cucurbit crops, especially pumpkins. Pumpkin crops are being endangered by a great number of different viruses, among which the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV are present every year in Serbia, frequently causing epidemics.The majority of pumpkin cultivars are not resistant or tolerant to viral infections, but sources of resistance have been identified in various related species. So far, the identified sources of esistance to the ZYMV are found in Cucurbita moschata and Citrullus lanatus var.lanatus genotypes and consist of one or several major dominant genes of resistance. It is a similar case with WMV, although the sources of dominant major genes are identified in C. lanatus and C. colocynthis. The sources of resistance to CMV in the form of one dominant gene have been identified in the genotype C. moschata, although the introduction of this gene by conventional means proved to be very difficult. Besides the aforementioned, substantial efforts are being made in developing genotypes with multiple resistance against several viruses and even other pathogens, as well as genotypes with resistance to the most significant plant aphid species, through mechanisms of antixenosis or antibiosis. The other way of obtaining resistant genotypes includes genetic manipulation

  15. Designing serological surveillance programmes to document freedom from disease with special reference to exotic viral diseases of pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, K.D.C.; Mortensen, S.; Olsen, A.M.;

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance programmes based on laboratory screening tests are increasingly used to document freedom from disease in order to facilitate trade, The following aspects must be considered when designing such programmes: diseases to be selected; epidemiology of the diseases; unit of analysis (animal...... or herd); target age group (or target farm type); test characteristics and sample size. Issues related to these aspects are discussed and illustrated using the example of serological surveillance for exotic viral diseases in the pig population of Denmark, Sampling designs based on individual animal...... samples are compared with herd-based sampling (two-stage sampling). While the latter is likely to require a larger sample size, the increased level of information and the reliability of the results obtained are considered to be worth the expense. Issues related to the development of international...

  16. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jason; Wright, Edward; Molesti, Eleonora; Temperton, Nigel; Barclay, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs) of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV) and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5). We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ) to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV. PMID:26069727

  17. Refinement and use of Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (Health Certificates) for optimal assurance of disease freedom in aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, D E; Palić, D; Scarfe, A D

    2007-01-01

    Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI), generally termed "Health Certificates", are pivotal for ensuring that translocated animals are not diseased or do not harbour significant pathogens. While used very successfully with terrestrial animal movement for decades, CVIs for aquatic animals are not well refined, understood or used, despite the availability of several aquatic animal "certification processes", "permits" and "health certificates", including the OIE model health certificates. Correctly designed CVIs provide the single most economical and effective assurance of disease status (generally freedom from specific diseases or pathogens) for individuals or lots of animals, at any point in time. When issued by a qualified independent third-party (typically a licensed and government accredited veterinarian) they provide the official level of assurance necessary for intrastate, interstate and international trade. Tailored modifications of CVIs are also useful for other purposes requiring the evaluation of animal health (e.g. specific pathogen-free (SPF) assurance for premises, risk-mitigating assurance necessary for insurance policies, breeding soundness assurance of broodstock, etc.). Here we discuss necessary information for aquatic animal CVIs: animal, ownership and location; standardized diagnostic results and their interpretation; and language contained in CVIs. Also addressed is the viability for use with multiple aquatic species and diseases/pathogens of interest, and their use in conjunction with established veterinary inspection procedures. A revised model aquatic CVI, with broad potential use for individual operations, states or countries, is offered for discussion, comment and refinement. In addition an optimally designed model CVI may be of use with electronic systems that are evolving in, for example, Europe, the USA and Australia/New Zealand (e.g. TRACES, e-CVI, e-Certs). PMID:18306523

  18. Cooler temperatures destabilize RNA interference and increase susceptibility of disease vector mosquitoes to viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach N Adelman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of global climate change on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is the subject of extensive debate. The transmission of mosquito-borne viral diseases is particularly complex, with climatic variables directly affecting many parameters associated with the prevalence of disease vectors. While evidence shows that warmer temperatures often decrease the extrinsic incubation period of an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, exposure to cooler temperatures often predisposes disease vector mosquitoes to higher infection rates. RNA interference (RNAi pathways are essential to antiviral immunity in the mosquito; however, few experiments have explored the effects of temperature on the RNAi machinery. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized transgenic "sensor" strains of Aedes aegypti to examine the role of temperature on RNA silencing. These "sensor" strains express EGFP only when RNAi is inhibited; for example, after knockdown of the effector proteins Dicer-2 (DCR-2 or Argonaute-2 (AGO-2. We observed an increase in EGFP expression in transgenic sensor mosquitoes reared at 18°C as compared with 28°C. Changes in expression were dependent on the presence of an inverted repeat with homology to a portion of the EGFP sequence, as transgenic strains lacking this sequence, the double stranded RNA (dsRNA trigger for RNAi, showed no change in EGFP expression when reared at 18°C. Sequencing small RNAs in sensor mosquitoes reared at low temperature revealed normal processing of dsRNA substrates, suggesting the observed deficiency in RNAi occurs downstream of DCR-2. Rearing at cooler temperatures also predisposed mosquitoes to higher levels of infection with both chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data suggest that microclimates, such as those present in mosquito breeding sites, as well as more general climactic variables may influence the dynamics of mosquito-borne viral diseases by affecting

  19. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  20. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Martyn D.; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Black, Robert E.;

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of ...

  1. Viral respiratory diseases (ILT, aMPV infections, IB): are they ever under control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    1. The use of vaccines is the main approach to control of the economically important poultry viral respiratory diseases infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections and infectious bronchitis (IB). This paper appraises the current methods of vaccine control in the light of the nature of each virus and epidemiological factors associated with each disease. 2. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) exists as a single type with a wide range of disease severity. It is a serious disease in certain regions of the world. Recent work has distinguished molecular differences between vaccine and field strains and vaccine virus can be a cause of disease. Vaccines have remained unaltered for many years but new ones are being developed to counter vaccine side effects and reversion and reactivation of latent virus. 3. Avian metapneumoviruses, the cause of turkey rhinotracheitis and respiratory disease in chickens exists as 4 subtypes, A, B, C and D. A and B are widespread and vaccines work well provided that accurate doses are given. Newer vaccine developments are designed to eliminate reversion and possibly counter the appearance of newer field strains which may break through established vaccine coverage. 4. IB presents the biggest problem of the three. Being an unstable RNA virus, part of the viral genome that codes for the S1 spike gene can undergo mutation and recombination so that important antigenic variants can appear irregularly which may evade existing vaccine protection. While conventional vaccines work well against homologous types, new strategies are needed to counter this instability. Molecular approaches involving tailoring viruses to suit field challenges are in progress. However, the simple use of two genetically different vaccines to protect against a wide range of heterologous types is now a widespread practice that is very effective. 5. None of the three diseases described can claim to be satisfactorily controlled and it remains

  2. The epidemiology of acute viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Cordoba city, Argentina: an insight of disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIORDANO Miguel O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis has important implications for the use and monitoring the impact of public health policies. The present study, carried out in Córdoba city, Argentina, documents the epidemiology of severe viral diarrhea as well as the burden of viral gastrointestinal disease in the hospital children admission. A total of 133 stools were collected from hospitalized children (Town Childhood Hospital suffering from acute diarrhea and studied for the presence of Group A rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus 40/41 by enzyme-immuno assay, between November 1997 and October 1998. Enteric viruses accounted for 42.1% of the total diarrheal cases analyzed. Group A rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses 40/41 and mixed infections were found in 35.3, 4.5, 1.5, and 0.8% studied specimens respectively. We estimated that 1 in 27 children in the 0-35 month-old cohort/range would be annually hospitalized for a viral gastroenteritis illness. The major impact on viral diarrhea lies on rotaviral infection, accouting for 84.0% of the viral diarrheal cases analyzed and for approximately one third of severe diarrheas requiring hospital admission in Córdoba City, Argentina.

  3. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  4. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  5. Viral Load and a Locus on Chromosome 11 Affect the Late Clinical Disease Caused by Theiler’s Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Aubagnac, Stéphanie; Brahic, Michel; Bureau, Jean-François

    1999-01-01

    Theiler’s virus causes a persistent infection and a demyelinating disease of mice which is a model for multiple sclerosis. Susceptibility to viral persistence maps to several loci, including the interferon gamma locus. Inactivating the gene coding for the interferon gamma receptor makes 129/Sv mice susceptible to persistent infection and clinical disease, whereas inactivating the interferon gamma gene makes C57BL/6 mice susceptible to persistent infection but not to clinical disease. This dif...

  6. Age and Ebola viral load correlate with mortality and survival time in 288 Ebola virus disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Li; Hui-Juan Duan; Hao-Yang Chen; Ying-Jie Ji; Xin Zhang; Yi-Hui Rong; Zhe Xu; Li-Jian Sun; Ji-Yuan Zhang; Li-Ming Liu; Bo Jin; Jian Zhang; Ning Du; Hai-Bin Su; Guang-Ju Teng

    2016-01-01

    Background: A Chinese medical team managed Ebola virus disease (EVD) patients in Sierra Leone from October 2014 to March 2015 and attended to 693 suspected patients, of whom 288 had confirmed disease. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of the 288 patients with confirmed disease. Clinical symptoms, manifestations, and serum viral load were analyzed and compared among the different groups for mortality and survival time. Results: Among the 288 confirmed EVD patients (149 male an...

  7. New Concepts in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control of Diseases Caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The new information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of mucosal disease of cattle is reviewed. It is now known that clinical mucosal disease occurs only in cattle which were infected with a pestivirus in early gestation and were born with persistent viral infection and specific immunotolerance. These animals may be clinically normal at birth but may develop fatal mucosal disease, perhaps following superinfection with another pestivirus, usually between 6 and 24 months of age. They may als...

  8. Managing the Morbidity Associated with Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Geskey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are at risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of anatomical cardiac lesions than can worsen an already compromised respiratory status. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remains an important pathogen in contributing toward the morbidity in this population. Although the acute treatment of RSV largely remains supportive, the development of monoclonal antibodies, such as palivuzumab, has reduced the RSV-related hospitalization rate in children with CHD. This review highlights the specific cardiac complications of RSV infection, the acute treatment of bronchiolitis in patients with CHD, and the search for new therapies against RSV, including an effective vaccine, because of the high cost associated with immunoprophylaxis and its lack of reducing RSV-related mortality.

  9. Animal-induced injuries and disease, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, W T

    1996-08-01

    Highlights from the past years' literature on the topics of animal-induced injuries and diseases, neonatal jaundice, immunizations, and viral infections are discussed from the perspective of the general pediatrician. An effort is made to place recent advances in care or understanding of clinical problems into the context of the pediatric office practice. The current reality of health care-be it managed care, care for the underserved, or the recent pressures on academic and hospital-based medicine-does not alter the importance of the delivery of quality care at the office level. Although it is now popular to define quality of health care in cute advertising copy, as if we are selling durable goods, excellence in pediatric office-based practice continues to require broad strokes of medical knowledge coupled with a unswerving commitment to and advocacy for the needs and well-being of infants, children, and young adults. PMID:8954278

  10. Silvernanotherapy on the viral borne disease of silkworm Bombyx mori L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiviral assays of chemically and biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were made against BmNPV (Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus). Reduction of silver ions by sodium citrate and Spirulina platensis led to the formation of spherical silver nanoparticles of 40–60 and 7–16 nm size. Single cell protein (Spirulina platensis)-synthesized silver nanoparticles showed the strongest antiviral activity. Immunological studies made on the silkworm Bombyx mori disclosed that a significant increase in the total hemocyte count and differential hemocyte count due to S. platensis-synthesized silver nanoparticles supplementation. Improvement in the defense mechanism was noticed from the strengthened peritrophic membrane of the digestive tract and the increased total protein. Overall, the results presented illustrate that single cell protein-synthesized silver nanoparticles supplementation is effective in controlling viral-borne diseases of the silkworm.

  11. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Kristian; Uttenthal, Åse; Jones, T.D.; Xu, F.; Merryweather, A.; Hamilton, W.D.O.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Boshuizen, R.S.; Kamstrup, Søren; Lomonossoff, G.P.; Porta, C.; Vela, C.; Casal, J.I.; Meloen, R.H.; Rodgers, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    The successful expression of animal or human virus epitopes on the surface of plant viruses has recently been demonstrated. These chimeric virus particles (CVPs) could represent a cost-effective and safe alternative to conventional animal cell-based vaccines. We report the insertion of oligonucle...... development. The epitope used occurs in three different virus species-MEV, canine parvovirus, and feline panleukopenia virus-and thus the same vaccine could be used in three economically important viral hosts-mink, dogs, and cats, respectively....... was established by the demonstration that one subcutaneous injection of 1 mg of the CVPs in mink conferred protection against clinical disease and virtually abolished shedding of virus after challenge with virulent MEV, demonstrating the potential utility of plant CVPs as the basis for vaccine...

  12. Viral small interfering RNAs target host genes to mediate disease symptoms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat has a small non-protein-coding RNA genome that induces yellowing symptoms in infected Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco. How this RNA pathogen induces such symptoms has been a longstanding question. We show that the yellowing symptoms are a result of small interfering RNA (siRNA-directed RNA silencing of the chlorophyll biosynthetic gene, CHLI. The CHLI mRNA contains a 22-nucleotide (nt complementary sequence to the Y-Sat genome, and in Y-Sat-infected plants, CHLI expression is dramatically down-regulated. Small RNA sequencing and 5' RACE analyses confirmed that this 22-nt sequence was targeted for mRNA cleavage by Y-Sat-derived siRNAs. Transformation of tobacco with a RNA interference (RNAi vector targeting CHLI induced Y-Sat-like symptoms. In addition, the symptoms of Y-Sat infection can be completely prevented by transforming tobacco with a silencing-resistant variant of the CHLI gene. These results suggest that siRNA-directed silencing of CHLI is solely responsible for the Y-Sat-induced symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that two Nicotiana species, which do not develop yellowing symptoms upon Y-Sat infection, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism within the siRNA-targeted CHLI sequence. This suggests that the previously observed species specificity of Y-Sat-induced symptoms is due to natural sequence variation in the CHLI gene, preventing CHLI silencing in species with a mismatch to the Y-Sat siRNA. Taken together, these findings provide the first demonstration of small RNA-mediated viral disease symptom production and offer an explanation of the species specificity of the viral disease.

  13. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    variant viruses were inoculated into SPF chickens at 4 wk of age and the vvIBDV was administered 10 days later, a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay was positive for the variant T1 and FF6 viral RNA but negative for vvIBDV RNA, indicating the vvIBDV isolate could not establish an infection in the bursa tissues of these birds. No clinical disease or mortality was observed in the birds, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions typical of a variant virus infection were observed. When the interval was shortened to 2 days, both variant viruses and vvIBDV were detected by RT-PCR, but the vvIBDV viral load in the bursa tissue was significantly lower compared with that of birds inoculated with vvIBDV alone. No clinical disease or mortality was observed, and macroscopic and microscopic lesions in the bursa of these birds were not typical of a vvIBDV infection but instead resembled a pathogenic classic virus infection. When the variant viruses and vvIBDV were inoculated simultaneously into 4-wk-old SPF chickens only the vvIBDV RNA was detected in the bursa tissues of the birds, and no reduction in viral load as measured by real-time RT-PCR was detected. Mortality (30%-40%) was reduced in these duel-infected birds compared with the 100% mortality observed in birds that received vvIBDV alone. The data suggest that maternal immunity and competition with variant viruses are acting to reduce the clinical signs and anticipated mortality after an vvIBDV infection, which may increase the chances that vvIBDV is not being recognized in commercial poultry operations. PMID:22017037

  14. Epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis in a free-living population of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Villafuerte, R; Osácar, J J; Lucientes, J

    2002-06-22

    From January 1993 to June 1996, the epidemiology of myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) was studied in a free-living population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain by means of serological surveys and radiotracking. Myxomatosis was endemic and associated with the breeding period. Its serological pattern was characterised by a 100 per cent prevalence of antibodies in adult rabbits and a rapid increase in antibodies in young rabbits in their first year. No mortality from myxomatosis was detected in adults, and mortality in young rabbits could not be estimated because of interference by predators and scavengers and the deaths of many radiotagged rabbits inside their burrows. VHD was also an endemic disease associated with the breeding period. Adults had a higher prevalence of antibodies against VHD than young rabbits, reaching values of 80 to 90 per cent. During the study, there was an increase in rabbit numbers as a result of a decrease in mortality from predation which was associated with an increase in mortality due to VHD and in the prevalence of antibodies to VHD. Mortality from VHD was lower in rabbits with VHD antibodies than in seronegative rabbits, but some mortality from the disease was also detected in seropositive rabbits. The annual mean mortality rate due to VHD in adult rabbits was estimated to be 21.8 per cent. PMID:12135072

  15. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Trevisan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  16. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population. PMID:25193072

  17. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  18. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. PMID:26551316

  19. Cost-Effective Control of Chronic Viral Diseases: Finding the Optimal Level of Screening and Contact Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Benjamin; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) afflict millions of people worldwide. A key public health challenge in managing such diseases is identifying infected, asymptomatic individuals so that they can receive antiviral treatment. Such treatment can benefit both the treated individual (by improving quality and length of life) and the population as a whole (through reduced transmission). We develop a compartmental model of a chronic, treatab...

  20. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do Sul; mamilite herpética que ocorre em outros Estados do País;peste bovina, que foi diagnosticada e erradicada no Estado de São Paulo em 1921; estomatite popular; e duas doenças exóticas:exantema vesicular e doença vesicular do suíno.Diseases to be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease are reviewed. The main aspects relating to the diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis, bovine virus diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5, andem ulcerative stomatitis associated with bovine parvovirus are described. Bluetongue, that probably occurs in Rio Grande do Sul because antibodies to the virus have been detected in cattle and sheep; is refered. Bovine ulcerative mammilitis, reported in other Brazilian States, rinderpest, reported and eradicated in the State of São Paulo in 1921, and popular stomatitis are also cited, and so are two exotic diseases: vesicular exanthema and swine vesicular disease.

  1. Seroprevalence of anti-HAV among patients with chronic viral liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Chin Cho; Seung Woon Paik; Yu Jin Kim; Moon Seok Choi; Joon Hyeok Lee; Kwang Cheol Koh; Byung Chul Yoo; Hee Jung Son; Seon Woo Kim

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the current seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients with chronic viral liver disease in Korea. We also tried to identify the factors affecting the prevalence of HAV antibodies.METHODS: We performed an analysis of the clinical records of 986 patients (mean age: 49 ± 9 years, 714males/272 females) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who had undergone HAV antibody testing between January 2008 and December 2009.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of IgG anti-HAV was 86.61% (854/986) in patients with chronic liver disease and was 88.13% (869/986) in age- and gendermatched patients from the Center for Health Promotion.The anti-HAV prevalence was 80.04% (405/506)in patients with chronic hepatitis B, 86.96% (20/23)in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 93.78% (422/450)in patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis, and 100%(7/7) in patients with HCV related liver cirrhosis. The anti-HAV prevalence according to the decade of age was as follows: 20s (6.67%), 30s (50.86%), 40s (92.29%), 50s (97.77%), and 60s (100%). The anti-HAV prevalence was significantly higher in patients older than 40 years compared with that in patients younger than 40 years of age. Multivariable analysis showed that age ≥ 40 years, female gender and metropolitan cities as the place of residence were independent risk factors for IgG anti-HAV seropositivity.CONCLUSION: Most Korean patients with chronic liver disease and who are above 40 years of age have already been exposed to hepatitis A virus.

  2. Injuries caused by aquatic animals in Brazil: an analysis of the data present in the information system for notifiable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Carneiro Reckziegel; Flávio Santos Dourado; Domingos Garrone Neto; Vidal Haddad Junior

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION:We present a review of injuries in humans caused by aquatic animals in Brazil using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases [ Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN)] database.METHODS:A descriptive and retrospective epidemiological study was conducted from 2007 to 2013.RESULTS:A total of 4,118 accidents were recorded. Of these accidents, 88.7% (3,651) were caused by venomous species, and 11.3% (467) were caused by poisonous, traumatic or unidentifie...

  3. Epstein-Barr virus: general factors, virus-related diseases and measurement of viral load after transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Fagundes Gequelin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for infectious mononucleosis syndrome and is also closely associated to several types of cancer. The main complication involving Epstein-Barr virus infection, both in recipients of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs, is post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The importance of this disease has increased interest in the development of laboratory tools to improve post-transplant monitoring and to detect the disease before clinical evolution. Viral load analysis for Epstein-Barr virus through real-time polymerase chain reaction is, at present, the best tool to measure viral load. However, there is not a consensus on which sample type is the best for the test and what is its predictive value for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Utilizes an Autophagic Pathway During Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with positive-strand RNA viruses results in the rearrangement of intracellular membranes into viral replication complexes (VRC) which are the sites of viral RNA replication. Cellular autophagy has been proposed to be a mechanism of VRC formation for a number of positive-stranded RNA viruse...

  5. Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n = 226), HPV18 (n = 32), HPV31 (n = 75) or HPV45 (n = 29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p < 0.001) with some variation between genotypes. Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p = 0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p < 0.001). However, methylation varied widely between genotypes with HPV18 and HPV45 exhibiting a broader degree and higher magnitude of methylated CpG sites than HPV16 and HPV31. This

  6. The relationship between the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease and titer changes to bovine coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in 3 Ontario feedlots.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A; Martin, S W; Nagy, E.; Menzies, P; Harland, R

    2001-01-01

    Serological evidence of previous viral exposure (titer at arrival) and current viral exposure (titer increase) during a 28-day study period, was used to determine if bovine coronavirus (BCV) or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was associated with the occurrence of undifferentiated bovine respiratory disease (UBRD) in feedlot calves. Neutralizing antibody titers to BCV and BVDV were determined for 852 animals from 3 Ontario feedlots. Calves at 2 of the 3 feedlots (n = 753) received a modifie...

  7. Multi-micronucleus cells related with viral diseases, detected in the study of children affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells with multiple chromosome aberrations have been observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Different explanation have proposed, included hot particle induction in persons related to the Chernobyl accident. The frequency of chromosome aberration and micronuclei were established in 14 Ukrainian children with different hematological disorders. They arrived in Cuba thanks to the program by means of which medical attention is offered to children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At least 500 metaphases and bi-nucleate cells were analyzed in each case. The detection of 4 cells with 7-11 micronuclei in a 14 year old boy with cat scratch disease was the most significant cytogenetical finding. The viral origin of the cat scratch disease has been reported, this suggested a viral etiology of the cells with multiple micronuclei. No rogue cells were detected. Cells with multiple micronuclei or rogue cells were not found in other patients from this group. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  9. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  10. Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo.We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  11. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Njiro; C.M. Nkosi

    2009-01-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) proce...

  12. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  13. Viral gametocytic hypertrophy of Crassostrea gigas in France: from occasional records to disease emergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Celine; Robert, Maeva; ARZUL, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Comtet, Thierry; Berthe, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Viral gametocytic hypertrophy was reported for the first time in 2001 in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in France. Since this date, the number of reported cases and the distribution area have increased every year; however, the cases are not associated with macroscopic signs or increased mortality rates. Both male and female gametes were hypertrophied and basophilic inclusions were observed in gamete nuclei, Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of viral particles in these i...

  14. Viral carcinogenesis: revelation of molecular mechanisms and etiology of human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    The RNA and DNA tumor viruses have made fundamental contributions to two major areas of cancer research. Viruses were vital, first, to the discovery and analysis of cellular growth control pathways and the synthesis of current concepts of cancer biology and, second, to the recognition of the etiology of some human cancers. Transforming retroviruses carry oncogenes derived from cellular genes that are involved in mitogenic signalling and growth control. DNA tumor viruses encode oncogenes of viral origin that are essential for viral replication and cell transformation; viral oncoproteins complex with cellular proteins to stimulate cell cycle progression and led to the discovery of tumor suppressors. Viral systems support the concept that cancer development occurs by the accumulation of multiple cooperating events. Viruses are now accepted as bona fide etiologic factors of human cancer; these include hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomaviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type I and hepatitis C virus, plus several candidate human cancer viruses. It is estimated that 15% of all human tumors worldwide are caused by viruses. The infectious nature of viruses distinguishes them from all other cancer-causing factors; tumor viruses establish long-term persistent infections in humans, with cancer an accidental side effect of viral replication strategies. Viruses are usually not complete carcinogens, and the known human cancer viruses display different roles in transformation. Many years may pass between initial infection and tumor appearance and most infected individuals do not develop cancer, although immunocompromised individuals are at elevated risk of viral-associated cancers. Variable factors that influence viral carcinogenesis are reviewed, including possible synergy between viruses and environmental cofactors. The difficulties in establishing an etiologic role for a virus in human cancer are discussed, as well as the different approaches that proved

  15. Risk management of viral infectious diseases in wastewater reclamation and reuse: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Toru; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate usage of reclaimed wastewater has caused outbreaks of viral infectious diseases worldwide. International and domestic guidelines for wastewater reuse stipulate that virus infection risks are to be regulated by the multiple-barrier system, in which a wastewater treatment process composed of sequential treatment units is designed based on the pre-determined virus removal efficiency of each unit. The objectives of this review were to calculate representative values of virus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment units based on published datasets, and to identify research topics that should be further addressed for improving implementation of the multiple-barrier system. The removal efficiencies of human noroviruses, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes were obtained by a systematic review protocol and a meta-analysis approach. The log10 reduction (LR) of norovirus GII and enterovirus in MBR were 3.35 (95% confidence interval: 2.39, 4.30) and 2.71 (1.52, 3.89), respectively. The LR values of rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII in CAS processes were 0.87 (0.20, 1.53), 1.48 (0.96, 2.00) and 1.35 (0.52, 2.18), respectively. The systematic review process eliminated a substantial number of articles about virus removal in wastewater treatment because of the lack of information required for the meta-analysis. It is recommended that future publications should explicitly describe their treatment of left-censored datasets. Indicators, surrogates and methodologies appropriate for validating virus removal performance during daily operation of wastewater reclamation systems also need to be identified. PMID:26985655

  16. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers' Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Matthew B; Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-11-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  17. A Survey of Texas HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Tuberculosis, and Viral Hepatitis Providers’ Billing and Reimbursement Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Robin; Greenberg, Jennifer B.; Ray, Tara; Harris, Karol Kaye

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act presents financial challenges and opportunities for publicly funded service providers. We assessed billing practices and anticipated barriers to third-party billing among organizations in Texas that provide publicly funded HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis services. One third to one half of the organizations did not bill for medical services. The most common barrier to third-party billing was lack of staff knowledge about billing and coding. Future research must evaluate options for organizations and communities to maintain access to infectious disease services for vulnerable populations. PMID:26447911

  18. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined

  19. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Njiro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea / mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP. Diaminobenzidine (DAB was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium.

  20. RNA interference technology used for the study of aquatic virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Wu, Jen-Leih; Wang, Hao-Ven; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of the most important economic activities in Asia and is presently the fastest growing sector of food production in the world. Explosive increases in global fish farming have been accompanied by an increase in viral diseases. Viral infections are responsible for huge economic losses in fish farming, and control of these viral diseases in aquaculture remains a serious challenge. Recent advances in biotechnology have had a significant impact on disease reduction in aquaculture. RNAi is one of the most important technological breakthroughs in modern biology, allowing us to directly observe the effects of the loss of specific genes in living systems. RNA interference technology has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression in the laboratory. This technology represents a new therapeutic approach for treating aquatic diseases, including viral infections. RNAi technology is based on a naturally occurring post-transcriptional gene silencing process mediated by the formation of dsRNA. RNAi has been proven widely effective for gene knockdown in mammalian cultured cells, but its utility in fish remains unexplored. This review aims to highlight the RNAi technology that has made significant contributions toward the improvement of aquatic animal health and will also summarize the current status and future strategies concerning the therapeutic applications of RNAi to combat viral disease in aquacultured organisms. PMID:24945574

  1. Viral hepatitis-associated intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma shares common disease processes with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.H.; Chang, C. J.; Lin, Y J; Yeh, C N; Chen, M. F.; Hsieh, S Y

    2009-01-01

    Bile duct cells and hepatocytes differentiate from the same hepatic progenitor cells. To investigate the possible association of viral hepatitis B and C with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), we conducted a retrospective case–control study using univariate and multivariate logistic analyses to identify risk factors for ICC. Besides hepatic lithiasis (25.6%; P

  2. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.;

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons...

  3. Quantitative evaluation of viral fitness due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Marek's disease virus UL 41 gene via an in vitro competition assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a T cell lymphoma, is an economically important disease of poultry caused by the Marek’s disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus. A greater understanding of viral gene function and the contribution of sequence variation to virulence should facilitate eff...

  4. Viral-toxin interactions and Parkinson’s disease: poly(I:C priming enhanced the neurodegenerative effects of paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyn Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with exposure to a variety of environmental and immunological insults (for example, infectious pathogens in which inflammatory and oxidative processes seem to be involved. In particular, epidemiological studies have found that pesticide exposure and infections may be linked with the incidence of PD. The present study sought to determine whether exposure to a viral mimic prior to exposure to pesticides would exacerbate PD-like pathology. Methods Mice received a supra-nigral infusion of 5 μg of the double-stranded RNA viral analog, polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C, followed 2, 7 or 14 days later by administration of the pesticide, paraquat (nine 10 mg/kg injections over three weeks. Results As hypothesized, poly(I:C pre-treatment enhanced dopamine (DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited by subsequent paraquat treatment. The augmented neuronal loss was accompanied by robust signs of microglial activation, and by increased expression of the catalytic subunit (gp91 of the NADPH oxidase oxidative stress enzyme. However, the paraquat and poly(I:C treatments did not appreciably affect home-cage activity, striatal DA terminals, or subventricular neurogenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that viral agents can sensitize microglial-dependent inflammatory responses, thereby rendering nigral DA neurons vulnerable to further environmental toxin exposure.

  5. Exposure to ozone reduces influenza disease severity and alters distribution of influenza viral antigens in murine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, J A; Zee, Y C; Osebold, J W

    1982-09-01

    Exposure to ambient levels of ozone (0.5 ppm) was shown to alter the pathogenesis of respiratory infection after aerosol infection of mice with influenza A virus. A semiquantitative method for determination of the sites of virus replication by direct immunofluorescence indicated that exposure to ozone reduced the involvement of respiratory epithelium in the infectious process and resulted in a less widespread infection of the alveolar parenchyma. Furthermore, the ozone-mediated alteration in viral antigen distribution was consistent with significantly reduced influenza disease mortality and prolonged survival time, but only when the oxidant was present during the course of infection. Reduced disease severity in ozone-exposed animals appeared to be independent of peak pulmonary virus titers, pulmonary interferon titers, and pulmonary and serum-neutralizing antibody titers. These studies suggested that the distribution of influenza virus in the murine lung was a key factor in disease severity. PMID:6182839

  6. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  7. Etiology and Viral Genotype in Patients with End-Stage Liver Diseases admitted to a Hepatology Unit in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Cortes-Mancera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections are the principal risk factor associated to end-stage liver diseases in the world. A study was carried out on end-stage liver disease cases admitted to an important hepatology unit in Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia. From 131 patients recruited in this prospective study, 71% of cases were diagnosed as cirrhosis, 12.2% as HCC, and 16.8% as cirrhosis and HCC. Regarding the risk factors of these patients, alcohol consumption was the most frequent (37.4%, followed by viral etiology (17.6%. Blood and/or hepatic tissue samples from patients with serological markers for HCV or HBV infection were characterized; on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5′ UTR and HBV S gene, isolates belonged to HCV/1 and HBV/F3, respectively. These results confirm the presence of strains associated with poor clinical outcome, in patients with liver disease in Colombia; additionally, HBV basal core promoter double mutant was identified in HCC cases. Here we show the first study of cirrhosis and/or HCC in Colombian and HBV and HCV molecular characterization of these patients. Viral aetiology was not the main risk factor in this cohort but alcohol consumption.

  8. Epidemiological Study on Frequency of Myxosporidian Diseases in Freshwater Fish Stemming from Aquatic Habitats Pertaining to the Danubian Delta Biosphere Reservation

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Daniela Urdeş; Cristiana Diaconescu; Marius Hangan; Marin Monica; Ştefan Diaconescu

    2010-01-01

    order to measure their frequencies and distributions within populations of Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca(Henneguyosis) and Perca fluviatilis (Myxoboliosis) originating from Sontea-Fortuna (S.F.) and Gorgova-Uzlina(G.U.) aquatic habitats, within the Biosphere Reservation of Danubian Delta, Romania.The biologic material was selected without prior knowledge of the disease status. Prevalence was determined byclassifying fishes as either diseased/infected or not, at one moment in time (Point prev...

  9. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  10. FishPathogens.eu a new database in the research of aquatic animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Gray, T.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    We live in a world where the amount of information available is enormous. In order to keep track of the available knowledge, databases are needed to collect, store, and sort it. Www.fishpathogens.eu is a database developed and maintained by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Fish Disease...

  11. Early Events in the Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs; Identification of Oropharyngeal Tonsils as Sites of Primary and Sustained Viral Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Stenfeldt; Pacheco, Juan M.; Luis L Rodriguez; Jonathan Arzt

    2014-01-01

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a...

  12. Th2 Regulation of Viral Myocarditis in Mice: Different Roles for TLR3 versus TRIF in Progression to Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Abston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are able to induce autoimmune inflammation in the heart. Here, we investigated the role of virus-activated Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and its adaptor TRIF on the development of autoimmune coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 myocarditis in mice. Although TLR3- or TRIF-deficient mice developed similarly worse acute CVB3 myocarditis and viral replication compared to control mice, disease was significantly worse in TRIF compared to TLR3-deficient mice. Interestingly, TLR3-deficient mice developed an interleukin (IL-4-dominant T helper (Th2 response during acute CVB3 myocarditis with elevated markers of alternative activation, while TRIF-deficient mice elevated the Th2-associated cytokine IL-33. Treatment of TLR3-deficient mice with recombinant IL-33 improved heart function indicating that elevated IL-33 in the context of a classic Th2-driven response protects against autoimmune heart disease. We show for the first time that TLR3 versus TRIF deficiency results in different Th2 responses that uniquely influence the progression to chronic myocarditis.

  13. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome: Exotic fish disease threatens Africa’s aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl D.A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In late 2006 an unusual ulcerative condition in wild fish was reported for the first time in Africa from the Chobe and upper Zambezi Rivers in Botswana and Namibia. Concern increased with subsistence fishermen reporting large numbers of ulcerated fish in their catches. In April 2007 the condition was confirmed as an outbreak of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS. The causative agent, Aphanomyces invadans, is a pathogenic water mould of fish that shows little host specificity. Ulcers follow infection of tissues by oomycete zoospores, resulting in a granulomatous inflammation associated with invading oomycete hyphae. Granulomatous tracts surrounding oomycete hyphae within the necrotic tissues characterise the diagnostic histological picture. The upper Zambezi floodplain at the confluence with the Chobe River spans the four countries of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, making disease control a challenge. The floodplain ecosystem supports a high fish diversity of around 80 species, and is an important breeding and nursery ground. The annual cycle of flooding brings about changes in water quality that are thought to favour the infectivity of A. invadans, with diseased fish appearing soon after the plains become flooded. Since 2006 the disease has spread rapidly upstream along the upper Zambezi and its tributaries. By 2010 the disease was reported from the Okavango Delta in Botswana and in 2011 from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. EUS has the potential to disrupt floodplain ecosystems elsewhere in Africa where high fish diversity forms the basis of subsistence fisheries and local economies, and is a direct threat to freshwater fish culture.

  14. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks. PMID:15499810

  15. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Kristian; Uttenthal, Åse; Jones, T.D.;

    1997-01-01

    The successful expression of animal or human virus epitopes on the surface of plant viruses has recently been demonstrated. These chimeric virus particles (CVPs) could represent a cost-effective and safe alternative to conventional animal cell-based vaccines. We report the insertion of oligonucle...... development. The epitope used occurs in three different virus species-MEV, canine parvovirus, and feline panleukopenia virus-and thus the same vaccine could be used in three economically important viral hosts-mink, dogs, and cats, respectively....

  16. Long-term evaluation of teeth and implants during the periodic maintenance in patients with viral liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was designed to investigate the maintenance of teeth and implants in patients with viral liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS 316 patients without any significant systemic disease were selected as a control group. Liver disease group was consisted of 230 patients. Necessary data were collected using clinical records and panoramic radiographs. Then, the patients were subdivided into 2 groups based on the type of active dental therapy received before maintenance period (Pre-Tx). Analysis for finding statistically significant difference was performed based on the need for re-treatment of active dental therapy (Re-Tx) and change in the number of teeth (N-teeth) and implants (N-implants). RESULTS Comparing to control group, the patients with liver disease showed higher value on N-teeth, N-implants, and Re-Tx. Statistically significant differences were found on N-teeth (P=.000) and Re-Tx (P=.000) in patients with non-surgical Pre-Tx. Analysis based on severity of liver disease showed that N-teeth and Re-Tx were directly related to severity of liver disease regardless of received type of Pre-Tx. Significant differences were found on N-teeth (P=.003) and Re-Tx (P=.044) in patients with non-surgical Pre-Tx. CONCLUSION In this study, it was concluded that liver disease might influence the loss of teeth and cause the relapse of dental disease during maintenance period in patients. A significant positive relationship between tooth and implant loss and severity of liver disease seems to exist. PMID:27555902

  17. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  18. Correlation between Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT and Other Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease of Viral Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Md Fazlul Karim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years the ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD of various origins has gained much attention. This variable is readily available, easy to interpret, and inexpensive and the clinical utility of the AST/ALT ratio in the diagnostic workup of patients with CLD is quite promising. Objective: The present study was designed to find out the link between aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio with commonly measured biochemical parameters of liver function tests in CLD of viral origin. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Forty four biopsy proven diagnosed subjects of chronic viral hepatitis without cirrhosis of both sex were selected purposively. With aseptic precaution 5 mL venous blood was collected from each subject and common liver function tests (serum AST, ALT, AST/ALT ratio, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, prothrombin time and viral serology (HBsAg, Anti HDV antibody, Anti HCV antibody were performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 for Windows. Pearson’s correlation test was done to determine association between AST/ALT with other biochemical parameters. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 32.55±10.55 years (range 20-50 years with 48 (77.7% male and 14 (22.6% female subjects. Pearson’s correlation test was done between AST to ALT ratio with other biochemical parameters and prothrombin time showed significant positive correlation (p <0.01. Conclusion: In our study we found significant positive correlation between AST/ALT with prothrombin time in CLD subjects without cirrhosis.

  19. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection of colonic explants as a model of viral-induced activation of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel A; Menezes, José; Dionne, Serge; Levy, Emile; Amre, Devendra K; Seidman, Ernest G

    2012-05-01

    The exogenous triggers responsible for Crohn's disease (CD) relapses are not often identified. Cytomegalovirus and other members of the herpesvirus family have been implicated in precipitating relapses. However, the role of viral infections in the immunopathogenesis of CD remains poorly understood. We describe an ex-vivo model of primary viral infection of CD tissue with Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1). IL-6 and CD68 served as markers for CD inflammation, type I IFNs for viral infection. Colonic explants obtained from CD resections were infected via the luminal or the submucosal compartments with HSV-1 or mock virus solution, at varying concentrations for up to 20 h. Serial tissue sections were assayed for expression of HSV-1 specific antigens, CD-68, IL-6 and DC-SIGN. Culture supernatants were tested for IL-6 and type I IFN production. Positive immunostaining for HSV-1 specific antigens was consistently detectable using 11×10(6)PFU from 13 h onwards, mainly on cells located in the submucosa, and in the perivascular area. CD68 was up-regulated in lamina propria macrophages from mildly and non-inflamed CD tissue after HSV-1 infection. IL-6+ cells in the infected tissues were mainly submucosal DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. IL-6 and IFN-β levels were higher in the supernatants from HSV-1-infected explants compared to controls after 20 h of culture (p<0.01). These data show increased expression of inflammatory markers during the initial stages of HSV-1 primary infection using CD colonic explants. This in vitro model appears promising to study the immunoregulatory changes induced by microbial infection in reactivation of CD. PMID:22398063

  20. Viroses confundíveis com febre aftosa Viral diseases to be differentiated from foot-and-mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Riet-Correa; Valéria Moojen; Paulo Michel Roehe; Rudi Weiblen

    1996-01-01

    Revisam-se as doenças que devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de febre aftosa. Dentre as doenças vesiculares ou erosivas, descrevem-se os principais aspectos relacionados ao diagnóstico da estomatite vesicular, diarréia viral bovina, febre catarral maligna, infecções por herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, e uma estomatite ulcerativa associada a parvovírus bovino, que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul; língua azul, para a qual tem sido detectados anticorpos em bovinos e ovinos do Rio Grande do...

  1. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  2. Selective breeding provides an approach to increase resistance of rainbow trout ( Onchorhynchus mykiss ) to the diseases, enteric redmouth disease, rainbow trout fry syndrome, and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M.; Berg, P.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen;

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we reasoned that if we challenged rainbow trout with the causative agents of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), we would: 1) detect additive genetic variation for resistance to ERM, RTFS, and VHS; and 2) find...... that resistance of the trout to ERM and RTFS are favourably correlated genetically, while resistance to VHS is unfavourably correlated with resistance to ERM and RTFS. We tested these premises by challenging 63 full-sib families of rainbow trout (50 sires, 38 dams) with Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium...

  3. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A; Warg, Janet V; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen K; Crane, Mark St J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Olesen, Niels J; Gallardo Lagno, Alicia

    2016-02-25

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species. PMID:26912041

  4. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions r...

  5. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease I; viral pathways in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1898 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) earned a place in history as the first disease of animals shown to be caused by a virus. Yet, despite over a century of active investigation and elucidation of many aspects of FMD pathogenesis, critical knowledge about the virus-host interactions is still lacking...

  6. Engineering cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jamil A; Zafar, Yusuf; Arshad, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Asad, Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal 669 bp (5'AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3'AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make use of an interference strategy for impairing cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) infection in transgenic cotton. Compared with nontransformed control, we observed that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing either N-terminal (5'AC1) or C-terminal (3'AC1) sequences confer resistance to CLCuV by inhibiting replication of viral genomic and β satellite DNA components. Molecular analysis by Northern blot hybridization revealed high transgene expression in early and late growth stages associated with inhibition of CLCuV replication. Of the eight T(1) transgenic lines tested, six had delayed and minor symptoms as compared to nontransformed control lines which developed disease symptoms after 2-3 weeks of whitefly-mediated viral delivery. Virus biological assay and growth of T(2) plants proved that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing 5'- and 3'AC1 displayed high resistance level up to 72, 81%, respectively, as compared to non-transformed control plants following inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies giving significantly high cotton seed yield. Progeny analysis of these plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting and virus biological assay showed stable transgene, integration, inheritance and cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance in two of the eight transgenic lines having single or two transgene insertions. Transgenic cotton expressing partial AC1 gene of CLCuV can be used as virus resistance source in cotton breeding programs aiming to improve virus resistance in cotton crop. PMID

  7. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Turgut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed as acute hepatitis A infection.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 123-125Key words: Hepatitis A, pregnancy, acute fatty liver disease

  8. Serological and molecular characterization of potyvirus associated to the viral disease of tamarillo in Antioquia (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato tree (Solanum betaceum) is an andean fruit which, due to its high nutricious value and unique organoleptic properties, has very good potential for industrial processing and international marketing. In Antioquia, Colombia, this crop faces several phytosanitary problems, of which viral infections by species of the Potyvirus genus are the most limiting. In this work, potyvirus incidence levels were evaluated in seven regions of the Antioquia province using the ELISA assay. The taxomical identity of two potyvirus associated with this crop was also determined. Serological tests demonstrate the overall presence of potyvirus in six regions, with incidence levels above 80%. The only exception was the municipality of Jardin with an incidence of only 8%. Serological test specific to PVY virus, revealed its presence in many of the infected plants. DNA sequencing of RTPCR amplicons also showed the presence of a new potyvirus for which we propose the name Tamarillo Leaf Malformation Virus (TaLMV). However, to corroborate this taxonomical hypothesis it is necessary to complete the genome sequence of TaLMV. This research represents an important advance in the knowledge of viruses infecting tomato tree. However, future investigations are required to deepen further into the individual effects of each virus as well as the transmission mechanisms and interactions with different varieties of tomato tree.

  9. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  10. Replicative homeostasis II: Influence of polymerase fidelity on RNA virus quasispecies biology: Implications for immune recognition, viral autoimmunity and other "virus receptor" diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallie Richard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much of the worlds' population is in active or imminent danger from established infectious pathogens, while sporadic and pandemic infections by these and emerging agents threaten everyone. RNA polymerases (RNApol generate enormous genetic and consequent antigenic heterogeneity permitting both viruses and cellular pathogens to evade host defences. Thus, RNApol causes more morbidity and premature mortality than any other molecule. The extraordinary genetic heterogeneity defining viral quasispecies results from RNApol infidelity causing rapid cumulative genomic RNA mutation a process that, if uncontrolled, would cause catastrophic loss of sequence integrity and inexorable quasispecies extinction. Selective replication and replicative homeostasis, an epicyclical regulatory mechanism dynamically linking RNApol fidelity and processivity with quasispecies phenotypic diversity, modulating polymerase fidelity and, hence, controlling quasispecies behaviour, prevents this happening and also mediates immune escape. Perhaps more importantly, ineluctable generation of broad phenotypic diversity after viral RNA is translated to protein quasispecies suggests a mechanism of disease that specifically targets, and functionally disrupts, the host cell surface molecules – including hormone, lipid, cell signalling or neurotransmitter receptors – that viruses co-opt for cell entry. This mechanism – "Viral Receptor Disease (VRD" – may explain so-called "viral autoimmunity", some classical autoimmune disorders and other diseases, including type II diabetes mellitus, and some forms of obesity. Viral receptor disease is a unifying hypothesis that may also explain some diseases with well-established, but multi-factorial and apparently unrelated aetiologies – like coronary artery and other vascular diseases – in addition to diseases like schizophrenia that are poorly understood and lack plausible, coherent, pathogenic explanations.

  11. Genes controlling vaccine responses and disease resistance to respiratory viral pathogens in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C

    2012-01-01

    Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightf...

  12. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC): Viral and bacterial pathogens in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurćubić V.; Đoković R.; Vidanović D.; Šekler M.; Matović K.; Ilić Z.; Stojković J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens causing BRDC in Serbia were investigated. Two herds of beef cattle with bovine respiratory disease were included, with twenty diseased calves (10 from each farm) were chosen for isolation of bacteria on artificial culture media and determination by aerobic cultivation. The most common bacterial pathogen was isolated was Pasteurella multocida. Diffusion method of sensitivity to antibiotics (antibiogram), revealed that Enrofloxacin and Floron were m...

  13. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Turgut; Ali Özler; Neval Yaman Görük; Senem Yaman Tunç; Nurullah Peker; Recep Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed ...

  14. Ebola virus disease complicated with viral interstitial pneumonia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosillo, Nicola; Nicastri, Emanuele; Lanini, Simone; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Di Caro, Antonino; Antonini, Mario; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Shindo, Nakono; Magrini, Nicola; Kobinger, Gary P.; Ippolito, Giuseppe; . .

    2015-01-01

    Background In the current Ebola epidemic in Western Africa, many healthcare workers have become infected. Some of these have been medically evacuated to hospitals in Europe and the USA. These clinical experiences provide unique insights into the course of Ebola virus disease under optimized condition within high level isolation units. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian male physician contracted Ebola virus diseases in Sierra Leone and was medically evacuated to Italy. Few days after th...

  15. Emerging roles of chicken and viral microRNAs in avian disease

    OpenAIRE

    Burnside Joan; Morgan Robin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs are short RNAs (~22 nt) expressed by plants, animals and viruses that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and their importance is highlighted by distinct patterns of expression in many physiological processes, including development, hematopoeisis, stress resistance, and disease. Our group has characterized the microRNAs encoded by the avian herpesviruses; namely, oncogenic Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV1), non-oncogenic MDV (MDV2) herpesvirus of tu...

  16. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus. PMID:27154321

  17. Diagnosis of viral diseases using ELISA techniques: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of virus or anti-viral antibody has now become commonplace in diagnostic laboratories. These assays offer considerable advantages to the virologist over previously used tests because of their simplicity, lack of tissue culture requirements and ease of standardization. The direct ELISA is now seldom employed and indirect ELISAs using sandwich and competition procedures enable the versatility of ELISA to be fully exploited. Improvements in test procedures and reagents continue to increase the sensitivity and speed of the assays and utilization of monoclonal antibodies has resulted in greatly improved specificity with their use in competition assays, reducing the need for antigen purity. The versatility of new enzyme systems, with their increased sensitivity, improved conjugation and more distinctive colour changes, further increases the flexibility of this test system. In assay development and standardization use of sophisticated laboratory equipment is essential. The automatic ELISA microplate reader and high speed centrifuge are necessary tools for the correct establishment of a diagnostic ELISA. Once this step is completed standardized reagents are required in only small amounts and the test can be easily adapted for use in simply equipped laboratories using by-eye reading. This system of virus diagnosis has immense potential in the developing world. The cost and supply of reagents, difficulties of maintaining tissue culture and the complexity of equipment for other techniques for virus diagnosis are problems that have resulted in limited achievements in this area. ELISA offers a solution to most of these problems and perhaps its greatest prospect lies in the development of assays specifically designed for use in developing countries. (author)

  18. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiu Yao; Venugopal Nair

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 ...

  19. Novel and rapid technologies for the early diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of viral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early and rapid identification of disease-causing pathogens, particularly those responsible for serious epidemic diseases, is a key element in the prevention of outbreaks and protection of susceptible populations. The detection of pathogen-specific nucleic acids has proven to be an invaluable tool in the diagnostic field. The advancement of technology involving the integration of amplification and signal detection systems has increased diagnostic capability, enabled development of robust, standard quantification techniques, as well as sequence analysis, by exposing products of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to a thermal gradient, i.e. melting and hybridisation curves. The most recent molecular technologies provide precision or broad detection facility, which is crucial to finding low level viraemia, distinct subtypes of interest, or mutants. In order for the development of new technologies and assays to proceed, a detailed knowledge of the diagnostic requirements is needed to create fit-for-purpose tools for the detection and discrimination of present and emerging diseases. The development of fit-for-purpose tools only makes sense if they can be transferred to, and applied in, appropriate laboratories and the field to provide reliable results using the most efficient methods for recognition of pathogens thereby allowing effective control measures to be employed as soon as possible. The prime objective in using these diagnostic tools should be to detect the pathogen at the earliest stage of the disease to prevent its spread. (author)

  20. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  1. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Obel, Niels; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline as a...... time-updated variable. Results. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492...... cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate...

  2. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. PMID:27374903

  3. Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in specimens from cattle in South Africa and possible association with clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kabongo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.

  4. Viral Genome-Linked Protein (VPg Is Essential for Translation Initiation of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV, the causative agent of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, is an important member of the caliciviridae family. Currently, no suitable tissue culture system is available for proliferating RHDV, limiting the study of the pathogenesis of RHDV. In addition, the mechanisms underlying RHDV translation and replication are largely unknown compared with other caliciviridae viruses. The RHDV replicon recently constructed in our laboratory provides an appropriate model to study the pathogenesis of RHDV without in vitro RHDV propagation and culture. Using this RHDV replicon, we demonstrated that the viral genome-linked protein (VPg is essential for RHDV translation in RK-13 cells for the first time. In addition, we showed that VPg interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E in vivo and in vitro and that eIF4E silencing inhibits RHDV translation, suggesting the interaction between VPg and eIF4E is involved in RHDV translation. Our results support the hypothesis that VPg serves as a novel cap substitute during the initiation of RHDV translation.

  5. Transfusion-transmitted virus in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in various forms of liver diseases in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Irshad; Y Sharma; I Dhar; J Singh; YK Joshi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the prevalence of transfusiontransmitted virus (TTV) infection in association with hepatitis A-E viral infections in different forms of liver diseases in North India.METHODS: Sera from a total number of:137 patients,including 37 patients with acute viral hepatitis (AVH), 37patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), 31 patients with cirrhosis of liver and 32 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), were analyzed both for TTV-DNA and hepatitis A-E viral markers. Presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections was detected in different proportions in different groups. Moreover, TTV-DNA was simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors also.RESULTS: None of the patients had hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections. Overall prevalence of TTV-DNA was detected in 27.1% cases with AVH, 18.9% cases with CVH, 48.4% cases with cirrhosis and 9.4% cases with FHF. TTV-DNA simultaneously tested in 100 healthy blood donors showed 27% positivity. On establishing a relation between TTV infection with other hepatitis viral infections, TTV demonstrated co-infection with HBV, HCV and HEV in these disease groups. Correlation of TTV with ALT level in sera did not demonstrate high ALT level in TTV-infected patients, suggesting that TTV does not cause severe liver damage.CONCLUSION: TTV infection is prevalent both in patients and healthy individuals in India. However, it does not have any significant correlation with other hepatitis viral infections, nor does it produce an evidence of severe liver damage in patients with liver diseases.

  6. Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Seo, Hyuk Seong; Kwon, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Hee-Tae; Kwon, Koo Chul; Sim, Sang Jun; Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jeewon

    2015-07-15

    Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains the proteinticle probes to detect disease-specific anti-viral antibodies. Compared to peptide probes, the proteinticle probes were evidently more sensitive, and the proteinticle probe-based LFA successfully diagnosed all the 20 patient sera per each disease without a false negative signal, whereas the diagnostic sensitivities in the peptide probe-based LFAs were 65-90%. Duplex and triplex assays performed with randomly mixed patient sera gave only true positive signals for all the 20 serum mixtures without any false positive signals, indicating 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. It seems that on the proteinticle surface the antigenic peptides have homogeneous orientation and conformation without inter-peptide clustering and hence lead to the enhanced diagnostic performance with solving the problems of traditional diagnostic probes. Although the multiplex diagnosis of three viral diseases above was demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, the proposed LFA system can be applied to multiplex point of care diagnosis of other intractable diseases. PMID:25747506

  7. Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-candelas, F; Moya, A.; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

    1991-01-01

    We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that w...

  8. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, Robyn; Boots, Mike; Wilfert, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The potential for infectious pathogens to spillover and emerge from managed populations to wildlife communities is poorly understood, but ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors are all likely to influence the initial exposure and subsequent infection, spread and impact of disease. Fast-evolving RNA viruses, known to cause severe colony losses in managed honeybee populations, deserve particular attention for their propensity to jump between host species and thus threaten ecological...

  9. The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 [PPMV-1]) have low levels of virulence, despite the fact that their F protein cleavage sites contain a multibasic amino acid sequence and have the same functionalit...

  10. The Viral Replication Complex Is Associated with the Virulence of Newcastle Disease Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Rottier, P. J. M.; Koch, G; Peeters, B. P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus ([NDV] also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1) can be discriminated from low-virulence strains by the presence of multiple basic amino acid residues at the proteolytic cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein. However, some NDV variants isolated from pigeons (pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 [PPMV-1]) have low levels of virulence, despite the fact that their F protein cleavage sites contain a multibasic amino acid sequence and have the same functionalit...

  11. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606

  12. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs, avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs, herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs, duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs. Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  13. Role of virus-encoded microRNAs in Avian viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek's disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek's disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606

  14. THE ROLE OF DISEASE STAGE, PLASMA VIRAL LOAD AND Tregs ON AUTO-ANTIBODY PRODUCTION IN THE SIV INFECTED NON-HUMAN PRIMATES1

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, A; Pereira, Lara E.; Ann E Mayne; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Mori, Kazuyasu; Villinger, F.

    2007-01-01

    Auto-antibodies appear in the sera of rhesus macaques following SIV infection. The present study was conducted to examine the role of viral load, anti-viral chemotherapy and stage of disease on the titers of such auto-antibodies and the spectrum of auto-antigens that become the target of such auto-immune responses. In addition, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was also examined. Results of these studies showed that the highest auto-antibody titers were noted in animals with lower relati...

  15. The effects of postplanting environment on the incidence of soilborne viral diseases in winter cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle-Davidson, L; Bergstrom, G C

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) and Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) are putatively transmitted to small grains by the obligate parasite Polymyxa graminis, but little is known about environmental requirements for transmission and the resulting disease incidence. We planted susceptible wheat and triticale cultivars in field nurseries on different autumn dates in 3 years and observed the incidence of symptomatic plants in each following spring. Autumn postplanting environment explained most of the variation in disease caused by both viruses. Little apparent transmission, based on eventual symptom development, of either virus occurred after the average soil temperature dropped below 7 degrees C for the remainder of the winter. To forecast disease, we tested an SBWMV transmission model in the field, based on laboratory results, that predicts opportunities for transmission based on soil temperature and soil moisture being simultaneously conducive. This model was predictive of soilborne wheat mosaic in 2 of 3 years. Zoospores of P. graminis have optimal activity at temperatures similar to those in the SBWMV transmission model. Furthermore, the matric potential threshold (as it relates to waterfilled pore sizes) in the SBWMV transmission model fits well with P. graminis as vector given the size restrictions of P. graminis zoospores. Conditions optimal for SBWMV transmission in the laboratory were not conducive for WSSMV transmission in the laboratory or for wheat spindle streak mosaic development in the field. This differential response to environment after emergence, as indicated by disease symptoms, may be due to virus-specific environmental conditions required to establish systemic infection via the same vector. Alternatively, the differential response may have been due to the involvement of a different vector in our WSSMV nursery than in our SBWMV nursery. Our results suggest that, as a control tactic for SBWMV or WSSMV, earliness or lateness of

  16. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  17. Viral phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M Volz

    Full Text Available Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viralphylogenies. Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or entire populations of hosts. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, rapidly accumulate genetic variation because of short generation times and high mutation rates. Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread[2], spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics[3], zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism[4], and antigenic drift[5]. The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics.

  18. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Koop, G; Dukpa, K; Tenzin, T; Loeffen, W L A

    2014-11-01

    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Furthermore, risk factors for the seropositive status were investigated. Antibodies to SIV, subtype H1N1 (likely pandemic H1N1 2009) were detected in 49% of the pigs in the government farms, and 8% of the village backyard pigs. For PCV2, these percentages were 73% and 37% respectively. For CSFV, the percentages were closer together, with 62% and 52% respectively. It should be taken into consideration that vaccination of piglets is routine in the government herds, and that piglets distributed to backyard farms are also vaccinated. No direct evidence of CSFV infections was found, either by clinical signs or virus isolation. Antibodies to PRRSV and Aujeszky's disease, on the other hand, were not found at all. Risk factors found are mainly related to practices of swill feeding and other biosecurity measures. For CSFV, these were swill feeding (OR=2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-4.99) and contact with neighbour's pigs (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.13-0.75). For PCV2 this was lending of boars for local breeding purposes (OR=3.30, 95% CI: 1.43-7.59). The results of this study showed that PCV2 and SIV infections are important in pigs in Bhutan and thus appropriate control strategies need to be designed and applied which could involve strict regulation on the import of live pigs and vaccination against these diseases. PMID:25081946

  19. Susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3A or 3AB proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3A protein is involved in virulence and host range. A distinguishing feature of FMDV 3B among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral RNA and required for optimal replication in cell culture. Here, we have studied the involvement of the 3AB region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. BHK-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of FMDV 3A or 3A(B) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. Transformed cells stably expressing these proteins did not exhibit inner cellular rearrangements detectable by electron microscope analysis. Upon FMDV infection, clones expressing either 3A alone or 3A(B) proteins showed a significant increase in the percentage of infected cells, the number of plaque forming units and the virus yield. The 3A-enhancing effect was specific for FMDV as no increase in viral multiplication was observed in transformed clones infected with another picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. A potential role of 3A protein in viral RNA translation was discarded by the lack of effect on FMDV IRES-dependent translation. Increased viral susceptibility was not caused by a released factor; neither the supernatant of transformed clones nor the addition of purified 3A protein to the infection medium was responsible for this effect. Unlike stable expression, high levels of 3A or 3A(B) protein transient expression led to unspecific inhibition of viral infection. Therefore, the effect observed on viral yield, which inversely correlated with the intracellular levels of 3A protein, suggests a transacting role operating on the FMDV multiplication cycle

  20. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  1. Viral respiratory diseases in children: classification, etiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, V G

    1994-05-01

    The epidemiology, molecular structure, cell tropism, and pathophysiology of many human disease-causing viruses have been painstakingly and elegantly characterized during the past 50 years. Vaccines and antiviral drugs of varying efficacy were developed and tested. Despite the relegation of smallpox to a freezer chest and the progress in the control of measles and hepatitis B, the viruses that cause respiratory tract infections remain significant causes of illness and death in pediatric populations worldwide. This discussion surveys the virus groups that contain nearly 200 distinct viruses that cause sporadic and epidemic respiratory infections in children. The epidemiology of infection with the influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses and adenoviruses and their impact on infants and children and the groups at highest risk for morbid outcomes are discussed. PMID:8169752

  2. The effects of viral vaccination of dairy heifer calves on the incidence of respiratory disease, mortality, and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2012-11-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1 or 2 doses of a 5-way, modified-live viral vaccine, administered to heifer calves before weaning to aid in the prevention of BRD. The hypotheses were that vaccination would reduce the incidence of BRD and mortality, and that 2 doses would be more effective than 1. A total of 2,874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1 to 7d of age and were followed until 3 mo of age. Calves were randomly assigned to receive a commercial, intramuscular, modified-live vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 15 to 21 d of age (2 wk only), 35 to 42 d (5 wk only), both 2 and 5 wk, or sterile saline at both times (unvaccinated controls). The incidence of failure of passive transfer was 11 or 32%, using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dL, respectively. Overall, 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. The incidence risk of naturally occurring BRD was 7.7% before 2 wk of age, 8.0% between 2 and 5 wk, and 9.5% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age, and was not different between vaccination groups. Overall mortality throughout the 3-mo study period was 3.5%. Mortality was 1.6% before 2 wk of age, 0.5% between 2 and 5 wk, and 1.2% between 5 wk and 3 mo of age. The risk of mortality was not affected by vaccination. Mean average daily gain of 1.07 kg/d from 5 wk to 3 mo of age was not different between vaccine groups. In this population of commercial, home-raised calves, with an overall low incidence of failure of passive transfer, intramuscular vaccination with a multivalent, modified live viral vaccine at 2 or 5 wk of age or both was not associated with a decreased risk of BRD or mortality, or with

  3. Update on Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitto, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Villa, Erica; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with viral hepatitis. Although alcohol is known to worsen viral liver disease, the interactions between alcohol and viral hepatitis are not fully understood. Molecular alterations in the liver due to alcohol and viral hepatitis include effects on viral replication, increased oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and a weakened immune response. Clinically, alcohol enhances disease progression and favors induction of primitive liver neoplasm. The use of new ant...

  4. Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Novel Viral Disease Control Strategy: Adenovirus Expressing Alpha Interferon Rapidly Protects Swine from Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Mauro P. Moraes; Koster, Marla; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β). In the present study, we constructed recombinant, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vectors containing either porcine IFN-α or IFN-β (Ad5-pIFNα or Ad5-pIFNβ). We demonstrated that cells infected with these viruses express high levels of biologically active IFN. Swine inoculated with 109 PFU of a control Ad5 virus lacking the IFN gene and challeng...

  6. Viral pathogenesis in chicken embryos and tumor induction in chickens after in ovo exposure to serotype 1 Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Hill, C A; Sharma, J M

    2000-01-01

    We examined the susceptibility of late-stage chicken embryos to infection with oncogenic serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV 1). Intravenous inoculation of MDV 1 at embryonic day (ED) 16 resulted in significant replication of the virus in embryonic tissues. Within 5 days of virus exposure, pp38 viral antigen (pp38) was detected in embryonic bursae and MDV 1 was isolated by plaque assay from the spleens, thymuses, and bursae of embryos. The pathogenesis of MDV 1 after intravenous inoculation at ED 16 was similar to that in chicks exposed to MDV 1 after hatching. In contrast to the response of the embryo to intravenous inoculation, embryos exposed to MDV 1 by the amniotic route did not develop detectable pp38, nor could the virus be isolated from the embryonic tissues by plaque assay. These results show that the route of inoculation of MDV 1 in the embryos is critical for allowing the virus to come in contact with target cells. PMID:11195638

  7. Survey on the Ability of Wolbachia to Control Human Viral, Protozoan, and Filarial Disease Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filariasis, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility, and survival. However, in arthropods, Wolbachia are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Materials and Methods: Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. Results: In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Conclusion: Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus, Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont, offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases.

  8. The role of viral infections in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Richard; Farne, Hugo; Ritchie, Andrew; Luke, Emma; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major causes of global morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical course of both asthma and COPD are punctuated by the occurrence of exacerbations, acute events characterized by increased symptoms and airflow obstruction. Exacerbations contribute most of the morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs associated with both asthma and COPD. COPD and asthma exacerbations are frequently associated with respiratory virus infections and this has led to an intense research focus into the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations over the past decade. Current therapies are effective in reducing chronic symptoms but are less effective in preventing exacerbations, particularly in COPD. Understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbation will lead to the development of new targeted therapies that can reduce the burden of virus-induced exacerbations. In this review we discuss current knowledge of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and COPD with a particular focus on mechanisms, human studies, virus-bacteria interactions and therapeutic advances. PMID:26611907

  9. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...

  10. 淡水鱼病毒性疾病的研究进展%Advances on Viral Disease of Freshwater Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文雪; 孟庆峰; 钱爱东; 王伟利

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地预防和治疗淡水鱼病毒病.综述了淡水鱼病毒病的研究情况.主要介绍了锦鲤疱疹病毒病、鲤春病毒血症、传染性胰腺坏死病毒病、传染性造血器官坏死症、病毒性出血性败血症等疾病的流行情况、国内外研究进展、病原学的研究、疾病的诊断与防治、并对淡水鱼病毒病研究中存在的问题进行了分析和探讨.旨在为淡水鱼病毒病的深入研究提供理论基础和科学依据.%In this article, the advances on viral diseases of Freshwater fish, such as Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), Spring viraemia of carp (SVC), Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), were reviewed for prevention and treatment. The epidemic situation, related domestic and foreign researches, aetiology, diagnosis and prevention were introduced. We analyzed and discussed problems in the researches on virus disease of freshwater fish. The goal was to provide theoretical foundation and scientific accordance in further researches on viral diseases of Freshwater fish.

  11. Pilot randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of aquatic and land physical therapy on musculoskeletal dysfunction of sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tatiana Zanoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effect of aquatic and land-based physiotherapy in reducing musculoskeletal hip and lower back pain and increasing overall physical capabilities of sickle cell disease patients. Methods: Informed written consent was obtained from all volunteers who were submitted to evaluations using different functional scales: Lequesne's Algofunctional Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index, trunk and hip range of motion, goniometry, trunk and hip muscle strength assessment using load cell, and surface electromyography of the iliocostalis, long dorsal (longissimus, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles. Ten patients were randomized into two groups: aquatic physiotherapy with a mean age of 42 years (range: 25-67 and conventional physiotherapy with a mean age of 49 years (range: 43-59. Both groups were submitted to a twelve-week program of two sessions weekly. Results: After the intervention, significant improvements were observed regarding the Lequesne index (p-value = 0.0217, Oswestry Disability Index (p-value = 0.0112, range of motion of trunk extension (p-value = 0.0320, trunk flexion muscle strength (p-value = 0.0459, hip extension and abduction muscle strength (p-value = 0.0062 and p-value = 0.0257, respec- tively. Range of motion of trunk and hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, trunk extensor muscle strength and all surface electromyography variables showed no significant statistical difference. Conclusion: Physical therapy is efficient to treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions in sickle cell disease patients, irrespective of the technique; however, aquatic therapy showed a trend toward improvement in muscle strength. Further studies with a larger patient sample and longer periods of therapy are necessary to confirm these results.

  12. To Go Viral

    CERN Document Server

    Cintron-Arias, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models are validated against empirical data, while examining potential indicators for an online video that went viral. We revisit some concepts of infectious disease modeling (e.g. reproductive number) and we comment on the role of model parameters that interplay in the spread of innovations. The dataset employed here provides strong evidence that the number of online views is governed by exponential growth patterns, explaining a common feature of viral videos.

  13. Human viral gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the last 15 years, several different groups of fastidious viruses that are responsible for a large proportion of acute viral gastroenteritis cases have been discovered by the electron microscopic examination of stool specimens. This disease is one of the most prevalent and serious clinical syndromes seen around the world, especially in children. Rotaviruses, in the family Reoviridae, and fastidious fecal adenoviruses account for much of the viral gastroenteritis in infants and young ch...

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Viral Infections among Children under Two Years Old in Southern Vietnam 2009-2010: Clinical Characteristics and Disease Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Juliet E.; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Tran Dac, Nguyen Anh; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Le Binh, Bao Tinh; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity. Methods A prospective study among children under two years of age, hospitalized with LRTI was conducted in two referral pediatric hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from May 2009 to December 2010. Socio-demographic, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on enrolment and discharge. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR (13 viruses) and quantitative RSV RT-PCR were used to identify viral pathogens, RSV load and subgroups. Results Among 632 cases, 48% were RSV positive. RSV infections occurred at younger age than three other leading viral infections i.e rhinovirus (RV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza virus (PIV-3) and were significantly more frequent in the first 6 months of life. Clinical severity score of RSV infection was significantly higher than PIV-3 but not for RV or MPV. In multivariate analysis, RV infection was significantly associated with severity while RSV infection was not. Among RSV infections, neither viral load nor viral co-infections were significantly associated with severity. Young age and having fever at admission were significantly associated with both RSV and LRTI severity. A shift in RSV subgroup predominance was observed during two consecutive rainy seasons but was not associated with severity. Conclusion We report etiologies, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of LRTI among hospitalized children under two years of age and risk factors of RSV and LRTI severity. PMID:27500954

  15. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  16. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Howeidi, Mohammad; Nguyen, David

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in communication technology has given rise to the new phenomenon of viral marketing. Virality has become the new buzzword organizations desire and marketers adopt. The fundamental goal remains the same that is to increase awareness of a product or service. With this in mind, the objective of this study is to explore viral marketing through a content and receptiom analysis, so that marketers can gain a better understanding of how and which elements have driven two s...

  17. Immune Response and Viral Persistence in Indian Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maddur, Mohan S.; Kishore, Subodh; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, Nem; Suryanarayana, V. V.; Gajendragad, Mukund R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their potential role in the spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the immune response and viral persistence in FMD virus (FMDV)-infected Indian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) have been unexplored. We found similar kinetics of neutralizing antibody responses in the sera and secretory fluids of buffaloes following experimental FMDV Asia 1 infection, but the lymphocyte-proliferative response in infected buffaloes was of low magnitude. Despite inducing a significant systemic and secretory ...

  18. Assessment of Field-Grown Cucurbit Crops and Weeds within Farms in South-West Nigeria for Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ibitaiyewa AYO-JOHN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops and weeds in selected locations in Ogun and Osun, in southwest Nigeria, in June, 2012. In all, 38 leaf samples were collected in Ogun state and 52 in Osun state from cucurbit crops and weeds. Leaf samples were tested against  Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV,Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV using Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the fields surveyed had virus symptom incidences of 100% except for melon fields in Osun state with incidences of between 10 and 30%. In Ogun state, the occurrence of CMV was 5/31 (16.1% while MNSV was detected in Lagenaria siceraria and T. occidentalis and it occurred in 6.5% of the leaf samples. In Osun state, CMV was detected in watermelon, melon and weeds found in all locations surveyed. The occurrence of CMV was 9/38 (23.7% in the cucurbit crops and in 78.6% (11/14 of the weeds. PRSV and WMV also occurred in mixed infection with CMV in 7.1% respectively. CMV was the most widespread and prevalent virus infecting cucurbit crops and weeds.Cucurbits are economic crops in Nigeria which serve as additional nutritional supplements and also good sources of income for farmers. Viral diseases are a worldwide problem of cucurbits and a major limiting factor for cucurbit production. A survey of farmer’s fields where cucurbit crops were grown was carried out to assess the incidence and severity of virus symptoms and viruses associated with the crops

  19. Marek's Disease Viral Interleukin-8 Promotes Lymphoma Formation through Targeted Recruitment of B Cells and CD4+ CD25+ T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Annemarie T.; Selvaraj, Ramesh K.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Kaufer, Benedikt B

    2012-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated and highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens. During lytic and latent MDV infection, a CXC chemokine termed viral interleukin-8 (vIL-8) is expressed. Deletion of the entire vIL-8 open reading frame (ORF) was shown to severely impair disease progression and tumor development; however, it was unclear whether this phenotype was due to loss of secreted vIL-8 or of splice variants that fuse exons II and III of vIL-8 to certain upstrea...

  20. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  1. Molecular diagnosis for the silk worm Bombyx Mori L. Viral and bacterial diseases in the irradiated and non-irradiated individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic maps for the Bombyx Mori infectious flacherrie virus (BmlFV) causing flacherrie (Fl) disease and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) causing grasserie (Gr) disease were built up in an attempt to diagnose diseases early in young larval stages. For the non-irradiated and irradiated viral RNA of IFV, no amplification was obtained by using RT-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques. HcoRI, EcoRV, BamHI, Hind III and BamHI restriction enzymes were used to digest the non-irradiated and irradiated viral DNA of BmNPV. It was found that, the two viral DNA samples were genetically different; the similarity indexes were 0.14, 0, 0, 0.18 and 0.15, respectively. At the biochemical level, native protein electrophoresis showed 4 and 3 new proteins in non-irradiated and irradiated Fl diseased larvae, respectively, while Gr diseased larvae showed 1 and 3 new protein types. The similarity index (S.I) between all the tested samples was not exceeded 44%. For lipoprotein pattern, 2 and 3 new lipoprotein types were appeared due to Fl disease in the non-irradiated and irradiated haemolymph samples, respectively, while Gr disease showed 3 new lipoproteins in the non-irradiated samples only. The highest S.I recorded was 56%. Glycoprotein pattern revealed 3 and 5 new glycoprotein types appeared due to Fl disease while Gr disease showed 4 and 6 new types in the non-irradiated and irradiated samples, respectively. The highest S.I was 77%. Fractionated protein with SDS revealed 2 common bands shared between the tested samples with Rf values 0.28 and 0.71. Fl disease increased the number of protein bands with the appearance of 5 and 4 new proteins types. Gr disease reduced the total number of proteins with the appearance of 2 and 3 new types. The highest S.I was 59%. Both diseases and irradiation may be mutagenic through the epigenetic level in silkworm larvae leading to death. Thus, the results of the biochemical and genetic characterization of IFV and BmNPV enable us to conclude that the

  2. Both cis and trans Activities of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3D Polymerase Are Essential for Viral RNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herod, Morgan R.; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Loundras, Eleni-Anna; Ward, Joseph C.; Verdaguer, Nuria; Rowlands, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense RNA viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. Many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral RNA replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate RNA molecule), while others are required in cis (i.e., expressed from the template RNA molecule). In vitro studies have suggested that multiple copies of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) 3D are involved in the viral replication complex. However, it is not clear whether all these molecules are catalytically active or what other function(s) they provide. In this study, we aimed to distinguish between catalytically active 3D molecules and those that build a replication complex. We report a novel nonenzymatic cis-acting function of 3D that is essential for viral-genome replication. Using an FMDV replicon in complementation experiments, our data demonstrate that this cis-acting role of 3D is distinct from the catalytic activity, which is predominantly trans acting. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that both cis- and trans-acting 3D molecules localize to the same cellular compartment. However, our genetic and structural data suggest that 3D interacts in cis with RNA stem-loops that are essential for viral RNA replication. This study identifies a previously undescribed aspect of picornavirus replication complex structure-function and an important methodology for probing such interactions further. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important animal pathogen responsible for foot-and-mouth disease. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world with outbreaks within livestock resulting in major economic losses. Propagation of the viral genome

  3. Detection of the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus in tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses using immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiro, S M; Nkosi, C M

    2009-12-01

    Various tissues from aborted ruminant foetuses were collected, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were made and exposed to a primary monoclonal antibody against the bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) virus, and subsequently to a goat anti-mouse secondary antibody conjugated to horse radish peroxidase (HRP). Diaminobenzidine (DAB) was the substrate and it released a brown pigment in the tissues on reacting with the HRP in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure. Of 27 aborted foetuses, an immunoperoxidase staining reaction was observed in 1 ovine and 5 bovine foetuses. The IHC procedure located BVD/MD viral antigen in a wide variety of foetal tissues including cerebral cortical neurons, the pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells lining the bronchi, alveolar lining cells and alveolar macrophages, hepatocytes, renal tubular lining cells and the Purkinje fibres in the myocardium. PMID:20458863

  4. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y. A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  5. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Strømberg, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  6. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel José

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  7. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.;

    2008-01-01

    and regulations of some countries, and those being initiated by industries themselves. The determination of disease status in different epidemiological units (from a farm to a nation), appropriate approaches for preventing the introduction of disease and developing contingencies for disease control...

  8. Diagnostic values for the viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Michio; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease (CAEBV) is a distinct EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease with a poor prognosis. Although the viral load in blood samples has been widely used for diagnosing CAEBV, well-defined viral load thresholds to guide clinicians are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine standardized diagnostic values for EBV load in blood samples of CAEBV patients using the World Health Organization international standard for reporting. Levels of EBV DNA in 103 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 95 plasma/serum samples from 107 cases with CAEBV were quantified and expressed in international units. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed to assess the most appropriate cut-off values for levels of EBV DNA to distinguish CAEBV from EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM) and controls with past EBV infection. Levels of EBV DNA in PBMCs were significantly higher in the CAEBV group (median, 10(4.2) IU/μgDNA) compared to the IM (median, 10(2.1) IU/μgDNA) and control groups. An inconsistent qualitative result was seen in 13 of 86 CAEBV patients; in these, EBV-DNA was positive in PBMCs, but negative in plasma. Diagnostic cut-off values for viral load in PBMCs from CAEBV patients, as compared to those of healthy controls and IM patients, were 10(2.0) IU/μgDNA and 10(3.2) IU/μgDNA, respectively. For diagnostic purposes, the viral load of PBMCs was better than of plasma/serum. A diagnostic cut-off EBV load for CAEBV may be useful for the management of CAEBV patients. PMID:26712582

  9. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  10. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001392.htm Pharyngitis - viral To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pharyngitis , or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or ...

  11. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  12. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  13. Viral arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  14. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  15. Some points of the X-ray pattern of acute viral primary pneumonia caused by acute respiratory disease viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the results of the X-ray studies as well as of the virological and serological tests in 225 out-patients consulted in the first days of their complaints. A predominance of the viral (70.2%) over the viral-bacterial primary pneumonia is established. The acute viral primary pneumonia are caused mostly by single influenza viruses and more rarely - by single respiratory viruses; in the cases of combined influenza viruses influenza-influenza viruses prevail over the influenza-respiratory ones. The morphological changes in pneumonia due to isolated single influenza viruses involve mostly the interstitium and are projected on X-ray as patchy and stripped densities. The inflamatory changes in pneumonia caused by combined influenza viruses affect both ihe interstitium and the broncho-alveolar substrate of the lungs; they are manifested in two roentgenologic forms: creeping (migrating) and fusing (confluent). In viral-bacterial pneumonia the changes affect mostly the lobe. The right lung and the lower parts of the both lungs are affected in most cases. 5 figs., 21 refs

  16. Teste da função tiroidiana na hepatite crônica viral Thyroid function tests in patients with viral chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica NOVIS

    2001-10-01

    dysfunction were studied. Aim - 1 To determine a thyroid hormonal profile; 2 to evaluate the prognostic value of these tests in relation to the progression of the disease and mortality; 3 compare these findings with Child-Pugh classification. Patients and Methods - The patients were divided in four groups: a 31 with chronic active hepatitis; b 41 with postnecrotic cirrhosis Child A; c 35 with postnecrotic cirrhosis Child B and d 18 with postnecrotic cirrhosis Child C. The protocol comprised serum measurements of albumin and bilirrubin, estimates of prothrombin time and clinical evaluation of ascites and encephalopathy, measurement of total serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, reverse triiosothyronine, calculated rT3/T3 index (IrT3 and thyrotropin-releasing hormone test. Results - Total serum triiodothyromnine showed the most significant difference among the groups, gradually lower as the disease became more advanced (CAH: 149,2 ± 42,3 ng/dL; PNC-A: 137,4 ± 37,2 ng/dL; PNC-B: 88,0 ± 28,4 ng/dL and PNC-C: 41,8 ± 21,9 ng/dL. Low levels of T4 (4,5 ± 2,0 µg/dL and FT4 (0,7 ± 0,4 ng/dL and elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (7,2 ± 11,5 µIU/mL, reverse triiosothyronine (60,8 ± 52,1 ng/dL and calculated rT3/T3 index (2,2 ± 2,6 were more frequent in patients with postnecrotic cirrhosis Child C. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone test was normal in the majority of the patients. Conclusion - The present study shows a positive relationship between the low serum levels of T3 and elevated serum levels of rT3 and IrT3/T3 with the degree of hepatic dysfunction according to the Child-Pugh classification.

  17. The capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus binds to the viral DNA and is responsible for transporting the replication-associated protein into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Livio; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P

    2006-07-01

    Circoviruses lack an autonomous DNA polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo DNA synthesis. Accordingly, the viral DNA needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. Here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid protein (CP) and replication-associated protein (Rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesis that the CP is responsible for transporting the viral genome, as well as Rep, across the nuclear envelope. The intracellular localization of the BFDV CP was found to be directed by three partially overlapping bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated between residues 16 and 56 at the N terminus of the protein. Moreover, a DNA binding region was also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and falls within the region containing the three putative NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome. Interestingly, whereas Rep expressed on its own in insect cells is restricted to the cytoplasm, coexpression with CP alters the subcellular localization of Rep to the nucleus, strongly suggesting that an interaction with CP facilitates movement of Rep into the nucleus. PMID:16809327

  18. Viral Etiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations during the A/H1N1pdm09 Pandemic and Postpandemic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are one of the main causes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD. Emergence of A/H1N1pdm influenza virus in the 2009 pandemic changed the viral etiology of exacerbations that were reported before the pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of respiratory viruses in 195 Spanish patients affected by AE-COPD from the pandemic until the 2011-12 influenza epidemic. During the study period (2009–2012, respiratory viruses were identified in 48.7% of samples, and the proportion of viral detections in AE-COPD was higher in patients aged 30–64 years than ≥65 years. Influenza A viruses were the pathogens most often detected during the pandemic and the following two influenza epidemics in contradistinction to human rhino/enteroviruses that were the main viruses causing AE-COPD before the pandemic. The probability of influenza virus detection was 2.78-fold higher in patients who are 30–64 years old than those ≥65. Most respiratory samples were obtained during the pandemic, but the influenza detection rate was higher during the 2011-12 epidemic. There is a need for more accurate AE-COPD diagnosis, emphasizing the role of respiratory viruses. Furthermore, diagnosis requires increased attention to patient age and the characteristics of each influenza epidemic.

  19. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS). VHS is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. VHS is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  1. Retrovirus-induced spongiform encephalopathy: the 3'-end long terminal repeat-containing viral sequences influence the incidence of the disease and the specificity of the neurological syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    DesGroseillers, L; Rassart, E; Robitaille, Y; Jolicoeur, P

    1985-01-01

    Using chimeric murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) constructed in vitro with parental viral genomes from the neurotropic Cas-BR-E MuLV and the nonneurotropic amphotropic 4070-A MuLV, we previously mapped the paralysis-inducing determinant of Cas-BR-E MuLV within a pol-env region. To assess the role of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) in influencing the neurological disease, we constructed another chimeric MuLV (pNEMO-1)m harboring the gag-pol-env from Cas-BR-E MuLV and the LTR region from the str...

  2. Viral arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  3. THE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SAFETY FOR ORGAN AND TISSUE DONATION BY SCREENING BLOOD-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sh. Khubutiya; S. A. Solonin; M. A. Godkov

    2016-01-01

    It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs). It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  4. Targeted disruption of influenza A virus hemagglutinin in genetically modified mice reduces viral replication and improves disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Chen, Chao; Yang, Zhou; Chi, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus can cause acute respiratory infection in animals and humans around the globe, and is still a major threat to animal husbandry and public health. Due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift of the virus, development of novel anti-influenza strategies has become an urgent task. Here we generated transgenic (TG) mice stably expressing a short-hairpin RNA specifically targeting hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus, and investigated the susceptibility of the mice to influenza virus infection. We found that HA expression was dramatically disrupted in TG mice infected with WSN or PR8 virus. Importantly, the animals showed reduced virus production in lungs, slower weight loss, attenuated acute organ injury and consequently increased survival rates as compared to wild type (WT) mice after the viral infection. Moreover, TG mice exhibited a normal level of white blood cells following the virus infection, whereas the number of these cells was significantly decreased in WT mice with same challenge. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the TG mice are less permissive for influenza virus replication, and suggest that shRNA-based efficient disruption of viral gene expression in animals may be a useful strategy for prevention and control of a viral zoonosis. PMID:27033724

  5. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on Viral marketing, as a part of internet marketing communication i.e. iPromotion. It’s presented as a „niche” in the way of reaching the target group (audience) that rejects traditional forms of promotion. There’s an explanation of differences between various types of viral marketing as well as proposed possibilities of it’s applying into a practice including the rules of campaign execution. The primary data sources, necessary for the solution of investigated issue...

  6. Progress on Yak Viral Diarrhea/Mucosal Disease%牦牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家奎

    2013-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病(BVD)是由牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)引起的一种极为复杂,呈多种临床症状类型表现的疾病.目前,该病毒在世界范围内广泛分布,是造成全球乳/肉牛业经济损失的主要病原.本文针对我国牦牛BVD的发病状况进行分析,并对今后牦牛BVD防控进行了展望.%Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV),this disease is extremely complex with various clinical symptoms. Currently, BVDV is widely distributed in the world, and is a major pathogen causing economic losses of global milk/beef cattle industry. In this paper, the incidence of yak BVD in China is outlined, and how to prevent and control yak BVD is also prospected.

  7. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two virus types have been clearly shown to have epidemiologic importance in viral gastroenteritis, i.e., rotavirus and Norwalk virus. Four other virus types have been associated with gastroenteritis but their epidemiologic importance is not yet known, i.e., enteric adenovirus, ca...

  8. Nuclear targeting of viral and non-viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, E H

    2009-07-01

    The nuclear envelope presents a major barrier to transgene delivery and expression using a non-viral vector. Virus is capable of overcoming the barrier to deliver their genetic materials efficiently into the nucleus by virtue of the specialized protein components with the unique amino acid sequences recognizing cellular nuclear transport machinery. However, considering the safety issues in the clinical gene therapy for treating critical human diseases, non-viral systems are highly promising compared with their viral counterparts. This review summarizes the progress on exploring the nuclear traffic mechanisms for the prominent viral vectors and the technological innovations for the nuclear delivery of non-viral DNA by mimicking those natural processes evolved for the viruses as well as for many cellular proteins. PMID:19552613

  9. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    Full Text Available A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs.

  10. Extended disease-free interval of 6 years in a recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patient treated with G207 oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whisenhunt Jr TR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Whisenhunt Jr, Kiran F Rajneesh, James R Hackney, James M Markert Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a relentless primary central nervous system malignancy that remains resistant to conventional therapy despite major advances in clinical neurooncology. This report details the case of a patient who had failed conventional treatment for recurrent GBM and was ultimately treated with a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 vector, G207. Methods: Case report detailing the outcomes of one patient enrolled into the gene therapy arm of the Neurovir G207 protocol whereby stereotactic injection of 120 µL G207 viral suspension containing 1×107 plaque-forming units (or active viral particles was made into the enhancing region of the tumor. Results: In this patient, despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, tumor progression occurred. However, with G207 oncolytic therapy and brief exposures to second and third treatments, this patient had an extended survival time of 7.5 years and a 6-year apparent disease-free interval, an extraordinarily unusual finding in the pretemozolomide era. Conclusion: With minimal adjunctive chemotherapy, including one course of temozolomide, one course of procarbazine, and four cycles of irinotecan, the patient survived over 7 years before the next recurrence. Addition of G207 to this patient’s traditional therapy may have been the critical treatment producing her prolonged survival. This report demonstrates the potential for long-term response to a one-time treatment with oncolytic HSV and encourages continued research on oncolytic viral therapy for GBM. Keywords: oncolytic virotherapy, malignant glioma, tumor, herpes simplex, HSV-1, immunotherapy

  11. Trends of Different Sexually Trensmitted Diseases in a STD Clinic of A Tertiary Care Hospital: Comparison Between Viral Origin and Bacterial Origin STDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmishtha G Tada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: STDs (sexually transmitted diseases are as old as diseases of great antiquity. At particular point of time and place, prevalence of STDs is cumulative result of sexual behaviour, tendency, awereness, interventions and immunological factors among concerned population. Aims: An attempt has made to know the current trend of STDs in the time of global emergence of HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus by a prospective study. Methods and Material: From patients attending STD clinic of a tertiary care hospital, 150 consecutive patients having clinically diagnosed STDs were included in the study. Along with clinical diagnosis, all the patients’ history and blood sample were collected. Sera were tested for the screening for HIV anti body and RPR (rapid plasma reagin test. Data collected from this study is analysed here. Results: Out of 150 total STD clinic attendants, 23.33% were HIV positive and only 4%were found positive for RPR test. Occurrence of more number of viral STDs (e.g. herpes genitalis, genital warts molluscum contagiosum is noted as compare to others. The increase of viral origin STDs is observed in both the group-HIV positive group and non-HIV one. Conclusions: Like any other infectious diseases, STDs are changing their trends as time passes. Regular prospective studies should be done to monitor the current changes in STDs and try to evaluate the responsible factors. To pick up the changes at correct time will be helpful for proper implementation of preventive and curative management. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 358-361

  12. Fine mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eZanella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.

  13. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mesnard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ, and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases.

  14. Roles of HTLV-1 basic Zip Factor (HBZ) in Viral Chronicity and Leukemic Transformation. Potential New Therapeutic Approaches to Prevent and Treat HTLV-1-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Barbeau, Benoit; Césaire, Raymond; Péloponèse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    More than thirty years have passed since human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was described as the first retrovirus to be the causative agent of a human cancer, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), but the precise mechanism behind HTLV-1 pathogenesis still remains elusive. For more than two decades, the transforming ability of HTLV-1 has been exclusively associated to the viral transactivator Tax. Thirteen year ago, we first reported that the minus strand of HTLV-1 encoded for a basic Zip factor factor (HBZ), and since then several teams have underscored the importance of this antisense viral protein for the maintenance of a chronic infection and the proliferation of infected cells. More recently, we as well as others have demonstrated that HBZ has the potential to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we focus on the latest progress in our understanding of HBZ functions in chronicity and cellular transformation. We will discuss the involvement of this paradigm shift of HTLV-1 research on new therapeutic approaches to treat HTLV-1-related human diseases. PMID:26690203

  15. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lian; Qin, Qingqing; Wang, Yu; Pu, Yingying; Liu, Lifang; Wen, Xing; Ji, Shaoyi; Wu, Jianguo; Wei, Chunhong; Ding, Biao; Li, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB) protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant) mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:27606959

  16. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Veronica L.; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M.; Bryony Armson; Antonello Di Nardo; Begoña Valdazo-Gonzalez; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V.; Jemma Wadsworth; Ferris, Nigel P.; Valérie Mioulet; King, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endem...

  17. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  18. Comparison of Two Aquatic Alphaviruses, Salmon Pancreas Disease Virus and Sleeping Disease Virus, by Using Genome Sequence Analysis, Monoclonal Reactivity, and Cross-Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Jonathan; Villoing, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel; Castric, Jeanette; Pfeffer, Martin; Jewhurst, Victoria; McLoughlin, Marian; Rødseth, OddMagne; Christie, Karen Elina; Koumans, Joseph; Todd, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Cell culture isolates of salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) of farmed Atlantic salmon and sleeping disease virus (SDV) of rainbow trout were compared. Excluding the poly(A) tracts, the genomic nucleotide sequences of SPDV and SDV RNAs include 11,919 and 11,900 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis places SPDV and SDV between the New World viruses of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and Eastern equine encephalitis virus and the Old World viruses of Aura virus and Sindbis virus...

  19. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  20. Virales Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Schattner, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Konsumenten werden heutzutage von Werbung regelrecht erschlagen. Jeden Tag prasseln tausende von Werbebotschaften auf die Menschen ein. Diese bilden einen natürlichen Widerstand dagegen und nehmen so wenig wie möglich auf, um sich auf wichtige Informationen konzentrieren zu können. Die klassische Werbung steckt in einer großen Krise und Unternehmen müssen einen neuen Weg finden, ihren Kunden unbemerkt Werbung zukommen zu lassen. Genau hier setzt Virales Marketing an. Denn in den meisten Fälle...

  1. The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea antibodies in selected South African dairy herds, and control of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ferreira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD serologically positive animals in 18 dairy herds with clinical and pathological lesions suggestive of BVD infection, the post-vaccinal seroconversion rates in negative animals vaccinated twice with an inactivated BVD vaccine, and the control measures taken, are described. The pathological and histopathological findings in 6 necropsies performed on animals that died in 5 separate herds closely resembled published descriptions. Positive immunohistochemistry results in 3 cases confirmed the diagnosis in those animals. In 1 herd the prevalence of prevaccinal BVDantibodies was only 36.8 %, while the prevalence varied from 79.85 to 100 % in the remainder. Control measures taken included immunoprophylaxis with an inactivated vaccine, culling animals that were serologically negative after vaccination that were regarded as probably persistently infected (PI and the implementation of additional biosecurity measures. The prevalence of serologically negative PI animals in 10 herds varied from 0.38 to 4.04 %, with 8 herds less than 1 %and 2 herds at 2.79 %and 4.04 %, respectively. Methods based on vaccinating the herd, followed by serological testing and culling cattle that did not develop an antibody titre, are not reliable. The identification of PI animals should be confirmed by isolation of the virus or identification of the antigen.

  2. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...... obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced...

  3. Viral Vectors for In Vivo Gene Transfer in Parkinson’s disease: Properties and Clinical Grade Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Ronald J.; Burger, Corinna; Snyder, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    Because Parkinson’s disease is a progressive degenerative disorder that is mainly confined to the basal ganglia, gene transfer to deliver therapeutic molecules is an attractive treatment avenue. The present review focuses on direct in vivo gene transfer vectors that have been developed to a degree that they have been successfully used in animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, the properties of recombinant adenovirus, recombinant adeno-associated virus, herpes simplex virus, and len...

  4. Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Paula M.; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Heikkilä, Henna P.; Kallio, Eva; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviru...

  5. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  6. [Viral superantigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  7. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J Belsham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the "field". Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD were obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced into susceptible cells using electroporation. Progeny viruses were amplified in primary bovine thyroid cells and characterized using antigen ELISA and also by RT-PCR plus sequencing. FMD viruses of three different serotypes and multiple lineages have been successfully rescued from the RNA samples. Two of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1 were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability of the rescued viruses enabled serotyping by antigen ELISA and facilitated genome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The procedure described here should improve the characterization of FMDVs circulating in countries where the disease is endemic and thus enhance disease control globally.

  8. Inhibition of viral RNA synthesis in canine distemper virus infection by proanthocyanidin A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Laura; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Galligioni, Viola; Bombardelli, Ezio; Scagliarini, Alessandra

    2011-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a contagious and multisystemic viral disease that affects domestic and wild canines as well as other terrestrial and aquatic carnivores. The disease in dogs is often fatal and no specific antiviral therapy is currently available. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activity against CDV of proanthocyanidin A2 (PA2), a phenolic dimer belonging to the class of condensed tannins present in plants. Our results showed that PA2 exerted in vitro antiviral activity against CDV with a higher selectivity index compared to ribavirin, included in our study for the previously tested anti-CDV activity. The time of addition assay led us to observe that PA2 was able to decrease the viral RNA synthesis and to reduce progeny virus liberation, at different times post infection suggesting multiple mechanisms of action including inhibition of viral replicative complex and modulation of the redox milieu. These data suggest that PA2, isolated from the bark of Aesculus hippocastanum, has potential usefulness as an anti-CDV compound inhibiting viral replication. PMID:22020306

  9. Viral infections of the biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ekta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the biliary tract are often considered to be an important cause of acute cholangitis. Viral infections of the biliary tract however, are very often mistaken as viral hepatitis. This article highlights various viral causes of common biliary tract infections. Viral cholangitis is both less common and less discussed than viral hepatitis. Hepatotropic viruses (A, B, C, and E are generally regarded as hepatocellular pathogens, yet cholangitic manifestations are now well described in association with these diseases. Systemic viral diseases also lead to cholangitis in varying proportion to hepatitis. Human immunodeficiency virus is associated with protean hepatic complications, including cholangitis due to several causes. Other systemic viruses, most notably those of the herpes virus family, also cause hepatic disease including cholangitis and possibly ductopenia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.

  10. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  11. Comparison scoring model of severe viral hepatitis and model of end stage liver disease for the prognosis of patients with liver failure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Pei-Ling Dong; Hui-Guo Ding

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prognosis of patients with liver failure using a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) and a model of end stage liver disease (MELD)to provide a scientific basis for clinical decision of treatment.METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with liver failure due to severe viral hepatitis were investigated with SMSVH established. Patients with acute, subacute,and chronic liver failure were 40, 46 and 34, respectively.The follow-up time was 6 mo. The survival rates of patients with liver failure in 2 wk, 4 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between SMSVH and MELD was made using ROC statistic analysis.RESULTS: The survival curves of group A (at low risk,SMSVH score ≤ 4) and group B (at high risk, SMSVH score ≥ 5) were significantly different (The 4-wk, 3-mo, 6-mo survival rates were 94.59%, 54.05%, 43.24% in group A,and 51.81%, 20.48%, 12.05% in group B, respectively,P < 0.001). The survival curves of group C (SMSVH scores unchanged or increased), group D (SMSVH scores decreased by 1) and group E (SMSVH scores decreased by 2 or more) were significantly different .The survival rates of groups C, D and E were 66.15%, 100%, 100% in 2-wk; 40.0%, 91.18%, 100% in 4-wk; 0%, 58.82%,80.95% in 3-mo and 0%, 38.24%, 61.90% in 6-mo,respectively, P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of SMSVH scores at baseline and after 2 wk of therapy was significantly higher than that under the ROC curve of MELD scores (0.804 and 0.934 vs 0.689, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: SMSVH is superior to MELD in the estimation of the prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis within 6 mo. SMSVH may be regarded as a criterion for estimation of the efficacy of medical treatment and the decision of clinical treatment.

  12. Aquatic Models, Genomics and Chemical Risk Management§

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Keith C.; Hinton, David E.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Planchart, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Hinton et al., 2009; Schmale et al., 2007; Schmale, 2004; Nairn et al., 2001) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model resea...

  13. Exploring the role of the lab protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leader (L) protein of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) displays two forms, Lab and Lb, through initiation of translation at two in-frame AUG codons positioned 84 nucleotides apart. The short form (Lb) is the most abundant and functionally well characterized form of L. The presence of these tw...

  14. VIRUS VACCINE RESEARCH AT THE NATIONAL ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER: LESSONS FROM SWINE INFLUENZA VIRUS AND BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continuing emergence of novel subtypes and genetic variants of swine influenza viruses (SIV) causing swine flu challenges our ability to effectively manage this high morbidity disease among swine. New strategic approaches for vaccine development must be considered to keep up with the ever-evolv...

  15. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

  16. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  17. Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, M E J; Ghasemi, M; Ghiasi, M; Karsidani, S Haghighi; Bovo, G; Nazari, A; Adel, M; Arizza, V; Dhama, K

    2016-07-15

    The present study was conducted on 428 moribund mullet fish samples to isolate and identify the causative agent of a mysterious acute mortality which recently occurred in wild mullets in Iranian waters of Caspian Sea, suspected to be due to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Disease investigation was carried out employing various diagnostic procedures such as virology, bacteriology, parasitology, haematology, histopathology, IFAT, IHC and nested RT-PCR. Brain and eye samples of affected fishes were collected in sterile conditions and then kept at -80°C for cell culture isolation and nested RT-PCR detection of the causative agent. Other tissue samples were also collected and fixed for histopathology, IHC and EM examinations. CPE was observed in cell cultures at 6days after inoculation. Nine samples were found positive with virological assay. Nested RT-PCR, performed on suspected tissues and CPE positive samples, showed that about 21 tissue samples and all the CPE positive samples were positive for VNN virus (VNNV). IFAT was selected as a confirmatory method for detecting the presence of Betanodavirus antigen, cell culture isolation results and nested RT-PCR findings. Moreover, VNNV particles with 25-30nm in diameter were also visualized in the infected brain and retina. In pathogenicity studies, guppy fishes bathed in VNNV-infected tissue culture (10(-4) TCID50) showed clinical signs similar to naturally infected mullet after 15days post infection (dpi), with mortality rates reaching up to 100% at 30dpi. Affected organ samples as examined by cell culture isolation, IFAT, IHC and histopathology, revealed the presence of VNNV in the guppy fishes. In conclusion, it was confirmed that VNNV was the main causative agent for the disease outbreak in mullet fish in the Caspian Sea, and this is such first official report of VNN disease from Iran. PMID:27283853

  18. Effect of Rice Sowing Date on Occurrence of Small Brown Planthopper and Epidemics of Planthopper-Transmitted Rice Stripe Viral Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin-liang; ZHU Zeng-rong; ZHOU Yin; LU Qiang; SUN Xiang-liang; TAO Xian-guo; CHEN Yue; WANG Hua-di; CHENG Jia-an

    2009-01-01

    To understand the relationship between rice sowing date and occurrence of the rice small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus Fallen and the epidemics of the planthopper-transmitted dee stripe viral (RSV) disease, four sowing dates of rice were evaluated in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the peak density of SBPH and RSV incidence in the nursery and in the transplanted field decreased with the delay of sowing date in single crop of japonica rice in north Zhejiang Province of China. The relationship between seedling RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial with sowing date was well described by Weibull equation. The area under the curve of population dynamics (AUCPD or planthopper-day accumulation) or the peak density of the planthopper in the nursery could be summarized by a logistic equation. RSV incidence in the transplanted fields could be characterized quantitatively by a multivariate regression equation, including the variables of sowing date, peak density of the vector, and RSV incidence at the end of the nursery trial. That the descriptive model excluded the AUCPD in transplanted field implies that this variable is not necessary in forecasting disease epidemics in the field. The 2-year experiments sufficiently indicated that suitable sowing of rice could be used as one of the effective measures to control the vector population and therefore the planthopper-transmitted RSV on a larger seale. The optimal sowing date for the single-cropped transplanted japonica rice is recommended from late May to early June in north Zhejiang, China.

  19. Tracking viral evolution during a disease outbreak: the rapid and complete selective sweep of a circovirus in the endangered Echo parakeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Samit; Faulkes, Christopher G; Greenwood, Andrew G; Jones, Carl G; Kaiser, Pete; Lyne, Owen D; Black, Simon A; Chowrimootoo, Aurelie; Groombridge, Jim J

    2012-05-01

    Circoviruses are among the smallest and simplest of all viruses, but they are relatively poorly characterized. Here, we intensively sampled two sympatric parrot populations from Mauritius over a period of 11 years and screened for the circovirus Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). During the sampling period, a severe outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease, which is caused by BFDV, occurred in Echo parakeets. Consequently, this data set presents an ideal system for studying the evolution of a pathogen in a natural population and to understand the adaptive changes that cause outbreaks. Unexpectedly, we discovered that the outbreak was most likely caused by changes in functionally important regions of the normally conserved replication-associated protein gene and not the immunogenic capsid. Moreover, these mutations were completely fixed in the Echo parakeet host population very shortly after the outbreak. Several capsid alleles were linked to the replication-associated protein outbreak allele, suggesting that whereas the key changes occurred in the latter, the scope of the outbreak and the selective sweep may have been influenced by positive selection in the capsid. We found evidence for viral transmission between the two host populations though evidence for the invasive species as the source of the outbreak was equivocal. Finally, the high evolutionary rate that we estimated shows how rapidly new variation can arise in BFDV and is consistent with recent results from other small single-stranded DNA viruses. PMID:22345474

  20. Longitudinal follow-up and characterization of a robust rat model for Parkinson's disease based on overexpression of alpha-synuclein with adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perren, Anke; Toelen, Jaan; Casteels, Cindy; Macchi, Francesca; Van Rompuy, Anne-Sophie; Sarre, Sophie; Casadei, Nicolas; Nuber, Silke; Himmelreich, Uwe; Osorio Garcia, Maria Isabel; Michotte, Yvette; D'Hooge, Rudi; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Gijsbers, Rik; Van den Haute, Chris; Debyser, Zeger; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-03-01

    Testing of new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD) is currently hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible animal models. Here, we developed a robust rat model for PD by injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV2/7) encoding α-synuclein into the substantia nigra, resulting in reproducible nigrostriatal pathology and behavioral deficits in a 4-week time period. Progressive dopaminergic dysfunction was corroborated by histopathologic and biochemical analysis, motor behavior testing and in vivo microdialysis. L-DOPA treatment was found to reverse the behavioral phenotype. Non-invasive positron emission tomography imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed longitudinal monitoring of neurodegeneration. In addition, insoluble α-synuclein aggregates were formed in this model. This α-synuclein rat model shows improved face and predictive validity, and therefore offers the possibility to reliably test novel therapeutics. Furthermore, it will be of great value for further research into the molecular pathogenesis of PD and the importance of α-synuclein aggregation in the disease process. PMID:25599874

  1. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. PMID:25865465

  2. Association of clinical signs and symptoms of Ebola viral disease with case fatality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moole, Harsha; Chitta, Swetha; Victor, Darlyn; Kandula, Manasa; Moole, Vishnu; Ghadiam, Harshavardhan; Akepati, Anusha; Yerasi, Charan; Uppu, Achuta; Dharmapuri, Sowmya; Boddireddy, Raghuveer; Fischer, Jacqueline; Lynch, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a public health emergency of international concern. There is limited laboratory and clinical data available on patients with EVD. This is a meta-analysis to assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD.Aim: To assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD.Method: Study selection criterion: EVD articles with more than 35 EVD cases that described th...

  3. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  4. Vaccination against Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Using Recombinant T4 Bacteriophage Displaying Viral Protein VP2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Chang CAO; Quan-Cheng SHI; Jing-Yun MA; Qing-Mei XIE; Ying-Zuo BI

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop a desirable inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine against the very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV), we tried to take advantage of the emerging T4 bacteriophage surface protein display system. The major immunogen protein VP2 from the vvIBDV strain HK46 was fused to the nonessential T4 phage surface capsid protein, a small outer capsid (SOC) protein, resulting in the 49 kDa SOC-VP2 fusion protein, which was verified by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Immunoelectromicroscopy showed that the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully displayed on the surface of the T4 phage. The recombinant VP2 protein is antigenic and showed reactivities to various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against IBDV, whereas the wild-type phage T4 could not react to any mAb. In addition, the recombinant VP2 protein is immunogenic and elicited specific antibodies in immunized specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. More significantly, immunization of SPF chickens with the recombinant T4-VP2 phage protected them from infection by the vvIBDV strain HK46. When challenged with the vvIBDV strain HK46 at a dose of 100 of 50% lethal dose (LD50) per chicken 4 weeks after the booster was given, the group vaccinated with the T4-VP2 recombinant phage showed no clinical signs of disease or death, wh ereas the unvaccinated group and the group vaccinated with the wild-type T4phage exhibited 100% clinical signs of disease and bursal damages, and 30%-40% mortality. Collectively,the data herein showed that the T4-displayed VP2 protein might be an inexpensive, effective and safe vaccine candidate against vvIBDV.

  5. High Human Bocavirus Viral Load Is Associated with Disease Severity in Children under Five Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Baihui; Yu, Xuelian; Wang, Chuanxian; Teng, Zheng; Wang, Chun; Shen, Jiaren; Gao, Ye; Zhu, Zhaokui; Wang, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Xi; Ghildyal, Reena

    2013-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and detected worldwide in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), but its pathogenic role in respiratory illness is still debatable due to high incidence of co-infection with other respiratory viruses. To determine the prevalence of HBoV infection in patients with LRTI in Shanghai and its correlation with disease severity, we performed a 3-year prospective study of HBoV in healthy controls, outpatients and inpatients under five years of age with X-ra...

  6. The screening and evaluation of herbs and identification of herbal combinations with anti-viral effects on Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yu, Y; Brad, K; Xie, W; Zhang, X-Y

    2016-02-01

    A total of 25 "heat-clearing and detoxifying" herbs used in Chinese medicine were investigated for their cytopathic effects on the growth of Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) in a chicken fibroblast cell line. The 5 herbs with the highest virus inhibitory effects were Herba agastaches, Flos chrysanthemi indici, Rhizoma anemarrhenae, Astragalus root and Baikal skullcap root and these were used in herbal formulations. Anti-NDV activities of 4 formulations were tested on the growth of NDV in the DF-1 fibroblast cell line. Formulation II, containing Baikal skullcap root, Astragalus root, Anemarrhena rhizome (1:1:2) and formulation IV containing Anemarrhena rhizome, Astragalus root and Flos chrysanthemi indici (1:1:1), which had strong anti-NDV activity in vitro, were used to determine the in vivo inhibitory effects of NDV-infection in chickens. After treatment with the two formulations serum IgY titres against NDV were improved, and morbidity was reduced in the NDV-infected chickens. The results suggest that the components in formulations II and IV acted synergistically to improve resistance to Newcastle disease and provide a basis for the developing an anti-NDV herbal medicine. PMID:26927474

  7. Study on detection of viral DNA of the agents causing psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease in different psittacine species

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Beate

    2009-01-01

    In this study, certain aspects of psittacine beak and feather disease and budgerigar fledgling disease were investigated to gather information about the distribution and the clinical manifestation of the diseases in patients of the “Klinik für Vögel der LMU München”. Furthermore different organ samples were compared for their reliability of routine post mortem PCR-diagnoses of peracute PBFD in young african grey parrots. Regarding intra vitam detection of the aetiological agents of both di...

  8. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  9. Hepatitis C Virus, Cholesterol and Lipoproteins — Impact for the Viral Life Cycle and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Baumert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore, virus production is dependent on hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL assembly, and circulating virions are physically associated with lipoproteins in complexes termed lipoviral particles. Evidence has indicated several functional roles for the formation of these complexes, including co-opting of lipoprotein receptors for attachment and entry, concealing epitopes to facilitate immune escape, and hijacking host factors for HCV maturation and secretion. Here, we review the evidence surrounding pathogenesis of the hepatitis C infection regarding lipoprotein engagement, cholesterol and triglyceride regulation, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. [Prophylaxis against respiratory viral disease in pediatric and adult patients undergoing solid organ and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Ana M; Catalán, Paula; Alba, Andrea; Zubleta, Marcela

    2012-09-01

    Respiratory viruses have been identified as a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing SOT and HSCT, specially in children. The most frequent are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza (FLU), parainfluenza (PI) and adenovirus (ADV). These infections are associated with progression to severe lower respiratory tract infections in up to 60% of the cases. It is advised to apply universal protection recommendations for respiratory viruses (A2) and some specific measures for FLU and AD. FLU: Annual anti-influenza vaccination (from 4-6 months post-transplantation in SOT, 6 months in HSCT (A2)); post- exposure prophylaxis in FLU (oseltamivir for 10 days (B2)). In lung transplantion, the prophylaxis should last as long as the risk period (B2). ADV: There is no vaccine nor valid chemoprophylaxis strategy to prevent ADV disease. In some specific HSCT recipients, weekly PCR monitoring is recommended until day+100 (A3). PMID:23282554

  11. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  12. Response of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei) to a Ranavirus, frog virus 3: a model for viral emergence in naïve populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Peter B; Garner, Trenton W J; Straub, Monika; Greber, Urs F

    2004-10-01

    Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive populations of tadpoles. We simulated emerging disease by exposing tadpoles of the Italian agile frog (Rana latastei), to the North American Ranavirus FV3. We demonstrated that mortality occurred due to viral exposure, exposure of tadpoles to decreasing concentrations of FV3 in the laboratory produced dose-dependent survival rates, and cannibalism of virus-carrying carcasses increased mortality due to FV3. These experiments suggest the potential for ecological mechanisms to affect the level of exposure of tadpoles to Ranavirus and to impact transmission of viral pathogens in aquatic systems. PMID:15650083

  13. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Virus pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi dengan Virus Penyakit Tetelo (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIGEN IN TISSUE OF CHICKENS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV following infection, chickenswere experimentally infected with visceretropic velogenic NDV isolate. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbsagainst the NDV LaSota vaccine strain were then produced to detect viral antigen in the infectedorgans. The mAbs were firstly tested for their specificity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA using NDV and normal allantoic fluids as antigens. Eight mAbs specific against NDVwere isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetection of NDV antigen in chicken’s tissues.By immunohistochemistry labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB staining NDV–antigen was detectedin paraffin embedded tissues of NDV-infected chickens. NDV antigen was not detected in noninfected chickens. In the infected chickens, high intensity of NDV antigen was detected in thelymphoid tissues, lung and intestine. The NDV antigen with a lesser intensity was detected in thebrain, trachea, liver and myocardium. This study shows that although viscerotropic velogenicNDV isolate can infect almost all organs, the main target of infection are lung, intestine andlymphoids tissues

  14. A single amino acid change, Q114R, in the cleavage-site sequence of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sweety; Kumar, Sachin; Khattar, Sunil K; Samal, Siba K

    2011-10-01

    A key determinant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence is the amino acid sequence at the fusion (F) protein cleavage site. The NDV F protein is synthesized as an inactive precursor, F(0), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between amino acids 116 and 117 to produce two disulfide-linked subunits, F(1) and F(2). The consensus sequence of the F protein cleavage site of virulent [(112)(R/K)-R-Q-(R/K)-R↓F-I(118)] and avirulent [(112)(G/E)-(K/R)-Q-(G/E)-R↓L-I(118)] strains contains a conserved glutamine residue at position 114. Recently, some NDV strains from Africa and Madagascar were isolated from healthy birds and have been reported to contain five basic residues (R-R-R-K-R↓F-I/V or R-R-R-R-R↓F-I/V) at the F protein cleavage site. In this study, we have evaluated the role of this conserved glutamine residue in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV by using the moderately pathogenic Beaudette C strain and by making Q114R, K115R and I118V mutants of the F protein in this strain. Our results showed that changing the glutamine to a basic arginine residue reduced viral replication and attenuated the pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. The pathogenicity was further reduced when the isoleucine at position 118 was substituted for valine. PMID:21677091

  15. Studies on viral respiratory disease in laboratory cats. I. Isolation of feline herpesvirus and choice of proper disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, K; Ando, S; Omata, Y; Furukawa, T; Fukui, M

    1982-01-01

    In the laboratory cat colony consisted of 14 Korats and 8 Japanese native cats, the disease characterized by upper respiratory signs occurred. Seven cytopathogenic agents were isolated from the oropharyngeal swabs and necropsy materials of affected cats by means of inoculation to primary feline kidney cell cultures. One of the isolates (KS-1 strain) was identical with feline herpesvirus (FHV), and appeared to be a causal agent of the trouble. Properties of the KS-1 strain were in general agreement with the known strains of FHV. Serologic examination and clinical analysis suggested that Japanese native cats became carriers, re-excreted the virus and spread it to susceptible cats. Virucidal activities of several disinfectants against FHV, comparing with a feline calicivirus (FCV), were studied and the following conclusions reached: 1) Sodium hypochlorite, iodine complex, benzethonium chloride and chlorhexidine were effective against FHV at commonly used concentrations. 2) Among chemicals tested sodium hypochlorite was most effective against FCV and followed by iodine complex. 3) Benzethonium chloride and chlorhexidine had little efficacy against FCV at commonly used doses. PMID:6281040

  16. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR as a Tool for Assessment of Marine Viral Richness▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Winget, Danielle M.; Wommack, K Eric

    2008-01-01

    Recent discoveries have uncovered considerable genetic diversity among aquatic viruses and raised questions about the variability of this diversity within and between environments. Studies of the temporal and spatial dynamics of aquatic viral assemblages have been hindered by the lack of a common genetic marker among viruses for rapid diversity assessments. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR bypasses this obstacle by sampling at the genetic level without requiring viral isolation o...

  17. Hepatitis C viral load does not predict disease outcome: going beyond numbers A carga viral do vírus da hepatite C não prediz a evolução: indo além dos números

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Stanislau Affonso de ARAÚJO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of 58 patients with chronic hepatitis C without cirrhosis and treated with interferon-alpha demonstrated that hepatitis C viral (HCV load does not correlate with the histological evolution of the disease (p = 0.6559 for architectural alterations and p = 0.6271 for the histological activity index. Therefore, the use of viral RNA quantification as an evolutive predictor or determinant of the severity of hepatitis C is incorrect and of relative value. A review of the literature provided fundamental and interdependent HCV (genotype, heterogeneity and mutants, specific proteins, host (sex, age, weight, etc and treatment variables (dosage, time of treatment, type of interferon within the broader context of viral kinetics, interferon-mediated immunological response (in addition to natural immunity against HCV and the role of interferon as a modulator of fibrogenesis. Therefore, viral load implies much more than numbers and the correct interpretation of these data should consider a broader context depending on multiple factors that are more complex than the simple value obtained upon quantification.Através da análise de 58 pacientes tratados com Interferon Alfa em função de hepatite C crônica e sem cirrose, demonstramos que a carga viral do Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC não se correlacionou com a evolução histológica da doença (p = 0,6559 para alterações arquiteturais e p = 0,6271 para o Índice de Atividade Histológica-IAH. Assim a utilização da quantificação do RNA viral como preditor evolutivo ou determinante da gravidade da hepatite C é incorreto e de valor relativo. Revisando o tema encontramos variáveis do VHC (genótipo, heterogeneidade e mutantes, proteínas específicas, do hospedeiro (sexo, idade, peso, etc e dos medicamentos (posologia, tempo de tratamento, tipo de Interferon fundamentais e interdependentes, inseridas no contexto mais amplo da cinética viral, da resposta imunológica mediada pelo Interferon (al

  18. Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination. PMID:24739536

  19. Association of clinical signs and symptoms of Ebola viral disease with case fatality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Moole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD is a public health emergency of international concern. There is limited laboratory and clinical data available on patients with EVD. This is a meta-analysis to assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD. Aim: To assess the utility of clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory data in predicting mortality in EVD. Method: Study selection criterion: EVD articles with more than 35 EVD cases that described the clinical features were included. Data collection and extraction: Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, Ovid journals, and CDC and WHO official websites. Statistical methods: Pooled proportions were calculated using DerSimonian Laird method (random effects model. Results: Initial search identified 634 reference articles, of which 67 were selected and reviewed. Data were extracted from 10 articles (N=5,792 of EVD which met the inclusion criteria. Bleeding events (64.5% vs. 25.1%, abdominal pain (58.3% vs. 37.5%, vomiting (60.8% vs. 31.7%, diarrhea (69.9% vs. 37.8%, cough (31.6% vs. 22.3%, sore throat (47.7% vs. 19.8%, and conjunctivitis (39.3% vs. 20.3% were more often present in pooled proportion of fatal cases as compared to EVD survivors. Conclusions: Clinical features of EVD that may be associated with higher mortality include bleeding events, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cough, sore throat, and conjunctivitis. These patients should be identified promptly, and appropriate management should be instituted immediately.

  20. Allelopathy of Aquatic Autotrophs

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Allelopathy in aquatic environments may provide a competitive advantage to angiosperms, algae, or cyanobacteria in their interaction with other primary producers. Allelopathy can influence the competition between different photoautotrophs for resources and change the succession of species, for exarnple, in phytoplankton cornmunities. Field evidence and laboratory studies indicate that allelopathy occurs in all aquatic habitats (marine and freshwater), and that ail prirnary producing organisms...

  1. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  2. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relatio...

  3. Summary of CDC consultation to address social determinants of health for prevention of disparities in HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. December 9-10, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Dean, Hazel D

    2010-01-01

    In December 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a meeting of national public health partners to identify priorities for addressing social determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB). The consultants were divided into four working groups: (1) public health policy, (2) data systems, (3) agency partnerships and prevention capacity building, and (4) prevention research and evaluation. Groups focused on identifying top priorities; describing activities, methods, and metrics to implement priorities; and identifying partnerships and resources required to implement priorities. The meeting resulted in priorities for public health policy, improving data collection methods, enhancing existing and expanding future partnerships, and improving selection criteria and evaluation of evidence-based interventions. CDC is developing a national communications plan to guide and inspire action for keeping social determinants of HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB in the forefront of public health activities. PMID:20626189

  4. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. 5.1.Viral disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930226 Cloning and characterization of thegenome of human papilloma virus type 16 inChina.ZHANG Wei (张伟),et al.Cancer In-stit,CAMS,Beijing,100021.Natl Med J Chin1993;73(4):229—231.The cloning and characterization of a wholegenome of human papillomavirus type 16 (7.9kb) and a 5.4kb subgenomic fragment werestudied.They were cloned after insertion inplasmid pAt153,using its unique BamH1 site.The full—length genome and subgenomic frag-ment were designated HPV16Z and HPV16F re-spectively.After analysis by 16 endonucleases,no new restriction site was found in HPV16Z incomparison with the standard strain.A newBamH1 site was observed at the 750 bp position

  8. 5.1.Viral disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920226 The first reported patient with AIDSin Chinese continent.WANG Ningfang (王凝芳),et al.302nd Hosp,PLA.Natl Med J Chin 1991;71(12):671-673.In this paper is reported the first case ofacquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS)in

  9. Integrin Activation and Viral Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-dian GAO; Jun-zheng DU; Jian-hua ZHOU; Hui-yun CHANG; Qing-ge XIE

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are members of a ubiquitous membrane receptor family which includes 18 different α subunits and 8 β subunits forming more than 20 α/β heterodimers. Integrins play key functions in vascular endothelial cell and tumour cell adhesion, lymphocyte trafficking, tumor growth and viral infection. Current understanding of the molecular basis of integrins as viral receptors has been achieved through many decades of study into the biology of transmembrane glycoproteins and their interactions with several viruses. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the molecular bases of interactions between viruses and integrins, which are of potential practical significance. Inhibition of virus-integrin interactions at the points of virus attachment or entry will provide a novel approach for the therapeutic treatment of viral diseases.

  10. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in...

  11. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  12. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  13. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  14. Restoring Damaged Aquatic Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems must play a major role to ensure that water, which is both essential and scarce, is always available for both present and future generations. This has become even more urgent in light of the ongoing increase in total world population and predicted changes in the world climate. Since aquatic ecosystems have been damaged at a rate far in excess of both natural restoration and anthropogenic restoration, it is essential that both restorative processes be accelerated. However, e...

  15. 气候变化对蚊媒病毒性疾病流行病学影响研究现状%Impact of climate factors on epidemiological studies of mosquito-borne viral diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓中; 于畅; 臧宇婷; 刘洪文; 宋锋林

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-bome diseases such as dengue fever, St. Louis encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis are serious threats to human health. Climate change, such as changes in temperature and precipitation, may altermosquito distribution, growth, development and viral production. Changes in these factors will also impact disease prevalence and transmission. This study introduces the latest research on the impact of climate change on mosquito-borne viral diseases, epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, and potential changes in mosquito-borne disease epidemiology under climate change.%蚊虫传播的登革热、圣路易斯脑炎、流行性乙型脑炎等病毒性疾病严重威胁着人类健康.气候变化诸如气温和降雨量的变化,可改变蚊虫地理分布、影响蚊虫生长发育和病毒在蚊虫体内的繁殖速度,也改变着疾病流行和传播的特征.现就气候变化对蚊媒病毒性疾病影响的研究进展进行介绍,并综述蚊媒病毒性疾病的流行趋势,试图全面了解气候变化之下蚊虫传播的病毒性疾病流行病学现状.

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  17. Development and immune efficacy assessment of an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea disease%牛病毒性腹泻油乳剂灭活苗的研制与免疫效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵月兰; 张磊; 王安忠; 左玉柱; 秦建华

    2009-01-01

    牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病(bovine viral diarrheamucosal disease, BVD-MD) 是由牛病毒性腹泻病毒(bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)引起的牛传染病,其特征是消化道黏膜糜烂、坏死、胃肠炎和腹泻、免疫耐受与持续性感染、免疫抑制、先天性缺陷、母畜流产、产死胎和畸形胎等。1946年Olafson等[1]在美国首次报道本病,之后世界各国均有该病报道。

  18. 河南省奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病血清学调查%Serological Survey of Bovine Viral Diarrhea-mucosal Disease in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冬梅; 张华; 邓红雨; 刘太宇; 王金合

    2011-01-01

    为了解河南省奶牛病毒性腹泻一黏膜病的发生情况,2009年5月对河南省的豫东、豫西、豫南、豫北和郑州市五区域20个奶牛小区的355头奶牛随机采血,采用ELISA方法,检测奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病血清抗体,结果显示20个奶牛小区有17个奶牛小区感染有病毒性腹泻-黏膜病病毒,场感染率为85%,各小区奶牛病毒性腹泻-黏膜病检测阳性率在0%~88.24%,血清阳性率平均为53.8%,表明该病在河南省奶牛中感染率较高.%The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease in Henan Province. 355 bovine sera from twenty cattle breeding farms in different parts of Henan province was collected and antibodies to Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were detected by ELISA. The result showed that 85 percent of twenty cattle breeding farms were infected by Bovine viral diarrhea virus. The highest positive rate in cattle breeding farms was 88.24 percent, and the average rate also arrived at 53.8 percent. It indicated that the Bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease was widespread in the cattle breeding farms of Henan province.

  19. Identification of novel viral receptors with cell line expressing viral receptor-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Mei; Ye, Jianqiang; Qin, Aijian; Wang, Lin; Hu, Xuming; Qian, Kun; Shao, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    The viral cell receptors and infection can be blocked by the expression of the viral receptor-binding protein. Thus, the viral cell receptor is an attractive target for anti-viral strategies, and the identification of viral cell receptor is critical for better understanding and controlling viral disease. As a model system for viral entry and anti-retroviral approaches, avian sarcoma/leukosis virus (ASLV, including the A-J ten subgroups) has been studied intensively and many milestone discoveries have been achieved based on work with ASLV. Here, we used a DF1 cell line expressed viral receptor-binding protein to efficiently identify chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus ALV-J (avian leukosis virus subgroup J). Our data demonstrate that antibodies or siRNA to chANXA2 significantly inhibited ALV-J infection and replication, and over-expression of chANXA2 permitted the entry of ALV-J into its non-permissible cells. Our findings have not only identified chANXA2 as a novel biomarker for anti-ALV-J, but also demonstrated that cell lines with the expression of viral receptor-binding protein could be as efficient tools for isolating functional receptors to identify novel anti-viral targets. PMID:25604889

  20. Viral vector mediated expression of mutant huntingtin in the dorsal raphe produces disease-related neuropathology but not depressive-like behaviors in wildtype mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Mark; Lueras, Jordan; Warden, Anna; Weber, Sydney; McBride, Jodi

    2015-05-22

    Huntington׳s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the HTT gene (mHTT) encoding the protein huntingtin. An expansion in the gene׳s CAG repeat length renders a misfolded, dysfunctional protein with an abnormally long glutamine (Q) stretch at the N terminus that often incorporates into inclusion bodies and leads to neurodegeneration in many regions of the brain. HD is characterized by motor and cognitive decline as well as mood disorders, with depression being particularly common. Approximately 40% of the HD population suffers from depressive symptoms. Because these symptoms often manifest a decade or more prior to the knowledge that the person is at risk for the disease, a portion of the early depression in HD appears to be a consequence of the pathology arising from expression of the mutant gene. While the depression in HD patients is often treated with serotonin agonists, there is scant experimental evidence that the depression in HD responds well to these serotonin treatments or in a similar manner to how non-HD depression tends to respond. Additionally, at very early sub-threshold depression levels, abnormal changes in several neuronal populations are already detectable in HD patients, suggesting that a variety of brain structures may be involved. Taken together, the serotonin system is a viable candidate. However, at present there is limited evidence of the precise nuclei or circuits that play a role in HD depression. With this in mind, the current study was designed to control for the widespread brain neuropathology that occurs in HD and in transgenic mouse models of HD and focuses specifically on the influence of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The DRN provides the majority of the serotonin to the forebrain and exhibits cell loss in non-HD depression. Therefore, we employed a viral vector delivery system to investigate whether the over-expression of mHTT in the DRN׳s ventral sub-nuclei alone is sufficient to produce

  1. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  2. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Why is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining?

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A.; Neves, Richard J.; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2005-01-01

    Discusses reasons for declining aquatic biodiversity and focuses mainly on the issues of habitat loss, introduced species (aquatic exotics), and water pollution; document also includes web links to more information on exotic, invasive species and endangered animals.

  3. Antiviral therapies against Ebola and other emerging viral diseases using existing medicines that block virus entry [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/52g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging viral diseases pose a threat to the global population as intervention strategies are mainly limited to basic containment due to the lack of efficacious and approved vaccines and antiviral drugs. The former was the only available intervention when the current unprecedented Ebolavirus (EBOV outbreak in West Africa began. Prior to this, the development of EBOV vaccines and anti-viral therapies required time and resources that were not available. Therefore, focus has turned to re-purposing of existing, licenced medicines that may limit the morbidity and mortality rates of EBOV and could be used immediately. Here we test three such medicines and measure their ability to inhibit pseudotype viruses (PVs of two EBOV species, Marburg virus (MARV and avian influenza H5 (FLU-H5. We confirm the ability of chloroquine (CQ to inhibit viral entry in a pH specific manner. The commonly used proton pump inhibitors, Omeprazole and Esomeprazole were also able to inhibit entry of all PVs tested but at higher drug concentrations than may be achieved in vivo. We propose CQ as a priority candidate to consider for treatment of EBOV.

  4. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  5. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  6. Correlation between viral load, plasma levels of CD4 - CD8 T lymphocytes and AIDS-related oral diseases: a multicentre study on 30 HIV+ children in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, M; Carli, E; Giaquinto, C; Rampon, O; Nastasio, S; Giuca, M R

    2012-01-01

    This experimental retrospective multicenter study carried out on 30 seropositive children treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), between the ages of 18 months and 14 years, in the clinical categories Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classification 1993 A (mildly symptomatic), B (moderately symptomatic) and C (severely symptomatic) aims to: 1) clinically and immunologically demonstrate the therapeutic benefits of HAART; 2) monitor the frequency of AIDS-related oral diseases in seropositive children with HAART therapy; 3) monitor the plasma levels of total CD4, CD4 percent, CD8 percent, CD4-CD8 lymphocytes and viral load from 1997 to 30 April, 2011. The statistic methods used are the analysis of covariance and the Bonferroni Test. More than 100 AIDS-related oral diseases were found in the study samples, the most frequent being: oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, HSV-1 herpetic esophagyitis, herpetic gingivolstomatitis (RHOG), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), parotid swelling, oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), Herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1), linear gingival erythema (LGE), necrotizing gingivitis (NUG), facial lipodistrophy, facial-cervical lymphadenopathy (FCL), xerostomia, dysgeusia, hyposmia, oral mucosa hyperpigmentation (OMP). The Bonferroni test showed a significant difference between the mean plasma values (mpVTL) of total CD4, CD4 percentage, CD4-CD8 T lymphocytes and Viral Load (VL) of the various oral diseases found in the study samples. The therapeutic benefits of HAART are: immune reconstitution; reduction of the HIV/AIDS-related stomatology diseases; prevention and cure of the AIDS correlated neoplasias; reduction in maternal-fetal transmission of the HIV virus. The negative effects of HAART in relation to odontostomatolgy are: increase in oral lesions from HPV; xerostomia; dysgeusia/ageusia, hyposmia, perioral paresthesia; hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa; facial lipodystrophy, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). No case of

  7. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  8. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Viral Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of viruses cause central nervous system (CNS) disease, including meningoencephalitis and postinfectious encephalomyelitis, in humans. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is abnormal in >90% of cases; however, routine CSF studies only rarely lead to identification of a specific etiologic agent. Diagnosis of viral infections of the CNS has been revolutionized by the advent of new molecular diagnostic technologies to amplify viral nucleic acid from CSF, including PCR, nucleic acid sequence-ba...

  9. Contaminated Aquatic Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Kendrick

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 relating to the assessment, evaluation and remediation of contaminated aquatic sediments is presented. The review is divided into the following main sections: policy and guidance, methodology, distribution, fate and transport, risk, toxicity and remediation. PMID:27620103

  10. Aquatic Environment 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.; Bijl, L. van der; Boutrup, S.; Iversen, T. M.; Ellermann, T.; Hovmand, M. F.; Bøgestrand, J.; Grant, R.; Hansen, J.; Jensen, J. P.; Stockmarr, J.; Laursen, K. D.

    The report summarizes the results of the Danish Aquatic Monitoring and Assessment Programme 1998-2003. Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2000: NOVA-2003. Programbeskrivelse for det nationale program for overvågning af vandmiljøet 1998-2003. 397 pp. - Redegørelse fra Miljøstyrelsen nr. 1 (in...

  11. Strategy for Treating Motor Neuron Diseases Using a Fusion Protein of Botulinum Toxin Binding Domain and Streptavidin for Viral Vector Access: Work in Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Balasubramanian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA have suggested attractive treatment strategies, delivery of agents to motor neurons embedded within the spinal cord is problematic. We have designed a strategy based on the specificity of botulinum toxin, to direct entry of viral vectors carrying candidate therapeutic genes into motor neurons. We have engineered and expressed fusion proteins consisting of the binding domain of botulinum toxin type A fused to streptavidin (SAv. This fusion protein will direct biotinylated viral vectors carrying therapeutic genes into motor nerve terminals where they can enter the acidified endosomal compartments, be released and undergo retrograde transport, to deliver the genes to motor neurons. Both ends of the fusion proteins are shown to be functionally intact. The binding domain end binds to mammalian nerve terminals at neuromuscular junctions, ganglioside GT1b (a target of botulinum toxin, and a variety of neuronal cells including primary chick embryo motor neurons, N2A neuroblastoma cells, NG108-15 cells, but not to NG CR72 cells, which lack complex gangliosides. The streptavidin end binds to biotin, and to a biotinylated Alexa 488 fluorescent tag. Further studies are in progress to evaluate the delivery of genes to motor neurons in vivo, by the use of biotinylated viral vectors.

  12. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  13. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  14. Molecular Tracing of Viral Pathogen in Aquaculture (MOLTRAQ): a new EMIDA project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. Bang; Aldrin, M.; Avarre, M. C.; Bergmann, S. M.; Bigarre, L.; Brun, E.; Jansen, P. A.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Renault, T.; Schuetze, H.

    2012-01-01

    consortium management; WP 2: Collection of virus sequences and epidemiological data; WP 3: Phylogeny and evolution of viruses; WP 4: Investigation of the effect of temperature on gene expression patterns; WP 5: Scenario simulation models for control options and WP 6: Dissemination and exploitation. Partners...... generic approach to viral disease control by using information on epidemiological and phylogenetic attributes from several important aquatic animal viruses. The project will i) generate and use spatio-temporal epidemiological data, phylogeographic data and gene expression data for important host...... Recherche pour le Développement (FR) and Norwegian Computing Center (NO). The project began on April 1st, 2012, and will run until March 31st, 2015. The total budget is 1.9€, of which 1.4€ is funded via the EMIDA-ERA Net....

  15. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV strains worldwide.Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population.This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain information about both genome segments of IBDV for

  16. The application of 5% Imiquimod Cream in viral skin diseases%5%咪喹莫特乳膏在病毒性皮肤病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文青; 吴玉清; 潘继升

    2014-01-01

    5%咪喹莫特乳膏( Imiquimod Cream)是一种外用免疫调节药物。近年来,其适用范围不断扩大,特别是在病毒性皮肤病及皮肤肿瘤方面得到了广泛的临床应用,并取得了较好的疗效。本文对5%咪喹莫特乳膏在常见病毒性皮肤病中的临床应用及作用机制予以综述。%5% Imiquimod cream is a kind of topical immunomodulatory medicine, the indications of which have been expanding continuously in recent years. 5% Imiquimod cream was clinically proved to be effective in the use of viral skin diseases or skin tumors. The clinical application and mechanism of 5% Imiquimod cream in the treatment of common viral skin diseases were reviewed in this paper.

  17. Aquatic Ecology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population studies were concerned with predicting long-term consequences of mortality imposed on animal populations by man's activities. These studies consisted of development of a generalized life cycle model and an empirical impingement model for use in impact analysis. Chemical effects studies were conducted on chlorine minimization; fouling by the Asiatic clam; identification of halogenated organics in cooling water; and effects of halogenated organics in cooling systems on aquatic organisms. Ecological transport studies were conducted on availability of sediment-bound 137Cs and 60Co to fish; 137Cs and 60Co in White Oak Lake fish; and chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers. Progress is also reported on the following: effects of irradiation on thermal tolerance of mosquito fish; toxicity of nickel to the developing eggs and larvae of carp; accumulation of selected heavy metals associated with fly ash; and environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems

  18. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  19. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  1. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Katakura; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Kiyoe Hashizume; Chiaki Okuse; Noriaki Okuse; Kohji Nishikawa; Michihiro Suzuki; Shiro Iino; Fumio Itoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis.

  2. Surveillance of Fish Diseases in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R-Pärnänen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing importance of disease problems in the fish farming industry and the impact disease may have on both feral and farmed fish in the Nordic countries, monitoring and surveillance on diseases have for many years been considered to be of socioeconomic importance. All the Nordic countries have a national legislation as basis for their surveillance and disease control in aquatic animals and regulations listing notifiable diseases of concern to the countries. The list of diseases vary between the countries. In addition, Denmark, Finland and Sweden are ruled by 3 as regards placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products. The surveillance for viral diseases in all the Nordic countries has mainly been based on the testing procedures given in the EU Commission 2.

  3. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events-United States, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-d...

  4. Effect of amino acid mutation at position 127 in 3A of a rabbitattenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1 on viral replication and infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiguo; Xin; Mingwang; Zhu; Qi; Hu; Haisheng; Miao; Zhenqi; Peng; Yuwen; He; Lin; Gao; Huachun; Li

    2014-01-01

    An amino acid mutation(R127→I) in the 3A non-structural protein of an FMDV serotype Asia1 rabbit-attenuated ZB strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. To explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine(I) was changed to arginine(R) in the infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit-attenuated ZB strain by sitedirected mutagenesis, and the R127-mutated virus was rescued. BHK monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated with the R127-mutated virus to test its growth property and pathogenicity, respectively. The effects of the R127 mutation on viral replication and virulence were analyzed. The data showed that there was a slight difference in plaque morphology between the R127-mutated and wild-type viruses. The growth rate of the mutated virus was lower in BHK-21 cells and its virulence in suckling mice was also attenuated. This study indicates that the R127 mutation in 3A may play an important role in FMDV replication in vitro and in pathogenicity in suckling mice.

  5. DEFINITION AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIRAL DNA VIRUSES OF THE FAMILY HERPESVIRIDAE IN ORAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY AND DYSTROPHIC-INFLAMMATORY PERIODONTAL DISEASE, ASSOCIATED WITH PERSISTENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosovets T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lesions of periodontal herpesvirus is a complex process and is carried out by direct viral infection and replication, or due to virus-induced changes in the immune system. The prevalence of dystrophic and inflammatory lesions parodonta in the population; the complexity in the implementation of prevention and treatment of disease, and the ambiguity in the interpretation of the basic pathogenetic mechanisms (interrelated inflammatory, immune and metabolic makes this issue extremely important in medicine. Our aim was to detect viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection. Material and methods. PCR and ELISA was performed detection and identification of viral DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae in oral fluid of patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease, associated with persistent herpes virus infection. I examined 290 patients with inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory periodontal disease (catarrhal gingivitis, generalized periodontitis (CP and the initial and degree and, depending on the presence or absence of persistent HVI divided them into groups. Within the study was conducted immunological study of 170 patients with pathology of periodontal tissues infected by viruses of the family Herpesviridae (Experimental (I group. Results. As a result of the survey it was found that 170 (52.79 % patients had relatively persistent HVI of virus and made D (I group. 42.21 % of patients had persistent HVI available and made the comparison group (II. Conclusions 1.\tDuring the polymerase chain reaction (PCR in oral fluid of 170 patients of the main group reproduction HVI was detected only in 38.82 % of subjects: the herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 and 2 – in 26.46 % of patients; on Epstein Barr virus (EBV – 1.76 %; the cytomegalovirus (CMV – in 10.58 % of patients

  6. Viral load of patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Carla María; Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2015-11-01

    Hantavirus causes severe illness including pneumonia, which leads to hospitalization and often death. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms, are involved. The aim of this study was to correlate viral load in samples of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and hantavirus infected individuals, with clinical epidemiological parameters and disease outcome. The variables that could potentially be related with viral load were analyzed. The retrospective study included 73 cases or household contacts, with different clinical evolution. Viral load was measured by reverse-transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant association between blood viral RNA levels and severity of disease. However, viral load was inversely correlated with IgG response in a statistically significant manner. The level of viral RNA was significantly higher in patients infected with Andes virus South lineage, and was markedly low in persons infected with Laguna Negra virus. These results suggest that the infecting viral genotype is associated with disease severity, and that high viral load is associated with a low specific IgG response. Sex, age and disease severity were not related with viral load. Further investigations increasing strikingly the number of cases and also limiting the variables to be studied are necessary. PMID:26087934

  7. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Greenhil, A R; Hedlefs, R; Skerratt, L F

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common causes of significant morbidity and mortality events of wild aquatic birds (WABs) worldwide. Reports of Australian events are infrequent. A 3-yr passive surveillance program investigating the common causes of morbidity and mortality of WABs was conducted at Billabong Sanctuary near Townsville, North Queensland, from April 2007 to March 2010. Forty-two carcasses were obtained and evaluated by clinico-pathologic, histologic, bacteriologic, and virologic (molecular) examinations. Morbidity and mortality were sporadic and more commonly observed in chicks and juvenile birds in April than other months of the year. Morbid birds were frequently unable to walk. Hemorrhagic lesions and infiltration of lymphocytes in various organs were the most common findings in dead birds. Identified bacterial diseases that could cause bird mortality were colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, and salmonellosis. Salmonella serotypes Virchow and Hvittingfoss were isolated from an Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca) chick and two juvenile plumed whistling ducks (Dendrocygna eytoni) in April 2007. These strains have been previously isolated from humans in North Queensland. A multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) detected Newcastle disease viral RNA (class 2 type) in one adult Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) and a juvenile plumed whistling duck. No avian influenza viral RNA was detected from any sampled birds by the rRT-PCR for avian influenza. This study identified the public health importance of Salmonella in WABs but did not detect the introduction of the high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus in the population. A successful network was established between the property owner and the James Cook University research team through which dead birds, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. There is an opportunity for establishing a long-term passive disease surveillance program for WABs in North

  8. Viral marketing on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTVERÁK, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  9. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  10. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  11. Evidence for herpes simplex viral latency in the human cornea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, S. B.; Lynas, C.; Patterson, A.; Risk, J. M.; McCarthy, K.; Hart, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for prior herpes simplex keratitis (group A) and corneal disease unrelated to herpes simplex (group B) were investigated to assess whether the cornea is a site for herpes simplex viral latency. All patients were seropositive for herpes simplex viral antibody. Virus was isolated from the tear film postoperatively in one patient and on cocultivation from the cornea of another patient. Herpes simplex viral DNA, however, was detected in the corneas of ...

  12. Fatal case of acute gastroenteritis with multiple viral coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Julien; Morel-Baccard, Christine; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Germi, Raphaële; Pothier, Pierre; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    We report a fatal case of acute gastroenteritis in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Multiple viral coinfections were detected by PCR in the patient's stool and digestive biopsy specimens. As viral detection is not necessarily associated with symptomatic disease, a semi-quantitative approach using cycle treshold values was proposed for the clinical interpretation of PCR. We discuss whether concomitant viral infections could be a risk factor for severe outcome in gastroenteritis cases. Individual risk factors are also addressed. PMID:26655270

  13. Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice C Chen; Miller, Steve A.; Joseph L DeRisi; Chiu, Charles Y.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral causes of many infectious diseases is difficult due to the inherent sequence diversity of viruses as well as the ongoing emergence of novel viral pathogens, such as SARS coronavirus and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, that are not detectable by traditional methods. To address these challenges, we have previously developed and validated a pan-viral microarray platform called the Virochip with the capacity to detect all known viruses as well as novel variants on the b...

  14. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R; Schwartz, T W

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  15. Tool use by aquatic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool ...

  16. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed. PMID:27060566

  17. Viral Encephalitis and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The role of viral meningitis in the cause of epilepsy is reviewed by researchers from Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India; and University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  18. Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  19. The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease II; viral pathways in swine, small ruminants, and wildlife, myotropism, chronic syndromes, and molecular virus-host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has focused on study of the disease in cattle with less emphasis on pigs, small ruminants, and wildlife. “Atypical” FMD-associated syndromes such as myocarditis, reproductive losses, and chronic heat-intolerance have also received lit...

  20. Effect of selection for resistance and susceptibility to viral diseases on concentrations of dopamine and immunological parameters in six-week-old chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Leghorn chickens were inbred respectively from their parent lines, which were diversely selected for resistance (line 63) or susceptibility (lines 72 and 15I5) to Marek's disease and lymphoid leukosis. The differences in disease resistance may have been due to differential regulations of immun...

  1. Field trial in commercial broilers with a multivalent in ovo vaccine comprising a mixture of live viral vaccines against Marek's disease, infectious bursal disease, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y

    2002-01-01

    A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry. PMID:12243525

  2. Environmental bacteriophages : viruses of microbes in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TélesphoreSIME - NGANDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery 2-3 decades ago that viruses of microbes are abundant in marine ecosystems, viral ecology has grown increasingly to reach the status of a full scientific discipline in environmental sciences. A dedicated ISVM society, the International Society for Viruses of Microorganisms (http://www.isvm.org/, was recently launched. Increasing studies in viral ecology are sources of novel knowledge related to the biodiversity of living things, the functioning of ecosystems, and the evolution of the cellular world. This is because viruses are perhaps the most diverse, abundant, and ubiquitous biological entities in the biosphere, although local environmental conditions enrich for certain viral types through selective pressure. They exhibit various lifestyles that intimately depend on the deep-cellular mechanisms, and are ultimately replicated by members of all three domains of cellular life (Bacteria, Eukarya, Archaea, as well as by giant viruses of some eukaryotic cells. This establishes viral parasites as microbial killers but also as cell partners or metabolic manipulators in microbial ecology. The present chapter sought to review the literature on the diversity and functional roles of viruses of microbes in environmental microbiology, focusing primarily on prokaryotic viruses (i.e. phages in aquatic ecosystems, which form the bulk of our knowledge in modern environmental viral ecology.

  3. 内蒙古地区奶牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病血清流行病学调查%Serum Epidemiology Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrhea-mucosal Disease in Inner Mongolia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智勇; 石顺利; 王艳杰; 陈德浩; 李平安; 关平原

    2014-01-01

    应用ELLSA试验对来自内蒙古地区17个大﹑中﹑小型奶牛场的2391份牛血清样品进行了牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病抗体检测,并对其中222份抗体阴性牛应用ELISA试验进行牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病的抗原检测。结果表明:17个奶牛场均检出BVDV抗体阳性,共检出阳性血清2125份,阳性率最高达100%,最低为46.8%,平均为88.9%。对14个奶牛场进行了BVDV抗原检测,在5个奶牛场检出BVDV抗原阳性,阳性率为3.6%(8/222)。表明内蒙古地区奶牛场普遍存在牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病感染,感染率较高,并且牛群中存在持续性感染(PI)牛。%2 391 bovine serum samples were collected from 17 dairy farms of Inner Mongolia to detect the antibody level of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease by ELISA. The antigen detection of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease was made on 222 antibody-negative serum samples by ELISA. The results showed that positive BVDV antibody was detected in 17 dairy farms. And there were 2 125 positive serum samples,and the highest positive rate was 100%and the lowest positive rate was 46.8%and the average positive rate was 88.9%. BVDV antigens in 14 dairy farms were detected and that in 5 dairy farms were positive. The positive rate was 3.6%(8/222). It was shown that the bovine viral diarrhea generally existed in dairy farms of Inner Mongolia with higher infection rate. And persistent infection (PI) cattle were existed in cow herd.

  4. The application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology in viral infection diseases%CRISPR-Cas9基因编辑技术在病毒感染疾病治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷利眷; 胡斯奇; 郭斐

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic re-peats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome engineering in eukaryotic cells. The specific targeted genome is recognized and cut by gRNA-directed CRISPR/Cas9 complex, specifically by the endonuclease Cas9. The targeted gene locus could be repaired either by homology-directed repair or nonhomologous end joining, thus achieving a desired editing outcome. Viruses infect cells through specific receptors, and then the viral genome is transcribed, replicated and translated to complete its life cycle. As a result, some DNA virus and re-trovirus genomes are integrated into the cellular genome. Gene therapy is a new trend to treat viral infected diseases. Given its designable sequence-specific editing of the targeted genome, CRISPR/Cas9 has tremendous potential in treating persistent and latent viral infections. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and progresses of CRISPR/Cas9, and also highlight its therapeutic application in infectious diseases.%CRISPR-Cas9基因编辑技术是基于细菌或古细菌CRISPR介导的获得性免疫系统衍生而来,由一段RNA通过碱基互补配对识别 DNA,指导 Cas9 核酸酶切割识别的双链 DNA,诱发同源重组或非同源末端链接,进而实现在目的DNA上进行编辑.病毒通过特异的受体侵染细胞,其基因组在细胞内发生复制、转录、翻译等过程完成其生活周期,某些DNA病毒或逆转录病毒基因组会整合到宿主基因组中.基因治疗是病毒感染疾病治疗的新趋势.因此,基因编辑技术在持续感染的病毒或潜伏感染病毒疾病治疗中具有重大的潜在意义.文章主要从CRISPR-Cas9作用机制以及在病毒感染疾病治疗中的应用等方面进行了综述.

  5. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  6. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  7. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  8. Tool use by aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Patterson, Eric M

    2013-11-19

    Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors. Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes. Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals (and their products) and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods. In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. PMID:24101631

  9. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: Clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed F.; Dodd, Lori; Yellayi, Srikanth; Gu, Wenjuan; Cann, Jennifer A.; Jett, Catherine; Bernbaum, John G.; Ragland, Dan R.; Claire, Marisa St.; Byrum, Russell; Paragas, Jason; Blaney, Joseph E.; Jahrling, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (SHFV) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. SHFV is a BSL-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of SHFV pathogenesis in non-human primates (NHPs) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses. Here we describe the pathogenesis of SHFV in rhesus macaques inoculated with doses ranging from 50 PFU to 500,000 PFU. Disease...

  10. Evidence of a deep viral host switch event with beak and feather disease virus infection in rainbow bee-eaters (Merops ornatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Sarker; Kathy G. Moylan; Ghorashi, Seyed A.; Forwood, Jade K; Andrew Peters; Raidal, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the characterization of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) in 1984, a wide range of avian circoviruses have been discovered with varying pathogenic effects amongst a diverse range of avian hosts. Until recently these circovirus species were thought to be restricted to within avian Orders such as the Psittaciformes for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and Columbiformes for pigeon circovirus with little evidence of cross-family transmission or replication. We report evidence ...

  11. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials. PMID:26119294

  12. Does Viral Marketing really Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Ho-shen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we examine the effectiveness of viral marketing toward young adults since the majority of Internet users are in this age group. It is also noted that we will only focus on video type of viral messages, which is the most common way to utilized viral marketing for firms. We will discuss how viral video influence consumer behavior in terms of brand images, brand choice, user experience and working memory in this paper. Our results illustrated viral video helps major...

  13. Exposures from aquatic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods for estimation aquatic pathways contribution to the total population exposure are discussed. Aquatic pathways are the major factor for radionuclides spreading from the Chernobyl Exclusion zone. An annual outflow of 90Sr and 137Cs comprised 10-20 TBq and 2-4 TBq respectively and the population exposed by this effluence constitutes almost 30 million people. The dynamic of doses from 90Sr and 'Cs, which Dnieper water have to delivered, is calculated. The special software has been developed to simulate the process of dose formation in the of diverse Dnieper regions. Regional peculiarities of municipal tap, fishing and irrigation are considered. Seventy-year prediction of dose structure and function of dose forming is performed. The exposure is estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses due to the use of water by ordinary members of the population in Kiev region from 90Sr and 137Cs in 1986 are 1.7*10-5 Sv and 2.7*10-5 Sv respectively. A commercial fisherman on Kiev reservoir in 1986 received 4.7*10-4 Sv and 5*10-3 Sv from 90Sr and 137Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective cumulative (over 70 years) committed effective dose (CCCED70) of irrigation, municipal tap water and fish consumption for members of the population respectively are 18%, 43%, 39% in Kiev region, 8%, 25%, 67% in Poltava region, and 50%, 50%, 0% (consumption of Dnieper fish is absent) in the Crimea. The predicted contribution of the Strontium-90 to CCCED70 resulting from the use of water is 80%. The CCCED70 to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3000 person-Sv due to the use the Dnieper water

  14. GRP78/Dna K Is a Target for Nexavar/Stivarga/Votrient in the Treatment of Human Malignancies, Viral Infections and Bacterial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane L; Tavallai, Mehrad; Nourbakhsh, Aida; Fidanza, Abigail; Cruz-Luna, Tanya; Smith, Elizabeth; Siembida, Paul; Plamondon, Pascale; Cycon, Kelly A; Doern, Christopher D; Booth, Laurence; Dent, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Prior tumor cell studies have shown that the drugs sorafenib (Nexavar) and regorafenib (Stivarga) reduce expression of the chaperone GRP78. Sorafenib/regorafenib and the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) to further rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as single agents to reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data were obtained in tumor cells in vitro and in drug-treated mice for: HSP70, mitochondrial HSP70, HSP60, HSP56, HSP40, HSP10, and cyclophilin A. Prolonged 'rafenib/sildenafil treatment killed tumor cells and also rapidly decreased the expression of: the drug efflux pumps ABCB1 and ABCG2; and NPC1 and NTCP, receptors for Ebola/Hepatitis A and B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with the 'Rafenib/sildenafil combination reduced expression of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 Adenovirus or Coxsackie virus B4 to infect and to reproduce. Sorafenib/pazopanib and sildenafil was much more potent than sorafenib/pazopanib as single agents at preventing Adenovirus, Mumps, Chikungunya, Dengue, Rabies, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Enterovirus 71 infection and reproduction. 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib as single agents killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli which was associated with reduced Dna K and Rec A expression. Marginally toxic doses of 'Rafenib drugs/pazopanib restored antibiotic sensitivity in pan-antibiotic resistant bacteria including multiple strains of blakpc Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, Dna K is an antibiotic target for sorafenib, and inhibition of GRP78/Dna K has therapeutic utility for cancer and for bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25858032

  15. GRP78/Dna K Is a Target for Nexavar/Stivarga/Votrient in the Treatment of Human Malignancies, Viral Infections and Bacterial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBERTS, JANE L.; TAVALLAI, MEHRAD; NOURBAKHSH, AIDA; FIDANZA, ABIGAIL; CRUZ-LUNA, TANYA; SMITH, ELIZABETH; SIEMBIDA, PAUL; PLAMONDON, PASCALE; CYCON, KELLY A.; DOERN, CHRISTOPHER D.; BOOTH, LAURENCE; DENT, PAUL

    2016-01-01

    Prior tumor cell studies have shown that the drugs sorafenib (Nexavar) and regorafenib (Stivarga) reduce expression of the chaperone GRP78. Sorafenib/regorafenib and the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib (Votrient) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) to further rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as single agents to reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data were obtained in tumor cells in vitro and in drug-treated mice for: HSP70, mitochondrial HSP70, HSP60, HSP56, HSP40, HSP10, and cyclophilin A. Prolonged ‘rafenib/sildenafil treatment killed tumor cells and also rapidly decreased the expression of: the drug efflux pumps ABCB1 and ABCG2; and NPC1 and NTCP, receptors for Ebola/Hepatitis A and B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with the ‘Rafenib/sildenafil combination reduced expression of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 Adenovirus or Coxsackie virus B4 to infect and to reproduce. Sorafenib/pazopanib and sildenafil was much more potent than sorafenib/pazopanib as single agents at preventing Adenovirus, Mumps, Chikungunya, Dengue, Rabies, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and Enterovirus 71 infection and reproduction. ‘Rafenib drugs/pazopanib as single agents killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli which was associated with reduced Dna K and Rec A expression. Marginally toxic doses of ‘Rafenib drugs/pazopanib restored antibiotic sensitivity in pan-antibiotic resistant bacteria including multiple strains of blakpc Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, Dna K is an antibiotic target for sorafenib, and inhibition of GRP78/Dna K has therapeutic utility for cancer and for bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25858032

  16. Evidence of a deep viral host switch event with beak and feather disease virus infection in rainbow bee-eaters (Merops ornatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Subir; Moylan, Kathy G; Ghorashi, Seyed A; Forwood, Jade K; Peters, Andrew; Raidal, Shane R

    2015-01-01

    Since the characterization of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) in 1984, a wide range of avian circoviruses have been discovered with varying pathogenic effects amongst a diverse range of avian hosts. Until recently these circovirus species were thought to be restricted to within avian Orders such as the Psittaciformes for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and Columbiformes for pigeon circovirus with little evidence of cross-family transmission or replication. We report evidence of a naturally occurring novel host switch event with self-limiting BFDV infection in a group of rainbow bee-eaters (Merops ornatus) a species of Coraciiformes unrelated to parrots and not previously known to be susceptible to any avian circovirus. The outbreak highlights important and unexpected aspects of disease emergence and host-switching pertinent to other situations when viruses might cross species boundaries as well as the potential of avian circoviruses to infect disparate host species. PMID:26411487

  17. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  18. Genome-wide characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) provides new insight into viral diseases in honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Jung, Je Won; Park, Doori; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Shin, Sang-Yoon; Shin, Chanseok; Yang, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of RNAs that do not encode proteins. Recently, lncRNAs have gained special attention for their roles in various biological process and diseases. Results In an attempt to identify long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and their possible involvement in honey bee development and diseases, we analyzed RNA-seq datasets generated from Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) and western honey bee (Apis mellifera). We identified 2470 lincRNAs with an a...

  19. LARGE ANIMAL PARKINSONS DISEASE MODELS USING VIRAL VECTORS AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS TO MEDIATE ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN OVEREXPRESSION AND MISFOLDING IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, A.M.; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg; Bjarkam, C.R.; Brooks, David; Kirik, Deniz; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2015-01-01

    Animal models towards understanding and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM), fits progressional neurological models due to an relative low adult weight between 20-40 kg, and has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x 5...... quantified by neurological tests (behavior, scoring and gait), conventional and preclinical PET scanning modalities, autoradiography and post mortem histological evaluation. Results: Studies are still ongoing and data is being collected. First results from LV methods shoved "prove of concept" on gait and...... as antiaggreganttreatment, induced pluripotent stem cells or immunotherapy and development of novel radioligands for early diagnosis and assess disease progression....

  20. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of viral diarrhea in children of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Latipov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of an estimation of the contribution of virus activators in the etiological structure of acute intestinal infections in children during the rise of prevalence of acute intestinal infections from 2009 to 2011 there were studied 1050 children admitted to the hospital with diarrheal diseases. It is established, that acute intestinal infections have a viral nature in 56.67% of cases. Thus the leading role belongs to rotaviruses and adenoviruses. Infectious agents of diarrheal diseases are rotaviruses in 28.1 % of cases, adenoviruses - in 17.05 %, and astroviruses - in 11.43 %. The viral monoinfections occur more often, than mixed-infections. The rise of sporadic diseases of viral diarrhea was characterized by seasonal prevalence. For intestinal infections of viral etiology the seasonal rise in a cold season with peak of the rate of diseases of rotaviral infection in April, adenoviral infection in November, and astroviral infection in December is characteristic.

  2. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  3. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglotic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) charact...

  4. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag® temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  5. Interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A with host protein DCTN3 is important for viral virulence in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular ...

  6. Early detection and visualization of human adenovirus serotype 5-viral vectors carrying foot-and-mouth disease virus or luciferase transgenes in cell lines and bovine tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vaccines containing capsid-coding regions from foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been demonstrated to induce effective immune responses and provide homologous protective immunity against FMDV in cattle. However, basic mechanisms ...

  7. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  8. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Maiko; Miki, Takeshi; Takimoto, Gaku

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 10(1) to 10(9) spores L(-1). When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the "mycoloop," may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans. PMID:24795703

  9. Mycoloop: chytrids in aquatic food webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko eKagami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are ecologically significant in various ecosystems through their role in shaping food web structure, facilitating energy transfer, and controlling disease. Here in this review, we mainly focus on parasitic chytrids, the dominant parasites in aquatic ecosystems, and explain their roles in aquatic food webs, particularly as prey for zooplankton. Chytrids have a free-living zoosporic stage, during which they actively search for new hosts. Zoospores are excellent food for zooplankton in terms of size, shape, and nutritional quality. In the field, densities of chytrids can be high, ranging from 101-109 spores L-1. When large inedible phytoplankton species are infected by chytrids, nutrients within host cells are transferred to zooplankton via the zoospores of parasitic chytrids. This new pathway, the ‘mycoloop,’ may play an important role in shaping aquatic ecosystems, by altering sinking fluxes or determining system stability. The grazing of zoospores by zooplankton may also suppress outbreaks of parasitic chytrids. A food web model demonstrated that the contribution of the mycoloop to zooplankton production increased with nutrient availability and was also dependent on the stability of the system. Further studies with advanced molecular tools are likely to discover greater chytrid diversity and evidence of additional mycoloops in lakes and oceans.

  10. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  11. Detection of goldfish haematopoietic necrosis herpes virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus-2) with multi-drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish: First evidence of any viral disease outbreak in ornamental freshwater aquaculture farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P K; Swaminathan, T Raja; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar; Kumar, Raj; Pattanayak, S; Mohapatra, A; Rath, S S; Patra, Avijit; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Sood, Neeraj; Pradhan, P K; Das, B K; Jayasankar, P; Jena, J K

    2016-09-01

    This outbreak report details of a mortality event where Cyprinid herpes virus-2 (CyHV-2) was detected in association with multidrug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila infection in goldfish, Carassius auratus, from commercial farms. The goldfish exhibited large scale haemorrhages on the body, fins and gills, lepidorthosis, necrosed gills, protruded anus and shrunken eyes. White nodular necrotic foci in spleen and kidneys were noticed, along with necrosis and fusion of gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues revealed the presence of mature virus particles. Involvement of CyHV-2 was confirmed by PCR, sequencing and observed cytopathic effect in koi carp fin cell line along with experimental infection study. A bacterium isolated from the internal organs of affected fish was found to be pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila having resistance to more than 10 classes of antibiotics. We postulate that CyHV-2 was the primary etiological agent responsible for this outbreak with secondary infection by A. hydrophila. The experimental infection trials in Labeo rohita and koi carp by intraperitoneal challenge with CyHV-2 tissue homogenates failed to reproduce the disease in those co-cultured fish species. This is the first report of a viral disease outbreak in organised earthen ornamental fish farms in India and bears further investigation. PMID:27172876

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Cattle in Indonesia and its Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2011-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...

  13. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Delannoy Christian MJ; Crumlish Margaret; Fontaine Michael C; Pollock Jolinda; Foster Geoff; Dagleish Mark P; Turnbull James F; Zadoks Ruth N

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmi...

  14. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. PMID:26163194

  15. Zoonotic Viral Deseases and Virus Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel

    Viruses are the most abundant organisms on earth and are ubiquitous in all environments where life is present. They are capable of infecting all cellular forms of life, sometimes causing disease in the infected host. This thesis is broadly divided into two main sections with three projects...... representing work on viruses that are transmitted between humans and animals, and 3 three projects describing the search for (novel) viruses or a viral association in human diseases with no known cause. Common for all projects was the need for employing a range of different molecular tools examples of such...... program of wildlife, and with the purpose of preventing the next disease emerging from these animals. Numerous viruses were detected of which many were novel variants, thus reaffirming the notion that attention should be focused at these animals. Near-complete viral genome sequencing was performed in...

  16. WATERBORNE VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the study of human gastroenteritis, the use of electron microscopy and related techniques has led to the identification of new viral agents which had previously escaped detection by routine cell-culture procedures. Efforts to characterize and further study these agents are cur...

  17. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  18. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  19. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  20. Transporting Ocean Viromes: Invasion of the Aquatic Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of marine viromes (viral metagenomes) have revealed that DNA viruses are highly diverse and exhibit biogeographic patterns. However, little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses, which are mostly composed of eukaryotic viruses, and their biogeographic patterns in the oceans. A growth in global commerce and maritime traffic may accelerate spread of diverse and non-cosmopolitan DNA viruses and potentially RNA viruses from one part of the world to another. Here, we demonstrated through metagenomic analyses that failure to comply with mid-ocean ballast water exchange regulation could result in movement of viromes including both DNA viruses and RNA viruses (including potential viral pathogens) unique to geographic and environmental niches. Furthermore, our results showed that virus richness (known and unknown viruses) in ballast water is associated with distance between ballast water exchange location and its nearest shoreline as well as length of water storage time in ballast tanks (voyage duration). However, richness of only known viruses is governed by local environmental conditions and different viral groups have different responses to environmental variation. Overall, these results identified ballast water as a factor contributing to ocean virome transport and potentially increased exposure of the aquatic bioshpere to viral invasion. PMID:27055282

  1. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  2. 皮肤性病相关病毒性疫苗研究进展%Viral vaccines associated with dermatoses and venereal diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂艳; 邓列华

    2010-01-01

    人乳头瘤病毒疫苗、带状疱疹病毒疫苗、人类免疫缺陷病毒疫苗和单纯疱疹病毒疫苗的研究取得一定的进展,这将对皮肤性病的预防产生影响,获得较好的预防效果,并且可以减轻4种病毒感染所致疾病的医疗负担.为此,对一些新的人乳头瘤病毒疫苗和带状疱疹病毒疫苗的疗效和安全性试验以及艾滋病疫苗和单纯疱疹病毒疫苗的新进展进行概述.%Progress has been made in the research of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV),herpes zoster virus (HZV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV), which will benefit the prevention of some dermatoses and venereal diseases, and reduce the healthcare burden associated with diseases caused by the four viruses. This review describes recent advances in studies on efficacy and safety of vaccines against HPV and HZV, and in development of vaccines against HIV and HSV.

  3. Molecular Identification of Avian Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks with Respiratory Disease in Shiraz-Iran During 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mehrabanpour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease and avian influenza A viruses (AIV have been responsible for serious losses in the Iran poultry industry. During 2009-2010 the poultry industry in Fars province faced an almost heavy loss that was characterized by mild and in some flocks high mortality and respiratory distress. The aim of this study was designed to clarify the roles of the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and AIV singly and jointly by RT-PCR assay in recent outbreak in Fars province in Iran. During the period of this study a total 44 commercial broiler flocks with high mortality in Fras province were visited. Samples were collected from chickens with respiratory distress. To identify AIV and NDV by RT-PCR we used specific primers based on conserved sequences of the NP gene, HA gene and F gene. The results show, that out of 18 samples were positive for NDV, 6 for AIV and 18 flocks were infected with both NDV and AIV and 2 flocks of these were negative for AIV and NDV. It is most likely that flocks used in this study were also naturally exposed to a virulent strain of NDV which is why the vaccines were not covered. The high rates of AIV in broiler flocks in this study, confirms the endemic nature of AIV (H9N2 in Fars province.

  4. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt E. Williamson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond, RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities.

  5. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  6. Newcastle disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  7. Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1 virus survival in complex artificial aquatic biotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viseth Srey Horm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Very little is known regarding the persistence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 viruses in aquatic environments in tropical countries, although environmental materials have been suggested to play a role as reservoirs and sources of transmission for H5N1 viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The survival of HPAI H5N1 viruses in experimental aquatic biotopes (water, mud, aquatic flora and fauna relevant to field conditions in Cambodia was investigated. Artificial aquatic biotopes, including simple ones containing only mud and water, and complex biotopes involving the presence of aquatic flora and fauna, were set up. They were experimentally contaminated with H5N1 virus. The persistence of HPAI H5N1 virus (local avian and human isolates was determined by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and by real-time reverse-polymerase chain reaction. Persistence of infectious virus did not exceed 4 days, and was only identified in rain water. No infectious virus particles were detected in pond and lake water or mud even when high inoculum doses were used. However, viral RNA persisted up to 20 days in rain water and 7 days in pond or lake water. Viral RNA was also detected in mud samples, up to 14 days post-contamination in several cases. Infectious virus and viral RNA was detected in few cases in the aquatic fauna and flora, especially in bivalves and labyrinth fish, although these organisms seemed to be mostly passive carriers of the virus rather than host allowing virus replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although several factors for the survival and persistence of HPAI viruses in the environment are still to be elucidated, and are particularly hard to control in laboratory conditions, our results, along with previous data, support the idea that environmental surveillance is of major relevance for avian influenza control programs.

  8. A Sativex®-like combination of phytocannabinoids as a disease-modifying therapy in a viral model of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliú, A; Moreno-Martet, M; Mecha, M; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; de Lago, E; Fernández-Ruiz, J; Guaza, C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sativex® is an oromucosal spray, containing equivalent amounts of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)-botanical drug substance (BDS), which has been approved for the treatment of spasticity and pain associated to multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated whether Sativex may also serve as a disease-modifying agent in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease model of MS. Experimental Approach A Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids and each phytocannabinoid alone were administered to mice once they had established MS-like symptoms. Motor activity and the putative targets of these cannabinoids were assessed to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. The accumulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and astrogliosis were assessed in the spinal cord and the effect of Sativex on CSPGs production was evaluated in astrocyte cultures. Key Results Sativex improved motor activity – reduced CNS infiltrates, microglial activity, axonal damage – and restored myelin morphology. Similarly, we found weaker vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 staining and IL-1β gene expression but an up-regulation of arginase-1. The astrogliosis and accumulation of CSPGs in the spinal cord in vehicle-infected animals were decreased by Sativex, as was the synthesis and release of CSPGs by astrocytes in culture. We found that CBD-BDS alone alleviated motor deterioration to a similar extent as Sativex, acting through PPARγ receptors whereas Δ9-THC-BDS produced weaker effects, acting through CB2 and primarily CB1 receptors. Conclusions and Implications The data support the therapeutic potential of Sativex to slow MS progression and its relevance in CNS repair. PMID:25857324

  9. The VP1 S154D mutation of type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus enhances viral replication and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Liu, Huanan; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Liu, Xiangtao; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-04-01

    One of the proteins encoded by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the VP1 protein, a capsid protein, plays an important role in integrin receptor attachment and humoral immunity-mediated host responses. The integrin receptor recognition motif and an important antigenic epitope exist within the G-H loop, which is comprised of amino acids 134-160 of the VP1 protein. FMDV strain, Asia1/HN/CHA/06, isolated from a pig, was passaged four times in suckling mice and sequenced. Sequencing analyses showed that there was a mutation of the integrin receptor recognition motif Arg-Gly-Asp/Arg-Asp-Asp (RGD/RDD, VP1 143-145) and a VP1 154 serine/Asp (VP1 S154D) mutation in the G-H loop of the VP1 protein. The influence of the RGD/RDD mutation on Asia1 FMDV disease phenotype has been previously studied. In this study, to determine the influence of the VP1 S154D mutation on FMDV Asia1 replication and pathogenicity, two recombinant FMDVs with different residues only at the VP1 154 site were rescued by reverse genetics techniques and their infectious potential in host cells and pathogenicity in pigs were compared. Our data indicates that the VP1 S154D mutation increases the replication level of FMDV Asia1/HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21, IB-RS-2, and PK-15 cells and enhances pathogenicity in pigs. Through the transient transfection-infection assay to compare integrin receptor usage of two recombinant viruses, the result shows that the VP1 S154D mutation markedly increases the ability of type Asia1 FMDV to use the integrin receptors αυβ6 and αυβ8 from pig. This study identifies a key research target for illuminating the role of residues located at G-H loop in FMDV pathogenicity. PMID:26792712

  10. Aetiology of diarrhoeal disease and evaluation of viral-bacterial coinfection in children under 5 years old in China: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L L; Liu, N; Humphries, E M; Yu, J M; Li, S; Lindsay, B R; Stine, O C; Duan, Z J

    2016-04-01

    Globally, diarrhoeal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under 5 years old. Few case-control studies on the aetiology of diarrhoea have been conducted in China. A case-control study on 922 children under 5 years old who presented with diarrhoea and individually matched controls was conducted in China between May 2011 and January 2013. Quantitative PCR was used to analyze stool samples for 10 diarrhoeal pathogens. Potential enteric pathogens were detected in 377 (81.8%) of 461 children with diarrhoea and 215 controls (46.6%, p Shigella and adenovirus were qualitatively associated with diarrhoea. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the optimal cutoff threshold for defining a symptomatic individual was 72, 5840, and 10(4) copies per reaction for rotavirus (odds ratio 259), norovirus GII (odds ratio 10.6) and Shigella (odds ratio 5.1). The attributable fractions were 0.18 for rotavirus, 0.08 for norovirus GII, 0.01 for Shigella and 0.04 for adenovirus. Coinfections between pathogens were common. Two pairs, rotavirus and adenovirus, and norovirus GII and Salmonella were positively associated. The co-occurrence of rotavirus and sapovirus, astrovirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni only occurred in children with disease. Coinfection was not correlated with clinical symptoms. Quantitative data are critical. Our results indicate that increased pathogen loads increase the OR between diarrhoea and rotavirus, norovirus GII and Shigella. Coinfections with rotavirus and norovirus GII are common and occur in a nonrandom distribution. Despite testing for ten diarrhoeal pathogens, over two-thirds of cases do not have a recognized attributable cause. PMID:26724990

  11. Comparison of stability of viral nucleic acid in different tissues and under different conditions in samples collected from fetuses infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...

  12. An Investigation of Main Viral Disease Infections Causing Reproductive Failure in 4 Dairy Farms%奶牛场主要病毒性繁殖障碍疫病感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉江; 李静; 苏贵成; 屈勇刚; 曹树珠; 李岩

    2015-01-01

    Objective] To investigate main viral disease infection causing reproductive failure in 4 dairy farms, reveal its pathogenic role by further etiology study,and lay a foundation for the development of prevention and control measures.[Method] 248 samples,including tissues of lung,liver,spleen,kidney,lymph nodes,etc from miscarriages or stillbirth,nasal swab and ear tissue from calves with pneumonia ,stool from calves with diarrhea, colostrum and frozen semen were collected from four scale dairy farms for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV),bovine parainfluenza virus 3(BPIV-3)and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus(IBRV)by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR/PCR . [Result] The results showed that the infection rate of BVDV,BPIV-3 and IBRV were 11.29%(28/248),10.00%(18/180)and 9.26%(15/162),respectively.[Conclusion] The survey indicated that it was existence of the three viral infection in 4 dairy farms.The results would provide epidemiological data for the diseases prevention and control in scale dairy farms.%[目的]调查4个奶牛场主要病毒性繁殖障碍疫病的感染情况,为进一步进行病原学研究,揭示其致病作用,以及为制定防治措施奠定基础。[方法]选取4个规模化奶牛场,采集死胎、流产胎儿的肺、肝、脾、肾、淋巴结等组织,伴有肺炎症状犊牛的鼻拭子和耳组织,腹泻犊牛粪便,初乳以及冻精样品,共计248份。采用实时荧光RT-PCR/PCR检测方法,对牛病毒性腹泻/黏膜病病毒(BVDV)、牛副流感病毒3型(BPIV-3)、牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒(IBRV)进行检测。[结果]发现BVDV、BPIV-3、IBRV的总阳性率分别为11.29%(28/248)、10.00%(18/180)、9.26%(15/162)。[结论]这4个奶牛场存在BVDV、BPIV-3、IBRV的感染,调查结果为规模化奶牛场繁殖障碍类主要病毒性疫病的防控提供了流行病学数据。

  13. The need for aquatic pollution studies in Kenyan inland waters

    OpenAIRE

    Onyari, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The need for baseline data on pollution studies to the aquatic biota of Kenyan Inland waters is of profound importance. Aware of the possible contamination of the rivers and Lakes with heavy metals, pesticides and other pollutants used around them for the control of tropical diseases and treatment of agricultural crops, a monitoring programme is necessary.

  14. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, J; Piesik, P; Hershberger, P K; Garver, K A

    2013-09-27

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes. PMID:23838146

  15. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  16. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes viral hepatitis? Clinical Trials What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and adenovirus. [ Top ] What are the symptoms of viral hepatitis? Symptoms include jaundice, which causes a yellowing of ...

  17. Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

    2009-01-01

    Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity...

  18. Transport of viral specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, F. B.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral infections by culture relies on the collection of proper specimens, proper care to protect the virus in the specimens from environmental damage, and use of an adequate transport system to maintain virus activity. Collection of specimens with swabs that are toxic to either virus or cell culture should be avoided. A variety of transport media have been formulated, beginning with early bacteriological transport media. Certain swab-tube combinations have proven to be both e...

  19. Engineering influenza viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Zeng, Mingtao

    2013-01-01

    The influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a negative-sense, segmented RNA genome. Construction of recombinant influenza viruses in the laboratory was reported starting in the 1980s. Within a short period of time, pioneer researchers had devised methods that made it possible to construct influenza viral vectors from cDNA plasmid systems. Herein, we discuss the evolution of influenza virus reverse genetics, from helper virus-dependent systems, to helper virus-independent 17-plasmid sys...

  20. Detection of nucleic acids in Borna disease virus in patients with viral encephalitis%临床病毒性脑炎标本的博尔纳病病毒核酸检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚能云; 徐平; 郭振元

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨临床病毒性脑炎(viral encephalitis,VE)患者与博尔纳病病毒(Borna disease virus,BDV)感染的关系,分析BDV感染的病毒性脑炎患者临床特征.方法 用荧光定量巢式逆转录聚合酶链反应(FQ-nRT-PCR)方法检测病毒性脑炎患者及非感染性疾病施行蛛网膜下腔阻滞麻醉的手术患者脑脊液单个核细胞(cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cell,CSFMC)中BDV p24基因片段,同时用β-肌动蛋白(β-actin)作为内参照,脑脊液(CSF)阳性标本基因测序分析并总结出临床特征.结果 32例病毒性脑炎脑脊液标本BDV p24基因片段检出率为12.5%(4/32),拷贝数>102/μl.对其中一份CSF阳性标本测序后,与BDV标准病毒株Ⅴ和马源的BDV病毒株H1766序列比较同源性分别为95.35%和98.84%.在4个位点出现基因突变(nt1649 T→C、nt1656 G→A、nt1670 C→T、nt1676 C→T).该目的基因片段与马源的BDV病毒株亲缘关系最近.阳性脑炎患者主要以精神行为异常为临床特征.结论 贵州省遵义市部分病毒性脑炎的发生与BDV感染有关,主要以精神行为异常为临床特征.%Objective To explore the relationship between viral encephalitis(VE)and Borna disease virus(BDV)infection,and discuss the clinical features of viral encephalitis patients infected by BDV.Methods The p24 gene fragment of BDV in cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells(CSFMC)from 32 patients with viral encephaliris and 34 healthy individuals were examined by fluorescence quantitative nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(FQ-nRT-PCR),in which, β-actin was used as internal reference. The clinical manifestations of patients with positive BDV p24 were watched. And the gene sequence,homology and amino acid sequence of positive products were analyzed. Results The positive rate(4/32,12.5%)of BDV p24 in CSFMC of patients with viral encephalitis was significantly higher than that of healthy individuals(0/34,0%),P<0.05,and the numbers of copies of

  1. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  2. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  3. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  4. DYNAMICS OF VIRAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binay KURULTAY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have heightened the debate on convergence where technologies, corporations and people [target audiences] meet. New media has become a new meeting place and a social platform for people. As more brands choose to employ relationship marketing strategies that emphasize consumer’s experience with the brand, it is inevitable that they explore opportunities to connect with their target audiences in this new meeting place. Thus, user-created content and electronic word of mouth [eWOM] have become important concepts for influential and noteworthy advertising campaigns in this new medium. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamics of viral marketing campaigns and to identify the strategies that make viral advertising successful. International cases, such as brand applications of 3D Mapping Projections are used to understand the relationship between cutting-edge digital art and their use in advertisements. Recent Turkish viral ad campaigns such as Profilo’s “O Tabak Bitecek!” [Finish everything on your plate] and Turkish Airlines Miles and Smiles’ “İnanılmaz Evlenme Teklifi” [Unbelievable Proposal] disseminated through social networks are used as cases to identify the message strategies used in making these advertisements successful.

  5. Mitochondrial dynamics and viral infections: A close nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohsin; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kim, Seong-Jun; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2015-10-01

    Viruses manipulate cellular machinery and functions to subvert intracellular environment conducive for viral proliferation. They strategically alter functions of the multitasking mitochondria to influence energy production, metabolism, survival, and immune signaling. Mitochondria either occur as heterogeneous population of individual organelles or large interconnected tubular network. The mitochondrial network is highly susceptible to physiological and environmental insults, including viral infections, and is dynamically maintained by mitochondrial fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics in tandem with mitochondria-selective autophagy 'mitophagy' coordinates mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitochondrial dynamics impacts cellular homeostasis, metabolism, and innate-immune signaling, and thus can be major determinant of the outcome of viral infections. Herein, we review how mitochondrial dynamics is affected during viral infections and how this complex interplay benefits the viral infectious process and associated diseases. PMID:25595529

  6. El potencial de la inmunomodulación con anticuerpos monoclonales anti-CD137 (4-1BB para terapia de enfermedades malignas e infecciones virales crónicas The immunotherapy potential of agonistic anti-CD137 (4-1BB monoclonal antibodies for malignancies and chronic viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alfaro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La manipulación farmacológica del sistema inmunitario para conseguir respuestas linfocitarias de mayor intensidad tiene aplicación potencial en inmunoterapia tumoral y en el tratamiento de enfermedades virales crónicas. Los anticuerpos monoclonales inmunoestimuladores se definen como una familia de fármacos que aumentan la respuesta inmunitaria al interaccionar como ligandos artificiales con proteínas funcionales del sistema inmunitario, activando o inhibiendo su función. Hay anticuerpos monoclonales humanizados dirigidos frente al receptor inhibidor linfocitario CD152 (CTLA-4 que se están probando en ensayos clínicos con evidencia de actividad antitumoral, aunque con la contrapartida de producir reacciones autoinmunitarias severas. Los anticuerpos anti-CD137 tienen la capacidad de inducir potentes respuestas inmunitarias, mediadas principalmente por linfocitos T citotóxicos, con el resultado de erradicar tumores transplantables de ratón de forma comparativamente superior a los anticuerpos frente a CD152. CD137 (4-1BB es un antígeno de diferenciación expresado selectivamente en la superficie de linfocitos T y NK activados y sobre células dendríticas. Los anticuerpos monoclonales que actúan como ligandos artificiales estimuladores de este receptor (anticuerpos monoclonales agonistas anti-CD137 potencian la inmunidad celular antitumoral y antiviral en modelos experimentales murinos. Paradójicamente, estos mismos anticuerpos previenen o mejoran el curso de enfermedades autoinmunitarias establecidas en ratones como modelo. A la luz de estos datos experimentales, varios grupos de investigación han procedido a la humanización de anticuerpos dirigidos frente a CD137 humano y se plantea la inminente realización de los primeros ensayos clínicos.Pharmacological intervention on the immune system to achieve more intense lymphocyte responses has potential application in tumour immunology and in the treatment of chronic viral diseases

  7. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone Infection prevention and control guidance for care of Ebola patients Publications, technical guidance on Ebola Related topics Dengue Disease outbreaks Infectious diseases Tropical diseases Yellow fever ...

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Egyptian Children with Sickle Cell Disease and the Role of IL28b Gene Polymorphisms in Spontaneous Viral Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Somaia Mohammed; El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Gouda, Heba; Khorshied, Mervat; El-Salam Ahmed, Dina Abd; Shiba, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem in Egypt with its prevalence estimated to be 14.7% among the general population in 2008. Patients receiving frequent blood transfusions like those with sickle cell disease (SCD) are more exposed to the risk of acquiring HCV. IL28B gene polymorphisms have been associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among children with SCD and to investigate the relation between IL28B gene polymorphisms and spontaneous HCV clearance. Methods Seventy SCD patients were screened for HCV antibody. HCV-positive patients were tested for the level of HCV RNA using quantitative real-time PCR. IL28B polymorphisms (rs 12979860 SNP and rs 12980275 SNP) were detected using TaqMan QRT-PCR and sequence-specific primers PCR respectively. Results Sixteen patients (23%) were HCV antibody positive, 9 of them (56.3%) had undetectable HCV RNA in serum, and 7 (43.7%) had persistent viremia. Genotypes CC/CT/TT of rs12979860 were found in 30 (42.9%), 29 (41.4%) and 11 (15.7%) patients and rs12980275 AA/AG/GG were found in 8 (11.4%), 59 (84.3%) and 3 (4.3%) patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of IL28B (rs 12979860 and rs12980275) genotypes among HCV patients who cleared the virus and those with persistent viremia (p=0.308 and 0.724 respectively). Conclusion Egyptian SCD patients have a high prevalence of HCV. Multi-transfused patients still exposed to the risk of transmission of HCV. IL28B gene polymorphismsare not associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in this cohort of Egyptian children with SCD. PMID:26740868

  9. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products

  10. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  11. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the tritium released from nuclear facilities into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates, fish, and food chain studies, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near that of the external medium. Incorporation of tritium from triated water into the organic matter of cells is at a slower rate than incorporation into the tissue free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the 'carrier' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher tropic levels. Radiation doses to large populations of humans from tritium releases will most likely be from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products. (author)

  12. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR as a tool for assessment of marine viral richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, Danielle M; Wommack, K Eric

    2008-05-01

    Recent discoveries have uncovered considerable genetic diversity among aquatic viruses and raised questions about the variability of this diversity within and between environments. Studies of the temporal and spatial dynamics of aquatic viral assemblages have been hindered by the lack of a common genetic marker among viruses for rapid diversity assessments. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR bypasses this obstacle by sampling at the genetic level without requiring viral isolation or previous sequence knowledge. In this study, the utility of RAPD-PCR for assessing DNA viral richness within Chesapeake Bay water samples was evaluated. RAPD-PCR using single 10-mer oligonucleotide primers successfully produced amplicons from a variety of viral samples, and banding patterns were highly reproducible, indicating that each band likely represents a single amplicon originating from viral template DNA. In agreement with observations from other community profiling techniques, resulting RAPD-PCR banding patterns revealed more temporal than spatial variability in Chesapeake Bay virioplankton assemblages. High-quality hybridization probes and sequence information were also easily generated from single RAPD-PCR products or whole reactions. Thus, the RAPD-PCR technique appears to be practical and efficient for routine use in high-resolution viral diversity studies by providing assemblage comparisons through fingerprinting, probing, or sequence information. PMID:18344351

  13. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  14. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    combined a simple mechanistic model and empirical measurements on artificially structured macroalgal communities (Ulva lactuca) with varying thallus absorptance and community density. Predicted and measured values corresponded closely and revealed that gross production in high-light environments...... that inefficient distribution of light can account for the low community production rates in aquatic habitats and the depth distribution of form-functional groups of macroalgae with different canopy structure.......-dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we...

  15. Prevalence of acute and chronic viral seropositivity and characteristics of disease in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with cyclosporine: a post hoc analysis from a sex point of view on the observational study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Sergio Chimenti,2 Paolo Antonio Grossi,3 Antonio Marchesoni,4 Federico Bardazzi,5 Fabio Ayala,6 Lucia Simoni,7 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Gilberto Bellia1 On behalf of SYNERGY Study Group 1Novartis Farma Italia, Origgio (VA, 2Tor Vergata Polyclinic Rome, 3Macchi Hospital and Foundation, Varese, 4Orthopaedic Institute Pini, Milan, 5S Orsola-Malpighi Polyclinic, Bologna, 6University Federico II Naples, 7MediData srl, Modena, Italy Background: Sex medicine studies have shown that there are sex differences with regard to disease characteristics in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, in immune response and susceptibility to viral infections. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Observational Study of infectious events in psoriasis complicated by active psoriatic arthritis (SYNERGY study in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA treated with immunosuppressive regimens including cyclosporine, in order to evaluate potential between-sex differences in severity of disease and prevalence of viral infections.Methods: SYNERGY was an observational study conducted in 24 Italian dermatology clinics, which included 238 consecutively enrolled patients with PsA, under treatment with immunosuppressant regimens including cyclosporin A. In this post hoc analysis, patients' demographical data and clinical characteristics of psoriasis, severity and activity of PsA, prevalence of seropositivity for at least one viral infection, and treatments administered for PsA and infections were compared between sexes.Results: A total of 225 patients were evaluated in this post hoc analysis, and 121 (54% were males. Demographic characteristics and concomitant diseases were comparable between sexes. Statistically significant sex differences were observed at baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (higher in males, mean number of painful joints, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, and the global activity of disease

  16. Viral and radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies included under this project are concerned with basic biological and biochemical indices that may aid in the detection and understanding of the primary effects of radiation insult and the initiation of the observed malignancies. A primary objective is to determine the role of virus in radiation-induced malignancies and in the process to identify those changes which might serve to monitor the oncogenic process. This report includes in vitro studies of the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of 244Pu, cell-mediated immunity in beagles exposed to 238PuO2 and characterization of a porcine radiation-induced viral DNA polymerase

  17. Advances of Studies on the Viral Proteins of PRRSV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao; Zongxi; Shi; Zhihai; Lin; Zhemin; Jiao; Peirong; Zhang; Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome( PRRS) is one of viral diseases with severe reproductive obstacle of pregnant sows and respiratory tract symptoms and higher mortality of piglets as characteristics,which is caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus( PRRSV). PRRS has brought great threats to swine industry in the world. The advances of studies on the viral proteins of PRRSV were reviewed from the genome,non-structural proteins and structural proteins of PRRSV.

  18. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  19. The viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine Is a potent inhibitor of in vitro Zika virus replication and delays disease progression in a robust mouse infection model

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Zmurko; Marques, Rafael E; Dominique Schols; Erik Verbeken; Kaptein, Suzanne J. F.; Johan Neyts

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV ...

  20. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Duas amostras brasileiras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 foram inoculadas em bezerros com o objetivo de avaliar a sua virulência e estudar a patogenia da infecção. Previamente à inoculação, os animais foram imunodeprimidos com dexametasona. Quatro bezerros com idades entre 45 e 90 dias (grupo A foram inoculados com a amostra SV-260 (n=2 ou LV-96 (n=2 e quatro bezerros com 6 a 8 meses de idade foram inoculados com a amostra SV-260 (grupo B. Após a inoculação, os bezerros do grupo A apresentaram anorexia, depressão, hipertermia, sinais de infecção respiratória e diarréia profusa, acompanhada de melena em dois animais. Os sinais respiratórios e digestivos progrediram, e os animais morreram ou foram sacrificados in extremis entre os dias 7 e 12 pós-inoculação. Úlceras e erosões no trato digestivo (língua, n=4; esôfago, n=1; rúmen, n=1 e abomaso, n=3, edema pulmonar (n=4 e na mucosa do abomaso (n=3; equimoses e sufusões na serosa do baço (n=2, no rúmen, no intestino delgado e no ceco (n=1, no coração (n=1 e na mucosa da bexiga (n=1 e intussuscepção intestinal (n=1 foram os achados macroscópicos mais marcantes. Úlceras e erosões, acompanhadas de infiltrado mononuclear na mucosa e submucosa do trato digestivo e depleção linfóide nos linfonodos e placas de Peyer, foram as alterações microscópicas mais freqüentes. O vírus foi detectado em vários tecidos e órgãos. Antígenos virais foram demonstrados por imuno-histoquímica, principalmente em células epiteliais do trato digestivo; em células mononucleares nos espaços perivasculares e peribronquiais; na cápsula e septos de linfonodos; e em linfócitos e células mononucleares das placas de Peyer e baço. Os animais do grupo B apresentaram depressão, hipertermia, sinais moderados de infecção respiratória e digestiva, ulcerações na língua e bochecha, mas recuperaram-se após alguns dias. Esses resultados demonstram que as amostras de

  1. Aquatic Plants and Lake Ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jan; Květ, Jan

    Oxford : Blackwell Science Ltd, 2003 - (O´Sullivan, P.; Reynolds, C.), s. 309-340 ISBN 0-632-04797-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Aquatic macrophytes * green algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Macrophytes: Ecology of aquatic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornette, G.; Puijalon, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic plants contribute to maintaining key functions and related biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems, and to provide the needs of human societies. The way the ecological niches of macrophytes are determined by abiotic filters and biotic ones is considered. A simple, broadly applicable model of t

  3. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area. PMID:27295893

  4. Ebola viral disease: a review literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed; Reza; Jamali; Moghadam; Negar; Omidi; Samaneh; Bayrami; Sepideh; Jamali; Moghadam; SeyedAhmad; SeyedAlinaghi

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 to 7 d and approximately95% of the patients appear signs within 21 d after exposure. Typical features include fever,profound weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, cramping, nausea and vomiting for 3-5days and maybe persisting for up to a week. Laboratory complications including elevated aminotransferase levels, marked lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia may have occurred.Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than half of patients and it takes place most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms progress over the time and patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. The most general assays used for antibody detection are direct IgG and IgM ELISAs and IgM capture ELISA. An IgM or rising IgG titer(four-fold) contributes to strong presumptive diagnosis. Currently neither a licensed vaccine nor an approved treatment is available for human use. Passive transfer of serum collected from survivors of Junin virus or Lassa virus, equine IgG product from horses hypervaccinated with Ebola virus, a "cocktail"of humanized-mouse antibodies(ZMapp), recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor,activated protein C, RNA-polymerase inhibitors and small interfering RNA nano particles are among the therapies in development. Preclinical evaluation is also underway for various vaccine candidates. One is a chimpanzee adenovirus vector vaccine; other vaccines involve replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus.

  5. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees are one of the most important insects useful to human beings. They provide us with several biological products such as honey and wax, but more importantly carries out the invaluable laborious work of pollination. The honey bee industry in Europe and elsewhere has been plagued by recently introduced pests such as varroa mites and subsequent rise of viruses which has resulted in widespread decline of bee population. Of the numerous pathogens of honey bees that are being studied, viru...

  6. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  7. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  8. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racsa, Lori D; Kraft, Colleen S; Olinger, Gene G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-15

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  9. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H

    2015-09-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973

  10. Viral infections, prevalence and costs: A5-year, hospital based, retrospective observational study in shiraz, iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients suffering from viral infections attend to health care centers. Data gathered from viral infections is limited to specific cases such as AIDS, viral hepatitis and Influenza. There is a significant lack of reliable documentation about other viral infections. In this study the prevalence and related costs of viral infections in hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. In this cross-sectional study the data were extracted from files of 1319 patients with viral infection admitted in two university hospitals during a five year period (1999-2004). The frequencies of different viral infections along with their demographic data were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 29.24 with the range of 90 years. Hospitalization days were 8636 in 40 different wards in two hospitals. US$ 30.84 was the daily mean cost for each admitted patient. Viral meningitis was most frequent (14.2%) and 8.4% of patients died during hospitalization. This study confirms the necessity of expanding management programs for viral infections especially hepatitis B in youths in Iran. Unspecified viral infections cost much more than specified viral diseases. Viral infection costs can be reduced by finding more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods. (author)

  11. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  12. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  13. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  14. Unbiased Parallel Detection of Viral Pathogens in Clinical Samples by Use of a Metagenomic Approach▿‡

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Ren, Lili; Xiong, Zhaohui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yongfeng; Du, Jiang; Wang, Jianwei; Jin, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Viral infectious diseases represent a major threat to public health and are among the greatest disease burdens worldwide. Rapid and accurate identification of viral agents is crucial for both outbreak control and estimating regional disease burdens. Recently developed metagenomic methods have proven to be powerful tools for simultaneous pathogen detection. Here, we performed a systematic study of the capability of the short-read-based metagenomic approach in the molecular detection of viral p...

  15. Description of viral assemblages associated with the Gorgonia ventalina holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, I.; Brown, J. M.; Burge, C. A.; Couch, C. S.; LaBarre, B. A.; Mouchka, M. E.; Naito, M.; Harvell, C. D.

    2012-06-01

    The diversity and function of viruses in coral holobionts has only recently received attention. The non-reef building gorgonian octocoral, Gorgonia ventalina, is a major constituent of Caribbean reefs. We investigated viral communities associated with G. ventalina tissues to understand their role in gorgonian ecology. Pyrosequencing was used to prepare a total of 514,632 sequence reads of DNA- and RNA-based mixed-community viral genomes (metaviromes). RNA viral assemblages were comprised of primarily unidentifiable reads, with most matching host transcripts and other RNA metaviromes. DNA metaviromes were similar between healthy and diseased tissues and comprised of contiguous sequences (contigs) that matched primarily metazoan and bacterial proteins. Only ~5% of contigs matched viral proteins that were primarily cyanophage and viruses of Chlorella and Ostreococcus. Our results confirm that DNA and RNA viruses comprise a component of the gorgonian holobiont, suggesting that they may play a role in the ecology of G. ventalina.

  16. Pre-natal Aquatic Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Frias, Ana; Serra, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Water, a source of well-being, peace, fullness, freedom and harmony. For quite some time now, water is sought after for its renowned benefits in terms of relieving the physical and emotional changes which commonly occur during pregnancy. Objectives: 1) Describe the process of intervention, arising from the use of the aquatic environment in prenatal preparation 2) Relate the gains in health from prenatal preparation aquatica Method: Descriptive creating and applying a prep...

  17. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  18. Carcinogenic hazards in aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical characterization of contaminants in bottom sediments from the Great Lakes in western New York (Lake Erie) was carried out by applying reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to fractions derived by routine organic extraction and separation methods. A comparison of the chromatograms from the sediments with those from analogous fractions isolated from tissue samples of aquatic biota showed correlations in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition. In the HPLC analysis of fractions isolated from sediment, Tubifex worms, aquatic snails, and fish tissue samples clearly indicated a characteristic PAH ''fingerprint' in all segments of the aquatic food chain. The patterns of horizontal distribution of the relative PAH levels indicated a point source of the pollution in the Buffalo River. Feral fish population samples showed several kinds of lesions that appear to be neoplasms. The histology of these lesions is described, and the significance of the data in terms of a possible human health hazard is discussed.

  19. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2’-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zmurko, Joanna; Marques, Rafael E.; Schols, Dominique; Verbeken, Erik; Kaptein, Suzanne J. F.; Neyts, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2’-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV ...

  20. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delannoy Christian MJ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26, seals (n = 6, a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host

  1. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  2. Spread of the Emerging Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Strain, Genotype IVb, in Michigan, USA

    OpenAIRE

    James Winton; Mohamed Faisal; Thomas, Michael V.; Martha Wolgamood; Schulz, Carolyn A; Winters, Andrew D; Alaa Eissa; Gunn, Michelle R.; Gary E. Whelan; Millard, Elena V.; Megan Shavalier; Kim, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) emerged in the Laurentian Great Lakes causing serious losses in a number of ecologically and recreationally important fish species. Within six years, despite concerted managerial preventive measures, the virus spread into the five Great Lakes and to a number of inland waterbodies. In response to this emerging threat, cooperative efforts between the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MI DNR), the Michigan State University Aquatic Animal...

  3. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  4. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. How are hemorrhagic ... exist that can protect against these diseases. Therefore, prevention efforts must concentrate on avoiding contact with host ...

  5. THE KEY VIRAL PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  6. A Systematic Approach to Elucidate Causes of Gastroenteritis Outbreaks of Suspected Viral Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Svraka-Latifovic, Sanela

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to investigate the etiology of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis that remained without diagnosis after testing for common viral pathogens causing gastroenteritis, e.g. noroviruses, rotaviruses, sapoviruses, adenoviruses, and astroviruses. No causative pathogen could be detected in over 10% of these outbreaks. Viral gastroenteritis is about the most frequent disease in humans and this unexplained fraction concerns about 150000 cases in the Net...

  7. DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment: Viral load is insufficient with few exceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Jain

    2009-01-01

    In DNA-guided hepatitis B treatment, viral load is insufficient, and requires other viral markers for treatment of hepatitis B patients as in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, end-stage renal disease on dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. There are exceptions to this rule: a residual level hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA at 24 wk predicts beneficial outcome and reduced resistance at 1 year. The genotypic viral resistance to antiviral agents and occu...

  8. Recombinant Glycoprotein Vaccines for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Their Effects on Viral Quasispecies

    OpenAIRE

    Essajee, Shaffiq M.; Yogev, Ram; Pollack, Henry; Greenhouse, Bryan; Krasinski, Keith; Borkowsky, William

    2002-01-01

    In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), specific immunity is associated with a more diverse viral repertoire and slower disease progression. Attempts to enhance antiviral immunity with therapeutic vaccination have shown that recombinant glycoprotein (RGP) vaccines are safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, but the effect of RGP vaccines on the viral repertoire is unknown. We evaluated diversification of the viral envelope in 12 HIV-infected children who recei...

  9. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  10. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  11. Lymphocyte subpopulation in acute viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, U; Sehgal, S.; Pal, S. R.; Dhall, K; Singh, S.; Datta, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed in 41 patients with acute viral hepatitis, in grade III-IV coma; 16 patients were in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were significant reductions in absolute lymphocyte count and T cell number in patients who succumbed to the disease, when compared with those who survived. B cell counts were similar in the two groups and migration inhibition test with BCG antigen was normal. It is postulated that a decrease in the number of cells i...

  12. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2'-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zmurko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7DMA efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out mice with ZIKV resulted in acute neutrophilic encephalitis with viral antigens accumulating in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, high levels of viral RNA were detected in the spleen, liver and kidney, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 were systematically increased in serum of ZIKV-infected mice. Interestingly, the virus was also detected in testicles of infected mice. In line with its in vitro anti-ZIKV activity, 7DMA reduced viremia and delayed virus-induced morbidity and mortality in infected mice, which also validates this small animal model to assess the in vivo efficacy of novel ZIKV inhibitors. Since AG129 mice can generate an antibody response, and have been used in dengue vaccine studies, the model can also be used to assess the efficacy of ZIKV vaccines.  .

  13. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2'-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmurko, Joanna; Marques, Rafael E; Schols, Dominique; Verbeken, Erik; Kaptein, Suzanne J F; Neyts, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2'-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV resulted in acute neutrophilic encephalitis with viral antigens accumulating in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, high levels of viral RNA were detected in the spleen, liver and kidney, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 were systematically increased in serum of ZIKV-infected mice. Interestingly, the virus was also detected in testicles of infected mice. In line with its in vitro anti-ZIKV activity, 7DMA reduced viremia and delayed virus-induced morbidity and mortality in infected mice, which also validates this small animal model to assess the in vivo efficacy of novel ZIKV inhibitors. Since AG129 mice can generate an antibody response, and have been used in dengue vaccine studies, the model can also be used to assess the efficacy of ZIKV vaccines.  . PMID:27163257

  14. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2’-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmurko, Joanna; Marques, Rafael E.; Schols, Dominique; Verbeken, Erik; Kaptein, Suzanne J.F.; Neyts, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus typically causing a dengue-like febrile illness, but neurological complications, such as microcephaly in newborns, have potentially been linked to this viral infection. We established a panel of in vitro assays to allow the identification of ZIKV inhibitors and demonstrate that the viral polymerase inhibitor 7-deaza-2’-C-methyladenosine (7DMA) efficiently inhibits replication. Infection of AG129 (IFN-α/β and IFN-γ receptor knock-out) mice with ZIKV resulted in acute neutrophilic encephalitis with viral antigens accumulating in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, high levels of viral RNA were detected in the spleen, liver and kidney, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 were systematically increased in serum of ZIKV-infected mice. Interestingly, the virus was also detected in testicles of infected mice. In line with its in vitro anti-ZIKV activity, 7DMA reduced viremia and delayed virus-induced morbidity and mortality in infected mice, which also validates this small animal model to assess the in vivo efficacy of novel ZIKV inhibitors. Since AG129 mice can generate an antibody response, and have been used in dengue vaccine studies, the model can also be used to assess the efficacy of ZIKV vaccines.   PMID:27163257

  15. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  16. Geochemical Interactions and Viral-Prokaryote Relationships in Freshwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J. E.; Ferris, G.

    2009-05-01

    Viral and prokaryotic abundances were surveyed throughout southern Ontario aquatic habitats to determine relationships with geochemical parameters in the natural environment. Surface water samples were collected from acid mine drainage in summer of 2007 and 2008 and from circum-neutral pH environments in October to November 2008. Site determination was based on collecting samples from various aquatic habitats (acid mine drainage, lakes, rivers, tributaries, wetlands) with differing bedrock geology (limestone and shale dominated vs granitic Canadian Shield) to obtain a range of geochemical conditions. At each site, measurements of temperature, pH, and Eh were conducted. Samples collected for microbial counts and electron imaging were preserved to a final concentration of 2.5 % (v/v) glutaraldehyde. Additional sample were filtered into 60 mL nalgene bottles and amber EPA certified 40 mL glass vials to determine chemical constituents and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively. Water was also collected to determine additional physiochemical parameters (dissolved total iron, ferric iron, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity). All samples were stored at 4 °C until analysis. Viral and prokaryotic abundance was determined by staining samples with SYBR Green I and examining with a epifluorescence microscope under blue excitation. Multiple regression analysis using stepwise backwards regression and general linear models revealed that viral abundance was the most influential predictor of prokaryotic abundance. Additional predictors include pH, sulfate, phosphate, and magnesium. The strength of the model was very strong with 90 % of the variability explained (R2 = 0.90, p correlated with the exception of Mg, which is negatively correlated. Iron was also noted as a contributor to prokaryotic abundance but given the elements strong multicollinearity with sulfate, iron was removed from the model (as sulfate acts more conservatively across the range of p

  17. Viral outbreaks and communicable health hazards due to devastating floods in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Umar; Piracha, Zahra Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country that has a population of 190 million people and faces a huge burden of viral diseases. Every year during monsoon season heavy rain fall and lack of disaster management skills potentially increase the transmission of waterborne diseases, vector borne diseases and viral outbreaks. Due to severe flooding, thousands of people lose their lives and millions are displaced each year. In most of the cases the children who lose their family members are forced into illeg...

  18. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  19. Informing the Front Line about Common Respiratory Viral Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteland, Per H; Samore, Matthew H; Pavia, Andrew T; Srivastava, Rajendu; Korgenski, Kent; Gerber, Kristine; Daly, Judy A; Mundorff, Michael B; Rolfs, Robert T; James, Brent C.; Byington, Carrie L.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of clinical medicine is to focus on individuals rather than the populations from which they originate. This orientation can be problematic in the context of acute healthcare delivery during routine winter outbreaks of viral respiratory disease where an individual’s likelihood of viral infection depends on knowledge of local disease incidence. The level of interest in and perceived utility of community and regional infection data for front line clinicians providing acute care is unclear. Based on input from clinicians, we developed an automated analysis and reporting system that delivers pathogen-specific epidemic curves derived from a viral panel that tests for influenza, RSV, adenovirus, parainfluenza and human metapneumovirus. Surveillance summaries were actively e-mailed to clinicians practicing in emergency, urgent and primary care settings and posted on a web site for passive consumption. We demonstrated the feasibility and sustainability of a system that provides both timely and clinically useful surveillance information. PMID:18693841

  20. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Cepko, Constance L; Born, Richard T; Beier, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic spread, and extending

  1. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  2. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  3. Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic Macrophyte, Azolla

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L.; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The us...

  4. Cell substrates for the production of viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrit, Françoise; Perugi, Fabien; Léon, Arnaud; Guéhenneux, Fabienne; Champion-Arnaud, Patrick; Lahmar, Mehdi; Schwamborn, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for centuries to protect people and animals against infectious diseases. For vaccine production, it has become evident that cell culture technology can be considered as a key milestone and has been the result of decades of progress. The development and implementation of cell substrates have permitted massive and safe production of viral vaccines. The demand in new vaccines against emerging viral diseases, the increasing vaccine production volumes, and the stringent safety rules for manufacturing have made cell substrates mandatory viral vaccine producer factories. In this review, we focus on cell substrates for the production of vaccines against human viral diseases. Depending on the nature of the vaccine, choice of the cell substrate is critical. Each manufacturer intending to develop a new vaccine candidate should assess several cell substrates during the early development phase in order to select the most convenient for the application. First, as vaccine safety is quite naturally a central concern of Regulatory Agencies, the cell substrate has to answer the regulatory rules stringency. In addition, the cell substrate has to be competitive in terms of viral-specific production yields and manufacturing costs. No cell substrate, even the so-called "designer" cell lines, is able to fulfil all the requested criteria for all viral vaccines. Therefore, the availability of a variety of cell substrates for vaccine production is essential because it improves the chance to successfully respond to the current and future needs of vaccines linked to new emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (e.g. pandemic flu, Ebola, and Chikungunya outbreaks). PMID:26187258

  5. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der;

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected and...

  6. Aquatic plants clean wastewater lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Water weeds that grow profusely in warm tropical and subtropical regions have always been considered a nuisance; current research is focusing on methods to cull benefits from such aquatic proliferations. Weeds, especially the water hyacinth, are proving to be useful in the purification of wastewater lagoons. The plants extract inorganic and organic toxicants from the effluent. Hyacinths employed in experiments conducted in Puerto Rico are removed from the lagoons to prevent overcrowding. This harvest is sent through a digester to produce methane. (2 diagrams, 3 photos)

  7. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  8. Radioactivity in the Canadian aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of radionuclides arising from natural anthropogenic processes as well as technologically enhanced natural radiation are discussed. Transport, distribution and behaviour of these radionuclides in aquatic systems are influenced by physical, chemical, biological and geological processes and conditions in freshwater and marine environments. Dosimetry of aquatic organisms, as well as various methods of measuring dose rate are presented. Effects of ionizing radiation (acute and chronic exposure) on aquatic organisms, populations and ecosystems are reviewed. This review covers the entire spectrum of the aquatic environment. Results of many studies are summarized. 300+ refs

  9. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TeiichiroShiino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed “phylodynamics”, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  10. Enfermidade gastroentérica e respiratória em bezerros inoculados com amostras brasileiras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2) Gastroenteric and respiratory disease in calves inoculated with brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV - 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Celso Sperotto Brum; Charles Fernando Capinos Scherer; Eduardo Furtado Flores; Rudi Weiblen; Claudio Severo Lombardo de Barros; Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2002-01-01

    Duas amostras brasileiras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2) foram inoculadas em bezerros com o objetivo de avaliar a sua virulência e estudar a patogenia da infecção. Previamente à inoculação, os animais foram imunodeprimidos com dexametasona. Quatro bezerros com idades entre 45 e 90 dias (grupo A) foram inoculados com a amostra SV-260 (n=2) ou LV-96 (n=2) e quatro bezerros com 6 a 8 meses de idade foram inoculados com a amostra SV-260 (grupo B). Após a inoculação, os bezerros...

  11. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Honda1, Hiroharu Kamioka21Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Laboratory of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise.Methods: We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials, for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning.Results: Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases.Conclusion: Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise.Keywords: aquatic exercise, health enhancement, evidence

  12. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...

  13. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  14. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...

  15. A scoring model for predicting the prognosis of severe viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui-guo; XIANG Hai-ping; SHAN Jing; ZHOU Li; MA Bing; LIU Min; WANG Jun-tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The prognosis of patients with severe viral hepatitis is concerned by clinicians, patients and their relatives. Many factors may influence on the prognosis of patients with this disease. Many studies on the prognosis of severe viral hepatitis by multiple logistic regression analysis have shown generally consistent results.1-4 Previouly we established a scoring model of severe viral hepatitis (SMSVH) by logistic regression analysis.1 The aim of this study was to estimate prospectively the 6-month survival rate of patients with severe viral hepatitis using SMSVH.

  16. Passive electroreception in aquatic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Dehnhardt, Guido; Manger, Paul; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-06-01

    Passive electroreception is a sensory modality in many aquatic vertebrates, predominantly fishes. Using passive electroreception, the animal can detect and analyze electric fields in its environment. Most electric fields in the environment are of biogenic origin, often produced by prey items. These electric fields can be relatively strong and can be a highly valuable source of information for a predator, as underlined by the fact that electroreception has evolved multiple times independently. The only mammals that possess electroreception are the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidnas (Tachyglossidae) from the monotreme order, and, recently discovered, the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the cetacean order. Here we review the morphology, function and origin of the electroreceptors in the two aquatic species, the platypus and the Guiana dolphin. The morphology shows certain similarities, also similar to ampullary electroreceptors in fishes, that provide cues for the search for electroreceptors in more vertebrate and invertebrate species. The function of these organs appears to be very similar. Both species search for prey animals in low-visibility conditions or while digging in the substrate, and sensory thresholds are within one order of magnitude. The electroreceptors in both species are innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The origin of the accessory structures, however, is completely different; electroreceptors in the platypus have developed from skin glands, in the Guiana dolphin, from the vibrissal system. PMID:23187861

  17. A Viral Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Cyriac Abby

    2015-01-01

    AbstractLichen planus is a muco-cutaneous inflammatory disease of unknown origin which affects various regions of the body, mostly skin and oral mucosa. The association of lichen planus with chronic hepatitis C infection is well known, but a primary presentation of chronic hepatitis C infection with lichen planus is quite rare. In this report, a middle aged woman is presented, who had features of isolated severe ulcerating lichen planus of the tongue in whom an eventual diagnosis of chronic h...

  18. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  19. Preparation of Viral DNA from Nucleocapsids

    OpenAIRE

    Szpara, Moriah L.; Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Enquist, L W

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are obligate cellular parasites, and thus the study of their DNA requires isolating viral material away from host cell contaminants and DNA. Several downstream applications require large quantities of pure viral DNA, which is provided by this protocol. These applications include viral genome sequencing, where the removal of host DNA is crucial to optimize data output for viral sequences, and the production of new viral recombinant strains, where co-transfection of purified plasmid and...

  20. Evolving lessons on nanomaterial-coated viral vectors for local and systemic gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasala, Dayananda; Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-07-01

    Viral vectors are promising gene carriers for cancer therapy. However, virus-mediated gene therapies have demonstrated insufficient therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials due to rapid dissemination to nontarget tissues and to the immunogenicity of viral vectors, resulting in poor retention at the disease locus and induction of adverse inflammatory responses in patients. Further, the limited tropism of viral vectors prevents efficient gene delivery to target tissues. In this regard, modification of the viral surface with nanomaterials is a promising strategy to augment vector accumulation at the target tissue, circumvent the host immune response, and avoid nonspecific interactions with the reticuloendothelial system or serum complement. In the present review, we discuss various chemical modification strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of viral vectors delivered either locally or systemically. We conclude by highlighting the salient features of various nanomaterial-coated viral vectors and their prospects and directions for future research. PMID:27348247

  1. Viral metagenomics and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, V; Eloit, M

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of the human blood-associated viral community (also called blood virome) is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. Currently, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) can be considered as under control in high-resource countries. However, other viruses unknown or unsuspected may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. This is particularly relevant considering that a significant proportion of transfused patients are immunocompromised and more frequently subjected to fatal outcomes. Several measures to prevent transfusion transmission of unknown viruses have been implemented including the exclusion of at-risk donors, leukocyte reduction of donor blood, and physicochemical treatment of the different blood components. However, up to now there is no universal method for pathogen inactivation, which would be applicable for all types of blood components and, equally effective for all viral families. In addition, among available inactivation procedures of viral genomes, some of them are recognized to be less effective on non-enveloped viruses, and inadequate to inactivate higher viral titers in plasma pools or derivatives. Given this, there is the need to implement new methodologies for the discovery of unknown viruses that may affect blood transfusion. Viral metagenomics combined with High Throughput Sequencing appears as a promising approach for the identification and global surveillance of new and/or unexpected viruses that could impair blood transfusion safety. PMID:26778104

  2. Viral Load of Human Herpesvirus 8 in Peripheral Blood of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Kaposi's Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Enbom, Malin; Bidoli, Ettore; Linde, Annika; De Paoli, Paolo; Dillner, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    Viral load is an important marker of activity of viral diseases for a number of viruses. We wished to evaluate whether the viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in peripheral blood was a consistent feature of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients and whether the viral load correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels, CD4 counts, and/or the HHV-8 seroreactivity. Fifty-four consecutive plasma samples from 14 patients with KS were evaluated for HHV-8 viral load by quantitative rea...

  3. Surfactant abnormalities in infants with severe viral bronchiolitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dargaville, P A; South, M; McDougall, P N

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of pulmonary surfactant occur in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis, surfactant indices were measured in lung lavage fluid from 12 infants with severe bronchiolitis and eight infants without lung disease. Compared with controls, the bronchiolitis group showed deficiency of surfactant protein A (1.02 v 14.4 micrograms/ml) and disaturated phosphatidylcholine (35 v 1060 micrograms/ml) which resolved as the disease improved. Surfactant functional activity wa...

  4. Spatial Pattern Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystem Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong Li

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales. It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs retrieved from Remote Sensing i

  5. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  6. Estimating Aquatic Insect Populations. Introduction to Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihuahuan Desert Research Inst., Alpine, TX.

    This booklet introduces high school and junior high school students to the major groups of aquatic insects and to population sampling techniques. Chapter 1 consists of a short field guide which can be used to identify five separate orders of aquatic insects: odonata (dragonflies and damselflies); ephemeroptera (mayflies); diptera (true flies);…

  7. 5.INFECTIOUS DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    5.1.Viral disease930629 Distribution of extracellular viral antigen ofepidemic hemorrhagic fever in human autopsy cases.LIU Yanfang,et al.Dept Pathol,4th MilitMed Univ,Xian,710032.Natl Med J China 1993;73(6):341—342.Using improved immunohistochemical methods,re-peated PAP and repeated PAP+ABC,we found in theextracellular spaces of autopsy cases of epidemic hem-orrhagic fever large amount of viral antigens.Two

  8. NaVirCept - Nucleic Acid-Based Anti-Viral Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccines are generally considered to be the most effective countermeasures to bacterial and viral diseases, however, licensed vaccines against many disease agents are either not available or their efficacies have not been demonstrated. Vaccines are generally agent specific in terms of treatment spectrum and are subject to defeat through natural mutation or through directed efforts. With respect to viral therapeutics, one of the major limitations associated with antiviral drugs is acquired drug resistance caused by antigenic shift or drift. A number of next-generation prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures are on the horizon. Of these, nucleic acid-based drugs are showing great antiviral potential. These drugs elicit long-lasting, broad spectrum protective immune responses, especially to respiratory viral pathogens. The Nucleic Acid-Based Antiviral (NaVirCept) project provides the opportunity to demonstrate the effectiveness of novel medical countermeasures against military-significant endemic and other viral threat agents. This project expands existing DRDC drug delivery capability development, in the form of proprietary liposome intellectual property, by coupling it with leading-edge nucleic acid-based technology to deliver effective medical countermeasures that will protect deployed personnel and the warfighter against a spectrum of viral disease agents. The technology pathway will offer a means to combat emerging viral diseases or modified threat agents such as the bird flu or reconstructed Spanish flu without going down the laborious, time-consuming and expensive paths to develop countermeasures for each new and/or emerging viral disease organism.(author)

  9. Etiology and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in Korean adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H. S.; Byun, J. H.; Kim, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen Korean adults with biopsy-proven acute viral hepatitis were studied to determine the etiology and the outcome of the disease using paired sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases. The prevalence of acute viral hepatitis A, B, D and non-A non-B were 3.4%, 60.3%, 0.9% and 35.3%, respectively: hepatitis B virus infection was the most common cause and the hepatitis D virus superinfection was almost negligible. Only eleven (26.8%) of 41 patients with AVH NANB were...

  10. Dengue Fever Presenting Atypically with Viral Conjunctivitis and Subacute Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheraz, Faizan; Tahir, Hassan; Saqi, Jannavi; Daruwalla, Vistasp

    2016-06-01

    The majority of dengue viral infections are asymptomatic, though symptoms may range from self-limiting febrile illness to life threatening hemorrhagic manifestations. As the burden of disease is dramatically rising in recent years, more patients with atypical presentations and rare complications are increasingly reported. Dengue virus may rarely involve different organ systems including CNS, liver, and heart. However, involvement of eye and thyroid is extremely rare. We present a case of 32-year old patient who presented with conjunctivitis and subacute thyroiditis and was found to have dengue viral infection as the cause of these conditions. PMID:27376214

  11. Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte, Azolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Anjuli; Uniyal, Perm L; Prasanna, Radha; Ahluwalia, Amrik S

    2012-03-01

    Aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the structural and functional aspects of aquatic ecosystems by altering water movement regimes, providing shelter to fish and aquatic invertebrates, serving as a food source, and altering water quality by regulating oxygen balance, nutrient cycles, and accumulating heavy metals. The ability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals makes them interesting research candidates, especially for the treatment of industrial effluents and sewage waste water. The use of aquatic macrophytes, such as Azolla with hyper accumulating ability is known to be an environmentally friendly option to restore polluted aquatic resources. The present review highlights the phytoaccumulation potential of macrophytes with emphasis on utilization of Azolla as a promising candidate for phytoremediation. The impact of uptake of heavy metals on morphology and metabolic processes of Azolla has also been discussed for a better understanding and utilization of this symbiotic association in the field of phytoremediation. PMID:22396093

  12. The challenges of good governance in the aquatic animal health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S; Mylrea, G; Yaacov, K Bar

    2012-08-01

    Animal health is fundamental to efficient animal production and, therefore, to food security and human health. This holds true for both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Although partnership between producers and governmental services is vital for effective animal health programmes, many key activities are directly carried out by governmental services. Noting the need to improve the governance of such services in many developing countries, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services, conducts assessments of Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services (AAHS) to help strengthen governance and support more effective delivery of animal health programmes. While good governance and the tools to improve governance in the aquatic animal sector are largely based on the same principles as those that apply in the terrestrial animal sector, there are some specific challenges in the aquatic sector that have a bearing on the governance of services in this area. For example, the aquaculture industry has experienced rapid growth and the use of novel species is increasing; there are important gaps in scientific knowledge on diseases of aquatic animals; there is a need for more information on sustainable production; the level of participation of the veterinary profession in aquatic animal health is low; and there is a lack of standardisation in the training of aquatic animal health professionals. Aquaculture development can be a means of alleviating poverty and hunger in developing countries. However, animal diseases, adverse environmental impacts and food safety risks threaten to limit this development. Strengthening AAHS governance and, in consequence, aquatic animal health programmes, is the best way to ensure a dynamic and sustainable aquaculture sector in future. This paper discusses the specific challenges to AAHS governance and some OIE initiatives to help Member Countries to address

  13. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto; Bongiorni, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Giovannelli, Donato; Damiani, Elisabetta; Astolfi, Paola; Greci, Lucedio; Pusceddu, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching (i.e., the release of coral symbiotic zooxanthellae) has negative impacts on biodiversity and functioning of reef ecosystems and their production of goods and services. This increasing world-wide phenomenon is associated with temperature anomalies, high irradiance, pollution, and bacterial diseases. Recently, it has been demonstrated that personal care products, including sunscreens, have an impact on aquatic organisms similar to that of other contaminants. Objectiv...

  14. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE DOS TÉCNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO PARA DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA (DVB EN 50 PREDIOS DE LA X REGIÓN, CHILE: SERONEUTRALIZACIÓN Y ENZIMOINMUNOENSAYO INDIRECTO (ELISA-I* Comparison of two diagnostic techniques to bovine viral diarrhea disease (BVD in 50 dairy herds from the Xth Region, Chile: Seroneutralization test and indirect immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G REINHARDT

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea/Mucosal disease (BVD/MD is a highly spread virosis worldwide and has a great impact in bovine reproduction and production. In Chile, the disease has been reported with over 60% of prevalence and it demands adecuate diagnostic methods. Curently the official serologic diagnostic test in Chile is the serum neutralization test (SNT, this method detects the presence of antibodies against the BVD virus and it is considered to have good specificity and sensitivity, althought, it presents some disadvantages in its interpretation and in its execution. The aim of this investigation was to compare de SNT as gold standard, with a commercial immunosorbent assay (ELISA, in terms of specificity and sensitivity in the detection of antibodies against BVD antigens. A set of 500 bovine sera drawn from 50 milk herds from the Xth Region of Chile were analized. The results showed that the SNT detected 278 serum samples as positives and the ELISA detected 347 serum samples as positives, these represents for ELISA test a relative sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 57%, respectively. Statistically significant differences of the serodiagnosis obtained in both tests were established through the McNemar test (<0.05, and a median concordance between them through the Kappa test. When the SNT titers were related with the optical densities (OD of ELISA, a positive association was detected between this values. It was concluded that ELISA provides good results in comparison with SNT, having the former a higher number of detections because its dignostic higher sensitivity. Therefore, ELISA is an appropiate diagnostic method for large populations of cattle

  15. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Assessment of antiretroviral therapy by plasma viral load testing: standard and ICD HIV-1 p24 antigen and viral RNA (QC-PCR) assays compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, J C; Saag, M S; Shaw, G M; Hahn, B H; Chopra, P; Chen, S; Emini, E A; McFarland, R; Yang, L C; Piatak, M

    1995-10-01

    To assess the utility of quantitative competitive-polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) measurements of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and other viral load markers for assessment of antiretroviral therapy, we used archived cryopreserved specimens from a randomized controlled clinical trial of 135 patients (CD4+ T cell count or = 30 pg/ml) in 42% and 56%, respectively. All viral load parameters showed significant decreases from baseline within 1 week of initiation of zidovudine, as measured by standard p24 antigen assay, ICD p24 assay, and QC-PCR. At 1 week, patients treated with either 300 or 1,000 mg/day of L-697,661 showed significant decreases from baseline in plasma standard and ICD p24 antigen and QC-PCR-determined HIV-1 RNA levels. Whereas viral load decreases seen with zidovudine were sustained for the duration of treatment, plasma viral markers often returned to pretreatment levels despite ongoing L-697,661 treatment, with evidence of the emergence of drug-resistant virus. Whereas standard p24, ICD p24, and viral RNA levels changed similarly in response to treatment, the superior sensitivity and available dynamic range of plasma viral RNA assays like QC-PCR analysis provide an advantage for clinical monitoring of plasma viral load, allowing tracking of treatment-related changes even in patients with earlier stage disease and lower levels of viral load. PMID:7552477

  17. The Review of the Detection Technology for Bovine Viral Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease%牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 王建华; 王万骞

    2014-01-01

    This paper gave a review of the diagnostic methods including virus isolation, agar gel immunodiffusion, virus micro-neutralization test, fluorescent antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, nucleic acid hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, introduced seven technology to detect bovine viral diarrhea virus, and provided references for the further research of bovine viral diarrhea virus.%对牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的病毒分离、琼脂扩散试验、微量中和试验、免疫荧光技术、酶联免疫吸附试验、核酸杂交技术、聚合酶链反应等检测技术进行了综述,对7种技术运用于牛病毒性腹泻-粘膜病的检测作了简要介绍,为进一步研究牛病毒性腹泻病毒提供参考。

  18. Human Exploitation of Aquatic Landscapes. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures and in the formation of communal identities. The aim of this special themed issue of Internet Archaeology is to contribute to a better understanding of different forms of human interaction with aquatic landscapes.

  19. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  20. A Mixed Picture of AQUATIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aquatic products constitute an important part of China's international trade in agricultural products with the strongest competitiveness for export.The aquatic products industry of apparent competitive edge has maintained a considerable trade surplus despite the general trend of trade deficit among agricultural products in recent years.Nevertheless,the great changes taking place in the global economic and trade pattern in late years have given rise to the increasing uncertainties of the supply and demand as well as the price in the international aquatic products market.