Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王川; 亢渝俊; 姜政; 王丕龙
2012-01-01
Objective To transform human aquaglyceroporin 9(AQP9) recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP Nl AQP9 and interference plasmid pshRNA AQP9 into attenuated Salmonella strain SL7207 by electroporation and detect their ex pression,in order to lay the foundation for elucidating the human AQP9 in pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods AQP9 gene was obtained by RT PCR from human hepatic tissue and cloned into pEGFP Nl vector,recombi nant eukaryotic expression plasmid pEGFP Nl AQP9 was constructed,designed and synthesized human AQP9 SiRNA,annealed to double stranded ShRNA, inserted to pGenesil 1 plasmid, interference plasmid pshRNA AQP9 was constructed, and then trans formed into attenuated Salmonella strain SL7207 by electroporation,the expression were detected by PCR and Western Blot,and we detected their stability. Results Recombinant plasmid pEGFP Nl AQP9 and pshRNA AQP9 were constructed, transformed into attenuated Salmonella strain SL7207,after transformed into SL7207,could express in recombinant Salmonella. Conclusion Recom binant Salmonella SL7207/pEGFP Nl AQP9 and SL7207/pshRNA AQP9 are successfully constructed,lay the foundation for fur ther study on the gene therapy of NAFLD with AQP9.%目的 将人水甘油通道蛋白9(AQP9)真核表达质粒pEGFP-N1-AQP9及干扰质粒pshRNA-AQP9通过电穿孔转化减毒沙门菌株SL7207,并验证其表达情况,为阐明AQP9在非酒精性脂肪肝病(NAFLD)中的作用奠定基础.方法 从人肝脏组织中通过RT-PCR获得AQP9基因,克隆到载体pEGFP-N1上,构建真核表达质粒pEGFP-N1-AQP9,设计合成针对人AQP9的siRNA,退火形成双链shRNA,并插入pGenesil-1质粒中,构建干扰质粒pshRNA-AQP9,电穿孔转化减毒沙门菌株SL7207,通过PCR、Western blot验证其表达情况,并检测其稳定性.结果 成功构建pEGFP-N1-AQP9及pshRNA-AQP9重组质粒,将其转化SL7207后,能在重组沙门菌中表达.结论 成功构建SL7207/pEGFP-N1-AQP9及SL7207/pshRNA-AQP
Aquaglyceroporins serve as metabolic gateways in adiposity and insulin resistance control
Rodriguez, A.; Catalan, V.; Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; Frühbeck, G.
2011-01-01
Aquaglyceroporins (AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10) encompass a subfamily of aquaporins that allow the movement of water and other small solutes, especially glycerol, through cell membranes. Adipose tissue constitutes a major source of glycerol via AQP7. We have recently reported that, in addition to the well-known expression of AQP7 in adipose tissue, AQP3 and AQP9 are also expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat depots. Moreover, insulin and leptin act as regulators of aquaglyceroporins throug...
Expression and clinical significance of aquaglyceroporins in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Chen, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chuan-Fei; Lü, Lin; Mei, Zhe-Chuan
2016-06-01
Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are a subset of the aquaporin family, and are permeable to water and glycerol. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression and clinical significance of three AQPs, AQP3, 7 and 9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fresh HCC and adjacent non‑tumorous liver tissues were collected from 68 patients diagnosed with HCC. The expression levels of AQP3, 7 and 9 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The association between the expression of AQPs and clinicopathological parameters of HCC were investigated. Compared with non‑tumorous liver tissue, HCC tissues exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in the expression of AQP3 and a concomitant reduction in the expression levels of AQP7 and AQP9, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AQP9 was dominantly localized on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, while AQP3 and AQP7 exhibited a predominantly cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. High expression of AQP3 was significantly (P<0.05) associated with low expression levels of AQP7 and AQP9. High expression of AQP3 was correlated with tumor grade (P=0.017), tumor stage (P=0.010) and lymphatic metastasis (P=0.031). Low expression of AQP7 was correlated with tumor grade (P=0.043). AQP3 was upregulated, and AQP7 and AQP9 were downregulated in HCC. A high expression of AQP3 and low expression of AQP7 was significantly associated with the aggressive features of HCC. PMID:27121567
Hepatic AQP9 expression in male rats is reduced in response to PPARα agonist treatment.
Lebeck, Janne; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Skowronski, Mariusz T; Nielsen, Søren; Praetorius, Jeppe
2015-02-01
The peroxisome proliferator receptor α (PPARα) is a key regulator of the hepatic response to fasting with effects on both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A role in hepatic glycerol metabolism has also been found; however, the results are somewhat contradictive. Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is a pore-forming transmembrane protein that facilitates hepatic uptake of glycerol. Its expression is inversely regulated by insulin in male rodents, with increased expression during fasting. Previous results indicate that PPARα plays a crucial role in the induction of AQP9 mRNA during fasting. In the present study, we use PPARα agonists to explore the effect of PPARα activation on hepatic AQP9 expression and on the abundance of enzymes involved in glycerol metabolism using both in vivo and in vitro systems. In male rats with free access to food, treatment with the PPARα agonist WY 14643 (3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) caused a 50% reduction in hepatic AQP9 abundance with the effect being restricted to AQP9 expressed in periportal hepatocytes. The pharmacological activation of PPARα had no effect on the abundance of GlyK, whereas it caused an increased expression of hepatic GPD1, GPAT1, and L-FABP protein. In WIF-B9 and HepG2 hepatocytes, both WY 14643 and another PPARα agonist GW 7647 reduced the abundance of AQP9 protein. In conclusion, pharmacological PPARα activation results in a marked reduction in the abundance of AQP9 in periportal hepatocytes. Together with the effect on the enzymatic apparatus for glycerol metabolism, our results suggest that PPARα activation in the fed state directs glycerol into glycerolipid synthesis rather than into de novo synthesis of glucose. PMID:25477377
Charakterisierung des Burkholderia cenocepacia Aquaglyceroporins
Wree, Dorothea
2010-01-01
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein Aquaglyceroporin des Krankenhausproblemkeims Burkholderia cenocepacia, BccGlpF, charakterisiert. Unter besonderer Beobachtung stand die Struktur-Funktionsbeziehung der eigentlich kochkonservierten NPA-Motive.
Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids
Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Thiyagarajan, Saravanamuthu; Rosen, Barry P.
2008-01-01
The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon.
Mammalian aquaglyceroporin function in metabolism.
Laforenza, Umberto; Bottino, Cinzia; Gastaldi, Giulia
2016-01-01
Aquaglyceroporins are integral membrane proteins that are permeable to glycerol as well as water. The movement of glycerol from a tissue/organ to the plasma and vice versa requires the presence of different aquaglyceroporins that can regulate the entrance or the exit of glycerol across the plasma membrane. Actually, different aquaglyceroporins have been discovered in the adipose tissue, small intestine, liver, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, endocrine pancreas and capillary endothelium, and their differential expression could be related to obesity and the type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the expression and function of different aquaglyceroporins in physiological condition and in obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting they are potential therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. PMID:26456554
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spegel, Peter; Chawade, Aakash; Nielsen, Søren;
2015-01-01
profiling did not detect differential gene expression between genotypes. Metabolite profiling revealed a sex independent increase in plasma glycerol (+55%) and glucose (+24%), and reduction in threonate (all at q < 0.1) in Aqp9(-/-) db/db mice compared to controls. Metabolite profiling thus confirms a role......Deletion of the glycerol channel aquaporin-9 (Aqp9) reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) obese mice on a C57BL/6 × C57BLKS mixed genetic background. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated reduction of Aqp9 expression reduces liver triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in...... observed elevated plasma glucose in Aqp9(-/-) db/db mice (+1.1 mmol/L, life-time average), while plasma insulin concentration was reduced at the time of death. Glucose levels changed similarly in pentobarbital anesthetized, glucagon challenged Aqp9(wt) db/db and Aqp9(-/-) db/db mice. Liver transcriptional...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田培超; 王怀立; 罗强; 禚志红
2008-01-01
Objective To investigate the expression of aquaporin-9(AQP-9)in the brain tissue of rats with infectious brain edema and explore the role of AQP-9 in the oecurrgnce and progression of the brain edema. Methods A total of 128 normal 1-month-old SD rats weighing 70-100 g of either sex were randomly divided into two equal groups, namely the normal saline(NS) group and lipopolysaecharide(LPS)group.Acute infectious brain edema was induced in rats in the LPS group by injecting LPS via the left internal carotid artery,and the rats in the NS groups received NS injection.At 6,12,24 and 48 h after the injection,the brain tissue was taken from the rats to observe the histopathology by Hernatoxylin-Eosin Stain and lneasure the brain water content(BWC).The permeability of the blood-brain barrier of the rats was tested using Evans blue(EB)method.The expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the brain tissue Were detected using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR,respectively. Results InLPS group,the space around the blood vessels was obviously broadened in the brain tissue,where inflammatory cell infiltration,glioeyte swelling,vacuolar degeneration of the neurons and neuronal nuclear shrinkage were seen.At 6,12,24,and 48 h following LPS or NS injection,the BWC,EB content,and expressions of AQP-9 protein and mRNA in the LPS group were all significantly higher than those in the NS group(P<0.05),In the LPS group,positive correlations were found between BWC and EB content,AQP-9 protein expression and BWC,AQP一9 mRNA and BWC,AQP-9mR.NA and EBcontent,and between AQP-9 protein andmRNA.Conclusion AQP-9 might participate in occurrcnce and development of infectious brain edema in rats,it might be positive correlation.%目的 探讨水通道蛋白-9(AQP-9)在内毒素脂多糖(LPS)致大鼠感染性脑水肿脑组织中的表达及意义. 方法 1月龄普通级SD大鼠128只采用随机数字表法分为生理盐水(NS)组(64只)和LPS组(64只),采用颈内动脉注射LPS制作大鼠感染
Aquaglyceroporins in the kidney: present state of knowledge and prospects.
Michalek, K
2016-04-01
Aquaporins belong to a family of small, transmembrane proteins that form channels selectively permeable for water. Some of them known as aquaglyceroporins also enable transportation of other small molecules such as glycerol, urea or ammonia. To date, 13 isoforms of aquaporins has been discovered in mammals (AQP0 - AQP12), 9 of which is localized in different parts of the renal tubular epithelium. In recent years, particular interest has been paid to aquaporins selectively permeable only to water molecules, determination of their localization and expression allowed to define the role of these proteins in renal excretion of water and their importance in the development of diseases. Alas, thus far the role in the physiological processes of the aquaglyceroporins localized in the kidneys has not been fully determined. This review summarizes our current knowledge on additional transport functions of renal AQPs (AQP3, AQP6, AQP7 and AQP8). On the basis of the information gathered and the opinions by many authors, it has been found that aquaglyceroporins are most probably the key element in the renal regulation of nitrogen balance and maintenance of the correct pH of body fluids. Elucidating additional transport functions of AQPs in the kidney will improve our understanding of the renal function in heath and diseases. The presented in this article prospect on renal aquaglyceroporin hopefully will stimulate future research in both basic and clinical fields. PMID:27226178
Sabir, Farzana; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Prista, Catarina
2016-05-01
Efficient homeostasis of water and glycerol is a prerequisite for osmoregulation and other aspects of yeasts life. The cellular status of these molecules is often associated with functional presence of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. The present study provides a detailed updated analysis of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in 47 yeast species. A comprehensive analysis of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in 38 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different ecological niches is also presented. The functionality of specific aquaporins in yeasts has been associated with their adaptation requirements in different environmental conditions. In the present study, various inactivating mutations in aquaporin sequences were found in strains of S. cerevisiae Likewise, several new interesting polymorphisms in aquaglyceroporin sequences of some commercial wine and brewing strains, vineyard and bakery strains were also observed. Conceivably, both in the case of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins inactivating mutations resulted in competitive advantage in selected environments. Topology and conservation of important regulatory residues within all sequences are also analyzed. We expect that the present review may contribute to establish the functional relevance of aquaporins/aquaglyceroporins for various aspects of yeasts physiology. PMID:27001976
Song, Jie; Baker, Nicola; Rothert, Monja; Henke, Björn; Jeacock, Laura; Horn, David; Beitz, Eric
2016-02-01
The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glycero)porin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis. PMID:26828608
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Song
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic arsenal against human African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness, is limited and can cause severe, often fatal, side effects. One of the classic and most widely used drugs is pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine compound introduced in the 1940s. Recently, a genome-wide loss-of-function screen and a subsequently generated trypanosome knockout strain revealed a specific aquaglyceroporin, TbAQP2, to be required for high-affinity uptake of pentamidine. Yet, the underlying mechanism remained unclear. Here, we show that TbAQP2 is not a direct transporter for the di-basic, positively charged pentamidine. Even though one of the two common cation filters of aquaglyceroporins, i.e. the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, is unconventional in TbAQP2, positively charged compounds are still excluded from passing the channel. We found, instead, that the unique selectivity filter layout renders pentamidine a nanomolar inhibitor of TbAQP2 glycerol permeability. Full, non-covalent inhibition of an aqua(glyceroporin in the nanomolar range has not been achieved before. The remarkable affinity derives from an electrostatic interaction with Asp265 and shielding from water as shown by structure-function evaluation and point mutation of Asp265. Exchange of the preceding Leu264 to arginine abolished pentamidine-binding and parasites expressing this mutant were pentamidine-resistant. Our results indicate that TbAQP2 is a high-affinity receptor for pentamidine. Taken together with localization of TbAQP2 in the flagellar pocket of bloodstream trypanosomes, we propose that pentamidine uptake is by endocytosis.
Mikhailov, Andrei
2004-01-01
Single trace operators with the large R-charge in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory correspond to the null-surfaces in $AdS_5\\times S^5$. We argue that the moduli space of the null-surfaces is the space of contours in the super-Grassmanian parametrizing the complex $(2|2)$-dimensional subspaces of the complex $(4|4)$-dimensional space. The odd coordinates on this super-Grassmanian correspond to the fermionic degrees of freedom of the superstring.
Modulation of activity of the adipocyte aquaglyceroporin channel by plant extracts.
Cals-Grierson, M-M
2007-02-01
The plasma membrane protein, aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) is exclusively expressed in adipocytes and appears to be a channel for glycerol entry and exit. It is possible that by facilitating the opening of these channels, the loss of intracellular glycerol could be encouraged and thus reduce the size of the lipid reservoir. Human preadipocytes and mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to develop an adipocytic phenotype by culture in a semi-defined medium. After 7 days, the expression of AQP7 message had increased by 37-fold, a level which could be further up-regulated by troglitazone or retinoic acid or down-regulated by insulin. The mature adipocytes also expressed immunoreactive aquaporin (AQP) channel protein as assessed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. The addition of adrenaline to the culture medium stimulated the release of glycerol (blockable by HgCl(2)). Plant extracts, with potential anti-cellulite properties, were tested for their effect on glycerol elimination. These included wild yam root (Dioscorea opposita), cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao), horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed and bark and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Of these, D. opposita appeared to induce a dose-dependent glycerol release. The results show that our assay can help to identify modulators of AQP7 channel expression and activation in adipocytes. PMID:18489306
Liu, Xiao-Dan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Pei, Xue; Zhang, Shi-Hong
2015-10-01
Aquaglyceroporins (GlpFs) that transport glycerol along with water and other uncharged solutes are involved in osmoregulation in myriad species. Fungal species form a large group of eukaryotic organisms, and their GlpFs may be diverse, exhibiting various activities. However, few filamentous fungal GlpFs have been biologically investigated. Here, a glpF gene from the halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus (AgglpF) was verified to be a channel of water or glycerol in Xenopus laevis oocytes and was further functionally analyzed in three heterologous systems. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells overexpressing AgglpF possessed significant tolerance of drought, salt, and certain metal ions. AgglpF was then characterized in the filamentous fungus of Neurospora crassa. Based on the N. crassa aquaporin gene (NcAQP) disruption mutant (the Δaqp mutant), a series of complementary strains carrying NcAQP and AgglpF and three asparagine-proline-alanine-gene (NPA)-deleted AgglpF fragments were created. As revealed by salt resistance analysis, the AgglpF complementary strain possessed the highest salt resistance among the tested strains. In addition, the intracellular glycerol content in the AgglpF complementary strain was markedly higher than that in the other strains. The AgGlpF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was subcellularly localized in the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells, suggesting that AgglpF functions in plants. Indeed, when AgglpF was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, transgenic lines survived under conditions of high osmotic stress and under conditions of drought stress in particular. Overall, our results revealed that AgGlpF as a water/glycerol transporter is required for survival of both fungi and plants under conditions of high osmotic stress and may have value in applications in genetic engineering for generating high salt and drought resistance. PMID:26209670
Identification of key residues involved in Si transport by the aquaglyceroporins.
Carpentier, Gabriel A; Garneau, Alexandre P; Marcoux, Andrée-Anne; Noël, Micheline; Frenette-Cotton, Rachelle; Isenring, Paul
2016-09-01
We recently demonstrated that the aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) could act as potent transporters for orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). Although interesting, this finding raised the question of whether water and H4SiO4, the transportable form of Si, permeate AQGPs by interacting with the same region of the pore, especially in view of the difference in molecular radius between the two substrates. Here, our goal was to identify residues that endow the AQGPs with the ability to facilitate Si diffusion by examining the transport characteristics of mutants in which residues were interchanged between a water-permeable but Si-impermeable channel (aquaporin 1 [AQP1]) and a Si-permeable but water-impermeable channel (AQP10). Our results indicate that the composition of the arginine filter (XX/R), known to include three residues that play an important role in water transport, may also be involved in Si selectivity. Interchanging the identities of the nonarginine residues within this filter causes Si transport to increase by approximately sevenfold in AQP1 and to decrease by approximately threefold in AQP10, whereas water transport and channel expression remain unaffected. Our results further indicate that two additional residues in the AQP arginine filter may be involved in substrate selectivity: replacing one of the residues has a profound effect on water permeability, and replacing the other has a profound effect on Si permeability. This study has thus led to the identification of residues that could play a key role in Si transport by the AQGPs and shown that substrate selectivity is likely ensured by more than one checkpoint within or near the pore. PMID:27527099
Müller-Lucks, Annika; Gena, Patrizia; Frascaria, Daniele; Altamura, Nicola; Svelto, Maria; Beitz, Eric; Calamita, Giuseppe
2013-06-25
Understanding the selectivity of aquaporin (AQP) membrane channels and exploiting their biotechnological potential will require structural and functional studies of wild type and modified proteins; however, expression systems have not previously yielded AQPs in the necessary milligrams quantities. Cell free (CF) systems have emerged in recent years as fast, efficient and versatile technologies for the production of high quality membrane proteins. Here, we establish a convenient method to synthesize large amounts of functional human aquaglyceroporin 3 protein (AQP3), an AQP of physiological relevance conducting glycerol and some small neutral solutes besides water. Milligram amounts of AQP3 were produced as a histidine-tagged protein (hAQP3-6His) in an Escherichia coli extract-based CF system in the presence of the non-ionic detergent Brij-98. The recombinant AQP3 was purified by affinity chromatography, incorporated into liposomes and evaluated functionally by stopped-flow light scattering. Correct protein folding was indicated by the high glycerol and water permeability exhibited by the hAQP3-6His proteoliposomes as compared to empty control liposomes. Functionality of hAQP3-6His was further confirmed by the strong inhibition of the glycerol and water permeability by phloretin and HgCl2, respectively, two blockers of AQP3. Fast and convenient CF production of functional AQP3 may serve as basis for further structural/functional assessment of aquaglyceroporins and help boosting the AQP-based biomimetic technologies. PMID:23541697
Gravitational action with null boundaries
Lehner, Luis; Poisson, Eric; Sorkin, Rafael D
2016-01-01
We present a complete discussion of the boundary term in the action functional of general relativity when the boundary includes null segments in addition to the more usual timelike and spacelike segments. We confirm that ambiguities appear in the contribution from a null segment, because it depends on an arbitrary choice of parametrization for the generators. We also show that similar ambiguities appear in the contribution from a codimension-two surface at which a null segment is joined to another (spacelike, timelike, or null) segment. The parametrization ambiguity can be tamed by insisting that the null generators be affinely parametrized; this forces each null contribution to the boundary action to vanish, but leaves intact the fredom to rescale the affine parameter by a constant factor on each generator. Once a choice of parametrization is made, the ambiguity in the joint contributions can be eliminated by formulating well-motivated rules that ensure the additivity of the gravitational action. Enforcing t...
Wallace, Ian S; Roberts, Daniel M
2005-12-27
Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) are a diverse class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and some small solutes across cellular membranes. X-ray structures of MIPs indicate that a tetrad of residues (the ar/R region) form a narrow pore constriction that constitutes the selectivity filter. In comparison with mammalian and microbial species, plants have a greater number and diversity of MIPs with greater than 30 genes encoding four phylogenetic subfamilies with eight different classes of ar/R sequences. The nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily in Arabidopsis can be subdivided into two ar/R subgroups: the NIP subgroup I, which resembles the archetype of the family, soybean nodulin 26, and the NIP subgroup II, which is represented by the Arabidopsis protein AtNIP6;1. These two NIPs differ principally by the substitution of a conserved alanine (NIP subgroup II) for a conserved tryptophan (NIP subgroup I) in the helix 2 position (H2) of the ar/R filter. A comparison of the water and solute tranport properties of the two proteins was performed by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Nodulin 26 is an aquaglyceroporin with a modest osmotic water permeability (P(f)) and the ability to transport uncharged solutes such as glycerol and formamide. In constrast, AtNIP6;1 showed no measurable water permeability but transported glycerol, formamide, as well as larger solutes that were impermeable to nodulin 26. By site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the H2 position is the crucial determinant that confers these transport behaviors. A comparison of the NIPs and tonoplast-intrinsic proteins (TIP) shows that the H2 residue can predict the transport profile for water and glycerol with histidine found in TIP-like aquaporins, tryptophan found in aquaglyceroporins (NIP I), and alanine found in water-impermeable glyceroporins (AtNIP6;1). PMID:16363796
Budinich, Marco
2014-01-01
We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular we prove: i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two parts of equal size; ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley that appears now as a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane.
Sormani, Christina
2015-01-01
Given a time function $\\tau$ on a spacetime $M$, we define a `null distance function', $\\hat{d}_\\tau$, built from and closely related to the causal structure of $M$. In basic models with timelike $\
Null lifts and projective dynamics
Cariglia, Marco
2015-01-01
We describe natural Hamiltonian systems using projective geometry. The null lift procedure endows the tangent bundle with a projective structure where the null Hamiltonian is identified with a projective conic and induces a Weyl geometry. Projective transformations generate a set of known and new dualities between Hamiltonian systems, as for example the phenomenon of coupling-constant metamorphosis. We conclude outlining how this construction can be extended to the quantum case for Eisenhart-Duval lifts.
Phase-Occultation Nulling Coronagraphy
Lyon, Richard G; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter
2015-01-01
The search for life via characterization of earth-like planets in the habitable zone is one of the key scientific objectives in Astronomy. We describe a new phase-occulting (PO) interferometric nulling coronagraphy (NC) approach. The PO-NC approach employs beamwalk and freeform optical surfaces internal to the interferometer cavity to introduce a radially dependent plate scale difference between each interferometer arm (optical path) that nulls the central star at high contrast while transmitting the off-axis field. The design is readily implemented on segmented-mirror telescope architectures, utilizing a single nulling interferometer to achieve high throughput, a small inner working angle (IWA), sixth-order or higher starlight suppression, and full off-axis discovery space, a combination of features that other coronagraph designs generally must trade. Unlike previous NC approaches, the PO-NC approach does not require pupil shearing; this increases throughput and renders it less sensitive to on-axis common-mo...
Budinich, Marco
2014-03-01
We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra of any dimension with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular, we prove: (i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two subspaces of equal size; (ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; (iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley which becomes a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane. This paper is dedicated to the memory of my father Paolo Budinich who passed away in November 2013 not before transferring to me his enthusiasm for simple spinors.
Bootstrapping Null Polygon Wilson Loops
Gaiotto, Davide; Maldacena, Juan; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro
2010-01-01
We derive the two loop expressions for polygonal Wilson loops by starting from the one loop expressions and applying an operator product expansion. We do this for polygonal Wilson loops in R^{1,1} and find a result in agreement with previous computations. We also discuss the spectrum of excitations around flux tube that connects two null Wilson lines.
Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry
Matter, Alexis; Danchi, William C; Lopez, Bruno; Absil, Olivier
2013-01-01
Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line-of-sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude, or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental pertubations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental ...
Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BENI)
Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Ford, Holland; Petro, Larry; Herman, Jay; Rinehart, Stephen; Carpenter, Kenneth; Marzouk, Joe
2009-01-01
We evaluate the feasibility of using a balloon-borne nulling interferometer to detect and characterize exosolar planets and debris disks. The existing instrument consists of a 3-telescope Fizeau imaging interferometer with 3 fast steering mirrors and 3 delay lines operating at 800 Hz for closed-loop control of wavefront errors and fine pointing. A compact visible nulling interferometer is under development which when coupled to the imaging interferometer would in-principle allow deep suppression of starlight. We have conducted atmospheric simulations of the environment above 100,000 feet and believe balloons are a feasible path forward towards detection and characterization of a limited set of exoplanets and their debris disks. Herein we will discuss the BENI instrument, the balloon environment and the feasibility of such as mission.
Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval
2013-01-01
Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.
On the Penrose inequality along null hypersurfaces
Mars, Marc
2015-01-01
The null Penrose inequality, i.e. the Penrose inequality in terms of the Bondi energy, is studied by introducing a funtional on surfaces and studying its properties along a null hypersurface $\\Omega$ extending to past null infinity. We prove a general Penrose-type inequality which involves the limit at infinity of the Hawking energy along a specific class of geodesic foliations called Geodesic Asymptotic Bondi (GAB), which are shown to always exist. Whenever, this foliation approaches large spheres, this inequality becomes the null Penrose inequality and we recover the results of Ludvigsen-Vickers and Bergqvist. By exploiting further properties of the functional along general geodesic foliations, we introduce an approach to the null Penrose inequality called Renormalized Area Method and find a set of two conditions which implies the validity of the null Penrose inequality. One of the conditions involves a limit at infinity and the other a condition on the spacetime curvature along the flow. We investigate the...
Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry
Matter, A.; Defrère, D.; Danchi, W. C.; Lopez, B.; Absil, O.
2013-05-01
Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line of sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental perturbations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental effect impairs the performance of a Bracewell interferometer. A simple formalism is developed to derive the corresponding modified intensity response of the interferometer, as a function of the two parameters of interest: the crosstalk level (or contamination rate) and the phase shift between the primary and secondary - parasitic - beams. We then apply our mathematical approach to a few scientific cases, both analytically and using the GENIESIM simulation software, adapted to handle coherent crosstalk. Our results show that a coherent crosstalk level of about 1 per cent implies a 20 per cent drop of the signal-to-noise ratio at most. Careful attention should thus be paid to reduce the crosstalk level inside an interferometric instrument and ensure an instrumental stability that provides the necessary sensitivity through calibration procedures.
Analysis of aquaporin 9 expression in human epidermis and cultured keratinocytes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshinori Sugiyama
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Aquaporin 9 (AQP9 is a member of the aquaglyceroporin family that transports glycerol, urea and other small solutes as well as water. Compared to the expression and function in epidermal keratinocytes of AQP3, another aquaglyceroporin, our knowledge of epidermal AQP9 remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression of AQP9 in the human epidermis and cultured keratinocytes. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that AQP9 expression is highly restricted to the stratum granulosum of the human epidermis, where occludin is also expressed at the tight junctions. Interestingly, the AQP3 staining decreased sharply below the cell layers in which AQP9 is expressed. In cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK, knock-down of AQP9 expression in the differentiated cells induced by RNA interference reduced glycerol uptake, which was not as pronounced as was the case with AQP3 knock-down cells. In contrast, similar reduction of urea uptake was detected in AQP9 and AQP3 knock-down cells. These findings suggested that AQP9 expression in NHEK facilitates at least the transport of glycerol and urea. Finally, we analyzed the effect of retinoic acid (RA, a potent stimulator of keratinocyte proliferation, on AQP3 and AQP9 mRNA expression in differentiated NHEK. Stimulation with RA at 1 μM for 24 h augmented AQP3 expression and down-regulated AQP9 expression. Collectively, these results indicate that AQP9 expression in epidermal keratinocytes is regulated in a different manner from that of AQP3.
Thermodynamic origin of the null energy condition
Parikh, Maulik; Svesko, Andrew
2016-01-01
We derive the classical null energy condition, understood as a constraint on the Ricci tensor, from the second law of thermodynamics applied to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The derivation provides evidence that the null energy condition, which has usually been regarded as a condition on matter, is fundamentally a property of gravity.
Thermodynamic Origin of the Null Energy Condition
Parikh, Maulik
2015-01-01
We derive the classical null energy condition, understood as a constraint on the Ricci tensor, from the second law of thermodynamics applied to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. The derivation provides evidence that the null energy condition, which has usually been regarded as a condition on matter, is fundamentally a property of gravity.
Causal cells: spacetime polytopes with null hyperfaces
Neiman, Yasha
2012-01-01
We consider polyhedra and 4-polytopes in Minkowski spacetime - in particular, null polyhedra with zero volume, and 4-polytopes that have such polyhedra as their hyperfaces. We present the basic properties of several classes of null-faced 4-polytopes: 4-simplices, "tetrahedral diamonds" and 4-parallelotopes. We propose a "most regular" representative of each class. The most-regular parallelotope is of particular interest: its edges, faces and hyperfaces are all congruent, and it features both null hyperplanes and null segments. A tiling of spacetime with copies of this polytope can be viewed alternatively as a lattice with null edges, such that each point is at the intersection of four lightrays in a tetrahedral pattern. We speculate on the relevance of this construct for discretizations of curved spacetime and for quantum gravity.
Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese
Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa
2005-01-01
The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...
Real null coframes in general relativity and GPS type coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some time ago, Finkelstein defined a 'symmetric' null frame with four real null vectors. We discuss this Finkelstein frame and show that a similarly defined real null coframe is closely related to the GPS type coordinates recently introduced by Rovelli
High-contrast Nulling Interferometry Techniques Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We are developing rotating-baseline nulling-interferometry techniques and algorithms on the single-aperture Hale and Keck telescopes at near-infrared wavelengths,...
Null geodesics in brane world universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study null bulk geodesic motion in the brane world cosmology in the RS2 scenario and in the static universe in the bulk of the charged topological AdS black hole. We obtain equations describing the null bulk geodesic motion as observed in one lower dimensions. We find that the null geodesic motion in the bulk of the brane world cosmology in the RS2 scenario is observed to be under the additional influence of extra non-gravitational force by the observer on the three-brane, if the brane universe does not possess the Z2 symmetry. As for the null geodesic motion in the static universe in the bulk of the charged AdS black hole, the extra force is realized even when the brane universe has the Z2 symmetry. (author)
Latex allergy and filaggrin null mutations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlsen, Berit C; Meldgaard, Michael; Hamann, Dathan;
2011-01-01
Objectives Natural rubber latex (NRL) contains over 200 proteins of which 13 have been identified as allergens and the cause of type I latex allergy. Health care workers share a high occupational risk for developing latex allergy. Filaggrin null mutations increase the risk of type I sensitizations...... to aeroallergens and it is possible that filaggrin null mutations also increase the risk of latex allergy. The aim of this paper was to examine the association between filaggrin null mutations and type I latex allergy. Methods Twenty latex allergic and 24 non-latex allergic dentists and dental...... assistants, occupationally exposed to latex, were genotyped for filaggrin null mutations R501X and 2282del4. Latex allergy was determined by a positive reaction or a historical positive reaction to a skin prick test with NRL. Results 41 individuals were successfully genotyped. Three individuals were...
Null-sissemakse - eraisikule riskantne / Tõnu Tramm
Tramm, Tõnu, 1968-
2005-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 20. apr. lk. 26. Hansaliising ja Ühisliising käivitasid kampaania, mille käigus pakutakse uusi kuni 250 000 krooni maksvaid autosid null-sissemaksega. Kommenteerib ASi SEB Ühisliising arendusdirektor Ove Muuk. Tabel: Null-sissemaksega auto tuleb kallim. Lisad: Kuidas saavutada võimalikult väike kuumakse?; Kuidas maksta võimalikult vähe intressi? Vt. samas: Argo Rebane: Liisingufirmast saab parema hinna
Computing extinction maps of star nulling interferometers
Henault, Francois
2008-01-01
Herein is discussed the performance of spaceborne nulling interferometers searching for extra-solar planets, in terms of their extinction maps projected on-sky. In particular, it is shown that the designs of Spatial Filtering (SF) and Achromatic Phase Shifter (APS) subsystems, both required to achieve planet detection and characterization, can sensibly affect the nulling maps produced by a simple Bracewell interferometer. Analytical relationships involving cross correlation products are provi...
Computing extinction maps of star nulling interferometers.
Hénault, Francois
2008-03-31
Herein is discussed the performance of spaceborne nulling interferometers searching for extra-solar planets, in terms of their extinction maps projected on-sky. In particular, it is shown that the designs of Spatial Filtering (SF) and Achromatic Phase Shifter (APS) subsystems, both required to achieve planet detection and characterization, can sensibly affect the nulling maps produced by a simple Bracewell interferometer. Analytical relationships involving cross correlation products are provided and numerical simulations are performed, demonstrating marked differences in the aspect of extinction maps and the values of attained fringes contrasts. It is concluded that depending on their basic principles and designs, FS and APS will result in variable capacities for serendipitous discoveries of planets orbiting around their parent star. The mathematical relationships presented in this paper are assumed to be general, i.e. they should apply to other types of multi-apertures nulling interferometers. PMID:18542551
Two roads to the null energy condition
Parikh, Maulik
2015-11-01
The null energy condition has sweeping consequences in general relativity. I argue here that it has been misunderstood as a property exclusively of matter, when in fact it arises only in a theory of both matter and gravity. I then derive an equivalent geometric formulation of the null energy condition from worldsheet string theory, where it arises beautifully as simple Einstein’s equations in two dimensions. But further, I show that this condition also has a thermodynamic origin, following from a local version of the second law of thermodynamics, applied to gravitational entropy. Thus, far from being an incidental property of matter, the validity of the null energy condition hints at the deep dual origins of gravity.
Two Roads to the Null Energy Condition
Parikh, Maulik
2015-01-01
The null energy condition has sweeping consequences in general relativity. I argue here that it has been misunderstood as a property exclusively of matter, when in fact it arises only in a theory of both matter and gravity. I then derive an equivalent geometric formulation of the null energy condition from worldsheet string theory, where it arises beautifully as simply Einstein's equations in two dimensions. But further, I show that this condition also has a thermodynamic origin, following from a local version of the second law of thermodynamics, applied to gravitational entropy. Thus, far from being an incidental property of matter, the validity of the null energy condition hints at the deep dual origins of gravity.
Supersymmteric Null-like Holographic Cosmologies
Lin, Feng-Li; Wen, Wen-Yu
2006-01-01
We construct a new class of 1/4-BPS time dependent domain-wall solutions with null-like metric and dilaton in type II supergravities, which admit a null-like big bang singularity. Based on the domain-wall/QFT correspondence, these solutions are dual to 1/4-supersymmetric quantum field theories living on a boundary cosmological background with time dependent coupling constant and UV cutoff. In particular we evaluate the holographic $c$ function for the 2-dimensional dual field theory living on...
The Null Energy Condition and its violation
Rubakov, V. A.
2014-01-01
We give a mini-review of scalar field theories with second-derivative Lagrangians, whose field equations are second order. Some of these theories admit solutions violating the Null Energy Condition and having no obvious pathologies. We give a few examples of using these theories in cosmological setting and also in the context of the creation of a universe in the laboratory.
A Philosophical Critique of Null Hypothesis Testing.
Orey III, Michael A.; And Others
1989-01-01
An attempt is made to clarify the philosophical foundations of the debate over research methodology appropriate for psychology in particular and the utility of null hypothesis testing in general. The article also relates the debate to education and suggests that the debate is far from settled. (IAH)
Gravitational collapse of a cylindrical null shell in vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Khakshournia
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Barrabès-Israel null shell formalism is used to study the gravitational collapse of a thin cylindrical null shell in vacuum. In general the lightlike matter shell whose history coincides with a null hypersurface is characterized by a surface energy density. In addition, a gravitational impulsive wave is present on this null hypersurface whose generators admit both the shear and expansion. In the case of imposing the cylindrical flatness the surface energy-momentum tensor of the matter shell on the null hypersurface vanishes and the null hyper- surface is just the history of the gravitational wave .
Broadband nulling behaviour of PSR B2319+60
Gajjar, Vishal; Kramer, M
2012-01-01
Pulse nulling is one of many single pulse phenomena exhibited by radio pulsars. The broadband nature of this phenomena remained unexplained due to lack of coordinated observations. We are reporting broadband nulling behaviour of a well known nulling pulsar PSR B2319+60. The simultaneous observations were carried out at four different frequencies using the Giant Meterwave Radio telescope (325 and 610 MHz), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (1420 MHz) and the Effelsberg radio telescope (5100 MHz). The nulling fractions were estimated at all four observed frequencies, which suggest similar degree of nulling across these frequencies. To comment on the broadband behaviour of pulse nulling, we calculated the Pearson cross-correlation coefficients for the occurrence of null and burst pulses between all four frequencies. We conclude that nulling is largely a broadband phenomenon for this pulsar and it points towards a global failure of the magnetospheric currents which produces radio emission at these frequenc...
The spacetime geometry of a null electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a set of local geometric conditions on a spacetime metric which are necessary and sufficient for it to be a null electrovacuum, that is, the metric is part of a solution to the Einstein–Maxwell equations with a null electromagnetic field. These conditions are restrictions on a null congruence canonically constructed from the spacetime metric, and can involve up to five derivatives of the metric. The null electrovacuum conditions are counterparts of the Rainich conditions, which geometrically characterize non-null electrovacua. Given a spacetime satisfying the conditions for a null electrovacuum, a straightforward procedure builds the null electromagnetic field from the metric. Null electrovacuum geometry is illustrated using some pure radiation spacetimes taken from the literature. (paper)
Motion Behavior of Null Space in Redundant Robotic Manipulators
Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Toshiyuki
2008-01-01
This chapter shows the control design of null space motion by PID controller. When the work space observer is emplyed in work space controller, work space and null space motion are determined independently. Then the PD based work space controller makes work space motion stable, but global stability of null space motion is not always guranteed. To improve the stability and the robustness of null space motion, PID controller considering passivity is useful and the design strategy of PID control...
On the null origin of the ambitwistor string
Casali, Eduardo; Tourkine, Piotr
2016-01-01
In this paper we present the null string origin of the ambitwistor string. Classically, the null string is the tensionless limit of string theory, and so too is the Ambitwistor string. Both have as constraint algebra the Galilean Conformal Algebra in two dimensions. But something interesting happens in the quantum theory since there is an ambiguity in quantizing the null string. We show that, given a particular choice of quantization scheme and a particular gauge, the null string coincides wi...
String spectra near some null cosmological singularities
Madhu, Kallingalthodi; Narayan, K.
2009-01-01
We construct cosmological spacetimes with null Kasner-like singularities as purely gravitational solutions with no other background fields turned on. These can be recast as anisotropic plane-wave spacetimes by coordinate transformations. We analyse string quantization to find the spectrum of string modes in these backgrounds. The classical string modes can be solved for exactly in these time-dependent backgrounds, which enables a detailed study of the near singularity string spectrum, (time-d...
Renormalization of null Wilson lines in EQCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radiation and energy loss of a light, high-energy parton in a perturbative Quark-Gluon Plasma is controlled by transverse momentum exchange. The troublesome infrared contributions to transverse momentum exchange can be computed on the lattice using dimensional reduction to EQCD. However a novel extended operator, the Null Wilson Line of EQCD, is involved. We compute the renormalization properties of this object’s lattice implementation to next-to-leading order, which should facilitate its efficient calculation on the lattice
PHASE CLOSURE NULLING: THEORY AND PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Chelli
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We provide a complete theory of the phase closure of a binary system in which a small, feeble, and unresolved companion acts as a perturbing parameter on the spatial frequency spectrum of a dominant, bright, resolved source. We demonstrate that the in uence of the companion can be measured with precision by measuring the phase closure of the system near the nulls of the primary visibility function. In these regions of phase closure nulling, frequency intervals always exist where the phase closure signature of the companion is larger than any systematic error and can thus be measured. We show that this technique allows retrieval of many astrophysically relevant properties of faint and close companions such as ux, position, and in favorable cases, spectrum. As a proof of concept, using the AMBER/VLTI instrument with 3 auxiliary telescopes of 1.8 m and only 15 minutes of on-sky integration, we detected the ve magnitudes fainter companion of HD 59717 at only 3.5 stellar radii distance from the primary. This is one of the highest contrast detected by interferometry between a companion and its parent star. We conclude by a rapid study of the potentialities of phase closure nulling observations with current interferometers and explore the requirements for a new type of dedicated instrument.
Real null coframes in general relativity and GPS type coordinates
Blagojevic, M; Hehl, F W; Obukhov, Yu N; Obukhov, Yu.N.
2002-01-01
Some time ago, D. Finkelstein defined a `symmetric' null frame with {\\it four real null vectors}. We discuss this Finkelstein frame and show that a similarly defined real null coframe is closely related to the GPS type coordinates recently introduced by Rovelli.
A Conformal Extension Theorem based on Null Conformal Geodesics
Lübbe, Christian
2008-01-01
In this article we describe the formulation of null geodesics as null conformal geodesics and their description in the tractor formalism. A conformal extension theorem through an isotropic singularity is proven by requiring the boundedness of the tractor curvature and its derivatives to sufficient order along a congruence of null conformal geodesic. This article extends earlier work by Tod and Luebbe.
Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem
Ferrando, Joan Josep
2015-01-01
We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similitudes and differences with the recently studied non null case (Gen. Relativ. Grav. (2015) {\\bf 47} 1911). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.
Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem
Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio
2016-04-01
We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similarities and differences with the recently studied non null case (Ferrando and Sáez in Gen Relativ Gravit 47:1911, 2015). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.
A Nulling Coronagraph for TPF-C
Shao, Michael; Levine, Bruce Martin; Wallace, James Kent; Orton, Glenn S.; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Lane, Benjamin F.; Seager, Sara; Tolls, Volker; Lyon, Richard G.; Samuele, Rocco; Tenerelli, Domenick J.; Woodruff, Robert; Ge, Jian
2006-01-01
The nulling coronagraph is one of 5 instrument concepts selected by NASA for study for potential use in the TPF-C mission. This concept for extreme starlight suppression has two major components, a nulling interferometer to suppress the starlight to 10(sup -10) per airy spot within 2 (lamda)/D of the star, and a calibration interferometer to measure the residual scattered starlight. The ability to work at 2 (lamda)/D dramatically improves the science throughput of a space based coronagraph like TPF-C. The calibration interferometer is an equally important part of the starlight suppression system. It measures the measures the wavefront of the scattered starlight with very high SNR, to 0.05nm in less than 5 minutes on a 5mag star. In addition, the post coronagraph wavefront sensor will be used to measure the residual scattered light after the coronagraph and subtract it in post processing to 12x10(sup -11) to enable detection of an Earthlike planet with a SNR of 510.
Null Geodesics in Five Dimensional Manifolds
Seahra, S S; Seahra, Sanjeev S.; Wesson, Paul S.
2001-01-01
We analyze a class of 5D non-compact warped-product spaces characterized by metrics that depend on the extra coordinate via a conformal factor. Our model is closely related to the so-called canonical coordinate gauge of Mashhoon et al. We confirm that if the 5D manifold in our model is Ricci-flat, then there is an induced cosmological constant in the 4D sub-manifold. We derive the general form of the 5D Killing vectors and relate them to the 4D Killing vectors of the embedded spacetime. We then study the 5D null geodesic paths and show that the 4D part of the motion can be timelike --- that is, massless particles in 5D can be massive in 4D. We find that if the null trajectories are affinely parameterized in 5D, then the particle is subject to an anomalous acceleration or fifth force. However, this force may be removed by reparameterization, which brings the correct definition of the proper time into question. Physical properties of the geodesics --- such as rest mass variations induced by a variable cosmologi...
Quasilocal energy exchange and the null cone
Uzun, Nezihe
2016-01-01
Energy is at best defined quasilocally in general relativity. Quasilocal energy definitions depend on the conditions one imposes on the boundary Hamiltonian, i.e., how a finite region of spacetime is "isolated". Here, we propose a method to define and investigate systems in terms of their matter plus gravitational energy content. We adopt a generic construction, that involves embedding of an arbitrary dimensional worldsheet into an arbitrary dimensional spacetime, to a 2 + 2 picture. In our case, the closed 2-dimensional spacelike surface $\\mathbb{S}$, that is orthogonal to the 2-dimensional timelike worldsheet $\\mathbb{T}$ at every point, encloses the system in question. The integrability conditions of $\\mathbb{T}$ and $\\mathbb{S}$ correspond to three null tetrad gauge conditions once we transform our notation to the one of the null cone observables. We interpret the Raychaudhuri equation of $\\mathbb{T}$ as a work-energy relation for systems that are not in equilibrium with their surroundings. We achieve thi...
Peculiar nulling in PSR J1738-2330
Gajjar, Vishal; Krämer, M
2009-01-01
Several pulsars show sudden cessation of pulsed emission, which is known as nulling. The number of known nulling pulsars has not been significantly enhanced in the last decade, although the pulsar population has more than doubled following the Parkes multi-beam pulsar survey. A systematic follow-up study of the new pulsars, discovered in this survey, is being carried out by us at 325-MHz with GMRT. The peculiar nulling behaviour of PSR J1738-2330, observed as a part of this 325-MHz GMRT survey, is reported in this paper. The pulsar appears to show a periodic null-burst cycle with an upper limit to nulling fraction, of about 90 percent. The pulsed flux density declines by a factor 94 during the nulled pulses in this pulsar.
On the null origin of the ambitwistor string
Casali, Eduardo
2016-01-01
In this paper we present the null string origin of the ambitwistor string. Classically, the null string is the tensionless limit of string theory, and so too is the Ambitwistor string. Both have as constraint algebra the Galilean Conformal Algebra in two dimensions. But something interesting happens in the quantum theory since there is an ambiguity in quantizing the null string. We show that, given a particular choice of quantization scheme and a particular gauge, the null string coincides with the ambitwistor string both classically and quantum mechanically. We also show that the same holds for the spinning versions of the null string and Ambitwistor string. With these results we clarify the relationship between the Ambitwistor string, the null string, the usual string and the Hohm-Siegel-Zwiebach theory.
On the Local Extension of the Future Null Infinity
Li, Junbin; Zhu, Xi-Ping
2014-01-01
We consider a characteristic problem of the vacuum Einstein equations with part of the initial data given on a future complete null cone with suitable decay, and show that the solution exists uniformly around the null cone for general such initial data. We can then define a segment of the future null infinity. The initial data are not required to be small and the decaying condition inherits from the works of \\cite{Ch-K} and \\cite{K-N}.
Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese
Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena
2013-01-01
The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...
Are Null Results Becoming an Endangered Species in Marketing?
Raymond Hubbard; JS Armstrong
1992-01-01
Editorial procedures in the social and biomedical sciences are said to promote studies that falsely reject the null hypothesis. This problem may also exist in major marketing journals. Of 692 papers using statistical significance tests sampled from the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Journal of Consumer Research between 1974 and 1989, only 7.8% failed to reject the null hypothesis. The percentage of null results declined by one-half from the 1970s to the 1980s. The...
String spectra near some null cosmological singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct cosmological spacetimes with null Kasner-like singularities as purely gravitational solutions with no other background fields turned on. These can be recast as anisotropic plane-wave spacetimes by coordinate transformations. We analyze string quantization to find the spectrum of string modes in these backgrounds. The classical string modes can be solved for exactly in these time-dependent backgrounds, which enables a detailed study of the near-singularity string spectrum, (time-dependent) oscillator masses, and wave functions. We find that for low-lying string modes (finite oscillation number), the classical near-singularity string mode functions are nondivergent for various families of singularities. Furthermore, for any infinitesimal regularization of the vicinity of the singularity, we find a tower of string modes of ultrahigh oscillation number which propagate essentially freely in the background. The resulting picture suggests that string interactions are non-negligible near the singularity.
Null radiation zone at the LHC
Hagiwara, Kaoru
2012-01-01
The null radiation zone theorem states that, when special kinematical conditions are satisfied, all the helicity amplitudes of a parton-level subprocess where a vector current is emitted vanish due to destructive interference among different diagrams. We study the manifestation of the theorem in $pp$ collisions at the $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV LHC. The theorem predicts that the cross section for $p p \\rightarrow j j \\gamma$ events is suppressed when the transverse momenta of the two jets are similar and when the rapidity difference between the photon and the cluster of the jets is nearly zero, because the $u u \\rightarrow u u \\gamma$ subprocess, which dominates in events with large $j j \\gamma$ invaraint mass, has strong destructive interference in this region. We confirm this prediction by the calculation with MadGraph 5, and show that the suppression on the $p p \\rightarrow j j \\gamma$ cross section is observable at the LHC.
Blob dynamics in TORPEX poloidal null configurations
Shanahan, Brendan
2016-01-01
Three dimensional blob dynamics are simulated in X-point magnetic configurations in the TORPEX device via a non-field-aligned coordinate system, using an isothermal model which evolves density, vorticity, parallel velocity and parallel current density. By modifying the parallel gradient operator to include perpendicular perturbations from poloidal field coils, numerical singularities associated with field aligned coordinates are avoided. Blobs are found to propagate according to the sheath-connected scaling, and a validation with experiment is performed. It is determined that the null region can cause an acceleration of filaments due to increasing connection length, but this accleration is small relative to other effects, which we quantify. A comparison with a previously developed analytical model is performed and an agreement is found with minimal modification. Experimental measurements are reproduced, and the dominant acceleration mechanism is identified as that of a developing dipole in a moving background...
Wormholes minimally violating the null energy condition
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Martin-Moruno, Prado
2014-01-01
We consider novel wormhole solutions supported by a matter content that minimally violates the null energy condition. More specifically, we consider an equation of state in which the sum of the energy density and radial pressure is proportional to a constant with a value smaller than that of the inverse area characterising the system, i.e., the area of the wormhole mouth. This approach is motivated by a recently proposed cosmological event, denoted "the little sibling of the big rip", where the Hubble rate and the scale factor blow up but the cosmic derivative of the Hubble rate does not [1]. By using the cut-and-paste approach, we match interior spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to an exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and analyze the stability of the thin-shell to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations around static solutions, by choosing suitable properties for the exotic material residing on the junction interface radius. Furthermore, we also consider an inhomogeneous generalisation of the eq...
Visual and Plastic Arts in Teaching Literacy: Null Curricula?
Wakeland, Robin Gay
2010-01-01
Visual and plastic arts in contemporary literacy instruction equal null curricula. Studies show that painting and sculpture facilitate teaching reading and writing (literacy), yet such pedagogy has not been formally adopted into USA curriculum. An example of null curriculum can be found in late 19th - early 20th century education the USA…
Magnetic null points in kinetic simulations of space plasmas
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Divin, Andrey; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We present a systematic attempt to study magnetic null points and the associated magnetic energy conversion in kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of various plasma configurations. We address three-dimensional simulations performed with the semi-implicit kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D in different setups: variations of a Harris current sheet, dipolar and quadrupolar magnetospheres interacting with the solar wind; and a relaxing turbulent configuration with multiple null points. Spiral nulls are more likely created in space plasmas: in all our simulations except lunar magnetic anomaly and quadrupolar mini-magnetosphere the number of spiral nulls prevails over the number of radial nulls by a factor of 3-9. We show that often magnetic nulls do not indicate the regions of intensive energy dissipation. Energy dissipation events caused by topological bifurcations at radial nulls are rather rare and short-lived. The so-called X-lines formed by the radial nulls in the Harris current sheet and lunar magnetic ano...
Null Arguments in the Yoruba Child’s Early Speech
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bolanle Elizabeth Arokoyo
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This paper studied null arguments in the early speech of the Yoruba child. We examined whether null subjects are more prominent than null objects and whether the usage of null subjects decreases with language development in the early utterance of the Yoruba child. We also examined the relationship between argument ellipses and finiteness. Minimalist Programme was adopted as the theoretical framework because of its provision for minimality in the processes of language acquisition. The database was made up of longitudinal naturalistic speech output of three Yoruba-speaking children between 15and 36 months of age. We discovered the preponderance of null argument-NPs at the initial stage; subjects-NPs were easily omitted while object-NPs were hardly omitted; the three Yoruba-speaking children began to make use of overt argument-NPs from fifteen months and gradually, null argument-NPs gave way. We found no direct relationship between the acquisition of finiteness and the end of null arguments.Keywords: arguments, null, object, subject, finiteness, ellipses
水通道蛋白7对蛋白激酶B的影响%The Effect of Aquaglyceroporin 7 on Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘伟; 沈飞霞; 谷雪梅; 叶菁; 顾雪疆; 倪连松; 李卫平
2013-01-01
该文旨在探讨水通道蛋白7(AQP7)在3T3-L1脂肪细胞不同分化阶段的表达以及其对胰岛素信号通路中蛋白激酶B(PKB)的影响.通过培养3T3-L1前体脂肪细胞,诱导分化为成熟的脂肪细胞,用荧光定量PCR,Western blot、酶学方法分析显示,随3T3-L1脂肪细胞分化过程,AQP7与PKB磷酸化水平同步上升,同时培养基中释放的甘油浓度伴随AQP7的表达平行增加.以TNF-α处理分化成熟的脂肪细胞构建胰岛素抵抗模型,AQP7与PKB磷酸化水平均下降,转染高表达AQP7基因的重组腺病毒载体(Ad-AQP7)之后,随着AQP7表达上调,胰岛素刺激下的PKB磷酸化水平提高,并且葡萄糖代谢能力增强.由此可见,AQP7水平随3T3-L1脂肪细胞分化过程逐渐上升,其高表达可能通过增加PKB磷酸化水平改善胰岛素敏感性,提示AQP7可能成为治疗肥胖的一个重要作用靶点.%Aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) is a water transporting protein which also regulates the glycerol efflux in adipocytes. The study of AQP7 might shed new light on the prevention and control of obesity. In this study, we aimed to analyze expression profiles of AQP7 in the different differentiation phase of adipocytes and the relationship between AQP7 and PKB in the insulin pathway. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were induced fully differentiated. Insulin resistance in differentiated adipocytes was induced by TNF-α. Adenovirus overexpression AQP7 (Ad-AQP7) was constructed and transfected to adipocytes. The expression levels of AQP7 and phosphorylated PKB (p-PKB) were measured. The glycerol release from adipocytes and the change of glucose concentration in the culture medium were also tested.The AQP7 levels were gradually up-regulated along with the differentiation phase of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was consistent with the expression levels of p-PKB. Overexpression of AQP7 by transfecting Ad-AQP7 to insulin resistant adipocytes could improve insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization, in
Energy dissipation in magnetic null points at kinetic scales
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Eriksson, Elin; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We use kinetic particle-in-cell and magnetohydrodynamic simulations supported by an observational dataset to investigate magnetic reconnection in clusters of null points in space plasma. The magnetic configuration under investigation is driven by fast adiabatic flux rope compression that dissipates almost half of the initial magnetic field energy. In this phase powerful currents are excited producing secondary instabilities, and the system is brought into a state of `intermittent turbulence' within a few ion gyro-periods. Reconnection events are distributed all over the simulation domain and energy dissipation is rather volume-filling. Numerous spiral null points interconnected via their spines form null lines embedded into magnetic flux ropes; null point pairs demonstrate the signatures of torsional spine reconnection. However, energy dissipation mainly happens in the shear layers formed by adjacent flux ropes with oppositely directed currents. In these regions radial null pairs are spontaneously emerging an...
Sidelobe Suppression with Null Steering by Independent Weight Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zafar-Ullah Khan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A uniform linear array of n antenna elements can steer up to n-1 nulls. In situations where less than n-1 nulls are required to be steered, the existing algorithms have no criterion to utilize the remaining weights for sidelobe suppression. This work combines sidelobe suppression capability with null steering by independent weight control. For this purpose, the array factor is transformed as the product of two polynomials. One of the polynomials is used for null steering by independent weight control, while the second one is for sidelobe suppression whose coefficients or weights are determined by using convex optimization. Finally, a new structure is proposed to incorporate the product of two polynomials such that sidelobe suppression weights are decoupled from those of null steering weights. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Wormholes minimally violating the null energy condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-López, Mariam [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Lobo, Francisco S N; Martín-Moruno, Prado, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ehu.es, E-mail: fslobo@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: pmmoruno@fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-11-01
We consider novel wormhole solutions supported by a matter content that minimally violates the null energy condition. More specifically, we consider an equation of state in which the sum of the energy density and radial pressure is proportional to a constant with a value smaller than that of the inverse area characterising the system, i.e., the area of the wormhole mouth. This approach is motivated by a recently proposed cosmological event, denoted {sup t}he little sibling of the big rip{sup ,} where the Hubble rate and the scale factor blow up but the cosmic derivative of the Hubble rate does not [1]. By using the cut-and-paste approach, we match interior spherically symmetric wormhole solutions to an exterior Schwarzschild geometry, and analyse the stability of the thin-shell to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations around static solutions, by choosing suitable properties for the exotic material residing on the junction interface radius. Furthermore, we also consider an inhomogeneous generalization of the equation of state considered above and analyse the respective stability regions. In particular, we obtain a specific wormhole solution with an asymptotic behaviour corresponding to a global monopole.
The curious case of null warped space
Anninos, Dionysios; Compère, Geoffrey; de Buyl, Sophie; Detournay, Stéphane; Guica, Monica
2010-11-01
We initiate a comprehensive study of a set of solutions of topologically massive gravity known as null warped anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These are pp-wave extensions of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We first perform a careful analysis of the linearized stability of black holes in these spacetimes. We find two qualitatively different types of solutions to the linearized equations of motion: the first set has an exponential time dependence, the second — a polynomial time dependence. The solutions polynomial in time induce severe pathologies and moreover survive at the non-linear level. In order to make sense of these geometries, it is thus crucial to impose appropriate boundary conditions. We argue that there exists a consistent set of boundary conditions that allows us to reject the above pathological modes from the physical spectrum. The asymptotic symmetry group associated to these boundary conditions consists of a centrally-extended Virasoro algebra. Using this central charge we can account for the entropy of the black holes via Cardy's formula. Finally, we note that the black hole spectrum is chiral and prove a Birkoff theorem showing that there are no other stationary axisymmetric black holes with the specified asymptotics. We extend most of the analysis to a larger family of pp-wave black holes which are related to Schrödinger spacetimes with critical exponent z.
The Curious Case of Null Warped Space
Anninos, Dionysios; de Buyl, Sophie; Detournay, Stéphane; Guica, Monica
2010-01-01
We initiate a comprehensive study of a set of solutions of topologically massive gravity known as null warped anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These are pp-wave extensions of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We first perform a careful analysis of the linearized stability of black holes in these spacetimes. We find two qualitatively different types of solutions to the linearized equations of motion: the first set has an exponential time dependence, the second - a polynomial time dependence. The solutions polynomial in time induce severe pathologies and moreover survive at the non-linear level. In order to make sense of these geometries, it is thus crucial to impose appropriate boundary conditions. We argue that there exists a consistent set of boundary conditions that allows us to reject the above pathological modes from the physical spectrum. The asymptotic symmetry group associated to these boundary conditions consists of a centrally-extended Virasoro algebra. Using this central charge we can account for th...
Null weak singularities in plane-symmetric spacetimes
Ori, A
1998-01-01
We construct a new class of plane-symmetric solutions possessing a curvature singularity which is null and weak, like the spacetime singularity at the Cauchy horizon of spinning (or charged) black holes. We then analyse the stability of this singularity using a rigorous non-perturbative method. We find that within the framework of (linearly-polarized) plane-symmetric spacetimes this type of null weak singularity is locally stable. Generically, the singularity is also scalar-curvature. These observations support the new picture of the null weak singularity inside spinning (or charged) black holes, which is so far established primarily on the perturbative approach.
The Density of Coronal Null Points from Hinode and MDI
Longcope, Dana; DeForest, Craig
2009-01-01
Magnetic null points can be located numerically in a potential field extrapolation or their average density can be estimated from the Fourier spectrum of a magnetogram. We use both methods to compute the null point density from a quiet Sun magnetogram made with Hinode's NFI and from magnetograms from SOHO's MDI in both its high-resolution and low-resolution modes. All estimates of the super-chromospheric column density (z>1.5 Mm) agree with one another and with the previous measurements: 0.003 null points per square Mm of solar surface.
Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using [32P]-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed
Performance Analysis of the Different Null Steering Techniques in the Field of Adaptive Beamforming
Fawad Zaman; Bilal Shoaib; Zafar Ullah Khan; Shahid Mehmood
2013-01-01
In this study, we compare the performance of three null steering techniques using uniform linear array. These techniques include Null Steering without using Phase Shifters, Null Steering by Decoupling the Real Weights and Null Steering by Decoupling the Complex Weights. The evaluation criteria of these techniques is based on the bases of different parameters i.e., null depth, main beam width, side lobe levels, number of steerable nulls, computational complexity and number of sensors used in t...
Waves and null congruences in a draining bathtub
Dempsey, David
2016-01-01
We study wave propagation in a draining bathtub: a fluid-mechanical black hole analogue in which perturbations are governed by a Klein-Gordon equation on an effective Lorentzian geometry. Like the Kerr spacetime, the draining bathtub geometry possesses an (effective) horizon, an ergosphere and null circular orbits. We propose that a `pulse' disturbance may be used to map out the light-cone of the effective geometry. First, we apply the eikonal approximation to elucidate the link between wavefronts, null geodesic congruences and the Raychaudhuri equation. Next, we solve the wave equation numerically in the time domain using the method of lines. Starting with Gaussian initial data, we demonstrate that a pulse will propagate along a null congruence and thus trace out the light-cone of the effective geometry. Our numerical results reveal features, such as wavefront intersections, frame-dragging, winding and interference effects, that are closely associated with the presence of null circular orbits and the ergosph...
A null-steering viewpoint of interferometric SAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BICKEL,DOUGLAS L.
2000-05-02
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) extends the two-dimensional imaging capability of traditional synthetic aperture radar to three-dimensions by using an aperture in the elevation plane to estimate the 3-D structure of the target. The operation of this additional aperture can be viewed from a null-steering point of view, rather than the traditional phase determination point of view. Knowing that IFSAR can be viewed from the null-steering perspective allows one to take advantage of the mathematical foundation developed for null-steering arrays. In addition, in some problems of interest in IFSAR the null-steering perspective provides better intuition and suggests alternative solutions. One example is the problem of estimating building height where layover is present.
Worldtube conservation laws for the null-timelike evolution problem
Winicour, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
I treat the worldtube constraints which arise in the null-timelike initial-boundary value problem for the Bondi-Sachs formulation of Einstein's equations. Boundary data on a worldtube and initial data on an outgoing null hypersurface determine the exterior spacetime by integration along the outgoing null geodsics. The worldtube constraints are a set of conservation laws which impose conditions on the integration constants. I show how these constraints lead to a well-posed initial value problem governing the extrinsic curvature of the worldtube, whose components are related to the integration constants. Possible applications to gravitational waveform extraction and to the well-posedness of the null-timelike initial-boundary value problem are discussed.
A Non-Null Annotation Inferencer for Java Bytecode
Hubert, Laurent
2008-01-01
We present a non-null annotations inferencer for the Java bytecode language. We previously proposed an analysis to infer non-null annotations and proved it soundness and completeness with respect to a state of the art type system. This paper proposes extensions to our former analysis in order to deal with the Java bytecode language. We have implemented both analyses and compared their behaviour on several benchmarks. The results show a substantial improvement in the precision and, despite bei...
Overt and Null Subject Pronouns in Jordanian Arabic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam M. Al-Momani
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper aims at examining the role that morphology plays in allowing and/or motivating sentences in Jordanian Arabic (hereafter JA to be formed with or without subject pronouns. It also aims at giving a comprehensive and descriptive presentation of the distribution of overt and null subject pronouns in JA, and tries to determine to what extent there is optionality in its system.Keywords: null subject pronouns, overt subjects, pro-drop languages, verbal inflectional morphology
On the failures of the null-hypothesis test
Longford, Nicholas
2015-01-01
This report comprises four reactions to the recent policy statement in Basic and Applied Social Psychology that announced a ban on null-hypothesis testing in that journal. A personal perspective is presented which agrees with the editors that null-hypothesis testing has become dysfunctional, but proposes a solution different from the editors'. In particular, application of formal statistical methods is defended, but they have to be tailored much more closely to the specifics of...
Another Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit
Thibodeau, Phillip E.; Sullender, Craig C.
1993-01-01
Lightweight, low-power circuit provides noncontact measurement of alternating or direct current of many ampheres in main conductor. Advantages of circuit over other nulling Hall-effect current-measuring circuits is stability and accuracy increased by putting both analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters in nulling feedback loop. Converters and rest of circuit designed for operation at sampling rate of 100 kHz, but rate changed to alter time or frequency response of circuit.
Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin
2014-01-01
Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278. ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf
Designing asynchronous circuits using NULL convention logic (NCL)
Smith, Scott
2009-01-01
Designing Asynchronous Circuits using NULL Convention Logic (NCL) begins with an introduction to asynchronous (clockless) logic in general, and then focuses on delay-insensitive asynchronous logic design using the NCL paradigm. The book details design of input-complete and observable dual-rail and quad-rail combinational circuits, and then discusses implementation of sequential circuits, which require datapath feedback. Next, throughput optimization techniques are presented, including pipelining, embedding registration, early completion, and NULL cycle reduction. Subsequently, low-power design
Three-dimensional magnetic reconnection through a moving magnetic null
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Lukin
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A computational study of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection between two flux ropes through a moving reconnection site is presented. The configuration is considered in the context of two interacting spheromaks constrained by a perfectly conducting cylindrical boundary and oriented to form a single magnetic field null at its center. The initial magnetic field configuration is embedded into a uniform thermal plasma and is unstable to tilting. As the spheromaks tilt, their magnetic fields begin to reconnect at the null, subsequently displacing both the null and the reconnection site. The motion of the reconnection region and the magnetic null are shown to be correlated, with stronger correlation and faster reconnection observed in plasmas with lower thermal to magnetic pressure ratio. It is also shown that ion inertial effects allow for yet faster reconnection, but do not qualitatively change the dynamics of the process. Implications of the coupling between moving magnetic nulls and reconnection sites, as well as of possible mechanisms for fast reconnection through a moving reconnection region, are discussed. The simulations are conducted using both single-fluid and Hall MHD plasma models within the HiFi multi-fluid modeling framework.
The causal topology of neutral 4-manifolds with null boundary
Georgiou, Nikos
2016-01-01
This paper considers aspects of 4-manifold topology from the point of view of a neutral metric, a point of view we call neutral causal topology. In particular, we construct and investigate neutral 4-manifolds with null boundary that arise from canonical 3- and 4-dimensional settings. A null hypersurface is foliated by its normal and, in the neutral case, inherits a pair of totally null planes at each point. This paper focuses on this structure in a number of classical settings The first construction is the conformal compactification of flat neutral 4-space into the 4-ball. The null foliation on the boundary in this case is the Hopf fibration on the 3-sphere and the totally null planes in the boundary are integrable. The metric on the 4-ball is a conformally flat, scalar-flat, positive Ricci curvature neutral metric. The second constructions are subsets of the 4-dimensional space of oriented geodesics in a 3-dimensional space-form, equipped with its canonical neutral metric. We consider all oriented geodesics ...
Resistivity at the field null of the FRC plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the absence of the major destructive instabilities, the configuration time is ultimately determined by particle and flux containment. If the profiles are ''gentle,'' then the anomalous flux-loss rate depends essentially on the anomalous resistivity at the field null. Conventional electrostatic quasi-linear models of anomalous cross-field resistive diffusivity are based upon the use of rvec E x rvec B drift velocities, and hence break down at the magnetic field null. In this paper, an electromagnetic treatment valid at the field null is developed, based upon the presence of flute-parity perturbations. An expression for anomalous resistivity at the field null in the quasi-linear approximation is derived by averaging in the ignorable direction over the random phases of the perturbations. The expression is valid for arbitrary (non-local) radial shapes of the perturbing modes (for example, the eigenfunctions need not be centered at the field null), and for an arbitrary ratio of real frequency to growth rate. The effective resistivity due to flute perturbations of the MHD type will be considered. 1 ref
Long-term Observations of Three Nulling Pulsars
Young, N J; Stappers, B W; Lyne, A G; Kramer, M
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of observations of the pulsars J1634$-$5107, J1717$-$4054 and J1853$+$0505, taken over the course of 14.7 yr. We show that all of these objects exhibit long term nulls and radio-emitting phases (i.e. minutes to many hours), as well as considerable nulling fractions (NFs) in the range $\\sim67\\,\\% - 90\\,\\%$. PSR J1717$-$4054 is also found to exhibit short timescale nulls ($1 - 40~P$) and burst phases ($\\lesssim 200~P$) during its radio-emitting phases. This behaviour acts to modulate the NF, and therefore the detection rate of the source, over timescales of minutes. Furthermore, PSR J1853$+$0505 is shown to exhibit a weak emission state, in addition to its strong and null states, after sufficient pulse integration. This further indicates that nulls may often only represent transitions to weaker emission states which are below the sensitivity thresholds of particular observing systems. In addition, we detected a peak-to-peak variation of $33\\pm1\\,\\%$ in the spin-...
Pedestal and ELM characterisation of highly shaped single null and quasi double null plasmas in JET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Ingesson, L.C.; Loarte, A. [European Fusion Development Agreement Close Support Unit - Garching (Germany); Lomas, P.J.; Andrew, P.; Andrew, Y.; Guenther, K.; Korothov, A.; McDonald, D.; Meigs, A.G.; Parail, V.V.; Sharapov, S. [Euratom/Ukaea Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX (United Kingdom); Becoulet, M.; Monier Garbet, P.; Rimini, F.G.; Thomas, P.R. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Conway, G.D.; Stober, J. [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fur Plasmophysik, Garching (Germany); Kempenaars, M. [Association Euratom-FOM, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Koslowski, H.R.; Perez, C.P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Julich (Germany); Lonnroth, J.S.; Saarelma, S. [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki Univ. of Techn., Hut (Finland); Nave, M.F. [Association Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal); Ongena, J. [ECOLE ROYALE MILITAIRE (ERM-KMS), Lab. Plasma Physics, Bruxelles (Belgium)
2003-07-01
This paper presents the results of experiments carried out in JET to study the plasma pedestal and ELM (edge localized modes) behaviour of high density/high confinement ELMy H-modes, focusing on the exploration of the effects of the plasma boundary magnetic geometry (triangularity {delta}, as well as proximity to Double-Null (DN)) and of q{sub 95} on the pedestal parameters, edge stability and ELM losses. These experiments were aimed at the study of Type-I ELMs at high density and of the access to steady-state Type-II ELM regime for JET plasma conditions, comparing pedestal and ELM characteristics in high {delta} SN (single-null) and QDN (quasi double-null) plasmas, in similar experimental conditions. To date, complete Type-I ELM suppression has not been achieved in JET in steady state conditions, although at high shaping and density mixed phases of Type-I and Type-II ELMs are observed, both for SN and QDN plasmas. Long periods of Type II ELMs (up to 150 ms in QDN) are obtained at high n(pedestal), associated with an increase of magnetic and density fluctuations, compared to levels in pure Type-I ELMy H-modes. The location of these enhanced fluctuation region is likely to be near the pedestal top. Increasing q{sub 95} from {approx} 3 to {approx} 4.5 (by varying either Ip or Bt), does not facilitate the access to the Type-II ELM regime, in contrast to indications from other experiments. In general, at high q{sub 95}, the Type-I ELMs frequency is much higher than at q{sub 95} {approx} 3 (typical for JET ELMy H-modes), the plasma global confinement is reduced, the Type II activity weakens, with the Type I-III transition occurring at lower pedestal density than at lower q{sub 95}. The enhanced {approx} 20 kHz magnetic fluctuations with Type-II ELMs are identified with strong washboard modes, possible responsible for the increased inter-ELM transport. Power balance calculations do indeed show that the power carried by ELMs is reduced by more than a factor of two in the
The appearance, motion, and disappearance of three-dimensional magnetic null points
Murphy, Nicholas A; Haynes, Andrew L
2015-01-01
While theoretical models and simulations of magnetic reconnection often assume symmetry such that the magnetic null point when present is co-located with a flow stagnation point, the introduction of asymmetry typically leads to non-ideal flows across the null point. To understand this behavior, we present exact expressions for the motion of three-dimensional linear null points. The most general expression shows that linear null points move in the direction along which the vector field and its time derivative are antiparallel. Null point motion in resistive magnetohydrodynamics results from advection by the bulk plasma flow and resistive diffusion of the magnetic field, which allows non-ideal flows across topological boundaries. Null point motion is described intrinsically by parameters evaluated locally; however, global dynamics help set the local conditions at the null point. During a bifurcation of a degenerate null point into a null-null pair or the reverse, the instantaneous velocity of separation or conv...
Data volume and power of multiple tests with small sample size per null
Chi, Zhiyi
2008-01-01
In multiple hypothesis testing, the volume of data, defined as the number of replications per null times the total number of nulls, usually defines the amount of resource required. On the other hand, power is an important measure of performance for multiple testing. Due to practical constraints, the number of replications per null may not be large enough in terms of the difference between false and true nulls. For the case where the population fraction of false nulls is constant, we show that...
Stabilising a nulling interferometer using optical path difference dithering
Gabor, Pavel; Brachet, Frank; Ollivier, Marc; Decaudin, Michel; Jacquinod, Sophie; Labèque, Alain; Léger, Alain
2008-01-01
Context. Nulling interferometry has been suggested as the underlying principle for the Darwin and TPF-I exoplanet research missions. Aims. There are constraints both on the mean value of the nulling ratio, and on its stability. Instrument instability noise is most detrimental to the stability of the nulling performance. Methods. We applied a modified version of the classical dithering technique to the optical path difference in the scientific beam. Results. Using only this method, we repeatedly stabilised the dark fringe for several hours. This method alone sufficed to remove the 1/ f component of the noise in our setup for periods of 10 minutes, typically. These results indicate that performance stability may be maintained throughout the long-duration data acquisitions typical of exoplanet spectroscopy. Conclusions. We suggest that further study of possible stabilisation strategies should be an integral part of Darwin/TPF-I research and development
Null but not void: considerations for hypothesis testing.
Shaw, Pamela A; Proschan, Michael A
2013-01-30
Standard statistical theory teaches us that once the null and alternative hypotheses have been defined for a parameter, the choice of the statistical test is clear. Standard theory does not teach us how to choose the null or alternative hypothesis appropriate to the scientific question of interest. Neither does it tell us that in some cases, depending on which alternatives are realistic, we may want to define our null hypothesis differently. Problems in statistical practice are frequently not as pristinely summarized as the classic theory in our textbooks. In this article, we present examples in statistical hypothesis testing in which seemingly simple choices are in fact rich with nuance that, when given full consideration, make the choice of the right hypothesis test much less straightforward. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22807023
Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) for high SNR exoplanet characterization
Henault, Francois
2015-01-01
Space-borne nulling interferometers have long been considered as the best option for searching and characterizing extra-solar planets located in the habitable zone of their parent stars. Solutions for achieving deep starlight extinction are now numerous and well demonstrated. However they essentially aim at realizing an achromatic central null in order to extinguish the star. In this communication is described a major improvement of the technique, where the achromatization process is extended to the entire fringe pattern. Therefore higher Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and appreciable simplification of the detection system should result. The basic principle of this Fully achromatic nulling interferometer (FANI) consists in inserting dispersive elements along the arms of the interferometer. Herein this principle is explained and illustrated by a preliminary optical system design. The typical achievable performance and limitations are discussed and some initial tolerance requirements are also provided
Optimization of myocardial nulling in pediatric cardiac MRI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tham, Edythe B. [Stollery Children' s Hospital, University of Alberta, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hung, Ryan W.; Crawley, Cinzia; Noga, Michelle L. [University of Alberta, Pediatric Radiology, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton (Canada); Myers, Kimberley A. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary (Canada)
2012-04-15
Current protocols to determine optimal nulling time in late enhancement imaging using adult techniques may not apply to children. To determine the optimal nulling time in anesthetised children, with the hypothesis that this occurs earlier than in adults. Sedated cardiac MRI was performed in 12 children (median age: 12 months, range: 1-60 months). After gadolinium administration, scout images at 2, 3, 4 and 10 min and phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) images from 5 to 10 min were obtained. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and inversion time (TI) were determined. Quality of nulling was assessed according to a grading score by three observers. Data was analysed using linear regression, Kruskal-Wallis and quadratic-weighted kappa statistics. One child with a cardiomyopathy had late enhancement. Good agreement in nulling occurred for scout images at 2 ({kappa} = 0.69) and 3 ({kappa} = 0.66) min and moderate agreement at 4 min ({kappa} = 0.57). Agreement of PSIR images was moderate at 7 min ({kappa} = 0.44) and poor-fair at other times. There were significant correlations between TI and scout time (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001), and SNR and kappa (r = 0.22, P = 0.017). Scout images at 2-4 min can be used to determine the TI with little variability. Image quality for PSIR images was highest at 7 min and SNR optimal at 7-9 min. TI increases with time and should be adjusted frequently during imaging. Thus, nulling times in children differ from nulling times in adults when using standard adult techniques. (orig.)
Magnetoacoustic Waves in Stratified Atmospheres with a Magnetic Null Point
Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark; Leake, James E.
2016-05-01
Magnetic fields strongly modify the propagation of MHD waves from the photosphere to the low corona, as can be shown exactly for the most simple case of a uniform magnetic field and isothermally stratrified atmosphere. For slightly more realistic scenarios, where both the atmospheric parameters and the magnetic field vary spatially, the linear MHD equations typically cannot be solved analytically. We use the Lagrangian Remap code--a nonlinear, shock-capturing MHD code--to study the propagation of initially acoustic wavepackets through a model 2D atmosphere that includes a gravitationally stratified chromosphere, transition region, and low corona. The magnetic field is formed by three photospheric concentrations and includes a single magnetic null point, resulting in an inhomogeneous system with a magnetic dome topology. A portion of an introduced wavepacket will refract toward the null due to the varying Alfven speed. Waves incident on the equipartition contour surrounding the null, where the sound and Alfven speeds coincide, partially transmit, reflect, and mode convert between branches of the local dispersion relation. Outward propagating slow modes generated during conversion become strongly concentrated along the set of field lines passing near the null. Acoustic energy is beamed back downwards towards each photospheric foot point, and upwards along one separatrix that exits the top of the numerical domain. Changes in the dominant restoring force for the wavepacket, between the Lorentz and pressure gradient forces, lead to a buildup of current density along topologically important features of the system (the null point and its four separatrices) and can drive reconnection at the null point itself. Ohmic dissipation of the currents locally heats the plasma. We find that the amount of current accumulation depends on where the centroid of a wavepacket initial crosses the photosphere, but does not simply coincide with regions of open versus closed magnetic field or
A Matrix Model for the Null-Brane
Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep
2005-01-01
The null-brane background is a simple smooth 1/2 BPS solution of string theory. By tuning a parameter, this background develops a big crunch/big bang type singularity. We construct the DLCQ description of this space-time in terms of a Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent space-time. Our dual Matrix description provides a non-perturbative framework in which the fate of both (null) time, and the string S-matrix can be studied.
Effect of residual phase gradients in optical null interference.
Naik, Dinesh N; Pradeep Chakravarthy, T; Viswanathan, Nirmal K
2016-01-01
A scheme to study the effect of residual phase gradients in an optical interference between two out-of-phase Gaussian beams is proposed. In a Sagnac interferometer configured to provide a null output, a variable linear phase swept across the null point unfolds an optical field rotation due to an apparently negligible residual phase gradient present orthogonal to the linear phase sweep. As the optical beam that rotates around its propagation axis carries orbital angular momentum, the experimental results presented in this Letter could provide an insight into the momentum change associated with the energy redistribution in the fundamental phenomenon of optical interference. PMID:26696166
Quantization in Spacetime from Null Paths in Higher Dimensions
Wesson, Paul S.
2008-01-01
Massive particles on timelike paths in spacetime can be viewed as moving on null paths in a higher-dimensional manifold. This and other consequences follow from the use of Campbell's theorem to embed 4D general relativity in non-compactified 5D Kaluza-Klein theory. We now show that it is possible in principle to obtain the standard rule for quantization in 4D from the canonical metric with null paths in 5D. Particle mass can be wavelike, as suggested originally by Dirac, and other 4D/5D conse...
A Matrix Model for the Null-Brane
Robbins, D; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep
2006-01-01
The null-brane background is a simple smooth 1/2 BPS solution of string theory. By tuning a parameter, this background develops a big crunch/big bang type singularity. We construct the DLCQ description of this space-time in terms of a Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent space-time. Our dual Matrix description provides a non-perturbative framework in which the fate of both (null) time, and the string S-matrix can be studied.
A matrix model for the null-brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The null-brane background is a simple smooth 1/2 BPS solution of string theory. By tuning a parameter, this background develops a big crunch/big bang type singularity. We construct the DLCQ description of this space-time in terms of a Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent space-time. Our dual Matrix description provides a non-perturbative framework in which the fate of both (null) time, and the string S-matrix can be studied
Null geodesics in a magnetically charged stringy black hole spacetime
Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.
2016-04-01
We study the null geodesics of a four-dimensional magnetic charged black hole spacetime arising in string theory. The behaviour of effective potential in view of the different values of black hole parameters are analysed in the equatorial plane. The possible orbits for null geodesics are also discussed in view of the different values of the impact parameter. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this spacetime. The results are compared to those obtained for the electrically charged stringy black hole spacetime and the Schwarzschild black hole spacetime in general relativity.
Quantization in Spacetime from Null Paths in Higher Dimensions
Wesson, Paul S
2008-01-01
Massive particles in spacetime can be viewed as moving on null paths in a higher-dimensional manifold. Using a novel gauge, we show that geometric structure in 5D can lead to the standard rule for quantization in 4D. Particle mass can be wavelike, as suggested originally by Dirac, and other 5D/4D consequences are outlined.
Progress in broadband infrared nulling technology for TPF
Wallace, J. Kent; Brown, Ken; Bartos, Randall; Gappinger, Robert; Loya, Frank; Macdonald, Dan; Moser, Steve; Negron, John
2005-01-01
TPF-I has set for itself a host of challenging technical milestones along its path to demonstrating the feasibility of infrared nulling for planet detection Progress in each of these areas of technical development will be reviewed as well as progress in meeting the overarching technical milestones.
Circumpulsar Asteroids: Inferences from Nulling Statistics and High Energy Correlations
Shannon, Ryan; Cordes, J. M.
2006-12-01
We have proposed that some classes of radio pulsar variability are associated with the entry of neutral asteroidal material into the pulsar magnetosphere. The region surrounding neutron stars is polluted with supernova fall-back material, which collapses and condenses into an asteroid-bearing disk that is stable for millions of years. Over time, collisional and radiative processes cause the asteroids to migrate inward until they are heated to the point of ionization. For older and cooler pulsars, asteroids ionize within the large magnetospheres and inject a sufficient amount of charged particles to alter the electrodynamics of the gap regions and modulate emission processes. This extrinsic model unifies many observed phenomena of variability that occur on time scales that are disparate with the much shorter time scales associated with pulsars and their magnetospheres. One such type of variability is nulling, in which certain pulsars exhibit episodes of quiescence that for some objects may be as short as a few pulse periods, but, for others, is longer than days. Here, in the context of this model, we examine the nulling phenomenon. We analyze the relationship between in-falling material and the statistics of nulling. In addition, as motivation for further high energy observations, we consider the relationship between the nulling and other magnetospheric processes.
The appearance, motion, and disappearance of three-dimensional magnetic null points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murphy, Nicholas A., E-mail: namurphy@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Parnell, Clare E.; Haynes, Andrew L. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-15
While theoretical models and simulations of magnetic reconnection often assume symmetry such that the magnetic null point when present is co-located with a flow stagnation point, the introduction of asymmetry typically leads to non-ideal flows across the null point. To understand this behavior, we present exact expressions for the motion of three-dimensional linear null points. The most general expression shows that linear null points move in the direction along which the magnetic field and its time derivative are antiparallel. Null point motion in resistive magnetohydrodynamics results from advection by the bulk plasma flow and resistive diffusion of the magnetic field, which allows non-ideal flows across topological boundaries. Null point motion is described intrinsically by parameters evaluated locally; however, global dynamics help set the local conditions at the null point. During a bifurcation of a degenerate null point into a null-null pair or the reverse, the instantaneous velocity of separation or convergence of the null-null pair will typically be infinite along the null space of the Jacobian matrix of the magnetic field, but with finite components in the directions orthogonal to the null space. Not all bifurcating null-null pairs are connected by a separator. Furthermore, except under special circumstances, there will not exist a straight line separator connecting a bifurcating null-null pair. The motion of separators cannot be described using solely local parameters because the identification of a particular field line as a separator may change as a result of non-ideal behavior elsewhere along the field line.
Performance Analysis of the Different Null Steering Techniques in the Field of Adaptive Beamforming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fawad Zaman
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, we compare the performance of three null steering techniques using uniform linear array. These techniques include Null Steering without using Phase Shifters, Null Steering by Decoupling the Real Weights and Null Steering by Decoupling the Complex Weights. The evaluation criteria of these techniques is based on the bases of different parameters i.e., null depth, main beam width, side lobe levels, number of steerable nulls, computational complexity and number of sensors used in the array. The validity and effectiveness of these techniques is reflected by the resultant radiation pattern of the array.
Proof of a Null Penrose Conjecture using a new Quasi-local Mass
Roesch, Henri
2016-01-01
We define an explicit quasi-local mass functional which is non-decreasing along all foliations (satisfying a convexity assumption) of null cones. We use this new functional to prove the null Penrose conjecture under fairly generic conditions.
Conserved quantities at spatial and null infinity: The Penrose potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We define a superpotential for energy-momentum and rotation momentum which is built out of the conformal tensor and a bivector. This superpotential is identified with that used by Penrose in his definition of quasilocal energy. It is applied to the definition of energy-momentum and rotation momentum at spatial and at null infinities. At spatial infinity the results are in agreement with those of Ashtekar and Hansen. At null infinity the results are unsatisfactory; they are tied to a specific Bondi frame. Thus, they are not in agreement with the results of Tamburino and Winicour, Geroch and Winicour, nor with those of Dray and Streubel. Some reasons for this failure are discussed
Null Cones and Einstein's Equations in Minkowski Spacetime
Pitts, J B
2004-01-01
If Einstein's equations are to describe a field theory of gravity in Minkowski spacetime, then causality requires that the effective curved metric must respect the flat background metric's null cone. The kinematical problem is solved using a generalized eigenvector formalism based on the Segr\\'{e} classification of symmetric rank 2 tensors with respect to a Lorentzian metric. Securing the correct relationship between the two null cones dynamically plausibly is achieved using the naive gauge freedom. New variables tied to the generalized eigenvector formalism reduce the configuration space to the causality-respecting part. In this smaller space, gauge transformations do not form a group, but only a groupoid. The flat metric removes the difficulty of defining equal-time commutation relations in quantum gravity and guarantees global hyperbolicity.
Null warped AdS in higher spin gravity
Breunhoelder, Veronika; Grumiller, Daniel; Prohazka, Stefan
2015-01-01
We equip three-dimensional spin-3 gravity in the principal embedding with a new set of boundary conditions that we call "asymptotically null warped AdS". We find a chiral copy of the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra as asymptotic symmetry algebra, reminiscent of the situation in topologically massive gravity with strict null warped AdS boundary conditions. We prove the invertibility of the map between zuvielbein and metric variables and construct a global gauge transformation to half of AdS spin-3 gravity in the diagonal embedding. This explains why the theory is chiral and why the Polyakov-Bershadsky algebra arises. We then introduce chemical potentials, derive the entropy, free energy, and the holographic response functions, and conclude with a discussion.
Nonparametric Regression Estimation for Multivariate Null Recurrent Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biqing Cai
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses nonparametric kernel regression with the regressor being a \\(d\\-dimensional \\(\\beta\\-null recurrent process in presence of conditional heteroscedasticity. We show that the mean function estimator is consistent with convergence rate \\(\\sqrt{n(Th^{d}}\\, where \\(n(T\\ is the number of regenerations for a \\(\\beta\\-null recurrent process and the limiting distribution (with proper normalization is normal. Furthermore, we show that the two-step estimator for the volatility function is consistent. The finite sample performance of the estimate is quite reasonable when the leave-one-out cross validation method is used for bandwidth selection. We apply the proposed method to study the relationship of Federal funds rate with 3-month and 5-year T-bill rates and discover the existence of nonlinearity of the relationship. Furthermore, the in-sample and out-of-sample performance of the nonparametric model is far better than the linear model.
MHD Mode Conversion around a 2D Magnetic Null Point
McDougall, A M D; 10.1063/1.3099224
2009-01-01
Mode conversion occurs when a wave passes through a region where the sound and Alfven speeds are equal. At this point there is a resonance, which allows some of the incident wave to be converted into a different mode. We study this phenomenon in the vicinity of a two-dimensional, coronal null point. As a wave approaches the null it passes from low- to high-beta plasma, allowing conversion to take place. We simulate this numerically by sending in a slow magnetoacoustic wave from the upper boundary; as this passes through the conversion layer a fast wave can clearly be seen propagating ahead. Numerical simulations combined with an analytical WKB investigation allow us to determine and track both the incident and converted waves throughout the domain.
Analysis of nulling phase functions suitable to image plane coronagraphy
Henault, Francois; Verinaud, Christophe
2016-01-01
Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially when used in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is based on phase plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, that spread the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this communication we present a set of candidate phase functions generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These functions include linear azimuthal phase ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated phase profiles, and circular phase gratings. Numerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The prelim...
Holographic proof of the quantum null energy condition
Koeller, Jason; Leichenauer, Stefan
2016-07-01
We use holography to prove the quantum null energy condition (QNEC) at leading order in large N for CFTs and relevant deformations of CFTs in Minkowski space which have Einstein gravity duals. Given any codimension-two surface Σ which is locally stationary under a null deformation in the direction k at the point p , the QNEC is a lower bound on the energy-momentum tensor at p in terms of the second variation of the entropy to one side of Σ : ⟨Tk k⟩≥S''/2 π √{h } . In a CFT, conformal transformations of this inequality give results which apply when Σ is not locally stationary. The QNEC was proven previously for free theories, and taken together with our result this provides strong evidence that the QNEC is a true statement about quantum field theory in general.
Quantization of black hole entropy from unstable circular null geodesics
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Fu, Chun-E.
2016-04-01
The quasinormal mode frequencies can be understood from the massless particles trapped at the unstable circular null geodesics and slowly leaking out to infinity. Based on this viewpoint, in this paper, we semiclassically construct the entropy spectrum of the static and stationary black holes from the null geodesics. The result shows that the spacing of the entropy spectrum only depends on the property of the black hole in the eikonal limit. Moreover, for a black hole far from the extremal case, the spacing is found to be smaller than 2πħ for any dimension, which is very different from the result of the previous work by using the usual quasinormal mode frequencies.
Magnetic Reconnection at a Three-dimensional Solar Null Point
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Baumann, Gisela; Galsgaard, Klaus;
2012-01-01
Using a specific solar null point reconnection case studied by Masson et al (2009; ApJ 700, 559) we investigate the dependence of the reconnection rate on boundary driving speed, numerical resolution, type of resistivity (constant or numerical), and assumed stratification (constant density or solar......-like). The MHD simulations start out from a potential magnetic field containing a null-point, obtained from a SOHO magnetogram extrapolation approximately 8 hours before a C-class flare was observed. The magnetic field is stressed with a boundary motion pattern similar to the horizontal motions observed by SOHO...... during the period preceding the flare. The general behavior is nearly independent of driving speed and numerical resolution, and is also very similar in stratified and unstratified models, provided only that the boundary motions are slow enough....
Hanot, Charles
2010-01-01
A unique statistical data analysis method has been developed for reducing nulling interferometry data. The idea is to make use of the statistical distributions of the fluctuating null depths and beam intensities to retrieve the astrophysical null depth in the presence of fluctuations. The approach yields an accuracy much better than is possible with standard data reduction methods, because the accuracy of the null depth is not limited by the sizes of the phase and intensity errors but by the ...
Oscillatory null singularity inside realistic spinning black holes
Ori, Amos
2001-01-01
We calculate the asymptotic behavior of the curvature scalar $(Riemann)^2$ near the null weak singularity at the inner horizon of a generic spinning black hole, and show that this scalar oscillates infinite number of times while diverging. The dominant parallelly-propagated Riemann components oscillate in a similar manner. This oscillatory behavior, which is in a remarkable contrast to the monotonic mass-inflation singularity in spherical charged black holes, is caused by the dragging of iner...
The Tolman VII solution, trapped null orbits and w - modes
Neary, N J; Lake, K; Neary, Nicholas; Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll
2001-01-01
The Tolman VII solution is an exact static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solution of Einstein's equations that exhibits a surprisingly good approximation to a neutron star. We show that this solution exhibits trapped null orbits in a causal region even for a tenuity (total radius to mass ratio) $> 3$. In this region the dynamical part of the potential for axial w - modes dominates over the centrifugal part.
Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?
Asenjo, Felipe A
2016-01-01
We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non--rotating, as well as in G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non--rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic plane waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic plane waves on G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior.
Partial Rescue of the Amelogenin Null Dental Enamel Phenotype*
LI, YONG; Suggs, Cynthia; Wright, J. Timothy; Yuan, Zhi-An; Aragon, Melissa; Fong, Hanson; Simmons, Darrin; Daly, Bill; Golub, Ellis E.; Harrison, Gerald; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Gibson, Carolyn W.
2008-01-01
The amelogenins are the most abundant secreted proteins in developing dental enamel. Enamel from amelogenin (Amelx) null mice is hypoplastic and disorganized, similar to that observed in X-linked forms of the human enamel defect amelogenesis imperfecta resulting from amelogenin gene mutations. Both transgenic strains that express the most abundant amelogenin (TgM180) have relatively normal enamel, but strains of mice that express a mutated amelogenin (TgP70T), which leads to amelogenesis impe...
Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit
Sullender, Craig C.; Vazquez, Juan M.; Berru, Robert I.
1993-01-01
Circuit measures electrical current via combination of Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling techniques. Known current generated by feedback circuit adjusted until it causes cancellation or near cancellation of magnetic field produced in toroidal ferrite core by current measured. Remaining magnetic field measured by Hall-effect sensor. Circuit puts out analog signal and digital signal proportional to current measured. Accuracy of measurement does not depend on linearity of sensing components.
Null distribution of multiple correlation coefficient under mixture normal model
Hydar Ali; Nagar, Daya K.
2002-01-01
The multiple correlation coefficient is used in a large variety of statistical tests and regression problems. In this article, we derive the null distribution of the square of the sample multiple correlation coefficient, R2, when a sample is drawn from a mixture of two multivariate Gaussian populations. The moments of 1−R2 and inverse Mellin transform have been used to derive the density of R2.
Atoms of weakly null-additive monotone measures and integrals
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Li, J.; Mesiar, Radko; Pap, E.
2014-01-01
Roč. 257, č. 1 (2014), s. 183-192. ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : atom of a measure * weak null-additivty * monotone measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432227.pdf
A null model for testing thermodynamic optimization in ecological systems
Doyle, Santiago R.; Carusela, Florencia; Guala, Sebastián; Momo, Fernando
2011-01-01
Several authors have hypothesized that ecological systems are subject to thermodynamic optimization, which, if proven correct, could represent a long sought general principle of organization in ecology. Although there have been recent advances, this still remains as an unresolved topic, and ecologists lack a general method to test thermodynamic optimization hypotheses in specific systems. Here we present a general, novel approach that allows generating a null model for testing thermodynamic o...
A semilinear hyperbolic system violating the null condition
Katayama, Soichiro; Sunagawa, Hideaki
2012-01-01
We consider a two-component system of semilinear wave equations in three space dimensions with quadratic nonlinear terms not satisfying the null condition. We prove small data global existence of the classical solution if some quantity defined from the nonlinearities is positive. It is also shown that only one component is dissipated and the other one behaves like a (non-trivial) free solution in the large time.
Zero emission city. Preliminary study; Null-Emissions-Stadt. Sondierungsstudie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Werner, P.; Flade, A.; Greiff, R.; Hennings, D.; Muehlich, E.; Wullkopf, U.; Sturm, P.; Kieslich, W.; Born, R.; Grossklos, M.; Hatteh, R.; Mueller, K.; Ratschow, A.; Valouch-Fornoff, C.
2002-10-01
The idea of a 'zero emission city' is investigated by the Institut Wohnen und Umwelt on behalf of the Federal Minister of Education and Research. After describing the current situation and defining the key parameters of a 'zero emission city', settlement structures, power supply, production processes and transportation are analyzed and linked with the communal action level to obtain a framework for research, activities and actions. The study ends with recommendations for a research programme 'zero emission city'. (orig.) [German] Die von den Staedten der Industrielaender ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen wie z.B. Treibhauseffekt, Ozonabbau und Versauerung das Hauptproblem dar. Aus diesem Grunde bietet es sich an, den Gedanken der 'Null-Emissions-Stadt', der Vision einer moeglichst emissionsfreien Stadt, aufzugreifen und auf seine Tragfaehigkeit fuer innovative Handlungsmodelle forschungsstrategisch zu ueberpruefen. Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung hat das Institut Wohnen und Umwelt beauftragt, in einer Sondierungsstudie dieser Fragestellung nachzugehen. Nach der Festlegung der Ausgangsbedingungen und Eckpunkte der Vision 'Null-Emissions-Stadt' und der Analyse der vier Handlungsfelder Siedlungsstrukturen, Energieversorgung, Produktionsprozesse (Kreislaufwirtschaft) und Verkehr werden diese aufgegriffen und mit der kommunalen Handlungsebene verknuepft und zu einem Forschungs-, Handlungs- und moeglichen Aktionsrahmen zusammengefuegt. Die Studie schliesst mit Hinweisen fuer die Gestaltung eines Forschungsprogramms 'Null-Emissions-Stadt'. (orig.)
Variational principle for gravity with null and non-null boundaries: a unified boundary counter-term
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parattu, Krishnamohan; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T. [IUCAA, Post Bag 4, Pune (India)
2016-03-15
It is common knowledge that the Einstein-Hilbert action does not furnish a well-posed variational principle. The usual solution to this problem is to add an extra boundary term to the action, called a counter-term, so that the variational principle becomes well-posed. When the boundary is spacelike or timelike, the Gibbons-Hawking-York counter-term is the most widely used. For null boundaries, we had proposed a counter-term in a previous paper. In this paper, we extend the previous analysis and propose a counter-term that can be used to eliminate variations of the ''off-the-surface'' derivatives of the metric on any boundary, regardless of its spacelike, timelike or null nature. (orig.)
Variational Principle for Gravity with Null and Non-null boundaries: A Unified Boundary Counter-term
Parattu, Krishnamohan; Padmanabhan, T
2016-01-01
It is common knowledge that the Einstein-Hilbert action does not furnish a well-posed variational principle. The usual solution to this problem is to add an extra boundary term to the action, called a counter-term, so that the variational principle becomes well-posed. When the boundary is spacelike or timelike, the Gibbons-Hawking-York counter-term is the most widely used. For null boundaries, we had proposed a counter-term in a previous paper. In this paper, we extend the previous analysis and propose a counter-term that can be used to eliminate variations of the "off-the-surface" derivatives of the metric on any boundary, regardless of its spacelike, timelike or null nature.
Null controllable region of delta operator systems subject to actuator saturation
Yang, Hongjiu; Yan, Ce; Xia, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jinhui
2016-07-01
In this paper, we give exact description of null controllable regions for delta operator systems subject to actuator saturation. The null controllable region is in terms of a set of extremal trajectories of anti-stable subsystems. For the delta operator system with real eigenvalues or complex eigenvalues, the description is simplified to an explicit formula which is used to characterise the boundary of a null controllable region. The relations of null controllable regions are shown separately for continuous-time systems, discrete-time systems and delta operator systems. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques on null controllable regions.
Broadband Achromatic Phase Shifter for a Nulling Interferometer
Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.
2011-01-01
Nulling interferometry is a technique for imaging exoplanets in which light from the parent star is suppressed using destructive interference. Light from the star is divided into two beams and a phase shift of radians is introduced into one of the beams. When the beams are recombined, they destructively interfere to produce a deep null. For monochromatic light, this is implemented by introducing an optical path difference (OPD) between the two beams equal to lambda/2, where lambda is the wavelength of the light. For broadband light, however, a different phase shift will be introduced at each wavelength and the two beams will not effectively null when recombined. Various techniques have been devised to introduce an achromatic phase shift a phase shift that is uniform across a particular bandwidth. One popular technique is to use a series of dispersive elements to introduce a wavelength-dependent optical path in one or both of the arms of the interferometer. By intelligently choosing the number, material and thickness of a series of glass plates, a nearly uniform, arbitrary phase shift can be introduced between two arms of an interferometer. There are several constraints that make choosing the number, type, and thickness of materials a difficult problem, such as the size of the bandwidth to be nulled. Several solutions have been found for bandwidths on the order of 20 to 30 percent (Delta(lambda)/lambda(sub c)) in the mid-infrared region. However, uniform phase shifts over a larger bandwidth in the visible regime between 480 to 960 nm (67 percent) remain difficult to obtain at the tolerances necessary for exoplanet detection. A configuration of 10 dispersive glass plates was developed to be used as an achromatic phase shifter in nulling interferometry. Five glass plates were placed in each arm of the interferometer and an additional vacuum distance was also included in the second arm of the interferometer. This configuration creates a phase shift of pi radians with
A Visualization of Null Geodesics for the Bonnor Massive Dipole
Oliva-Mercado, Guillermo Andree; Cordero-García, Iván; Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco
2015-01-01
In this work we simulate null geodesics for the Bonnor massive dipole metric by implementing a symbolic-numerical algorithm in Sage and Python. This program is also capable of visualizing in 3D, in principle, the geodesics for any given metric. Geodesics are launched from a common point, collectively forming a cone of light beams, simulating a solid-angle section of a point source in front of a massive object with a magnetic field. Parallel light beams also were considered, and their bending due to the curvature of the space-time was simulated.
Trapping of waves and null geodesics for rotating black holes
Dyatlov, Semyon; Zworski, Maciej
2013-01-01
We present dynamical properties of linear waves and null geodesics valid for Kerr and Kerr-de Sitter black holes and their stationary perturbations. The two are intimately linked by the geometric optics approximation. For the nullgeodesic flow the key property is the r-normal hyperbolicity of the trapped set and for linear waves it is the distribution of quasi-normal modes: the exact quantization conditions do not hold for perturbations but the bounds on decay rates and the statistics of freq...
Why is the null HBT result at RHIC so interesting?
Gyulassy, M
2003-01-01
Pion interferometry (HBT of A+A) data have posed a thorn in the theoretical interpretation of AA collisions at RHIC (sq root s = 130 AGeV). How can R sub o sub u sub t approx R sub s sub i sub d sub e approx R sub l sub o sub n sub g and remain so between AGS and RHIC? Where is the QGP Stall? Can elephants hide along the x sub 0 sup + dimension? We rummage old hydrodynamic scenarios and uncover some previously ignored NULL solutions. (author)
Null controllability in a fluid-solid structure model
Raymond, J.-P.; Vanninathan, M.
We consider a system coupling the Stokes equations in a two-dimensional domain with a structure equation which is a system of ordinary differential equations corresponding to a finite dimensional approximation of equations modeling deformations of an elastic body or vibrations of a rigid body. For that system we establish a null controllability result for localized distributed controls acting only in the fluid equations and there is no control in the solid part. This controllability result follows from a Carleman inequality that we prove for the adjoint system.
Scale anomalies imply violation of the averaged null energy condition
Visser, M
1994-01-01
Considerable interest has recently been expressed regarding the issue of whether or not quantum field theory on a fixed but curved background spacetime satisfies the averaged null energy condition (ANEC). A comment by Wald and Yurtsever [Phys. Rev. D43, 403 (1991)] indicates that in general the answer is no. In this note I explore this issue in more detail, and succeed in characterizing a broad class of spacetimes in which the ANEC is guaranteed to be violated. Finally, I add some comments regarding ANEC violation in Schwarzschild spacetime.
Conformal symmetry wormholes and the null energy condition
Kuhfittig, Peter K F
2016-01-01
In this paper we seek a relationship between the assumption of conformal symmetry and the exotic matter needed to hold a wormhole open. By starting with a Morris-Thorne wormhole having a constant energy density, it is shown that the conformal factor provides the extra degree of freedom sufficient to account for the exotic matter. The same holds for Morris-Thorne wormholes in a noncommutative-geometry setting. Applied to thin shells, there would exist a radius that results in a wormhole with positive surface density and negative surface pressure and which violates the null energy condition on the thin shell.
Five-dimensional null & time-like supersymmetric geometries
Pasini, Giulio
2015-01-01
We show that there exist supersymmetric solutions of five-dimensional, pure, $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity whose supersymmetric Killing vector, built out of the Killing spinor, is null on an open set of the underlying space-time manifold and generically time-like on the complementary set. We explicitly construct such solutions by using a multi-center Gibbons-Hawking base. Although many of these solutions have infinite charges, we find explicit examples with finite charges that asymptote to $AdS_3\\times S_2$ and discuss their physical interpretation.
Null weak values in multi-level systems
Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval
2013-01-01
A two-step measurement protocol of a quantum system, known as weak value (WV), has been introduced more than two decades ago by Aharonov et al. [1], and has since been studied in various contexts. Here we discuss another two-step measurement protocol which we dub null weak value (NWV). The protocol consists of a partial-collapse measurement followed by quantum manipulation on the system and finally a strong measurement. The first step is a strong measurement which takes place with small proba...
Holographic Description of Negative Null Energy in Squeezed Vacuum States
Lee, Da-Shin
2016-01-01
Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the expectation value of stress tensor in squeezed vacuum states of $2+1$-dimensional quantum critical theories with a general dynamical scaling $z$. The holographic dual theory is the theory of gravity in 3+1-dimensional Lifshitz backgrounds. We then adopt a consistent approach to obtain the boundary stress tensor from bulk construction, which satisfies the trace Ward identity associated with Lifshitz scaling symmetry. The scheme for holographic dual of squeezed vacuum states is found to be the gravity theory in the geometry perturbed by gravitational wave. For small squeezing parameters, the expectation value of stress tensor in squeezed vacuum states is obtained for both strongly coupled quantum critical fields and free relativistic fields. We find that, in both cases with $z=1$, the stress tensor satisfies the averaged null energy condition and is consistent with the quantum interest conjecture. In particular, the negative lower bound on null-contracted stress tensor, w...
Conceptual design of the ALADDIN Antarctic nulling interferometer
Barillot, Marc; Courteau, Pascal; Absil, Olivier; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Swain, Mark
2006-06-01
It is commonly accepted that highly challenging planet finding missions such as Darwin and TPF need precursors on the ground, for both technological demonstration and study of the exozodiacal clouds around potential targets. A first instrument, GENIE, designed to be implemented in the interferometric laboratory of the VLTI, was studied by ESA and scientific/industrial teams. In this paper we present a concept for ALADDIN, an operational nulling instrument to be implemented at Dome C in Antarctica, and discuss the comparison with GENIE from the instrumental point of view. Our preliminary design involves moderate ~1m size telescopes mounted on a 40m long rotating beam allowing baselines up to 30m and feeding a 2-arm nulling beam combiner. When compared to GENIE, the rotating beam design has the advantage of removing the need for both long-stroke delay line and dispersion control equipments. As a side effect, the instrumental arrangement of ALADDIN finds itself more representative of what Darwin will be. Furthermore, critical issues like phase control, photometric balance and instrumental background suppression are expected to be relaxed by the improved atmospheric conditions, lower temperature, and simpler optical trains. Calibration of geometrical stellar leakage will make advantage of the continuously adjustable baseline. As results, a simpler instrument showing improved performance is expected. In conclusion, we see our ALADDIN concept as a valuable alternative to GENIE, with a quite stronger scientific potential and a considerably simplified instrumental design.
Adding light to the gravitational waves on the null cone
Babiuc, Maria
2014-03-01
Recent interesting astrophysical observations point towards a multi-messenger, multi-wavelength approach to understanding strong gravitational sources, like compact stars or black hole collisions, supernovae explosions, or even the big bang. Gravitational radiation is properly defined only at future null infinity, but usually is estimated at a finite radius, and then extrapolated. Our group developed a characteristic waveform extraction tool, implemented in an open source code, which computes the gravitational waves infinitely far from their source, in terms of compactified null cones, by numerically solving Einstein equation in Bondi space-time coordinates. The goal is extend the capabilities of the code, by solving Einstein-Maxwell's equations together with the Maxwell's equations, to obtain the energy radiated asymptotically at infinity, both in gravitational and electromagnetic waves. The purpose is to analytically derive and numerically calculate both the gravitational waves and the electromagnetic counterparts at infinity, in this characteristic framework. The method is to treat the source of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation as a black box, and therefore the code will be very flexible, with potentially large applicability.
Does horizon entropy satisfy a Quantum Null Energy Conjecture?
Fu, Zicao
2016-01-01
A modern version of the idea that the area of event horizons gives $4G$ times an entropy is the Hubeny-Rangamani Causal Holographic Information (CHI) proposal for holographic field theories. Given a region $R$ of a holographic QFTs, CHI computes $A/4G$ on a certain cut of an event horizon in the gravitational dual. The result is naturally interpreted as a coarse-grained entropy. CHI is known to be finitely greater than the fine-grained Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) entropy when $\\partial R$ lies on a Killing horizon of the QFT spacetime, and in this context satisfies other non-trivial properties expected of an entropy. Here we present evidence that it also satisfies the quantum null energy condition (QNEC), which bounds the second derivative of the entropy of a quantum field theory on one side of a non-expanding null surface by the flux of stress-energy across the surface. In particular, we show CHI to satisfy the QNEC in 1+1 holographic CFTs when evaluated in states dual to conical defects in AdS$_3$. Th...
Null weak values in multi-level systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-step measurement protocol of a quantum system, known as the weak value (WV), was introduced more than two decades ago by Aharonov et al (1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 1351) and has since then been studied in various contexts. In this paper, we discuss another two-step measurement protocol that we dub the null weak value (NWV). The protocol consists of a partial-collapse measurement followed by quantum manipulation on the system and finally a strong measurement. The first step is a strong measurement which takes place with a small probability. The second strong measurement is used as a postselection on the outcome of the earlier step. Not being measured in the partial-collapse stage (null outcome) leads to a nontrivial correlation between the two measurements. The NVW protocol, first defined for a two-level system (Zilberberg et al 2012 arXiv:1205.3877), is then generalized to a multi-level system and compared with the standard-WV protocol.
Non-dissipative electromagnetic media with two Lorentz null cones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study Maxwell’s equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is modeled by an antisymmetric (2/2 )-tensor with 21 real coefficients. In this setting the Fresnel surface is a fourth-order polynomial surface that describes the dynamical response of the medium in the geometric optics limit. For example, in an isotropic medium the Fresnel surface is a Lorentz null cone. The contribution of this paper is the pointwise description of all electromagnetic medium tensors κ with real coefficients that satisfy the following three conditions: (i)medium κ is invertible, (ii)medium κ is skewon-free, or non-dissipative, (iii)the Fresnel surface of κ is the union of two distinct Lorentz null cones. We show that there are only three classes of media with these properties and give explicit expressions in local coordinates for each class. - Highlights: ► We find two new electromagnetic media classes for which the Fresnel surface decomposes into two light cones. ► In a suitable setting we classify all electromagnetic media where this is the case. ► We find an electromagnetic medium tensor with three different signal speeds in one direction. ► The work is related to [5], which classifies all media with one light cone (in a suitable setting).
Exoplanet detection and characterization via parallel broadband nulling coronagraphy
Hicks, Brian A.
2016-01-01
The contrast and angular resolution required to directly image and characterize mature exoplanetary systems place stringent requirements on the space-based telescopes and starlight suppression systems needed to study spatial distributions of debris disks, exozodiacal dust, and individual planets at multiple epochs in their orbits. A nulling interferometer (nuller) is a coronagraphic suppression system that can be used with all telescope types, including those with obscured and segmented apertures envisioned for upcoming and future observatories. One of the challenges for detection and characterization of exoplanetary signals is achieving high contrast with broad spectral coverage. This work presents design concepts for broadband nulling over four parallel ˜20% bandpasses spanning the visible spectrum. Contrast-limiting effects of stellar angular extent, residual chromaticity of broadband phase shifters, and aperture diffraction are considered to reach simultaneous ≲2×10-8 contrast over separations spanning 0.2 to 0.9 arc sec for a 2.4-m telescope observing a Sun-like star at 10 pc. With added dark hole wavefront control and postprocessing point spread function subtraction techniques to further reduce scattered starlight, such a system could be capable of detecting the very the nearest Earth-like exoplanets and spectral characterization of several nearby extrasolar gas giants.
Benesch, Johan; Askendal, A.; Tengvall, P.
2000-01-01
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and null ellipsometry are two common methods to quantify adsorbed proteins. However, the accuracy of null ellipsometry with a constant protein refractive index (n 1.465, k 0) at l 632.8 nm has this far not been explored. The present study compared the methods, and the degree of agreement between the simplified single wavelength null ellipsometry and RIA to quantify adsorbed proteins was explored on different surfaces. The quantification methods agreed well w...
TRPV1-null mice are protected from diet-induced obesity
Motter, Arianne L.; Ahern, Gerard P.
2008-01-01
We explored a role for the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in the regulation of feeding and body mass. On a 4.5% fat diet, wild-type and TRPV1-null mice gained equivalent body mass. On an 11% fat diet, however, TRPV1-null mice gained significantly less mass and adiposity; at 44 weeks the mean body weights of wild-type and TRPV1-null mice were ~51 and 34 g respectively. Both groups of mice consumed equivalent energy and absorbed similar amounts of lipids. TRPV1-null mice, however, exhibited a signifi...
Does anomalous violation of null energy condition invalidate holographic c-theorem?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Null energy condition plays a crucial role in holographic renormalization group flow, leading to the holographic c-theorem. Unfortunately, the null energy condition is quantum mechanically violated. Even the averaged version can be violated. We discuss how the anomalous violation of the null energy condition affects the holographic renormalization group flow in (1+3)-dimensional bulk gravity. We show that despite the violation of the null energy condition, a suitably modified holographic c-function with a peculiar log correction is still monotonically decreasing in so far as we add the counterterm that removes a ghost mode of gravity
Principles: when there should be no difference--how to fail to reject the null hypothesis.
Lew, Michael J
2006-05-01
It is common to perform experiments in which a 'success' is claimed when the null hypothesis is discarded. However, there is a category of experiment that has become important in which a success is when the null hypothesis is not rejected. Failing to discard the null hypothesis is different from proving it to be valid, a distinction that is particularly important in experiments in which any inadequacy of experimental design or implementation enhances the likelihood of a success. The appropriate analysis of such experiments tests for evidence of the validity of the null hypothesis rather than simply failing to find evidence against it. PMID:16595154
Review of OCA activities on nulling testbench PERSEE
Hénault, François; Girard, Paul; Marcotto, Aurélie; Mauclert, Nicolas; Bailet, Christophe; Clausse, Jean-Michel; Mourard, Denis; Rabbia, Yves; Roussel, Alain; Barillot, Marc; Cassaing, Frédéric; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel
2010-07-01
We present a review of our activities on PERSEE (Pégase Experiment for Research and Stabilization of Extreme Extinction) at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA). PERSEE is a laboratory testbench aiming at achieving a stabilized nulling ratio better than 10-4 in the astronomical bands K and M, in presence of flight-representative spacecraft perturbations. The bench has been jointly developed by a Consortium of six French institutes and companies, among which OCA was responsible for the star simulator and of the opto-mechanical studies, procurement and manufacturing of the optical train. In this communication are presented the alignment and image quality requirements and the optomechanical design of the illumination module and main optical train, including a periscope Achromatic Phase Shifter (APS), tip-tilt mirrors used to introduce and then compensate for dynamic disturbances, delay lines, beam compressors and fiber injection optics. Preliminary test results of the star simulator are also provided.
'Peeling property' for linearized gravity in null coordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A complete description of the linearized gravitational field on a flat background is given in terms of gauge-independent quasilocal quantities. This is an extension of the results from [16]. Asymptotic spherical quasilocal parameterization of the Weyl field and its relation with Einstein equations is presented. The field equations are equivalent to the wave equation. A generalization for the Schwarzschild background is developed and the axial part of the gravitational field is fully analysed. In the case of axial degrees of freedom for the linearized gravitational field the corresponding generalization of the d'Alembert operator is a Regge-Wheeler equation. Finally, the asymptotics at null infinity are investigated and the strong peeling property for axial waves is proved
Radiation Hardened NULL Convention Logic Asynchronous Circuit Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Zhou
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a radiation hardened NULL Convention Logic (NCL architecture that can recover from a single event latchup (SEL or single event upset (SEU fault without deadlock or any data loss. The proposed architecture is analytically proved to be SEL resistant, and by extension, proved to be SEU resistant. The SEL/SEU resistant version of a 3-stage full-word pipelined NCL 4 × 4 unsigned multiplier was implemented using the IBM cmrf8sf 130 nm 1.2 V process at the transistor level and simulated exhaustively with SEL fault injection to validate the proposed architectures. Compared with the original version, the SEL/SEU resilient version has 1.31× speed overhead, 2.74× area overhead, and 2.79× energy per operation overhead.
Horizons in matter: black hole hair vs. Null Big Bang
Bronnikov, K A
2009-01-01
It is shown that only particular kinds of matter (in terms of the "radial" pressure to density ratio $w$) can coexist with Killing horizons in black-hole or cosmological space-times. Thus, for arbitrary (not necessarily spherically symmetric) static black holes, admissible are vacuum matter ($w=-1$, i.e., the cosmological constant or some its generalization) and matter with certain values of $w$ between 0 and -1, in particular, a gas of disordered cosmic strings ($w=-1/3$). If the cosmological evolution starts from a horizon (the so-called Null Big Bang scenarios), this horizon can co-exist with vacuum matter and certain kinds of phantom matter with $w\\geq -3$. It is concluded that normal matter in such scenarios is entirely created from vacuum.
Linearized gravitational waves near space-like and null infinity
Beyer, Florian; Frauendiener, Jörg; Whale, Ben
2013-01-01
Linear perturbations on Minkowski space are used to probe numerically the remote region of an asymptotically flat space-time close to spatial infinity. The study is undertaken within the framework of Friedrich's conformal field equations and the corresponding conformal representation of spatial infinity as a cylinder. The system under consideration is the (linear) zero-rest-mass equation for a spin-2 field. The spherical symmetry of the underlying background is used to decompose the field into separate non-interacting multipoles. It is demonstrated that it is possible to reach null-infinity from initial data on an asymptotically Euclidean hyper-surface and that the physically important radiation field can be extracted accurately on $\\scri^+$.
A new interferometer architecture combining nulling with phase closure measurements
Lacour, S; Monnier, J D; Kotani, T; Gauchet, L; Labeye, P
2013-01-01
Imaging the direct light signal from a faint exoplanet against the overwhelming glare of its host star presents one of the fundamental challenges to modern astronomical instrumentation. Achieving sufficient signal-to-noise for detection by direct imaging is limited by three basic physical processes: aberration of the wavefronts (both instrumental and atmospheric), photon noise, and detector noise. In this paper, we advance a novel optical setup which synthesizes the advantages of two different techniques: nulling interferometry to mitigate photon noise, and closure phase to combat optical aberrations. Our design, which employs technology from integrated optics and photonics, is intended to combine the advantageous aspects of both a coronagraph and a non-redundant interferometer. We show that such an instrument would allow readout noise limited detection of exoplanets, even in the presence of residual co-phasing errors. As a result, this concept would be ideal for space interferometry and for ground based obse...
Area, Entanglement Entropy and Supertranslations at Null Infinity
Kapec, Daniel; Strominger, Andrew
2016-01-01
The area of a cross-sectional cut $\\Sigma$ of future null infinity ($\\mathcal{I}^+$) is infinite. We define a finite, renormalized area by subtracting the area of the same cut in any one of the infinite number of BMS-degenerate classical vacua. The renormalized area acquires an anomalous dependence on the choice of vacuum. We relate it to the modular energy, including a soft graviton contribution, of the region of $\\mathcal{I}^+$ to the future of $\\Sigma$. Under supertranslations, the renormalized area shifts by the supertranslation charge of $\\Sigma$. In quantum gravity, we conjecture a bound relating the renormalized area to the entanglement entropy across $\\Sigma$ of the outgoing quantum state on $\\mathcal{I}^+$.
Power spectrum nulls due to nonstandard inflationary evolution
Goswami, Gaurav; Souradeep, Tarun
2011-01-01
The simplest models of inflation based on slow roll produce nearly scale invariant primordial power spectra (PPS). But there are also numerous models that predict radically broken scale invariant PPS. In particular, markedly cuspy dips in the PPS correspond to nulls where the perturbation amplitude, hence PPS, goes through a zero at a specific wave number. Near this wave number, the true quantum nature of the generation mechanism of the primordial fluctuations may be revealed. Naively these features may appear to arise from fine-tuned initial conditions. However, we show that this behavior arises under fairly generic set of conditions involving super-Hubble scale evolution of perturbation modes during inflation. We illustrate this with the well-studied examples of punctuated inflation and the Starobinsky-break model.
Power spectrum nulls due to non-standard inflationary evolution
Goswami, Gaurav
2010-01-01
The simplest models of inflation based on slow roll produce nearly scale invariant primordial power spectra (PPS). But there are also numerous models that predict radically broken scale invariant PPS. In particular, markedly cuspy dips in the PPS correspond to nulls where the perturbation amplitude, hence PPS, goes through a zero at a specific wavenumber. Near this wavenumber, the true quantum nature of the generation mechanism of the primordial fluctuations may be revealed. Naively these features may appear to arise from fine tuned initial conditions. However, we show that this behavior arises under fairly generic set of conditions involving super-Hubble scale evolution of perturbation modes during inflation. We illustrate this with the well-studied examples of punctuated inflation and the Starobinsky-break model.
From Satisfying to Violating the Null Energy Condition
Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin
2013-01-01
We construct a theory which admits a time-dependent solution smoothly interpolating between a null energy condition (NEC)-satisfying phase at early times and a NEC-violating phase at late times. We first review earlier attempts to violate the NEC and an argument of Rubakov, presented in 1305.2614, which forbids the existence of such interpolating solutions in a single-field dilation-invariant theory. We then construct a theory which, in addition to possessing a Poincar\\'e-invariant vacuum, does admit such a solution. For a wide range of parameters, perturbations around this solution are at all times stable, comfortably subluminal and weakly-coupled. The theory requires us to explicitly break dilation-invariance, so it is unlikely that the theory is fully stable under quantum corrections, but we argue that the existence of a healthy interpolating solution is quantum-mechanically robust.
Null-stream pointing with pulsar timing arrays
Hazboun, Jeffrey S
2016-01-01
Locating sources on the sky is one of the largest challenges in gravitational wave astronomy, owing to the omni-directional nature of gravitational wave detection techniques, and the often intrinsically weak signals being observed. Ground-based detectors can address the pointing problem by observing with a network of detectors, effectively triangulating signal locations by observing the arrival times across the network. Space-based detectors will observe long-lived sources that persist while the detector moves relative to their location on the sky, using Doppler shifts of the signal to locate the sky position. While these methods improve the pointing capability of a detector or network, the angular resolution is still coarse compared to the standards one expects from electromagnetic astronomy. Another technique that can be used for sky localization is null-stream pointing. In the case where multiple independent data streams exist, a single astrophysical source of gravitational waves will appear in each of the...
Null polarimetry near shot noise limit at 1 Hz
He, Dechao; Xie, Boya; Feng, Sheng
2016-04-01
We describe the principle and report on the realization of a null polarimeter with two demonstrated features: (1) the sensitivity of the system is near shot noise limit and (2) quasi-stationary signals at 1 Hz can be measured without signal modulation. The achieved single-pass sensitivity is 7 × 10-9 rad/ √{ Hz } with a pair of Glan-Taylor polarizers, which should be of great interest for experiments such as observation of vacuum magnetic birefringence and search for new particles. The system is brought near its shot noise limit by appropriate polarization control and coherent heterodyne detection of light, resulting in a sensitivity improvement by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the case of no control on light polarization.
Molecular bass for a malic enzyme null mutation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many tissues from normal (wt) mice have cytosolic malic enzyme (ME) activity and express two mRNAs (2 and 3.1 kb) that code for a single ME polypeptide. Mod-1 null (M-n) mice lack cytosolic ME activity, but express 2.5 and 3.6 kb mRNAs that hybridize with wt ME cDNAs. To investigate the basis for the ME deficiency cDNAs corresponding to M-n ME RNA were cloned. A λgt11 library was prepared using M-n liver mRNA as a template. Wt ME cDNA probes hybridized with several recombinant phages and a 2kb insert with an atypical (non-wt) restriction pattern was subcloned in pGEM 1 and sequenced. The M-n ME cDNA contains an internal directly repeated sequence that corresponds to nts 1109-1617 in the coding region of wt ME cDNA. A restriction fragment from M-n ME cDNA that includes the first 204 bp of repeated sequence and 306 bp of contiguous 5' sequence was subcloned into pGEM 1 and used as a template for synthesizing 32P-labeled anti-sense RNA. After hybridization with M-n liver RNA the 510 nt transcript was resistant to RNA digestion; after hybridization with wt RNA only fragments corresponding to the normally non-contiguous 204 bp and 306 bp segments of the insert were protected. Thus the partial duplication of coding sequence in M-n ME mRNA is confirmed. Analyses of intron-exon organization in the relevant regions of the wt and M-n ME genes will provide further insights into the mechanism underlying the ME null mutation
Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT−/−) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT+/+) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT−/− mice than that of MT+/+ mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT−/− mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines
Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp
2013-11-01
Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...
Agreement and Null Subjects in German L2 Development: New Evidence from Reaction-Time Experiments.
Clahsen, Harald; Hong, Upyong
1995-01-01
Reports on reaction time experiments investigating subject-verb agreement and null subjects in 33 Korean learners of German and a control group of 20 German native speakers. Results found that the two phenomena do not covary in the Korean learners, indicating that properties of agreement and null subjects are acquired separately from one another.…
Exact null-controllability of interconnected abstract evolution systems by scalar force motion
Shklyar, B.
2013-01-01
The paper deals with exact null-controllability problem for a linear control system consisting of two serially connected abstract control systems. Controllability conditions are obtained. Applications to the exact null-controllability for interconnected control system of heat and wave equations are considered.
Alpha-null defocus: An optimum defocus condition with relevance for focal-series reconstruction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Keefe, Michael A.
2001-02-14
Two optimum defocus conditions are used in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Scherzer defocus produces an image of the specimen ''projected potential'' to the resolution of the microscope, and Lichte defocus minimizes dispersion. A third optimum defocus is best for focal-series reconstruction; alpha-null defocus maximizes transfer of high-frequency diffracted beam amplitudes into the microscope image. Beam transfer is confined by incident-beam convergence to a Gaussian ''packet'' of defocus values centered on the alpha-null defocus. For a diffracted beam hkl, with a spatial frequency of u, the envelope for incident beam convergence has null damping effect when defocus is set to -Cs. (wavelength.u)**2. On either side of this alpha-null defocus value, the damping effect of incident-beam convergence reduces diffracted-beam transfer. The position of alpha-null defocus for any spatial frequency depends only on the value of Cs, but defocus-packet width around the alpha-null defocus depends only on the convergence semi-angle. Under NCEM OAM (one-Angstrom microscope) conditions, a [110] diamond image with the correct 0.89A spacing appears when the Si (004) alpha-null defocus is selected. The alpha-null defocus should be included as the (furthest underfocus) limit for all high-resolution focal series reconstruction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Calculational methods and Reduce software are described for determining polyhomogeneous asymptotic expansions of solutions of Einstein's equations in null characteristic transport form. As an example, results concerning peeling of gravitational radiation in Null Quasi-Spherical (NQS) spacetimes are presented
Null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation with moving control
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Peng Gao
2016-02-01
In this paper, we study the null controllability of the viscous Camassa–Holm equation on the one-dimensional torus. By using a moving distributed control, we obtain that the system is null controllable for a given data with certain regularity.
A trilinear method for finding null points in a three-dimensional vector space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Null points are important locations in vector fields, such as a magnetic field. A new technique (a trilinear method for finding null points) is presented for finding null points over a large grid of points, such as those derived from a numerical experiment. The method was designed so that the null points found would agree with any field lines traced using the commonly used trilinear interpolation. It is split into three parts: reduction, analysis, and positioning, which, when combined, provide an efficient means of locating null points to a user-defined subgrid accuracy. We compare the results of the trilinear method with that of a method based on the Poincare index, and discuss the accuracy and limitations of both methods
Spacetime characterizations of $\\Lambda$-vacuum metrics with a null Killing 2-form
Mars, Marc
2016-01-01
An exhaustive list of four-dimensional $\\Lambda$-vacuum spacetimes admitting a Killing vector whose self-dual Killing two-form ${\\cal F}$ is null is obtained assuming that the self-dual Weyl tensor is proportional to the tensor product of ${\\cal F}$ by itself. Our analysis complements previous results concerning the case with non-null ${\\cal F}$. We analyze both cases with $\\Lambda$ vanishing or not. In the latter case we prove that $\\Lambda< 0$ must hold necessarily, and we find a characterization of the Einstein spacetimes conformal to pp-waves. In the former case we obtain spacetime characterizations of vacuum plane waves and of the stationary vacuum Brinkmann spacetimes. At the light of the full set of results, old and new, we reformulate the case with non-null ${\\cal F}$ and $\\Lambda= 0$. We finally present a table collecting the results for both null, and non-null, ${\\cal F}$.
Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jane Q Chen
Full Text Available Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1(tm1Rds homozygous uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment.
Why Are Flare Ribbons Associated with the Spines of Magnetic Null Points Generically Elongated?
Pontin, David; Galsgaard, Klaus; Démoulin, Pascal
2016-08-01
Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance, as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection. This field line mapping also exhibits strong gradients adjacent to the separatrix (fan) and spine field lines, which can be analysed using the "squashing factor", Q. In this article we analyse in detail the distribution of Q in the presence of magnetic nulls. While Q is formally infinite on both the spine and fan of the null, the decay of Q away from these structures is shown in general to depend strongly on the null-point structure. For the generic case of a non-radially-symmetric null, Q decays most slowly away from the spine or fan in the direction in which |{B}| increases most slowly. In particular, this demonstrates that the extended elliptical high-Q halo around the spine footpoints observed by Masson et al. ( Astrophys. J. 700, 559, 2009) is a generic feature. This extension of the Q halos around the spine or fan footpoints is important for diagnosing the regions of the photosphere that are magnetically connected to any current layer that forms at the null. In light of this, we discuss how our results can be used to interpret the geometry of observed flare ribbons in circular ribbon flares, in which typically a coronal null is implicated. We conclude that both the physics in the vicinity of the null and how this is related to the extension of Q away from the spine or fan can be used in tandem to understand observational signatures of reconnection at coronal null points.
Why Are Flare Ribbons Associated with the Spines of Magnetic Null Points Generically Elongated?
Pontin, David; Galsgaard, Klaus; Démoulin, Pascal
2016-06-01
Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance, as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection. This field line mapping also exhibits strong gradients adjacent to the separatrix (fan) and spine field lines, which can be analysed using the "squashing factor", Q. In this article we analyse in detail the distribution of Q in the presence of magnetic nulls. While Q is formally infinite on both the spine and fan of the null, the decay of Q away from these structures is shown in general to depend strongly on the null-point structure. For the generic case of a non-radially-symmetric null, Q decays most slowly away from the spine or fan in the direction in which |{B}| increases most slowly. In particular, this demonstrates that the extended elliptical high- Q halo around the spine footpoints observed by Masson et al. (Astrophys. J. 700, 559, 2009) is a generic feature. This extension of the Q halos around the spine or fan footpoints is important for diagnosing the regions of the photosphere that are magnetically connected to any current layer that forms at the null. In light of this, we discuss how our results can be used to interpret the geometry of observed flare ribbons in circular ribbon flares, in which typically a coronal null is implicated. We conclude that both the physics in the vicinity of the null and how this is related to the extension of Q away from the spine or fan can be used in tandem to understand observational signatures of reconnection at coronal null points.
Strong subadditivity, null energy condition and charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which is thus non-trivially related to NEC, also characterizes the entire time-evolution process along which the dual field theory may thermalize
On the Null Energy Condition and Causality in Lifshitz Holography
Hoyos, Carlos
2010-01-01
We use a WKB approximation to establish a relation between the wavefront velocity in a strongly coupled theory and the local speed of light in a holographic dual, with our main focus put on systems with Lifshitz scaling with dynamical exponent z. We then use Einstein equations to relate the behavior of the local speed of light in the bulk with the null energy condition (NEC) for bulk matter, and we show that it is violated for Lifshitz backgrounds with z<1. We study signal propagation in the gravity dual and show that violations of the NEC are incompatible with causality in the strongly coupled theory, ruling out as holographic models Lifshitz backgrounds with z<1. We argue that causality violations in z<1 theories will show up in correlators as superluminal modes and confirm this for a particular example with z=1/2. Finally, as an application, we use z<1 solutions to uncover regions of the parameter space of curvature squared corrections to gravity where the NEC can be violated.
Aspects of QCD Current Algebra on a Null Plane
Beane, Silas R
2015-01-01
Consequences of QCD current algebra formulated on a light-like hyperplane are derived for the forward scattering of vector and axial-vector currents on an arbitrary hadronic target. It is shown that current algebra gives rise to a special class of sum rules that are direct consequences of the independent chiral symmetry that exists at every point on the two-dimensional transverse plane orthogonal to the lightlike direction. These sum rules are obtained by exploiting the closed, infinite-dimensional algebra satisfied by the transverse moments of null-plane axial-vector and vector charge distributions. In the special case of a nucleon target, this procedure leads to the Adler-Weisberger, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Cabbibo-Radicatti and Fubini-Furlan-Rossetti sum rules. Matching to the dispersion-theoretic language which is usually invoked in deriving these sum rules, the moment sum rules are shown to be equivalent to algebraic constraints on forward S-matrix elements in the Regge limit.
Impairment in motor learning of somatostatin null mutant mice.
Zeyda, T; Diehl, N; Paylor, R; Brennan, M B; Hochgeschwender, U
2001-07-01
Somatostatin was first identified as a hypothalamic factor which inhibits the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF). Both SRIF and its receptors were subsequently found widely distributed within and outside the nervous system, in the adult as well as in the developing organism. Reflecting this wide distribution, somatostatin has been implicated regulating a diverse array of biological processes. These include body growth, homeostasis, sensory perception, autonomous functions, rate of intestinal absorption, behavior, including cognition and memory, and developmental processes. We produced null mutant mice lacking somatostatin through targeted mutagenesis. The mutant mice are healthy, fertile, and superficially indistinguishable from their heterozygous and wildtype littermates. A 'first round' phenotype screen revealed that mice lacking somatostatin have elevated plasma growth hormone levels, despite normal body size, and have elevated basal plasma corticosterone levels. In order to uncover subtle and unexpected differences, we carried out a systematic behavioral phenotype screen which identified a significant impairment in motor learning revealed when increased demands were made on motor coordination. Motor coordination and motor learning require an intact cerebellum. While somatostatin is virtually absent from the adult cerebellum, the ligand and its receptor(s) are transiently expressed at high levels in the developing cerebellum. This result suggests the functional significance of transient expression of SRIF and its receptors in the development of the cerebellum. PMID:11430867
Strong Subadditivity, Null Energy Condition and Charged Black Holes
Caceres, Elena; Pedraza, Juan F; Tangarife, Walter
2014-01-01
Using the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) conjectured formula for entanglement entropy in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence with time-dependent backgrounds, we investigate the relation between the bulk null energy condition (NEC) of the stress-energy tensor with the strong sub-additivity (SSA) property of entanglement entropy in the boundary theory. In a background that interpolates between an AdS to an AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom-type geometry, we find that generically there always exists a critical surface beyond which the violation of NEC would naively occur. However, the extremal area surfaces that determine the entanglement entropy for the boundary theory, can penetrate into this forbidden region only for certain choices for the mass and the charge functions in the background. This penetration is then perceived as the violation of SSA in the boundary theory. We also find that this happens only when the critical surface lies above the apparent horizon, but not otherwise. We conjecture that SSA, which...
Aspects of QCD current algebra on a null plane
Beane, S. R.; Hobbs, T. J.
2016-09-01
Consequences of QCD current algebra formulated on a light-like hyperplane are derived for the forward scattering of vector and axial-vector currents on an arbitrary hadronic target. It is shown that current algebra gives rise to a special class of sum rules that are direct consequences of the independent chiral symmetry that exists at every point on the two-dimensional transverse plane orthogonal to the lightlike direction. These sum rules are obtained by exploiting the closed, infinite-dimensional algebra satisfied by the transverse moments of null-plane axial-vector and vector charge distributions. In the special case of a nucleon target, this procedure leads to the Adler-Weisberger, Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn, Cabibbo-Radicati and Fubini-Furlan-Rossetti sum rules. Matching to the dispersion-theoretic language which is usually invoked in deriving these sum rules, the moment sum rules are shown to be equivalent to algebraic constraints on forward S-matrix elements in the Regge limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
'Puff and pump' radiating divertor scenarios [1,2] were applied to upper SN and DN H-mode plasmas. Under similar operating conditions, argon (Ar) accumulated in the main plasma of single-null (SN) plasmas more rapidly and reached a higher steady-state concentration when the B x (del)B ion drift direction was toward the divertor than when the B x (del)B ion drift direction was out of the divertor. The initial rate that Ar accumulated inside double-null (DN) plasmas was more than twice that of comparably-prepared SNs with the same B x (del)B direction. One way to reduce power loading at the divertor targets is to 'seed' the divertor plasma with impurities that radiatively reduce the conducted power. Studies have shown that the concentration of impurities in the divertor are increased by raising the flow of deuterium ions (D+) into the divertor by a combination of upstream deuterium gas puffing and active particle exhaust at the divertor targets, i.e., puff-and-pump. An enhanced D+ particle flow toward the divertor targets exerts a frictional drag on impurities, and inhibits their escape from the divertor. A puff-and-pump approach using Ar as the impurity was successfully applied in recent DIII-D experiments to SN plasmas [3] while maintaining good H-mode performance. Studies on DIII-D and other tokamaks have shown that both the direction of the toroidal magnetic field BT and the degree of magnetic balance between divertors [i.e., the degree to which the plasma shape is considered SN or DN] are important factors in determining recycling and particle pumping [4,5]. It is unclear whether the favorable results of Ref. [3] can be extended to cases with different magnetic balance and/or BT direction. We show in this paper that reversing the direction of BT or altering the divertor magnetic balance does have an impact on how plasmas behave under puff-and-pump conditions. Our study takes advantage of DIII-D's capabilities to actively pump SN and DN shapes with high
Why are flare ribbons generically elongated in configurations with magnetic null points?
Pontin, David Iain; Galsgaard, Klaus; Demoulin, Pascal
2016-05-01
Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection in the corona. In addition, the field line mapping in the vicinity of these null points exhibits strong gradients as measured by the “squashing factor”, Q. We demonstrate that the extension of the Q halos around the spine/fan footpoints is in general important for diagnosing the regions of the photosphere that are magnetically connected to any current layer that forms at the null. In light of this, we discuss the extent to which our results can be used to interpret the geometry of observed flare ribbons in events in which a coronal null is implicated. We conclude that together the physics in the vicinity of the null and how this is related to the extension of Q away from the spine/fan can be used in tandem to understand observational signatures of reconnection at coronal null points.
Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared
Barillot, Marc; Barthelemy, Eleonore; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Frayret, Jérôme; Grelin, Jérôme; Hawkins, Gary; Kirschner, Volker; Parent, Gilles; Pradel, Annie; Rossi, Emmanuel; Vigreux, Caroline; Zhang, Shaoqian; Zhang, Xianghua
2008-07-01
Modal filtering is based on the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit only one complex amplitude function to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible in a nulling interferometer. In the present paper we focus on the progress of Integrated Optics in the thermal infrared [6-20μm] range, one of the two candidate technologies for the fabrication of Modal Filters, together with fiber optics. In conclusion of the European Space Agency's (ESA) "Integrated Optics for Darwin" activity, etched layers of chalcogenide material deposited on chalcogenide glass substrates was selected among four candidates as the technology with the best potential to simultaneously meet the filtering efficiency, absolute and spectral transmission, and beam coupling requirements. ESA's new "Integrated Optics" activity started at mid-2007 with the purpose of improving the technology until compliant prototypes can be manufactured and validated, expectedly by the end of 2009. The present paper aims at introducing the project and the components requirements and functions. The selected materials and preliminary designs, as well as the experimental validation logic and test benches are presented. More details are provided on the progress of the main technology: vacuum deposition in the co-evaporation mode and subsequent etching of chalcogenide layers. In addition, preliminary investigations of an alternative technology based on burying a chalcogenide optical fiber core into a chalcogenide substrate are presented. Specific developments of anti-reflective solutions designed for the mitigation of Fresnel losses at the input and output surface of the components are also introduced.
Bhadra, Sanchita; Lozano, Mary M.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.
2008-01-01
The absence of endogenous mouse mammary tumor viruses (MMTVs) in the congenic mouse strain, BALB/Mtv-null, restricts the early steps of exogenous C3H MMTV infection, preventing the superantigen (Sag) response and mammary tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate that BALB/Mtv-null mice also resist tumor induction by FM MMTV, which encodes a stronger Sag compared to C3H MMTV. In contrast to infections with C3H MMTV, Mtv-null mice show FM-MMTV Sag-specific responses comparable to those observed in sus...
Ueda, R; Tanimoto, M; Takahashi, T.; Ogata, S; Nishida, K; Namikawa, R.; Nishizuka, Y; Ota, K.
1982-01-01
Nine antigens systems were defined. Two were related to HLA-A,B,C and to Ia-like antigens; the others could be grouped into three categories. (i) NL-22, NL-1: NL-22 antibody reacted with leukemia cells from 12 to 16 cases of null cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (null-ALL) but not with any other type of leukemia tested or with lymphoid cells of various origins. Among cultured cell lines tested, one (NALM-6) of three null-ALL cell lines was positive, the others were negative. Absorption analysi...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘惟一
1989-01-01
In this paper the conflict between the null constraints and the set of functional dependencies is defined.Some rules for determining the conflicts and a method for processing the conflicts are obtained.
Current Singularities at Quasi-Separatrix Layers and Three-Dimensional Magnetic Nulls
Craig, I J D
2014-01-01
The open problem of how singular current structures form in line-tied, three-dimensional magnetic fields is addressed. A Lagrangian magneto-frictional relaxation method is employed to model the field evolution towards the final near-singular state. Our starting point is an exact force-free solution of the governing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations which is sufficiently general to allow for topological features like magnetic nulls to be inside or outside the computational domain, depending on a simple set of parameters. Quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) are present in these structures and together with the magnetic nulls, they significantly influence the accumulation of current. It is shown that perturbations affecting the lateral boundaries of the configuration lead not only to collapse around the magnetic null, but also to significant QSL currents. Our results show that once a magnetic null is present, the developing currents are always attracted to that specific location and show a much stronger scaling wit...
Dynamics-independent null experiment for testing time-reversal invariance
Arash, Firooz; Moravcsik, Michael J.; Goldstein, Gary R.
1985-06-01
It is shown that it is impossible to construct, in any reaction in atomic, nuclear, or particle physics, a null experiment that would unambiguously test the validity of time-reversal invariance independently of dynamical assumptions.
Dynamics-independent null experiment for testing time-reversal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that it is impossible to construct, in any reaction in atomic, nuclear, or particle physics, a null experiment that would unambiguously test the validity of time-reversal invariance independently of dynamical assumptions
Adaptive nulling: a new tool for the interfoeromic exo-planet detection
Lay, O.; Jeganathan, M.; Peters, R.
2003-01-01
This paper describes the need for a compensator that can adaptively correct for mismatches between the optical beamtrains of a Mid-IR nulling interferometer, across the science bandwidth with a range of spectral dependences.
Entropy of a generic null surface from its associated Virasoro algebra
Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T
2016-01-01
Null surfaces act as one-way membranes, blocking information from those observers who do not cross them (e.g., in the black hole and the Rindler spacetimes) and these observers associate an entropy (and temperature) with the null surface. The black hole entropy can be computed from the central charge of an appropriately defined, local, Virasoro algebra on the horizon. We show that one can extend these ideas to a general class of null surfaces, all of which possess a Virasoro algebra and a central charge, leading to an entropy density (i.e., per unit area) which is just $(1/4)$. All the previously known results of associating entropy with horizons arise as special cases of this very general property of null surfaces demonstrated here. The implications are discussed.
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null
Kahel korral järjest null häält / Maarius Suviste
Suviste, Maarius, 1966-
2005-01-01
Kohalike omavalitsuste volikogude valimistel ei saanud ühtegi häält 233 kandidaati. Oma kandideerimise põhjusi selgitavad juba teist korda valimistel null häält saanud Viljandi tisler Kaljo Jürman, Põlvamaa mahetalunik Liisi Kutkina ja Ida-Virumaa pensionär Vaike Zaitseva. Lisatud statistilised andmed null häält saanud kandidaatide kohta maakondade ja erakondade kaupa
Increased Fibronectin Deposition in Embryonic Hearts of Retinol-Binding Protein–Null Mice
Wendler, Christopher C.; Schmoldt, Angela; Flentke, George R.; Case, Lauren C.; Quadro, Loredana; Blaner, William S.; Lough, John; Susan M. Smith
2003-01-01
Precise regulation of retinoid levels is critical for normal heart development. Retinol-binding protein (RBP), an extracellular retinol transporter, is strongly secreted by cardiogenic endoderm. This study addresses whether RBP gene ablation affects heart development. Despite exhibiting an >85% decrease in serum retinol, adult RBP-null mice are viable, breed, and have normal vision when maintained on a vitamin A-sufficient diet. Comparison of RBP-null with wild-type (WT) hearts from embryos a...
Testing the null hypothesis of no regime switching with an application to GDP growth rates
Marmer, Vadim
2009-01-01
This paper presents tests for the null hypothesis of no regime switching in Hamilton's (1989) regime switching model. The test procedures exploit similarities between regime switching models, autoregressions with measurement errors, and finite mixture models. The proposed tests are computationally simple and, contrary to likelihood based tests, have a standard distribution under the null. When the methodology is applied to US GDP growth rates, no strong evidence of regime switching is found.
Dynamic Stability of Lateral and Yawing Motions in the Double Null-Flux EDS System
Murai, Toshiaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Sugino, Motohiko
The double null-flux electro-dynamic suspension (EDS) in the superconducting maglev has the coupling lateral and yawing stiffness, which does not coincide with each other, so special attention should be paid to the dynamic stability of lateral and yawing motions. This paper describes their intrinsic dynamic stability by analyzing the lateral and yawing motions of bogie levitated by the double null-flux EDS.
Increased Oxidative Stress Impairs Adipose Tissue Function in Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Null Mice
Masato Yano; Tadashi Yamamoto; Naotaka Nishimura; Tomomi Gotoh; Ken Watanabe; Kazutaka Ikeda; Yohei Garan; Ryo Taguchi; Koichi Node; Toshiro Okazaki; Yuichi Oike
2013-01-01
Sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) catalyzes the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Here, we found that SMS1 null mice showed lipodystrophic phenotype. Mutant mice showed up-regulation of plasma triglyceride concentrations accompanied by reduction of white adipose tissue (WAT) as they aged. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was severely reduced in mutant mice. In vivo analysis indicated that fatty acid uptake in WAT but not in liver decreased in SMS1 null compared to wild-type mice. In vit...
Human Cancer Growth and Therapy In NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull (NSG) Mice
Shultz, Leonard D.; Goodwin, Neal; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Hosur, Vishnu; Lyons, Bonnie L.; Greiner, Dale L.
2014-01-01
Since the discovery of the “nude” mouse over 40 years ago, investigators have attempted to model human tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. The field has advanced significantly over the ensuing years due to improvements in the murine recipient of human tumors. These improvements include the discovery of the scid mutation and development of targeted mutations in the recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (Rag1null, Rag2null) that severely cripple the adaptive immune response of the murine hos...
Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice
Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang
2015-01-01
Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein...
First-Order Adaptive Azimuthal Null-Steering for the Suppression of Two Directional Interferers
Derkx RenéMM
2010-01-01
Abstract An azimuth steerable first-order superdirectional microphone response can be constructed by a linear combination of three eigenbeams: a monopole and two orthogonal dipoles. Although the response of a (rotation symmetric) first-order response can only exhibit a single null, we will look at a slice through this beampattern lying in the azimuthal plane. In this way, we can define maximally two nulls in the azimuthal plane which are symmetric with respect to the main-lobe axis. By placin...
[Development of a new type soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase isozymes].
Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming; Li, Gui-Ying
2005-02-01
Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids. It contains all kinds of amino acids, especially eight amino acids necessary for human, but also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as Lipoxygenase (Lox) and Trypsin inhibitor (Ti). Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, a new type soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase isozymes was developed by Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences through years of biochemical marker assistant selection for null lipoxygenase by means of isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in the hybrid progenies of "96P17" (Female parent, a null lipoxygenase 2.3 line) and "93704" (Male parent, a null lipoxygenase 1.3 line). It is the first new soybean germplasm with null Lox1.2.3 genes in our country, which will contribute to soybean breeding for high quality, soybean production and utilization. In this paper, the development process of new type soybean germplasm is described. PMID:15759868
Why are flare ribbons associated with the spines of magnetic null points generically elongated?
Pontin, D I; Demoulin, P
2016-01-01
Coronal magnetic null points exist in abundance as demonstrated by extrapolations of the coronal field, and have been inferred to be important for a broad range of energetic events. These null points and their associated separatrix and spine field lines represent discontinuities of the field line mapping, making them preferential locations for reconnection. This field line mapping also exhibits strong gradients adjacent to the separatrix (fan) and spine field lines, that can be analysed using the `squashing factor', $Q$. In this paper we make a detailed analysis of the distribution of $Q$ in the presence of magnetic nulls. While $Q$ is formally infinite on both the spine and fan of the null, the decay of $Q$ away from these structures is shown in general to depend strongly on the null-point structure. For the generic case of a non-radially-symmetric null, $Q$ decays most slowly away from the spine/fan in the direction in which $|{\\bf B}|$ increases most slowly. In particular, this demonstrates that the extend...
Investigation of nulling and subpulse drifting properties of PSR J1727$-$2739
Wen, Z G; Yuan, J P; Yan, W M; Manchester, R N; Yuen, R; Gajjar, V
2016-01-01
Aims. To make a detailed study of the nulling and subpulse drifting in PSR J1727$-$2739 for investigation of its radiation properties. Methods. The observations were carried out on 20 March, 2004 using the Parkes 64-m radio telescope, with a central frequency of 1518 MHz. A total of 5568 single pulses were analysed. Results. This pulsar shows well defined nulls with lengths lasting from 6 to 281 pulses and separated by burst phases ranging from 2 to 133 pulses. We estimate a nulling fraction of around 68\\%. No emission in the average pulse profile integrated over all null pulses is detected with significance above $3\\sigma$. Most transitions from nulls to bursts are within a few pulses, whereas the transitions from bursts to nulls exhibit two patterns of decay: decrease gradually or rapidly. In the burst phase, we find that there are two distinct subpulse drift modes with vertical spacing between the drift bands of $9.7 \\pm 1.6$ and $5.2 \\pm 0.9$ pulse periods, while sometimes there is a third mode with no su...
Proving the achronal averaged null energy condition from the generalized second law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A null line is a complete achronal null geodesic. It is proven that for any quantum fields minimally coupled to semiclassical Einstein gravity, the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) on null lines is a consequence of the generalized second law of thermodynamics for causal horizons. This result is shown to leading order in Planck's constant for perturbations to classical backgrounds satisfying the null energy condition. Auxiliary assumptions include CPT and the existence of a suitable renormalization scheme for the generalized entropy. Although the ANEC can be violated on general geodesics in curved spacetimes, as long as the ANEC holds on null lines there exist theorems showing that semiclassical gravity should satisfy positivity of energy, topological censorship, and should not admit closed timelike curves. It is pointed out that these theorems fail once the linearized graviton field is quantized, because then the renormalized shear-squared term in the Raychaudhuri equation can be negative. A 'shear-inclusive' generalization of the ANEC is proposed to remedy this, and is proven under an additional assumption about perturbations to horizons in classical general relativity.
pyNSMC: A Python Module for Null-Space Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis
White, J.; Brakefield, L. K.
2015-12-01
The null-space monte carlo technique is a non-linear uncertainty analyses technique that is well-suited to high-dimensional inverse problems. While the technique is powerful, the existing workflow for completing null-space monte carlo is cumbersome, requiring the use of multiple commandline utilities, several sets of intermediate files and even a text editor. pyNSMC is an open-source python module that automates the workflow of null-space monte carlo uncertainty analyses. The module is fully compatible with the PEST and PEST++ software suites and leverages existing functionality of pyEMU, a python framework for linear-based uncertainty analyses. pyNSMC greatly simplifies the existing workflow for null-space monte carlo by taking advantage of object oriented design facilities in python. The core of pyNSMC is the ensemble class, which draws and stores realized random vectors and also provides functionality for exporting and visualizing results. By relieving users of the tedium associated with file handling and command line utility execution, pyNSMC instead focuses the user on the important steps and assumptions of null-space monte carlo analysis. Furthermore, pyNSMC facilitates learning through flow charts and results visualization, which are available at many points in the algorithm. The ease-of-use of the pyNSMC workflow is compared to the existing workflow for null-space monte carlo for a synthetic groundwater model with hundreds of estimable parameters.
Averaged null energy condition and difference inequalities in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For a large class of quantum states, all local (pointwise) energy conditions widely used in relativity are violated by the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field. In contrast, certain nonlocal positivity constraints on the quantum stress-energy tensor might hold quite generally, and this possibility has received considerable attention in recent years. In particular, it is now known that the averaged null energy condition, the condition that the null-null component of the stress-energy tensor integrated along a complete null geodesic is non-negative for all states, holds quite generally in a wide class of spacetimes for a minimally coupled scalar field. Apart from the specific class of spacetimes considered (mainly two-dimensional spacetimes and four-dimensional Minkowski space), the most significant restriction on this result is that the null geodesic over which the average is taken must be achronal. Recently, Ford and Roman have explored this restriction in two-dimensional flat spacetime, and discovered that in a flat cylindrical space, although the stress energy tensor itself fails to satisfy the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) along the (nonachronal) null geodesics, when the ''Casimir-vacuum'' contribution is subtracted from the stress-energy the resulting tensor does satisfy the ANEC inequality. Ford and Roman name this class of constraints on the quantum stress-energy tensor ''difference inequalities.'' Here I give a proof of the difference inequality for a minimally coupled massless scalar field in an arbitrary (globally hyperbolic) two-dimensional spacetime, using the same techniques as those we relied on to prove the ANEC in an earlier paper with Wald. I begin with an overview of averaged energy conditions in quantum field theory
Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerhard Sengle
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that
Üheksa nulli : null null null null null null null... / Anthony de Kowalsky
Kowalsky, Anthony de
2008-01-01
Lühiarvustus 18.- 20. 07. Põlvamaal Intsikurmu laululaval etendunud vabaõhulavastusele "Üheksa nulliga Eesti". Stsenaariumi on kirjutanud Kadri Pettai, Aapo Ilves, Olavi Ruitlane ja Veiko Märka. Lavastanud Reeda Toots
Current singularities at quasi-separatrix layers and three-dimensional magnetic nulls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craig, I. J. D.; Effenberger, Frederic, E-mail: feffen@waikato.ac.nz [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P.B. 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)
2014-11-10
The open problem of how singular current structures form in line-tied, three-dimensional magnetic fields is addressed. A Lagrangian magneto-frictional relaxation method is employed to model the field evolution toward the final near-singular state. Our starting point is an exact force-free solution of the governing magnetohydrodynamic equations that is sufficiently general to allow for topological features like magnetic nulls to be inside or outside the computational domain, depending on a simple set of parameters. Quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) are present in these structures and, together with the magnetic nulls, they significantly influence the accumulation of current. It is shown that perturbations affecting the lateral boundaries of the configuration lead not only to collapse around the magnetic null but also to significant QSL currents. Our results show that once a magnetic null is present, the developing currents are always attracted to that specific location and show a much stronger scaling with resolution than the currents that form along the QSL. In particular, the null-point scalings can be consistent with models of 'fast' reconnection. The QSL currents also appear to be unbounded but give rise to weaker singularities, independent of the perturbation amplitude.
Teleparallelism as a universal connection on null hypersurfaces in general relativity
Mazur, P. O.; Sokolowski, L. M.
1986-01-01
It is shown that a close relationship between the inner geometry of a null hypersurface N3 and the Newman-Penrose (NP) (1962, 1963) spin coefficient formalism exists. Projecting the null complex NP tetrad onto N3, two triads of basis vectors in N3 are obtained. The inner geometry of N3 is based on the assumption that these vectors are parallelly transported along the surface; this gives rise to the teleparallel connection as a metric nonsymmetric affine connection. The gauge freedom for the choice of the basis triads is given by the isotropy subgroup of the local Lorentz group leaving invariant the direction of the null generators of N3, and teleparallelism is determined by the equivalence class of the basis triads with respect to the global gauge group. Nine of the twelve NP coefficients are identified as the triad components of the torsion and the second fundamental form of N3. The resulting generalized Gauss-Codazzi equations are identical to nine of the NP equations, i.e., to the half of the Ricci identities. This result gives a geometrical meaning to the entire formalism. Finally a general proof of Penrose's theorem that the shear of the null generators of N3 is the only initial null datum for a gravitational field on N3 is presented.
A Null Space Control of Two Wheels Driven Mobile Manipulator Using Passivity Theory
Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Toshiyuki
This paper describes a control strategy of null space motion of a two wheels driven mobile manipulator. Recently, robot is utilized in various industrial fields and it is preferable for the robot manipulator to have multiple degrees of freedom motion. Several studies of kinematics for null space motion have been proposed. However stability analysis of null space motion is not enough. Furthermore, these approaches apply to stable systems, but they do not apply unstable systems. Then, in this research, base of manipulator equips with two wheels driven mobile robot. This robot is called two wheels driven mobile manipulator, which becomes unstable system. In the proposed approach, a control design of null space uses passivity based stabilizing. A proposed controller is decided so that closed-loop system of robot dynamics satisfies passivity. This is passivity based control. Then, control strategy is that stabilizing of the robot system applies to work space observer based approach and null space control while keeping end-effector position. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by simulations and experiments of two wheels driven mobile manipulator.
First-Order Adaptive Azimuthal Null-Steering for the Suppression of Two Directional Interferers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derkx RenéMM
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract An azimuth steerable first-order superdirectional microphone response can be constructed by a linear combination of three eigenbeams: a monopole and two orthogonal dipoles. Although the response of a (rotation symmetric first-order response can only exhibit a single null, we will look at a slice through this beampattern lying in the azimuthal plane. In this way, we can define maximally two nulls in the azimuthal plane which are symmetric with respect to the main-lobe axis. By placing these two nulls on maximally two directional sources to be rejected and compensating for the drop in level for the desired direction, we can effectively reject these directional sources without attenuating the desired source. We present an adaptive null-steering scheme for adjusting the beampattern so as to obtain this suppression of the two directional interferers automatically. Closed-form expressions for this optimal null-steering are derived, enabling the computation of the azimuthal angles of the interferers. It is shown that the proposed technique has a good directivity index when the angular difference between the desired source and each directional interferer is at least 90 degrees.
First-Order Adaptive Azimuthal Null-Steering for the Suppression of Two Directional Interferers
Derkx, René M. M.
2010-12-01
An azimuth steerable first-order superdirectional microphone response can be constructed by a linear combination of three eigenbeams: a monopole and two orthogonal dipoles. Although the response of a (rotation symmetric) first-order response can only exhibit a single null, we will look at a slice through this beampattern lying in the azimuthal plane. In this way, we can define maximally two nulls in the azimuthal plane which are symmetric with respect to the main-lobe axis. By placing these two nulls on maximally two directional sources to be rejected and compensating for the drop in level for the desired direction, we can effectively reject these directional sources without attenuating the desired source. We present an adaptive null-steering scheme for adjusting the beampattern so as to obtain this suppression of the two directional interferers automatically. Closed-form expressions for this optimal null-steering are derived, enabling the computation of the azimuthal angles of the interferers. It is shown that the proposed technique has a good directivity index when the angular difference between the desired source and each directional interferer is at least 90 degrees.
Cluster Observation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves around Magnetic Null Point in Thin Current Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) are observed in the vicinity of the magnetic null of the widely studied magnetic reconnection taking place at the near-earth tail when current sheet becomes dramatic thinning during substorm time on 1 October 2001. We use the Imada method for the 2-D reconnection model and study the characteristics of ESWs near the X-line region and the magnetic null points. The result shows that the amplitude of the observed ESWs in the vicinity of X-line region ranges from 0.1 mV/m to 5 mV/m, and the amplitude is larger near the magnetic null points. The generation mechanism and the role of ESWs associated with magnetic reconnection are also discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
TPF Planet Detection Testbed: demonstrating deep, stable nulling and planet detection
Martin, Stefan
2005-01-01
The design of a testbed being built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Simulatiung a dual chopped Bracewell interferometer, the testbed comprises a four beam star and planet source and nulling beam combiner. Since achieving a stable null is of great concern the testbed has many control systems designed to achieve stability of alignment and optical path difference over long periods of time. Comparisons between the testbed and the flight system are drawn and key performance parameters are discussed. The interaction between designs for phaseplate systems that achromatically invert the electric field of one of each pair of the incoming beams to achieve the null and the choice of fringe tracking schemes is also discussed.
Nulling interferometry: performance comparison between Antarctica and other ground-based sites
Absil, O; Barillot, M; Swain, M R
2007-01-01
Detecting the presence of circumstellar dust around nearby solar-type main sequence stars is an important pre-requisite for the design of future life-finding space missions such as ESA's Darwin or NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). The high Antarctic plateau may provide appropriate conditions to perform such a survey from the ground. We investigate the performance of a nulling interferometer optimised for the detection of exozodiacal discs at Dome C, on the high Antarctic plateau, and compare it to the expected performance of similar instruments at temperate sites. Based on the currently available measurements of the turbulence characteristics at Dome C, we adapt the GENIEsim software (Absil et al. 2006, A&A 448) to simulate the performance of a nulling interferometer on the high Antarctic plateau. To feed a realistic instrumental configuration into the simulator, we propose a conceptual design for ALADDIN, the Antarctic L-band Astrophysics Discovery Demonstrator for Interferometric Nulling. We assum...
Quasi-local mass at the null infinity of the Vaidya spacetime
Chen, Po-Ning; Yau, Shing-Tung
2016-01-01
There are two important statements regarding the Trautman-Bondi mass [1,8,5] at null infinity: one is the positivity [7,6], and the other is the Bondi mass loss formula [1], which are both global in nature. The positivity of the quasi-local mass can potentially lead to a local description at null infinity. This is confirmed for the Vaidya spacetime in this note. We study the Wang-Yau quasi-local mass on surfaces of fixed size at the null infinity of the Vaidya spacetime. The optimal embedding equation is solved explicitly and the quasi-local mass is evaluated in terms of the mass aspect function of the Vaidya spacetime.
Kerr/Fluid Duality and Caustics of Null Geodesics on a Horizon
Fujisawa, Ippei
2015-01-01
An equation for a viscous incompressible fluid on a spheroidal surface which is dual to the perturbation around the near-near horizon extreme Kerr (n-NHEK) black hole is derived. It is also shown that an expansion scalar $\\theta$ of a congruence of null geodesics on the null horizon of the perturbed n-NHEK spacetime, which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid, is not positive semi-definite, even if initial conditions on the velocity are smooth. Unless initial conditions are elaborated, caustics of null congruence will occur on the horizon in the future. A similar result is obtained for a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole spacetime which is dual to a viscous incompressible fluid on $S^2$. An initial condition that $\\theta$ be positive semi-definite at any point on $S^2$ is a necessary condition for the existence of smooth solutions to incompressible Navier-Stokes equation on $S^2$.
Herbonnet, Ricardo; Kuijken, Konrad
2016-01-01
Current optical imaging surveys for cosmology are covering large areas of sky. To exploit the statistical power of these surveys for weak lensing measurements requires shape measurement methods with subpercent systematic errors. We introduce a new weak lensing shear measurement algorithm, Shear Nulling after PSF Gaussianisation (SNAPG), designed to avoid the noise biases that affect most other methods. SNAPG operates on images that have been convolved with a kernel that renders the Point Spread Function (PSF) a circular Gaussian, and uses weighted second moments of the sources. The response of such second moments to a shear of the pre-seeing galaxy image can be predicted analytically, allowing us to construct a shear nulling scheme that finds the shear parameters for which the observed galaxies are consistent with an unsheared, isotropically oriented population of sources. The inverse of this nulling shear is then an estimate of the gravitational lensing shear. We identify the uncertainty of the estimated cen...
Observation of the lower hybrid waves near the three-dimensional null pair
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.; VAIVADS; M.; ANDRE
2009-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in plasma,which is thought to play important roles both in laboratory and natural plasmas through affecting magnetic topology,heating and accelerating particles. During an event on Oct. 1st,2001,the Cluster tetrahedron circled around the magnetic reconnection region several times,and Xiao et al. first identified the null pair and found that the spectrum of the null-point oscillation shows the maximum power near the lower-hybrid frequency. In this paper we report the observation of electromagnetic and electrostatic wave enhancements near lower hybrid frequency associated with the reconnection process near the null pair. The lower hybrid waves(LHWs) with quasi-perpendicular propagation were identified and also confirmed by the power law of the spectrum of electric and magnetic fields.
Fidler, Fiona; Burgman, Mark A; Cumming, Geoff; Buttrose, Robert; Thomason, Neil
2006-10-01
Over the last decade, criticisms of null-hypothesis significance testing have grown dramatically, and several alternative practices, such as confidence intervals, information theoretic, and Bayesian methods, have been advocated. Have these calls for change had an impact on the statistical reporting practices in conservation biology? In 2000 and 2001, 92% of sampled articles in Conservation Biology and Biological Conservation reported results of null-hypothesis tests. In 2005 this figure dropped to 78%. There were corresponding increases in the use of confidence intervals, information theoretic, and Bayesian techniques. Of those articles reporting null-hypothesis testing--which still easily constitute the majority--very few report statistical power (8%) and many misinterpret statistical nonsignificance as evidence for no effect (63%). Overall, results of our survey show some improvements in statistical practice, but further efforts are clearly required to move the discipline toward improved practices. PMID:17002771
Forge-Hardened TiZr Null-Matrix Alloy for Neutron Scattering under Extreme Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takuo Okuchi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed by alloying two metallic elements that have coherent scattering lengths with opposite signs. An alloy of Ti and Zr, which is known as a TiZr null-matrix alloy, is an ideal combination for such purposes. In this study, we increased the hardness of a TiZr null-matrix alloy via extensive mechanical deformation at high temperatures. We successfully used the resulting product in a high-pressure cell designed for high-static-pressure neutron scattering. This hardened TiZr null-matrix alloy may play a complementary role to normal TiZr alloy in future neutron scattering research under extreme conditions.
The symplectic 2-form for gravity in terms of free null initial data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hypersurface N formed of two null sheets, or ‘light fronts’, swept out by the future null normal geodesics emerging from a common spacelike 2-disc can serve as a Cauchy surface for a region of spacetime. Already in the 1960s, free (unconstrained) initial data for general relativity were found for such hypersurfaces. Here, an expression is obtained for the symplectic 2-form of vacuum general relativity in terms of such free data. This can be done, even though variations of the geometry do not in general preserve the nullness of the initial hypersurface, because of the diffeomorphism gauge invariance of general relativity. The present expression for the symplectic 2-form has been used previously (Reisenberger 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 211101) to calculate the Poisson brackets of the free data. (paper)
Phase Retrieval with One or Two Diffraction Patterns by Alternating Projections of the Null Vector
Chen, Pengwen; Liu, Gi-Ren
2015-01-01
Two versions of alternating projection (AP), the parallel alternating projection (PAP) and the serial alternating projection (SAP), are proposed to solve phase retrieval with at most two coded diffraction patterns. The proofs of geometric convergence are given with sharp bounds on the rates of convergence in terms of a spectral gap condition. To compensate for the local nature of convergence, the null vector method is proposed for initialization and proved to produce asymptotically accurate initialization for the Gaussian case. Extensive numerical experiments are performed to show that the null vector method produces more accurate initialization than the spectral vector method and that PAP/SAP converge faster to more accurate solutions than other iterative schemes for non-convex optimization such as the Wirtinger flow. Moreover, SAP converges still faster than PAP. In practice AP and the null vector method together produce globally convergent iterates to the true object.
Energetics of kinetic reconnection in a three-dimensional null points cluster
Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Markidis, Stefano
2015-01-01
We performed three-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations of magnetic reconnection with multiple magnetic null points. Magnetic field energy conversion into kinetic energy was about five times higher than in traditional Harris sheet configuration. More than 85% of initial magnetic field energy was transferred to particle energy during 25 reversed ion cyclofrequencies. Magnetic reconnection in the cluster of null points evolved in three phases. During the first phase, ion beams were excited, that then gave part of their energy back to magnetic field in the second phase. In the third phase, magnetic reconnection occurs in many small patches around the current channels formed along the stripes of low magnetic field. Magnetic reconnection in null points presents essentially three-dimensional features, with no two dimensional symmetries or current sheets.
Analysis of null sets (zero cat ch) made by the Mexican tuna pur se seine fleet (20002013)
Michel J Dreyfus-León; Adán Mejía-Trejo; Juan Carlos Villaseñor-Derbez
2015-01-01
The world tuna fishing fleet is dominated by purse seine boats . Purse seine sets are sometimes unsuccessful in capturing fish ; these unsuccessful attempts are known as null sets. Null sets h ave been widely documented and the numbers indicate that they h appen in large proportions. In Mexico, the tuna fishery represents the second most important fishery by volume and value. The frequency of oc currence of null sets during the period 20002013 wa s analyzed to identify the r egions, perio...
Bucciarelli, M.; D. Pastina; Cristallini, D.; M. Sedehi; Lombardo, P.
2016-01-01
A Multichannel Synthetic Aperture Radar (M-SAR) exploiting an antenna nulling based Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) technique shall be able to cancel the effects of noise-like interferences over the collected SAR data. Since SAR systems often work with wide bandwidths to provide high resolution images, ECCM technique must account for the presence of wideband interference signal. In this paper we consider a wideband antenna nulling technique based on space-frequency adaptive nulling...
Balance recovery control for biped robot based on reaction null space method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Baoping WANG; Renxi HU; Jinming ZHANG; Chuangfeng HUAI
2009-01-01
A biped walking robot should be able to keep balance even in the presence of disturbing forces.This paper presents a step strategy concept of biped walking robot that is stabilized by using reaction null space method.The called "step strategy" can be modeled by means of the reaction null space method that introduced earlier to tackle dynamic interaction problems of free-floating robots,or moving base robots in general.6-DOF biped robot model simulations are used to confirm the validity.
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 null mice are sensitive to cholestatic liver injury.
Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D
2012-06-01
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449
From GLC to double-null coordinates and illustration with static black holes
Nugier, Fabien
2016-01-01
We present a system of coordinates deriving directly from the so-called Geodesic Light-Cone (GLC) coordinates and made of two null scalars intersecting on a 2-dimensional sphere parameterized by two constant angles along geodesics. These coordinates are shown to be equivalent to the well-known double-null coordinates. As GLC, they present interesting properties for cosmology and astrophysics. We discuss this latter topic for static black holes, showing simple descriptions for the metric or particles and photons trajectories. We also briefly comment on the time of flight of ultra-relativistic particles.
The symplectic 2-form for gravity in terms of free null initial data
Reisenberger, Michael P.
2012-01-01
A hypersurface formed of two null sheets, or "light fronts", swept out by the future null normal geodesics emerging from a common spacelike 2-disk can serve as a Cauchy surface for a region of spacetime. Already in the 1960s free (unconstrained) initial data for general relativity were found for such hypersurfaces. Here an expression is obtained for the symplectic 2-form of vacuum general relativity in terms of such free data. This can be done, even though variations of the geometry do not in...
A Fortran Code for Null Geodesic Solutions in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Spacetime
Ribeiro, M B
2002-01-01
This paper describes the Fortran 77 code SIMU, version 1.1, designed for numerical simulations of observational relations along the past null geodesic in the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) spacetime. SIMU aims at finding scale invariant solutions of the average density, but due to its full modularity it can be easily adapted to any application which requires LTB's null geodesic solutions. In version 1.1 the numerical output can be read by the GNUPLOT plotting package to produce a fully graphical output, although other plotting routines can be easily adapted. Details of the code's subroutines are discussed, and an example of its output is shown.
Rao, Shanti R.; Wallacea, J. Kent; Samuele, Rocco; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul; Lane, Benjamin; Levine, B. Martin; Mendillo, Chris; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Stewart, Jason B.
2008-01-01
We report progress on a nulling coronagraph intended for direct imaging of extrasolar planets. White light is suppressed in an interferometer, and phase errors are measured by a second interferometer. A 1020-pixel MEMS deformable mirror in the first interferometer adjusts the path length across the pupil. A feedback control system reduces deflections of the deformable mirror to order of 1 nm rms.
Quasi-local energy-momentum and energy flux at null infinity
Wu, Xiaoning; Chen, Chiang-Mei; Nester, James M.
2005-01-01
The null infinity limit of the gravitational energy-momentum and energy flux determined by the covariant Hamiltonian quasi-local expressions is evaluated using the NP spin coefficients. The reference contribution is considered by three different embedding approaches. All of them give the expected Bondi energy and energy flux.
The frequency of GSTT1 null genotype in Turkish population and lung cancer risk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Demir A
2005-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Previous studies have suggested that Glutathione S -transferase (GST genotypes may play a role in determining susceptibility to lung cancer, though the data are often conflicting. In different ethnic groups variations in null allele frequency has been observed. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of Glutathione S -transferase theta (GSTT1 influence individual susceptibility to lung cancer in Turkish population. We tried to clarify the frequencies of GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in a Turkish population. METHODS: DNA samples, extracted from the whole blood were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR method in all of the 68 cases, composed of 31 previously diagnosed lung cancer and 37 healthy controls. RESULTS: The prevalence of GSTT1 null genotype in the lung cancer patients was 29%, compared to 11% in control group. GSTT1 null genotype was found to be higher in cancer group compared to the control group, although it was not statistically significant (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 0.92-12.32, P = 0.06. There was also no significant relation in GSTT1 genotypes among histopathology types of lung cancers. The frequency of GSTT1 was found to be 25.4% ( n = 952 when the studies of Turkish population were reviewed. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that carrying the GSTT1 null genotype may be accepted as a weak risk factor for the susceptibility to lung cancer.
Determination of the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber for X-ray dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate determination of the actual null distance is critical for the establishment of primary measurement method for absorbed dose in tissue, since the concept of the true null electrode spacing is used to define the sensitive volume of an extrapolation chamber. In this paper, a critical analysis of two methodologies for determining the true null electrode spacing of an extrapolation chamber was done. Firstly, the ionization current as a function of electrode spacing was measured in ISO 4037 low energy X-ray beams. In the second procedure, a LC Bridge was used to measure the capacitance between the electrodes of a 23392 Böhm model PTW ionization chamber and a reliable relationship between capacitance and relative distance was established. Results showed that the true null spacing values varied from 0.0015 to 0.38 mm. Since capacitance meters with high resolution are not always available in calibration laboratories, the second method showed values with large uncertainties. The first method proved to be highly sensitive to the quality of the X-ray beams used. (author)
Stable deep nulling in polychromatic unpolarized light with multiaxial beam combination.
Buisset, Christophe; Rejeaunier, Xavier; Rabbia, Yves; Barillot, Marc
2007-11-10
In the context of the space-based nulling mission ESA-Darwin, Thales Alenia Space has developed a nulling breadboard for the European Space Agency (ESA): the multiaperture imaging interferometer (MAII) to demonstrate deep and stable nulling and to investigate various subsystems of the ESA-Darwin interferometer. Recently, we have extended our investigations to the multiaxial beam combination. This combination scheme presents many advantages: simplicity, compactness, and a high coupling efficiency for a three-beam combination. The near-infrared (lambda approximately 1.55 microm) MAII breadboard has been upgraded to the multiaxial beam combination. Polarization and stability issues have been thoroughly investigated. We report on the recent results we have obtained with the multiaxial configuration of MAII in unpolarized light with a relative spectral bandwidth of 5%: nulling ratios of mean value N=1.7 x 10(-5), stable over 1 h with a standard deviation sigma( N )=5.7 x 10(-7). These results indicate that the multiaxial beam combination has the potential to meet Darwin requirements. PMID:17994130
Tomizawa, S; Tomizawa, Shinya; Siino, Masaru
2006-01-01
We investigated the relation between the behavior of gravitational wave at late time and the limit structure of future null infinity tangent which will determine the topology of the event horizon far in the future. In the present article, we mainly consider a spacetime with two black holes. Although in most of cases, the black holes coalesce and its event horizon is topologically a single sphere far in the future, there are several possibilities that the black holes never coalesce and such exact solutions as examples. In our formulation, the tangent vector of future null infinity is, under conformal embedding, related to the number of black holes far in the future through the Poincar\\'e-Hopf's theorem. Under the conformal embedding, the topology of event horizon far in the future will be affected by the geometrical structure of the future null infinity. In this article, we related the behavior of Weyl curvature to this limit behavior of the generator vector of the future null infinity. We show if Weyl curvatu...
Global Null Controllability of the 1-Dimensional Nonlinear Slow Diffusion Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jean-Michel CORON; Jesús Ildefonso D（I）AZ; Abdelmalek DRICI; Tommaso MINGAZZINI
2013-01-01
The authors prove the global null controllability for the 1-dimensional nonlinear slow diffusion equation by using both a boundary and an internal control.They assume that the internal control is only time dependent.The proof relies on the return method in combination with some local controllability results for nondegenerate equations and rescaling techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongshan Liu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratoplasty is the most effective treatment for corneal blindness, but suboptimal medical conditions and lack of qualified medical personnel and donated cornea often prevent the performance of corneal transplantation in developing countries. Our study aims to develop alternative treatment regimens for congenital corneal diseases of genetic mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from neonatal umbilical cords were transplanted to treat thin and cloudy corneas of lumican null mice. Transplantation of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells significantly improved corneal transparency and increased stromal thickness of lumican null mice, but human umbilical hematopoietic stem cells failed to do the same. Further studies revealed that collagen lamellae were re-organized in corneal stroma of lumican null mice after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Transplanted umbilical mesenchymal stem cells survived in the mouse corneal stroma for more than 3 months with little or no graft rejection. In addition, these cells assumed a keratocyte phenotype, e.g., dendritic morphology, quiescence, expression of keratocyte unique keratan sulfated keratocan and lumican, and CD34. Moreover, umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improved host keratocyte functions, which was verified by enhanced expression of keratocan and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3A1 in lumican null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for congenital corneal diseases involving keratocyte dysfunction. Unlike donated corneas, umbilical mesenchymal stem cells are easily isolated, expanded, stored, and can be quickly recovered from liquid nitrogen when a patient is in urgent need.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo
2007-01-01
The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating the...
Reduced infarct size in neuroglobin-null mice after experimental stroke in vivo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raida Zindy
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroglobin is considered to be a novel important pharmacological target in combating stroke and neurodegenerative disorders, although the mechanism by which this protection is accomplished remains an enigma. We hypothesized that if neuroglobin is directly involved in neuroprotection, then permanent cerebral ischemia would lead to larger infarct volumes in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-type mice. Methods Using neuroglobin-null mice, we estimated the infarct volume 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using Cavalieri’s Principle, and compared the infarct volume in neuroglobin-null and wild-type mice. Neuroglobin antibody staining was used to examine neuroglobin expression in the infarct area of wild-type mice. Results Infarct volumes 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were significantly smaller in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-types (p Conclusions Neuroglobin-deficiency resulted in reduced tissue infarction, suggesting that, at least at endogenous expression levels, neuroglobin in itself is non-protective against ischemic injury.
Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Walker, Gillian Claire; Bowen, John Wesley; Zafiropoulos, Apostolos
2009-01-01
The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.
Development of IR single mode optical fibers for DARWIN-nulling interferometry
Chakkalakkal Abdulla, S.M.; Cheng, L.K.; Bosch, B. van den; Dijkhuizen, N.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Lucas, J.; Boussard-Plédel, C.; Conseil, C.; Bureau, B.; Carmo, J.P. do
2014-01-01
The DARWIN mission aims to detect weak infra-red emission lines from distant orbiting earth-like planets using nulling interferometry. This requires filtering of wavefront errors using single mode waveguides operating at a wavelength range of 6.5-20 μm. This article describes the optical design of t
Numerical Study of the Gravitational and Electromagnetic Waves on the Null Cone
Babiuc, Maria
2015-04-01
The numerical calculation of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in a characteristic framework has not been done numerically before and is expected to shed new light on nonlinear phenomena like null memory. The main objective of this study is the analytical and numerical modeling of the of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation in a fully general relativistic framework, as it propagates on the null cone to null infinity, with no simplifications due to assumed symmetries. Moreover, the global interaction between the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation will be closely monitored, in order to reveal the electromagnetic radiation memory induced by the gravitational field. The numerical approach used, called the ``Cauchy-characteristic extraction'' method, is the most precise method for the computation of gravitational waveforms at infinite distance from a world-tube that encloses the source. The analytical and numerical models presented here will be implemented in the PittNull code, and the experience gained will be disseminated, in order to facilitate new standalone characteristic codes.This will lead to more insight on the interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic fields, and even point to new effects.
A Panel Test of Purchasing Power Parity Under the Null of Stationarity
Hunter, J; Simpson, M.
2001-01-01
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is tested using a sample of real exchange rate data for twelve European countries. Acknowledging that Augmented Dickey Fuller tests have low power, we apply a Panel test that considers the null of stationarity and corrects for serial dependence using a non-parametric kernel based method.
Active optics null test system based on a liquid crystal programmable spatial light modulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ares, Miguel; Royo, Santiago; Sergievskaya, Irina; Riu, Jordi
2010-11-10
We present an active null test system adapted to test lenses and wavefronts with complex shapes and strong local deformations. This system provides greater flexibility than conventional static null tests that match only a precisely positioned, individual wavefront. The system is based on a cylindrical Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a commercial liquid crystal programmable phase modulator (PPM), which acts as the active null corrector, enabling the compensation of large strokes with high fidelity in a single iteration, and a spatial filter to remove unmodulated light when steep phase changes are compensated. We have evaluated the PPM's phase response at 635 nm and checked its performance by measuring its capability to generate different amounts of defocus aberration, finding root mean squared errors below {lambda}/18 for spherical wavefronts with peak-to-valley heights of up to 78.7{lambda}, which stands as the limit from which diffractive artifacts created by the PPM have been found to be critical under no spatial filtering. Results of a null test for a complex lens (an ophthalmic customized progressive addition lens) are presented and discussed.
Wisman, E.; Ramanna, M.S.; Zabel, P.
1993-01-01
The Adh-1 null mutant (B15-1-8) isolated previously was used to establish conditions that allow the selection of ADH-deficient pollen grains and seeds of tomato. New Adh-1 null mutants were then selected among the progenies derived from crosses between the genetically unstable tomato lines Yvms, Sul
Effects of Lipoxygenase Null Genes of Soybean in Controlling Beany-flavor of Soymilk and Soyflour
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Hao; GUAN Chun-yun; HE Xiao-ling; ZHANG Guo-zheng; DIN An-lin
2002-01-01
The flavor of the soymilk and soyflour obtained from the lipoxygenase mutant isolines was concentrated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and its constituents were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the same 24 flavor constituents were isolated in both soymilk and soyflour, and most of them were aldehydes and alcohols. Lox2 was most responsible for the production of the volatile and beany-flavor components, and Lox1 less responsible.Lox3 was least responsible and can reduce the yield of hexanal. Either Lx1 or Lx2 could significantly reduce the volatile and beany-flavor, and Lx3 could significantly increase the yield of hexanal. Primary and secondary interactions existed among the null mutant genes, and the major effects and interactions could be affected by processing conditions. The isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes yielded the least volatile and beany-flavor components, and the isoline without the lipoxygenase gene Lx3 produced the greatest amount of the volatile and beany-flavor components. The amounts of volatile and beany-flavor components produced by the other isolines were between that of the isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes and the isoline without lipoxygenase gene Lx3. According to the correlation analysis, the hexanal amount could be used as an index in evaluating the importance of lipoxygenase isozymes in the yield of beany-flavor compounds, and the effects of the different types of lipoxygenase null mutants in controlling beany-flavor compounds. The cultivars with triple lipoxygenase null genes will be a quality raw material for soyfood processing.
Inhibition of urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation in CYP2E1-null mice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffler, Undi [Department of Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN (United States); Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Dixon, Darlene [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Peddada, Shyamal [Biostatics Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Ghanayem, Burhan I. [Department of Pharmacology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN (United States) and Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: ghanayem@niehs.nih.gov
2005-05-02
Urethane is a multi-site animal carcinogen and was classified as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.' Urethane is a fermentation by-product and found at appreciable levels in alcoholic beverages and foods such as bread and cheese. Recent work in this laboratory demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism. The current studies were undertaken to assess the relationships between CYP2E1-mediated metabolism and urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation as determined by induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and expression of Ki-67, respectively, using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Urethane was administered at 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day (p.o.), 5 days/week for 6 weeks. A significant dose-dependent increase in MN was observed in wild-type mice; however, a slight increase was measured in the MN-polychromatic erythrocytes in CYP2E1-null mice treated with 100 mg/kg. A significant increase in the expression of Ki-67 was detected in the livers and the lungs (terminal bronchioles, alveoli, and bronchi) of wild-type mice administered 100 mg urethane/kg in comparison to controls. In contrast, CYP2E1-null mice administered this dose exhibited negligible alterations in Ki-67 expression in the livers and lungs compared to controls. Interestingly, while Ki-67 expression in the forestomach decreased in wild-type mice, it increased in CYP2E1-null mice. Subsequent comparative metabolism studies demonstrated that total urethane-derived radioactivity in the plasma, liver, and lung was significantly higher in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice and un-metabolized urethane constituted greater than 83% of the radioactivity in CYP2E1-null mice. Un-metabolized urethane was not detectable in the plasma, liver, and lung of wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of urethane, presumably via epoxide formation, is necessary for the induction
Inhibition of urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation in CYP2E1-null mice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urethane is a multi-site animal carcinogen and was classified as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.' Urethane is a fermentation by-product and found at appreciable levels in alcoholic beverages and foods such as bread and cheese. Recent work in this laboratory demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism. The current studies were undertaken to assess the relationships between CYP2E1-mediated metabolism and urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation as determined by induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and expression of Ki-67, respectively, using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Urethane was administered at 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day (p.o.), 5 days/week for 6 weeks. A significant dose-dependent increase in MN was observed in wild-type mice; however, a slight increase was measured in the MN-polychromatic erythrocytes in CYP2E1-null mice treated with 100 mg/kg. A significant increase in the expression of Ki-67 was detected in the livers and the lungs (terminal bronchioles, alveoli, and bronchi) of wild-type mice administered 100 mg urethane/kg in comparison to controls. In contrast, CYP2E1-null mice administered this dose exhibited negligible alterations in Ki-67 expression in the livers and lungs compared to controls. Interestingly, while Ki-67 expression in the forestomach decreased in wild-type mice, it increased in CYP2E1-null mice. Subsequent comparative metabolism studies demonstrated that total urethane-derived radioactivity in the plasma, liver, and lung was significantly higher in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice and un-metabolized urethane constituted greater than 83% of the radioactivity in CYP2E1-null mice. Un-metabolized urethane was not detectable in the plasma, liver, and lung of wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of urethane, presumably via epoxide formation, is necessary for the induction of
Predictive uncertainty analysis of a saltwater intrusion model using null-space Monte Carlo
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herckenrath, Daan; Langevin, Christian D.; Doherty, John
2011-01-01
. Random noise was added to the observations to approximate realistic field conditions. The NSMC method was used to calculate 1000 calibration-constrained parameter fields. If the dimensionality of the solution space was set appropriately, the estimated uncertainty range from the NSMC analysis encompassed......Because of the extensive computational burden and perhaps a lack of awareness of existing methods, rigorous uncertainty analyses are rarely conducted for variable-density flow and transport models. For this reason, a recently developed null-space Monte Carlo (NSMC) method for quantifying prediction...... the truth. Several variants of the method were implemented to investigate their effect on the efficiency of the NSMC method. Reducing the dimensionality of the null-space for the processing of the random parameter sets did not result in any significant gains in efficiency and compromised the ability...
Nonminimal curvature-matter coupled wormholes with matter satisfying the null energy condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: nadiezhda@cosmo.fis.fc.ul.pt, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edificio C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-04-21
Recently, the exact solutions of wormhole geometries supported by a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling were found, where the nonminimal coupling minimizes the violation of the null energy condition of normal matter at the throat. In this brief report, we present a solution where normal matter satisfies the energy conditions at the throat and it is the higher order curvature derivatives of the nonminimal coupling that are responsible for the null energy condition violation, and consequently for supporting the respective wormhole geometries. For simplicity, we consider a linear R nonmiminal curvature-matter coupling and an explicit monotonically increasing function for the energy density. Thus, the solution found is not asymptotically flat, but may in principle be matched to an exterior vacuum solution.
Local existence in retarded time under a weak decay on complete null cones
Li, Junbin
2015-01-01
In the previous paper \\cite{L-Z}, for a characteristic problem with not necessarily small initial data given on a complete null cone decaying like that in the work \\cite{Ch-K} of the stability of Minkowski spacetime by Christodoulou and Klainerman, we proved the local existence in retarded time, which means the solution to the vacuum Einstein equations exists in a uniform future neighborhood, while the global existence in retarded time is the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In this paper, we prove that the local existence in retarded time still holds when the data is assumed to decay slower, like that in Bieri's work \\cite{Bie} on the extension to the stability of Minkowski spacetime. Such decay guarantees the existence of the limit of the Hawking mass on the initial null cone, when approaching to infinity, in an optimal way.
Chen, Jian; Dutton, Zachary; Lazarus, Richard; Guha, Saikat
2011-01-01
The quantum states of two laser pulses---coherent states---are never mutually orthogonal, making perfect discrimination impossible. Even so, coherent states can achieve the ultimate quantum limit for capacity of a classical channel, the Holevo capacity. Attaining this requires the receiver to make joint-detection measurements on long codeword blocks, optical implementations of which remain unknown. We report the first experimental demonstration of a joint-detection receiver, demodulating quaternary pulse-position-modulation (PPM) codewords at a word error rate of up to 40% (2.2 dB) below that attained with direct-detection, the largest error-rate improvement over the standard quantum limit reported to date. This is accomplished with a conditional nulling receiver, which uses optimized-amplitude coherent pulse nulling, single photon detection and quantum feedforward. We further show how this translates into coding complexity improvements for practical PPM systems, such as in deep-space communication. We antici...
Double Force Compensation Method to Enhance the Performance of a Null Balance Force Sensor
Choi, In-Mook; Choi, Dong-June; Kim, Soo Hyun
2002-06-01
Microforce measurement is becoming more essential as precision industries such as biomedicine, precision chemistry, semiconductor manufacturing, and so forth develop. A null balance method has been introduced in order to improve on force measurement performances involving a loadcell. The null-balance type force sensor is analyzed and designed for the improvement of measurement performances. The measurement range and the resolution are dependent on the force generation capacity and the various error sources. These characteristics are estimated and verified according to the mechanical sensitivity and the force compensation sensitivity. Two different coil systems are designed and tested experimentally. Double force compensation is proposed in order to obtain a large range and high resolution. The measurement range of the large coil system and the resolution of the small one are fully realized by the double compensation method. After manufacturing, a range over 300 gf and resolution under ± 0.1 mgf were obtained by the double compensation method.
Semi-analytical approach for the Vaidya metric in double-null coordinates
Girotto, F; Girotto, Fernando; Saa, Alberto
2004-01-01
We reexamine here a problem considered in detail before by Waugh and Lake: the solutions of spherically symmetric Einstein's equations with a radial flow of unpolarized radiation (the Vaidya metric) in double-null coordinates. This problem is known to be not analytically solvable, the only known explicit solutions correspond to the constant mass case (Schwarzschild solution in Kruskal-Szekeres form) and the linear and exponential mass functions originally discovered by Waugh and Lake. We present here a semi-analytical approach that can be used to discuss some qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Vaidya metric in double-null coordinates for generic mass functions. We present also a new analytical solution corresponding to $(1/v)$-mass function.
Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Jesper Wiborg
2015-01-01
Null hypothesis statistical significance tests (NHST) are widely used in quantitative research in the empirical sciences including scientometrics. Nevertheless, since their introduction nearly a century ago significance tests have been controversial. Many researchers are not aware of the numerous...... criticisms raised against NHST. As practiced, NHST has been characterized as a ‘null ritual’ that is overused and too often misapplied and misinterpreted. NHST is in fact a patchwork of two fundamentally different classical statistical testing models, often blended with some wishful quasi...... the theoretical origins of NHST, which is mostly absent from standard statistical textbooks, and we discuss some of the most prevalent problems relating to the practice of NHST and trace these problems back to the mix-up of the two different theoretical origins. Finally, we illustrate some of the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohd Tarmizi Ali
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Sidelobes cancellation is challenging task in beamforming and beam steering in smart antenna systems. The high level of sidelobes can significantly degrade the system performance as well as antenna power efficiency. In this paper, we present the new decimal genetic algorithm to reduce the sidelobe and at the same time create the nulls toward interferers and jammers. This technique takes advantage of Chebyshev coefficients window as an initial weight vector to speed up the optimization process. The simulation results have shown that this technique is able to find the most suitable weights vector to reduce the sidelobe power and at the same time create the nulls toward interferers. Verification has been done for Uniform Linear Array (ULA structure. However, this technique can be used for non regular geometrical antenna array structure with variety of beam pattern requirements.
Internalizing Null Extraterrestrial "Signals": An Astrobiological App for a Technological Society
Chaisson, Eric J
2014-01-01
One of the beneficial outcomes of searching for life in the Universe is that it grants greater awareness of our own problems here on Earth. Lack of contact with alien beings to date might actually comprise a null "signal" pointing humankind toward a viable future. Astrobiology has surprising practical applications to human society; within the larger cosmological context of cosmic evolution, astrobiology clarifies the energetic essence of complex systems throughout the Universe, including technological intelligence that is intimately dependent on energy and likely will be for as long as it endures. The "message" contained within the "signal" with which today's society needs to cope is reasonably this: Only solar energy can power our civilization going forward without soiling the environment with increased heat yet robustly driving the economy with increased per capita energy usage. The null "signals" from extraterrestrials also offer a rational solution to the Fermi paradox as a principle of cosmic selection l...
Towards a stable and absolute atmospheric carbon dioxide instrument using spectroscopic null method
Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wofsy, S. C.
2013-07-01
We present a novel spectral method to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision and stability without resorting to calibration tanks during long-term operation. This spectral null method improves precision by reducing spectral proportional noise associated with laser emission instabilities. We employ sealed quartz cells with known CO2 column densities to serve as the permanent internal references in the null method, which improve the instrument's stability and accuracy. A prototype instrument - ABsolute Carbon dioxide (ABC) is developed using this new approach. The instrument has a one-second precision of 0.02 ppm, which averages down to 0.007 ppm within one minute. Long-term stability of within 0.1 ppm is achieved without any calibrations for over a one-month period. These results have the potential for eliminating the need for calibration cylinders for high accuracy field measurements of carbon dioxide.
Null Dust Solution in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz Gravity
Goldoni, O; Chan, R; Satheeshkumar, V H; da Rocha, J F Villas
2016-01-01
Non-stationary null dust in a spherically symmetric spacetime is studied in the context of a general-covariant Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. The non-minimal coupling to matter is considered in the post-Newtonian approximation (PPN) in the infrared limit. The aim of this paper is to see if a general relativistic spacetime of a shearing null dust-like fluid can be a solution of Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory in the infrared limit. We have shown that this solution admits the process of gravitational collapse leaving a singularity at the end. These solutions have, qualitatively, the same temporal behavior as the dust collapse in Einstein theory. We have also found other possible solutions, representing an expansion behavior that is not found in General Relativity (GR). This solution might represent a repulsive phantom energy in GR.
Steady state tokamak equilibrium with specified magnetic axis and two magnetic null points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analysis method of tokamak plasma equilibrium by a relaxation method with specified magnetic axis and null points (two magnetic separatrix points) is developed. The six degrees of freedom due to designated positions of the magnetic axis and null points is possible by using six poloidal field coil currents. Stable steady state tokamak plasma equilibria are calculated along with the MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) potential energy. Assuming an RF heating plasma, the plasma generates a plasma current which partially or fully cancels the magnetic field from the poloidal field coils. For low-temperature plasmas, the plasma current distribution is centrally peaked; for high-temperature plasmas, the plasma current has a hole. A centrally peaked current distribution in a low-temperature plasma is evolved into a current distribution with a hole by increasing the plasma pressure by heating. These calculations show that, under sufficient heating, the pressure driven current in tokamak plasmas form a current hole which minimizes the MHD potential energy. (author)
DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions
Catena, Riccardo; Wild, Sebastian
2016-01-01
We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrino flux in the direction of the Sun from dark matter annihilation. Assuming the standard halo model, we find a strong tension between the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal and the null result experiments. We also list possible ways-out to this conclusion.
DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions
Catena, Riccardo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian
2016-05-01
We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with spin 0 or 1/2 off a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrino flux in the direction of the Sun from dark matter annihilation. To this end, we develop a novel semi-analytical approach for comparing experimental results in the high-dimensional parameter space of the non-relativistic effective theory. Assuming the standard halo model, we find a strong tension between the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal and the null result experiments. We also list possible ways-out of this conclusion.
Quasinormal modes of nonlinear electromagnetic black holes from unstable null geodesics
Breton, N
2016-01-01
The expressions for the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics, calculated in the eikonal approximation, are presented. In the eikonal limit QNMs of black holes are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesics. The unstable circular null orbits are derived from the effective metric that is the one obeyed by light rays under the influence of a nonlinear electromagnetic field. As an illustration we calculate the QNMs of four nonlinear electromagnetic black holes, two singular and two regular, namely from Euler-Heisenberg and Born-Infeld theories, for singular, and the magnetic Bardeen black hole and the one derived by Bronnikov for regular ones. Comparison is shown with the QNMs of the linear electromagnetic counterpart, their Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.
DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions
Catena, Riccardo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian
2016-01-01
We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with spin 0 or 1/2 off a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrin...
HIGH SPECTRAL RESOLUTION MEASUREMENT OF THE SUNYAEV–ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT NULL WITH Z-Spec
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect spectrum crosses through a null where ΔTCMB = 0 near ν0 = 217 GHz. In a cluster of galaxies, ν0 can be shifted from the canonical thermal SZ effect value by corrections to the SZ effect scattering due to the properties of the inter-cluster medium. We have measured the SZ effect in the hot galaxy cluster RX J 1347.5 – 1145 with Z-Spec, an R ∼ 300 grating spectrometer sensitive between 185 and 305 GHz. These data comprise a high spectral resolution measurement around the null of the SZ effect and clearly exhibit the transition from negative to positive ΔTCMB over the Z-Spec band. The SZ null position is measured to be ν0 = 225.8 ± 2.5(stat.) ± 1.2(sys.) GHz, which differs from the canonical null frequency by 3.0σ and is evidence for modifications to the canonical thermal SZ effect shape. Assuming the measured shift in ν0 is due only to relativistic corrections to the SZ spectrum, we place the limit kTe = 17.1 ± 5.3 keV from the zero-point measurement alone. By simulating the response of the instrument to the sky, we are able to generate likelihood functions in {y0, Te, vpec} space. For vpec = 0 km s–1, we measure the best-fitting SZ model to be y0 = 4.6+0.6–0.9 × 10–4, Te,0 = 15.2+12–7.4 keV. When vpec is allowed to vary, a most probable value of vpec = + 450 ± 810 km s–1 is found.
Glomerular injury is exacerbated in diabetic integrin alpha1-null mice.
Zent, R; Yan, X; Su, Y; Hudson, B G; Borza, D-B; Moeckel, G W; Qi, Z; Sado, Y; Breyer, M D; Voziyan, P; Pozzi, A
2006-08-01
Excessive glomerular collagen IV and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are key factors in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen IV receptor, dowregulates collagen IV and ROS production, suggesting this integrin might determine the severity of diabetic nephropathy. To test this possibility, wild-type and integrin alpha1-null mice were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) (100 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection), after which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), glomerular collagen deposition, and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening were evaluated. In addition, ROS and collagen IV production by mesangial cells as well as their proliferation was measured in vitro. Diabetic alpha1-null mice developed worse renal disease than diabetic wild-type mice. A significant increase in GFR was evident in the alpha1-null mice at 6 weeks after the STZ injection; it started to decrease by week 24 and reached levels of non-diabetic mice by week 36. In contrast, GFR only increased in wild-type mice at week 12 and its elevation persisted throughout the study. Diabetic mutant mice also showed increased glomerular deposition of collagen IV and GBM thickening compared to diabetic wild-type mice. Primary alpha1-null mesangial cells exposed to high glucose produced more ROS than wild-type cells, which led to decreased proliferation and increased collagen IV synthesis, thus mimicking the in vivo finding. In conclusion, this study suggests that lack of integrin alpha1beta1 exacerbates the glomerular injury in a mouse model of diabetes by modulating GFR, ROS production, cell proliferation, and collagen deposition. PMID:16775606
Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy M. Adamo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in an auxiliary four-complex dimensional space, H-space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi's integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum--conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.
Fonction constante et d\\'eriv\\'ee nulle : un r\\'esultat si trivial..
Delcroix, Antoine
2008-01-01
We study various proofs of the caracterization of constant functions, more precisely of the theorem: a derivable function, defined on a real interval, is constant if, and only if, its derivative is null. Our aim is to study the relationships of these proofs with the mathematical curriculum of secondary schools and the begining of undergraduate studies in France, from various point of views (epistemological, historical, didactical).
Null Trajectories and Bending of Light in Charged Black Holes with Quintessence
Fernando, Sharmanthie; Meadows, Scott; Reis, Kevon
2015-10-01
We have studied null geodesics of the charged black hole surrounded by quintessence. Quintessence is a candidate for dark energy and is represented by a scalar field. Here, we have done a detailed study of the photon trajectories. The exact solutions for the trajectories are obtained in terms of the Jacobi-elliptic integrals for all possible energy and angular momentum of the photons. We have also studied the bending angle using the Rindler and Ishak method.
Null trajectories and bending of light in charged black holes with quintessence
Fernando, Sharmanthie; Reis, Kevon
2014-01-01
We have studied null geodesics of the charged black hole surrounded by quintessence. Quintessence is a candidate for dark energy and is represented by a scalar field. Here, we have done a detailed study of the photon trajectories. The exact solutions for the trajectories are obtained in terms of the Jacobi-elliptic integrals for all possible energy and angular momentum of the photons. We have also studied the bending angle using the Rindler and Ishak method.
Comparative proteomics of skeletal muscle mitochondria from myostatin-null mice
Puddick, Jonathan; Martinus, Ryan D
2011-01-01
Myostatin, a secreted protein, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Down-regulating its expression increases skeletal muscle mass that is accompanied by a marked change in the fibre composition from one reliant on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism to glycolysis. A comparative proteomic investigation of this altered metabolism was carried out on mitochondria from the gastrocnemius muscle of myostatin-null mice compared with wild-type. Most of the proteins identified showed no si...
Spin-2 fields on Minkowski space near space-like and null infinity
Friedrich, H
2002-01-01
We show that the spin-2 equations on Minkowski space in the gauge of the `regular finite initial value problem at space-like infinity' imply estimates which, together with the transport equations on the cylinder at space-like infinity, allow us to obtain for a certain class of initial data information on the behaviour of the solution near space-like and null infinity of any desired precision.
Likelihood of Null Effects of Large NHLBI Clinical Trials Has Increased over Time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert M Kaplan
Full Text Available We explore whether the number of null results in large National Heart Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI funded trials has increased over time.We identified all large NHLBI supported RCTs between 1970 and 2012 evaluating drugs or dietary supplements for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular disease. Trials were included if direct costs >$500,000/year, participants were adult humans, and the primary outcome was cardiovascular risk, disease or death. The 55 trials meeting these criteria were coded for whether they were published prior to or after the year 2000, whether they registered in clinicaltrials.gov prior to publication, used active or placebo comparator, and whether or not the trial had industry co-sponsorship. We tabulated whether the study reported a positive, negative, or null result on the primary outcome variable and for total mortality.17 of 30 studies (57% published prior to 2000 showed a significant benefit of intervention on the primary outcome in comparison to only 2 among the 25 (8% trials published after 2000 (χ2=12.2,df= 1, p=0.0005. There has been no change in the proportion of trials that compared treatment to placebo versus active comparator. Industry co-sponsorship was unrelated to the probability of reporting a significant benefit. Pre-registration in clinical trials.gov was strongly associated with the trend toward null findings.The number NHLBI trials reporting positive results declined after the year 2000. Prospective declaration of outcomes in RCTs, and the adoption of transparent reporting standards, as required by clinicaltrials.gov, may have contributed to the trend toward null findings.
Internalizing Null Extraterrestrial "Signals": An Astrobiological App for a Technological Society
Chaisson, Eric J.
2014-01-01
One of the beneficial outcomes of searching for life in the Universe is that it grants greater awareness of our own problems here on Earth. Lack of contact with alien beings to date might actually comprise a null "signal" pointing humankind toward a viable future. Astrobiology has surprising practical applications to human society; within the larger cosmological context of cosmic evolution, astrobiology clarifies the energetic essence of complex systems throughout the Universe, including tech...
EXACT NULL CONTROLLABILITY OF NON-AUTONOMOUS FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION SYSTEMS WITH NONLOCAL CONDITIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xianlong FU; Yu ZHANG
2013-01-01
In this article,by using theory of linear evolution system and Schauder fixed point theorem,we establish a sufficient result of exact null controllability for a non-autonomous functional evolution system with nonlocal conditions.In particular,the compactness condition or Lipschitz condition for the function g in the nonlocal conditions appearing in various literatures is not required here.An example is also provided to show an application of the obtained result.
How Null Hypothesis Significance Testing May Impede Further Progress Within Psychology
Tveit, Håvard
2014-01-01
In 2005, Ioannidis revitalised a long-lasting debate concerning whether or not null hypothesis significance testing may serve to uphold accessibility related biases, and in effect the file drawer problem as well. Though several authors have argued that significance testing may consequentially impede further progress within the medical and behavioural sciences, it has had little impact on the general consensus, and significance testing is still the most common approach to analyze and interpret...
Vascular Response to Intra-arterial Injury in the Thrombospondin-1 Null Mouse
Budhani, Faisal; Leonard, Katherine A.; Bergdahl, Andreas; Gao, Jimin; Lawler, Jack; Davis, Elaine C.
2007-01-01
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multifunctional, extracellular matrix protein that has been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during vascular development and injury. Vascular injury in wildtype and TSP-1 null mice was carried out by insertion of a straight spring guidewire into the femoral artery via a muscular arterial branch. Blood flow was restored after the muscular branch was ligated. The injury completely denuded the endotheliu...
Premature aggregation of type IV collagen and early lethality in lysyl hydroxylase 3 null mice
Rautavuoma, Kati; Takaluoma, Kati; Sormunen, Raija; Myllyharju, Johanna; Kivirikko, Kari I.; Soininen, Raija
2004-01-01
Collagens carry hydroxylysine residues that act as attachment sites for carbohydrate units and are important for the stability of crosslinks but have been regarded as nonessential for vertebrate survival. We generated mice with targeted inactivation of the gene for one of the three lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes, LH3. The null embryos developed seemingly normally until embryonic day 8.5, but development was then retarded, with death around embryonic day 9.5. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed fr...
Reversing hypomyelination in BACE1-null mice with Akt-DD overexpression
Hu, Xiangyou; Schlanger, Rita; He, Wanxia; Macklin, Wendy B.; Yan, Riqiang
2013-01-01
β-Site amyloid precursor protein convertase enzyme 1 (BACE1), a type I transmembrane aspartyl protease required to cleave amyloid precursor protein for releasing a toxic amyloid peptide, also cleaves type I and type III neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1). BACE1 deficiency in mice causes hypomyelination during development and impairs remyelination if injured. In BACE1-null mice, the abolished cleavage of neuregulin-1 by BACE1 is speculated to cause reduced myelin sheath thickness in both the central nervous...
SPARC-null mice exhibit increased adiposity without significant differences in overall body weight
Bradshaw, A. D.; Graves, D C; Motamed, K.; Sage, E H
2003-01-01
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40 (SPARC) is a matrix-associated protein that elicits changes in cell shape, inhibits cell-cycle progression, and influences the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). The absence of SPARC in mice gives rise to aberrations in the structure and composition of the ECM that result in generation of cataracts, development of severe osteopenia, and accelerated closure of dermal wounds. In this report we show that SPARC-null mice have gr...
Null Geodesic Congruences, Asymptotically-Flat Spacetimes and Their Physical Interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy M. Adamo
2009-09-01
Full Text Available A priori, there is nothing very special about shear-free or asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. Surprisingly, however, they turn out to possess a large number of fascinating geometric properties and to be closely related, in the context of general relativity, to a variety of physically significant effects. It is the purpose of this paper to try to fully develop these issues. This work starts with a detailed exposition of the theory of shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences, i.e., congruences with shear that vanishes at future conformal null infinity. A major portion of the exposition lies in the analysis of the space of regular shear-free and asymptotically shear-free null geodesic congruences. This analysis leads to the space of complex analytic curves in complex Minkowski space. They in turn play a dominant role in the applications. The applications center around the problem of extracting interior physical properties of an asymptotically-flat spacetime directly from the asymptotic gravitational (and Maxwell field itself, in analogy with the determination of total charge by an integral over the Maxwell field at infinity or the identification of the interior mass (and its loss by (Bondi’s integrals of the Weyl tensor, also at infinity. More specifically, we will see that the asymptotically shear-free congruences lead us to an asymptotic definition of the center-of-mass and its equations of motion. This includes a kinematic meaning, in terms of the center-of-mass motion, for the Bondi three-momentum. In addition, we obtain insights into intrinsic spin and, in general, angular momentum, including an angular-momentum–conservation law with well-defined flux terms. When a Maxwell field is present, the asymptotically shear-free congruences allow us to determine/define at infinity a center-of-charge world line and intrinsic magnetic dipole moment.
Null geodesics in the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime: the view from the bridge
Clark, Chad; Hiscock, William A.; Larson, Shane L.
1999-01-01
The null geodesic equations in the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime are numerically integrated to determine the angular deflection and redshift of photons which propagate through the distortion of the ``warp drive'' bubble to reach an observer at the origin of the warp effect. We find that for a starship with an effective warp speed exceeding the speed of light, stars in the forward hemisphere will appear closer to the direction of motion than they would to an observer at rest. This aberration...
Fernández-Somoano Ana; Suárez-Gil Patricio; Silva-Ayçaguer Luis
2010-01-01
Abstract Background The null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is the most frequently used statistical method, although its inferential validity has been widely criticized since its introduction. In 1988, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) warned against sole reliance on NHST to substantiate study conclusions and suggested supplementary use of confidence intervals (CI). Our objective was to evaluate the extent and quality in the use of NHST and CI, both in Englis...
The Well-posedness of the Null-Timelike Boundary Problem for Quasilinear Waves
Kreiss, H.; Winicour, J.
2010-01-01
The null-timelike initial-boundary value problem for a hyperbolic system of equations consists of the evolution of data given on an initial characteristic surface and on a timelike worldtube to produce a solution in the exterior of the worldtube. We establish the well-posedness of this problem for the evolution of a quasilinear scalar wave by means of energy estimates. The treatment is given in characteristic coordinates and thus provides a guide for developing stable finite difference algori...
Filiaci, Francesca
2011-01-01
This thesis focuses on the cross-linguistic differences between Italian and Spanish regarding the pragmatic restrictions on the resolution of null and overt subject pronouns (NS and OSP). It also tries to identify possible links between such cross-linguistic differences and morpho-syntactic differences at the level of the verbal morphology of the two languages. Spanish and Italian are typologically related and morpho-syntactically similar and have been assumed to instantiate the same setti...
Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model
Gumbert, A; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.
1999-01-01
Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions ...
Altered astrocyte morphology and vascular development in dystrophin-Dp71-null mice.
Giocanti-Auregan, Audrey; Vacca, Ophélie; Bénard, Romain; Cao, Sijia; Siqueiros, Lourdes; Montañez, Cecilia; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Sennlaub, Florian; Guillonneau, Xavier; Rendon, Alvaro; Tadayoni, Ramin
2016-05-01
Understanding retinal vascular development is crucial because many retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (in adults) or retinopathy of prematurity (in children) are among the leading causes of blindness. Given the localization of the protein Dp71 around the retinal vessels in adult mice and its role in maintaining retinal homeostasis, the aim of this study was to determine if Dp71 was involved in astrocyte and vascular development regulation. An experimental study in mouse retinas was conducted. Using a dual immunolabeling with antibodies to Dp71 and anti-GFAP for astrocytes on retinal sections and isolated astrocytes, it was found that Dp71 was expressed in wild-type (WT) mouse astrocytes from early developmental stages to adult stage. In Dp71-null mice, a reduction in GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes was observed as early as postnatal day 6 (P6) compared with WT mice. Using real-time PCR, it was showed that Dp71 mRNA was stable between P1 and P6, in parallel with post-natal vascular development. Regarding morphology in Dp71-null and WT mice, a significant decrease in overall astrocyte process number in Dp71-null retinas at P6 to adult age was found. Using fluorescence-conjugated isolectin Griffonia simplicifolia on whole mount retinas, subsequent delay of developing vascular network at the same age in Dp71-null mice was found. An evidence that the Dystrophin Dp71, a membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein and one of the smaller Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene products, regulates astrocyte morphology and density and is associated with subsequent normal blood vessel development was provided. GLIA 2016;64:716-729. PMID:26711882
Dual null formalism for the collapse of fluids in a cosmological background
Maciel, Alan; Le Delliou, Morgan; Mimoso, José P.
2015-10-01
In this work we revisit the definition of matter trapping surfaces (MTS) and show how it can be expressed in the so-called dual null formalism developed for trapping horizons (TH). With the aim of unifying both approaches, we construct a 2 +2 threading from the 1 +3 flow in spherical symmetry and thus isolate one preferred spatial direction that allows straightforward translation into a dual null subbasis and deduction of the geometric apparatus that follows. We express the MTS conditions in terms of 2-expansion of the flow, then in purely geometric form of the dual null expansions. The Raychadhuri equations that describe both MTS and TH are written and interpreted using a generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov functional. Further using the Misner-Sharp mass and its perfect fluid definition, we relate the spatial 2-expansion to the fluid pressure, density, and acceleration. The Raychaudhuri equations also allow us to define the MTS dynamic condition with first order differentials so the MTS conditions are now shown to be all first order differentials. This unified formalism allows one to realize that the MTS can exist only in normal regions, and so it can exist only between black hole horizons and cosmological horizons. Finally we obtain a relation yielding the sign, on a TH, of the nonvanishing null expansion that determines the nature of the TH from fluid content and flow characteristics. The 2 +2 unified formalism here investigated thus proves a powerful tool to reveal, in the future extensions, more of the very rich and subtle relations between MTS and TH.
On the cost of null-control of an artificial advection-diffusion problem
Cornilleau, Pierre; Guerrero, Sergio
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the null-controllability of an artificial advection-diffusion system in dimension $n$. Using a spectral method, we prove that the control cost goes to zero exponentially when the viscosity vanishes and the control time is large enough. On the other hand, we prove that the control cost tends to infinity exponentially when the viscosity vanishes and the control time is small enough.
Phylogeny can make the mid-domain effect an inappropriate null model
Jonathan Davies, T; Grenyer, Richard; Gittleman, John L.
2005-01-01
The mid-domain effect (MDE), a bias in species richness towards the midpoint of a given geographical dimension, has been used as a null model in macro-ecological studies. Departures from a MDE are often thought of as interesting. The MDE is a product of the interaction between geometric boundaries and range locations, with species being forced to occupy more central positions in proportion to their range size. We criticize this mechanism for assuming species' locations to be wholly independen...
Li, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Rowe, R. Grant; Hu, Yuexian; Schlaepfer, David D.; Ilić, Dusko; Dressler, Gregory; Park, Ann; Guan, Jun-Lin; Weiss, Stephen J.
2011-01-01
Mouse embryonic cells isolated from focal adhesion kinase (FAK)–null animals at embryonic day 7.5 display multiple defects in focal adhesion remodeling, microtubule dynamics, mechanotransduction, proliferation, directional motility, and invasion. To date, the ability of FAK to modulate cell function has been ascribed largely to its control of posttranscriptional signaling cascades in this embryonic cell population. In this paper, we demonstrate that FAK unexpectedly exerts control over an epi...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zahradníček, Oldřich; Horáček, I.; Tucker, A. S.
2012-01-01
Roč. 221, č. 3 (2012), s. 195-208. ISSN 0021-8782 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1766 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601110910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cusps * gecko * null generation teeth Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2012
[Development of new soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor genes].
Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming; Li, Gui-Ying
2005-04-01
Soybean is one of the most important sources of plant protein for human. Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids, which contains all kinds of amino acids, especially 8 amino acids necessary for human. But it also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as lipoxygenase (Lox) and trypsin inhibitor (Ti). Those are important anti-nutritious factors. Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, new soybean germplasms that pyramided multiple genes of high quality, null lipoxygenase and trypsin inhibitor genes (Ix1, Ix2, Ix3 and ti) were developed by means of cross and biochemical marker-assisted selection of progenies for null lipoxygenase and trypsin inhibitor genes using known Lox and Ti markers (protein markers). Female parents were soybean varieties Ludou 4, Zhongpin 661, Yudou 8,91D15, wei8640 popularized in Huanghuaihai Plain. Male parents were varieties introduced from US, trypsin-inhibitor (Ti)-deficient varieties P. I. L83-4387 and near isogenic lines of varieties Century for lipoxygenase (Lox)-deficient genes, Century-2 (Ix2), Century-2.3 (Ix2Ix3) and Century-1.3 (Ix1 Ix3). These new germplasms will promote soybean breeding for improved quality production,and utilization. PMID:16011034
Violation of the averaged null energy condition in semiclassical black-hole evaporation
Levi, Adam
2016-01-01
We report here on a new method for calculating the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) in black-hole (BH) spacetimes, which should be applicable to dynamical BHs as well. We used this method to calculate the RSET of a massless, minimally coupled scalar field in Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom backgrounds, for several quantum states. We present here the results for the RSET in the Schwarzschild case in Unruh state (the state describing BH evaporation). The RSET is type I at weak field, and becomes type IV at $r\\lesssim2.78M$. Then we use the RSET results to explore violation of the weak and null Energy conditions. We find that both conditions are violated all the way from $r\\simeq4.9M$ to the horizon. We also find that the averaged weak energy condition is violated by a class of (unstable) circular timelike geodesics. Most remarkably, the circular null geodesic at $r=3M$ is found to violate the averaged null energy condition (ANEC). To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of ANEC...
The first mecp2-null zebrafish model shows altered motor behaviors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Pietri
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in affected girls. Other symptoms include a rapid regression of motor and cognitive skills after an apparently early normal development. Sporadic mutations in the transcription factor MECP2 has been shown to be present in more than 90% of the patients and several models of MeCP2-deficient mice have been created to understand the role of this gene. These models have pointed toward alterations in the maintenance of the central nervous system rather than its development, in line with the late onset of the disease in humans. However, the exact functions of MeCP2 remain difficult to delineate and the animal models have yielded contradictory results. Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models, mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early development, including spontaneous and sensory-evoked motor anomalies, as well as defective thigmotaxis.
Entropy on a null surface for interacting quantum field theories and the Bousso bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We study the vacuum-subtracted von Neumann entropy of a segment on a null plane. We argue that for interacting quantum field theories in more than two dimensions, this entropy has a simple expression in terms of the expectation value of the null components of the stress tensor on the null interval. More explicitly $\\Delta S = 2\\pi \\int d^{d-2}y \\int_0^1 dx^+\\, g(x^+)\\, \\langle T_{++}\\rangle$, where $g(x^+)$ is a theory-dependent function. This function is constrained by general properties of quantum relative entropy. These constraints are enough to extend our recent free field proof of the quantum Bousso bound to the interacting case. This unusual expression for the entropy as the expectation value of an operator implies that the entropy is equal to the modular Hamiltonian, $\\Delta S = \\langle \\Delta K \\rangle $, where $K$ is the operator in the right hand side. We explain how this equality is compatible with a non-zero value for $\\Delta S$. Finally, we also compute explicitly the function $g(x^+)$ for theori...
Persee: a nulling demonstrator with real-time correction of external disturbances
Cassaing, F.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Amans, J. P.; Barillot, M.; Buey, T.; Henault, F.; Houairi, K.; Jacquinod, S.; Laporte, P.; Marcotto, A.; Pirson, L.; Reess, J. M.; Sorrente, B.; Rousset, G.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Ollivier, M.
2008-07-01
Nulling interferometry is one of the most promising methods to study habitable extrasolar systems. Several projects, such as Darwin, TPF, Pegase, FKSI or Aladdin, are currently considered and supported by R&D programs. One of the main issues of nulling interferometry is the feasibility of a stable polychromatic null despite the presence of significant disturbances, induced by vibrations, atmospheric turbulence on the ground or satellite drift for spaceborne missions. To reduce cost and complexity of the whole system, it is necessary to optimize not only the control loop performance at platform and payload levels, but also their interaction. In this goal, it was decided in 2006 to build a laboratory demonstrator named Persee. Persee is mostly funded by CNES and built by a consortium including CNES, IAS, LESIA, OCA, ONERA and TAS. After a definition phase in 2006, the implementation of the sub-systems has now begun and the integration near Paris by GIS-PHASE (LESIA, ONERA and GEPI) is planned in 2009. This paper details the main objectives of PERSEE, describes the definition of the bench, presents the current status and reports results obtained with the first sub-systems.
Null Models of Economic Networks: The Case of the World Trade Web
Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-01-01
In all empirical-network studies, the observed properties of economic networks are informative only if compared with a well-defined null model that can quantitatively predict the behavior of such properties in constrained graphs. However, predictions of the available null-model methods can be derived analytically only under assumptions (e.g., sparseness of the network) that are unrealistic for most economic networks like the World Trade Web (WTW). In this paper we study the evolution of the WTW using a recently-proposed family of null network models. The method allows to analytically obtain the expected value of any network statistic across the ensemble of networks that preserve on average some local properties, and are otherwise fully random. We compare expected and observed properties of the WTW in the period 1950-2000, when either the expected number of trade partners or total country trade is kept fixed and equal to observed quantities. We show that, in the binary WTW, node-degree sequences are sufficient...
A Linear Antenna Array Failure Correction with Null Steering using Firefly Algorithm
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Narwant Singh Grewal
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The element failure of digital beam forming array antenna systems used in defence equipment increases the side lobe power level which distorts the beam pattern of the antenna array. The problem of array failure correction becomes more complex when null steering conditions are required to be added. In this paper, the problem of linear antenna array failure has been addressed with multiple wide band null steering using firefly algorithm (FA by controlling the amplitude and phase excitation of array elements. A fitness function in the form of template has been formulated to obtain the error between original (pre-failed side lobe pattern and measured side lobe pattern and this error function has been minimized using FA. Numerical example of element failure correction of element failure of array along with multiple nulls is presented to show the capability of this flexible approach.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 136-142. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.4250
Simulations of 3D Magnetic Merging: Resistive Scalings for Null Point and QSL Reconnection
Effenberger, Frederic
2016-01-01
Starting from an exact, steady-state, force-free solution of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, we investigate how resistive current layers are induced by perturbing line-tied three-dimensional magnetic equilibria. This is achieved by the superposition of a weak perturbation field in the domain, in contrast to studies where the boundary is driven by slow motions, like those present in photospheric active regions. Our aim is to quantify how the current structures are altered by the contribution of so called quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) as the null point is shifted outside the computational domain. Previous studies based on magneto-frictional relaxation have indicated that, despite the severe field line gradients of the QSL, the presence of a null is vital in maintaining fast reconnection. Here, we explore this notion using highly resolved simulations of the full MHD evolution. We show that for the null-point configuration, the resistive scaling of the peak current density is close to $J\\sim\\eta^{-1}$, ...
Auto-nulling system design of ultraviolet enhanced electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer
Hu, Qi; Gu, Lingjuan; Li, Wen; Zhuang, Songlin
2006-02-01
Electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer (ECPR) is a kind of electrical substitution radiometer (ESR) with high precision in optical power measurement. Its electrically calibrated pyroelectric detector (ECP) has been a widely used instrument in measuring optical power at relatively low levels over a broad wavelength range. The Precise automatic electrical pulse is used to heat the detecting surface which has the gold-black absorber material, and the electrical signal is accurately equal to the generated electrical signal of the modulated optical signal illuminated on the same detecting surface. This paper presents the principle of the electrical-optical equivalence and the auto-nulling circuit. The auto-nulling circuit is a kind of servo-loop circuits which could adjust the magnitude of the current pulses to reach the null condition at the output of the synchronous rectifier circuit. At this point, the optical power is equal to the electrical power, so the absolute value of the optical illumination can be determined by measuring the electrical power.
On the long nulls of PSRs J1738-2330 and J1752+2359
Gajjar, Vishal; Wright, Geoffrey
2013-01-01
This paper compares and contrasts the emission of two high nulling fraction pulsars, PSRs J1738-2330 and J1752+2359. In both pulsars the emission bursts appear in a quasi-periodic fashion with typical separations of several hundred pulses, and in J1738-2330 there is evidence of two underlying periodicities with memory persisting for at least 11 bursts. By contrast, in J1752+2359 the pattern coherence is rapidly lost and the burst/null lengths appear to be selected randomly from their respective quasi-normal distributions. The typical emission bursts of J1738-2330 exhibit a steady exponential decay of on-pulse energy accompanied by a flickering emission characterized by short frequent nulls towards their end. In the bursts of J1752+2359 the flickering is absent, the decay more pronounced and the energy released during each bright phase is approximately constant. Unlike J1738-2330, the average profiles for the first and the last pulses of J1752+2359 bursts differ slightly from the pulsar's overall profile, hint...
Problems in the application of a null lens for precise measurements of aspheric mirrors.
Chkhalo, N I; Malyshev, I V; Pestov, A E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Toropov, M N; Soloviev, A A
2016-01-20
Problems in the application of a null lens for surface shape measurements of aspherical mirrors are discussed using the example of manufacturing an aspherical concave mirror for the beyond extreme ultraviolet nanolithographer. A method for allowing measurement of the surface shape of a sample under study and the aberration of a null lens simultaneously, and for evaluating measurement accuracy, is described. Using this method, we made a mirror with an aspheric surface of the 6th order (i.e., the maximum deviation from the best-fit sphere is 6.6 μm) with the parameters of the deviations from the designed surface PV=5.3 nm and RMS=0.8 nm. An approximation of the surface shape was carried out using Zernike polynomials {Z(n)(m)(r,φ),m+n≤36}. The physical limitations of this technique are analyzed. It is shown that for aspheric measurements to an Angstrom accuracy, one needs to have a null lens with errors of less than 1 nm. For accurate measurements, it is necessary to establish compliance with the coordinates on the sample and on the interferogram. PMID:26835938
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Fex, Malin; Ström, Kristoffer; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Arner, Peter; Lundberg, Cecilia; Sundler, Frank; Ahrén, Bo; Holm, Cecilia
2003-01-01
HSL gene for glucose homeostasis were examined. HSL null mice were slightly hyperglycemic in the fasted, but not fed state, which was accompanied by moderate hyperinsulinemia. During glucose challenges, however, disposal of the sugar was not affected in HSL null mice, presumably because of release of......-stimulated glucose uptake into soleus muscle, and lipogenesis in adipocytes were moderately reduced, suggesting additional sites of insulin resistance. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets revealed a doubling of beta-cell mass in HSL null mice, which is consistent with an adaptation to insulin resistance...
null Seismic Creep, null Images
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden rupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...
A note on the null condition for quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems in two space dimensions
Katayama, Soichiro; Sunagawa, Hideaki
2011-01-01
We consider the Cauchy problem for quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems in two space dimensions with masses satisfying the resonance relation. Under the null condition in the sense of J.-M. Delort, D. Fang, R. Xue (2004), we show the global existence of asymptotically free solutions if the initial data are sufficiently small in some weighted Sobolev space. Our proof is based on an algebraic characterization of nonlinearities satisfying the null condition.
Freed, M. S.; Longcope, D. W.; McKenzie, D. E.
2015-02-01
This article compiles and examines a comprehensive coronal magnetic-null-point survey created by potential-field-source-surface (PFSS) modeling and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observations. The locations of 582 potential magnetic null points in the corona were predicted from the PFSS model between Carrington Rotations (CR) 2098 (June 2010) and 2139 (July 2013). These locations were manually inspected, using contrast-enhanced SDO/AIA images in 171 Å at the East and West solar limb, for structures associated with nulls. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test showed a statistically significant difference between observed and predicted latitudinal distributions of null points. This finding is explored further to show that the observability of null points could be affected by the Sun's asymmetric hemisphere activity. Additional K-S tests show no effect on observability related to eigenvalues associated with the fan and spine structure surrounding null points or to the orientation of the spine. We find that approximately 31 % of nulls obtained from the PFSS model were observed in SDO/AIA images at one of the solar limbs. An observed null on the East solar limb had a 51.6 % chance of being observed on the West solar limb. Predicted null points going back to CR 1893 (March 1995) were also used for comparing radial and latitudinal distributions of nulls to previous work and to test for correlation of solar activity to the number of predicted nulls.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aunis Dominique
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.
Declercq, Nico F
2006-12-22
It is well known that harmonic bounded Gaussian beams undergo a transformation into two bounded beams upon reflection on a solid immersed in a liquid. The effect is known as the Schoch effect and can be found at the Rayleigh angle for thick plates and at the different Lamb angles for thin plates. Here, a study is made on the effect of pulsed Gaussian beams reflected on solids. It is found experimentally that the Rayleigh wave phenomenon still generates two reflected bounded beams, whereas Lamb wave phenomena do not generate this effect. This fact may be explained intuitively by realizing that the Rayleigh phenomenon is a coincidental phenomenon that is generated in situ, whereas the Lamb wave phenomenon is a non-coincidental phenomenon that is generated only after incident sound is influenced by both sides of a thin plate. Another explanation is the fact that Rayleigh waves are not dispersive, whereas stimulation and propagation of Lamb waves is frequency dependent. A pulse contains many frequencies and therefore only a fraction of the incident pulse is transformed into a Lamb wave. In this paper, numerical simulations are performed that show that actually the Schoch effect does occur neither for Rayleigh waves, nor for Lamb waves. As a matter of fact, a pulse, incident at the Rayleigh angle, generates two reflected lobes with a null zone of a different kind. The null zone is beating several times during the passage of each pulse. This results in a 'null zone' having a lower mean intensity than any of the two lobes, still less outspoken than for the case of harmonic incident bounded beams. This effect does only occur for Rayleigh wave generation and is much less outspoken for Lamb wave generation. PMID:16815510
Topology optimization of piezo modal transducers with null-polarity phases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Donoso, A.; Sigmund, O.
2016-01-01
Piezo modal transducers in 2d can be designed theoretically by tailoring polarity of the surface electrodes. However, it is also necessary to include null-polarity phases of known width separating areas of opposite polarity in the manufacturing process in order to avoid short-circuiting. Otherwise......-based, where the interface is controlled by including the gradient norm in the electrode profile interpolation. Through a detailed case study in 1d, conclusions on how to control the width of this gap-phase are extracted, and subsequently extended to the 2d case....
Testing the null hypothesis of the nonexistence of a preseizure state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A rapidly growing number of studies deals with the prediction of epileptic seizures. For this purpose, various techniques derived from linear and nonlinear time series analysis have been applied to the electroencephalogram of epilepsy patients. In none of these works, however, the performance of the seizure prediction statistics is tested against a null hypothesis, an otherwise ubiquitous concept in science. In consequence, the evaluation of the reported performance values is problematic. Here, we propose the technique of seizure time surrogates based on a Monte Carlo simulation to remedy this deficit
A Novel Formula for Bulk Viscosity from the Null Horizon Focusing Equation
Eling, Christopher
2011-01-01
The null horizon focusing equation is equivalent via the fluid/gravity correspondence to the entropy balance law of the fluid. Using this equation we derive a simple novel formula for the bulk viscosity of the fluid. The formula is expressed in terms of the dependence of scalar fields at the horizon on thermodynamic variables such as the entropy and charge densities. We apply the formula to three classes of gauge theory plasmas: non-conformal branes, perturbations of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and holographic models of QCD, and discuss its range of applicability.
The spacetime outside a source of gravitational radiation: The axially symmetric null fluid
Herrera, L; Ospino, J
2016-01-01
We carry out a study of the exterior of an axially and reflection symmetric source of gravitational radiation. The exterior of such a source is filled with a null fluid produced by the dissipative processes inherent to the emission of gravitational radiation, thereby representing a generalization of the Vaidya metric for axially and reflection symmetric spacetimes. The role of the vorticity, and its relationship with the presence of gravitational radiation is put in evidence. The spherically symmetric case (Vaidya) is, asymptotically, recovered within the context of the $1+3$ formalism.
Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice
Peng Zhou; Maricela Robles-Murguia; Deepa Mathew; Duffield, Giles E.
2016-01-01
Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body...
Mild Lesch-Nyhan Disease in a Boy with a Null Mutation inHPRT1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bayat, Allan; Christensen, Mette; Wibrand, Flemming;
2015-01-01
generally associated with the classic Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) phenotype with intellectual disability, motor handicap and self-injurious behaviour. Mutations that permit a higher residual HPRT activity are seen in some patients with the milder LND variant phenotypes with varying degrees of cognitive, motor......-injurious behaviour. KEY CLINICAL MESSAGE: HPRT1 mutations that result in very low or no hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme activities are generally associated with the classic Lesch-Nyhan disease. This report presents one of the rare cases with a null mutation in the HPRT1 gene that associates...
On $sl^{3}$ Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and $W^{3}$ null-vector equations
Ribault, Sylvain
2009-01-01
Starting from Sklyanin's separation of variables for the sl3 Yangian model, we derive the separation of variables for the quantum sl3 Gaudin model. We use the resulting new variables for rewriting the sl3 Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, and comparing them with certain null-vector equations in conformal field theories with W3-algebra symmetry. The two sets of equations are remarkably similar, but become identical only in the critical level limit. This is in contrast to the sl2 Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which are known to be equivalent to Belavin-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov equations for all values of the level.
On sl3 Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and W3 null-vector equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starting from Sklyanin's separation of variables for the sl3 Yangian model, we derive the separation of variables for the quantum sl3 Gaudin model. We use the resulting new variables for rewriting the sl3 Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, and comparing them with certain null-vector equations in conformal field theories with W3-algebra symmetry. The two sets of equations are remarkably similar, but become identical only in the critical level limit. This is in contrast to the sl2 Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which are known to be equivalent to Belavin-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov equations for all values of the level.
Comments on correlation functions of large spin operators and null polygonal Wilson loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the relation between correlation functions of twist-two large spin operators and expectation values of Wilson loops along light-like trajectories. After presenting some heuristic field theoretical arguments suggesting this relation, we compute the divergent part of the correlator in the limit of large 't Hooft coupling and large spins, using a semi-classical world-sheet which asymptotically looks like a GKP rotating string. We show this diverges as expected from the expectation value of a null Wilson loop, namely, as (lnμ−2)2, μ being a cut-off of the theory.
Molecular Characterization of a Catalase Null Allele at the Cat3 Locus in Maize
Wadsworth, G. J.; Scandalios, J G
1990-01-01
Previous analysis has identified line IDS28 of maize (Zea mays L.) as being homozygous for a Catalase-3 (Cat3) null allele. Catalase-3 (CAT-3) protein-specific antibodies could not detect CAT-3 in extracts of several tissues of IDS28, which in a typical maize line possess CAT-3. The absence of CAT-3 resulted in a significant decrease in total catalase activity in those tissues where CAT-3 is the predominant catalase isozyme. RNA blot analysis indicated that IDS28 does not accumulate Cat3 tran...
A hyperbolic system and the cost of null controllability for the Stokes system
Chaves-Silva, F. W.
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the cost of the null controllability for the Stokes system. Using the control transmutation method we show that the cost of driving the Stokes system to rest at time T is of order e^C/T when T -->0^+,i.e., the same order as for the heat equation. For this to be possible, we are led to study the exact controllability of one hyperbolic system with a resistance term, which will be done under assumptions on the control region.
Forge-Hardened TiZr Null-Matrix Alloy for Neutron Scattering under Extreme Conditions
Takuo Okuchi; Akinori Hoshikawa; Toru Ishigaki
2015-01-01
For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed by alloying two metallic elements that have coherent scattering lengths with opposite signs. An alloy of Ti and Zr, which is known as a TiZr null-matrix alloy, is an ideal combination for such purposes. In this ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张凌; 常加峰; 张炜; 李颖颖; 钱金平; 徐国盛; 丁斯晔; 高伟; 吴振伟; 陈颖杰; 黄娟; 刘晓菊; 臧庆
2011-01-01
In this work, population coefficients of hydrogen＇s n = 3 excited state from the hydrogen collisional-radiative （CR） model, from the data file of DEGAS 2, are used to calculate the photon emissivity coefficients （PECs） of hydrogen Balmer-α （n = 3 →n = 2） （Hα）. The results are compared with the PECs from Atomic Data and Analysis Structure （ADAS） database, and a good agreement is found. A magnetic surface-averaged neutral density profile of typical double-null （DN） plasma in EAST is obtained by using FRANTIC, the 1.5-D fluid transport code. It is found that the sum of integral Dα and Hα emission intensity calculated via the neutral density agrees with the measured results obtained by using the absolutely calibrated multi-channel poloidal photodiode array systems viewing the lower divertor at the last closed flux surface （LCFS）. It is revealed that the typical magnetic surface-averaged neutral density at LCFS is about 3.5×10^16 m^-3 .
Cdk2-Null Mice Are Resistant to ErbB-2-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dipankar Ray
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The concept of targeting G1 cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs in breast cancer treatments is supported by the fact that the genetic ablation of Cdk4 had minimal impacts on normal cell proliferation in majority of cell types, resulting in near-normal mouse development, whereas such loss of Cdk4 completely abrogated ErbB-2/neu-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice. In most human breast cancer tissues, another G1-regulatory CDK, CDK2, is also hyperactivated by various mechanisms and is believed to be an important therapeutic target. In this report, we provide genetic evidence that CDK2 is essential for proliferation and oncogenesis of murine mammary epithelial cells. We observed that 87% of Cdk2-null mice were protected from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Cdk2-null mouse showed resistance to various oncogene-induced transformation. Previously, we have reported that hemizygous loss of Cdc25A, the major activator of CDK2, can also protect mice from ErbB-2-induced mammary tumorigenesis [Cancer Res (2007 67(14: 6605–11]. Thus, we propose that CDC25A-CDK2 pathway is critical for the oncogenic action of ErbB-2 in mammary epithelial cells, in a manner similar to Cyclin D1/CDK4 pathway.
Novel Remarks on Point Mass Sources, Firewalls, Null Singularities and Gravitational Entropy
Perelman, Carlos Castro
2016-01-01
A continuous family of static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations with a spatial singularity at the origin r = 0 is found. These solutions are parametrized by a real valued parameter λ (ranging from 0 to 1) and such that the radial horizon's location is displaced continuously towards the singularity ( r = 0 ) as λ increases. In the extreme limit λ = 1, the location of the singularity and horizon merges leading to a null singularity. In this extreme case, any infalling observer hits the null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. An heuristic argument is provided how one might avoid the Hawking particle emission process in this extreme case when the singularity and horizon merges. The field equations due to a delta-function point-mass source at r = 0 are solved and the Euclidean gravitational action corresponding to those solutions is evaluated explicitly. It is found that the Euclidean action is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck area units). This result holds in any dimensions D ≥ 3.
The gravitational exclusion principle and null states in anti-de Sitter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Hartman, Thomas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2011-10-07
The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS{sub 3}, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signalling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS{sub 3}. In particular, heat kernel methods do not capture the correct spectrum of a theory with null states. Communicated by S Ross
On the Apparent Nulls and Extreme Variability of PSR J1107-5907
Young, N J; Stappers, B W; Lyne, A G; Kramer, M
2014-01-01
We present an analysis of the emission behaviour of PSR J1107-5907, a source known to exhibit separate modes of emission, using observations obtained over approximately 10 yr. We find that the object exhibits two distinct modes of emission; a strong mode with a broad profile and a weak mode with a narrow profile. During the strong mode of emission, the pulsar typically radiates very energetic emission over sequences of ~200-6000 pulses (~60 s-24 min), with apparent nulls over time-scales of up to a few pulses at a time. Emission during the weak mode is observed outside of these strong-mode sequences and manifests as occasional bursts of up to a few clearly detectable pulses at a time, as well as low-level underlying emission which is only detected through profile integration. This implies that the previously described null mode may in fact be representative of the bottom-end of the pulse intensity distribution for the source. This is supported by the dramatic pulse-to-pulse intensity modulation and rarity of ...
Mechanisms of Functional Hypoconnectivity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Mecp2 Null Mice.
Sceniak, Michael P; Lang, Min; Enomoto, Addison C; James Howell, C; Hermes, Douglas J; Katz, David M
2016-05-01
Frontal cortical dysfunction is thought to contribute to cognitive and behavioral features of autism spectrum disorders; however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study sought to define how loss ofMecp2, the gene mutated in Rett syndrome (RTT), disrupts function in the murine medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using acute brain slices and behavioral testing. Compared with wildtype, pyramidal neurons in theMecp2null mPFC exhibit significant reductions in excitatory postsynaptic currents, the duration of excitatory UP-states, evoked population activity, and the ratio of NMDA:AMPA currents, as well as an increase in the relative fraction of NR2B currents. These functional changes are associated with reductions in the density of excitatory dendritic spines, the ratio of vesicular glutamate to GABA transporters and GluN1 expression. In contrast to recent reports on circuit defects in other brain regions, we observed no effect ofMecp2loss on inhibitory synaptic currents or expression of the inhibitory marker parvalbumin. Consistent with mPFC hypofunction,Mecp2nulls exhibit respiratory dysregulation in response to behavioral arousal. Our data highlight functional hypoconnectivity in the mPFC as a potential substrate for behavioral disruption in RTT and other disorders associated with reduced expression ofMecp2in frontal cortical regions. PMID:25662825
Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.
Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama
2016-02-01
This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401
The gravitational exclusion principle and null states in anti-de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS3, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signalling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS3. In particular, heat kernel methods do not capture the correct spectrum of a theory with null states. Communicated by S Ross
Biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mammary epithelium
Medina, Daniel; Kittrell, Frances S.; Shepard, Anne; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jiang, Cheng; Lu, Junxuan; Allred, D. Craig; McCarthy, Maureen; Ullrich, Robert L.
2002-01-01
The absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53 confers an increased tumorigenic risk for mammary epithelial cells. In this report, we describe the biological and genetic properties of the p53 null preneoplastic mouse mammary epithelium in a p53 wild-type environment. Mammary epithelium from p53 null mice was transplanted serially into the cleared mammary fat pads of p53 wild-type BALB/c female to develop stable outgrowth lines. The outgrowth lines were transplanted for 10 generations. The outgrowths were ductal in morphology and progressed through ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ before invasive cancer. The preneoplastic outgrowth lines were immortal and exhibited activated telomerase activity. They are estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive, and aneuploid, and had various levels of tumorigenic potential. The biological and genetic properties of these lines are distinct from those found in most hyperplastic alveolar outgrowth lines, the form of mammary preneoplasia occurring in most traditional models of murine mammary tumorigenesis. These results indicate that the preneoplastic cell populations found in this genetically engineered model are similar in biological properties to a subset of precurser lesions found in human breast cancer and provide a unique model to identify secondary events critical for tumorigenicity and invasiveness.
Free evolution of nonlinear scalar field collapse in double-null coordinates
Burko, L M
1999-01-01
We study numerically the fully nonlinear spherically-symmetric collapse of a self-gravitating, minimally-coupled, massless scalar field. Our numerical code is based on double-null coordinates and on free evolution of the metric functions and the scalar field. The numerical code is stable and second-order accurate. We use this code to study the late-time asymptotic behavior at fixed $r$ (outside the black hole), along the event horizon, and along future null infinity. In all three asymptotic regions we find that, after the decay of the quasi-normal modes, the perturbations are dominated by inverse power-law tails. The corresponding power indices agree with the integer values predicted by linearized theory. We also study the case of a charged black hole nonlinearly perturbed by a (neutral) self-gravitating scalar field, and find the same type of behavior---i.e., quasi-normal modes followed by inverse power-law tails, with the same indices as in the uncharged case.
Avoiding Self Nulling by Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Beamforming in Smart Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balaem Salem
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The beam forming technique is important in smart antenna systems to enhance the data rates, null steering and coverage. This study presents two methods of beamformeing algorithm; Minimum Variance Distortion less Response (MVDR and Linear Constraint Minimum Variance (LCMV. MVDR and LCMV techniques form radiation beams based on the received weight vector of the desired signal. The LCMV technique is found to be efficient than the MVDR in self-null even if the interference signal is closer from the desired signal. Simulation has been carried out to validate these two techniques. The four elements of the linear array smart antenna are used in our simulation program with the operation frequency around 2.3 GHz, noise power 0.5dB and the spacing between elements is 0.5&lambda. The result of the simulation reveals that both the modes are capable of providing high output power; however they need the direction of all the incoming sources, which is practically difficult to obtain. Nevertheless the MVDR beam forming minimizes the multi-path fading problem, by adding the multi-path signal, which increases the strength of the desired signal and nullifies the interference.
P63 null mutation protects mouse oocytes from radio-induced apoptosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Livera, G.; Petre-Lazar, B.; Guerquin, M.J.; Trautmann, E.; Coffigny, H.; Habert, R. [CEA, DSV/DRR/SEGG/LDRG, Unit Gametogenesis et Genotoxic, F-92265 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Univ Paris 07 Denis Diderot, UFR Biol, UMR S 566, F-92265 Fontenay Aux Roses (France); INSERM, U566, F-92265 Fontenay Aux Roses (France)
2008-07-01
Female fertility in mammals is determined by the pool of primordial follicles and low doses of radiation induce a major loss of primordial follicles in the ovary. We investigated the expression of p53 and its homologues, p63 and p73, in the normal and irradiated neonatal ovary. p63 was the only member of the p53 family detected in oocyte nucleus. No p63 transcripts or protein were detected in the early foetal ovary. p63 production began in late pachytene-stage oocytes and peaked in diplotene oocytes in mice and humans. The production of p63 was correlated with meiotic DNA double-strand break repair. Only trans-activation (TA) isoforms were present in the ovary, with TAp63 alpha by far the most abundant in terms of mRNA and protein levels. Complete p63 null mutation did not affect normal ovary development. Irradiation rapidly triggered p63 phosphorylation. p63 null mutation prevented the cleavage of caspases-9 and -3 and the follicle loss induced by ionizing radiation. Thus, our results evidence that irradiation-induced depletion of the primordial follicle pool results from the activation of p63 in quiescent oocytes. (authors)
Nulling Data Reduction and On-Sky Performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer
Defrère, D; Mennesson, B; Hoffmann, W F; Millan-Gabet, R; Skemer, A J; Bailey, V; Danchi, W C; Downey, E C; Durney, O; Grenz, P; Hill, J M; McMahon, T J; Montoya, M; Spalding, E; Vaz, A; Absil, O; Arbo, P; Bailey, H; Brusa, G; Bryden, G; Esposito, S; Gaspar, A; Haniff, C A; Kennedy, G M; Leisenring, J M; Marion, L; Nowak, M; Pinna, E; Powell, K; Puglisi, A; Rieke, G; Roberge, A; Serabyn, E; Sosa, R; Stapeldfeldt, K; Su, K; Weinberger, A J; Wyatt, M C
2016-01-01
The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high-angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5-13 microns). In this paper, we focus on the mid-infrared (8-13 microns) nulling mode and present its theory of operation, data reduction, and on-sky performance as of the end of the commissioning phase in March 2015. With an interferometric baseline of 14.4 meters, the LBTI nuller is specifically tuned to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main-sequence stars, where warm exozodiacal dust emission peaks. Measuring the exozodi luminosity function of nearby main-sequence stars is a key milestone to prepare for future exoEarth direct imaging instruments. Thanks to recent progress in wavefront control and phase stabilization, as well as in data reduction techniques, the LBTI demonstrated in February 2015 a calibrated null accuracy of 0.05% over a three-hour long observing sequence on the bright nearby A3V star beta Leo. This is equivalent to an exozodiacal dis...
Neto2-null mice have impaired GABAergic inhibition and are susceptible to seizures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vivek eMahadevan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Neto2 is a transmembrane protein that interacts with the neuron-specific K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC2 in the CNS. Efficient KCC2 transport is essential for setting the neuronal Cl- gradient, which is required for fast GABAergic inhibition. Neto2 is required to maintain the normal abundance of KCC2 in neurons, and increases KCC2 function by binding to the active oligomeric form of this cotransporter. In the present study we characterized GABAergic inhibition and KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride homeostasis in pyramidal neurons from adult hippocampal slices. Using gramicidin perforated patch clamp recordings we found that the reversal potential for GABA (EGABA was significantly depolarized. We also observed that surface levels of KCC2 and phosphorylation of KCC2 serine 940 (Ser940 were reduced in Neto2-/- neurons compared to wild-type controls. To examine GABAergic inhibition we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs and found that Neto2-/- neurons had significant reductions in both their amplitude and frequency. Based on the critical role of Neto2 in regulating GABAergic inhibition we rationalized that Neto2-null mice would be prone to seizure activity. We found that Neto2-null mice demonstrated a decrease in the latency to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures and an increase in seizure severity.
Modular Hamiltonians for Deformed Half-Spaces and the Averaged Null Energy Condition
Faulkner, Thomas; Parrikar, Onkar; Wang, Huajia
2016-01-01
We study modular Hamiltonians corresponding to the vacuum state for deformed half-spaces in relativistic quantum field theories on $\\mathbb{R}^{1,d-1}$. We show that in addition to the usual boost generator, there is a contribution to the modular Hamiltonian at first order in the shape deformation, proportional to the integral of the null components of the stress tensor along the Rindler horizon. We use this fact along with monotonicity of relative entropy to prove the averaged null energy condition in Minkowski space-time. This subsequently gives a new proof of the Hofman-Maldacena bounds on the parameters appearing in CFT three-point functions. Our main technical advance involves adapting newly developed perturbative methods for calculating entanglement entropy to the problem at hand. These methods were recently used to prove certain results on the shape dependence of entanglement in CFTs and here we generalize these results to excited states and real time dynamics. We also discuss the AdS/CFT counterpart o...
Telescopes in Near Space: Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BigBENI)
Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Mauk, Robin
2012-01-01
A significant and often overlooked path to advancing both science and technology for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exosolar planets is to fly "near space" missions, i.e. balloon borne exosolar missions. A near space balloon mission with two or more telescopes, coherently combined, is capable of achieving a subset of the mission science goals of a single large space telescope at a small fraction of the cost. Additionally such an approach advances technologies toward flight readiness for space flight. Herein we discuss the feasibility of flying two 1.2 meter telescopes, with a baseline separation of 3.6 meters, operating in visible light, on a composite boom structure coupled to a modified visible nulling coronagraph operating to achieve an inner working angle of 60 milli-arcseconds. We discuss the potential science return, atmospheric residuals at 135,000 feet, pointing control and visible nulling and evaluate the state-or-art of these technologies with regards to balloon missions.
Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.
Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A
1999-05-01
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent. PMID:10344021
Null Aether Theory: $pp$-Wave and AdS Wave Solutions
Gurses, Metin
2016-01-01
General quantum gravity arguments predict that Lorentz symmetry might not hold exactly in nature. This has motivated much interest in Lorentz breaking gravity theories recently. Among such models are vector-tensor theories with preferred direction established at every point of spacetime by a fixed-norm vector field. The dynamical vector field defined in this way is referred to as the aether. In this work, we study plane wave metrics in such a theory. For this purpose, we assume that the aether field is a null vector field satisfying certain conditions--we refer to the theory constructed in this way as Null Aether Theory (NAT). Assuming the Kerr-Schild form for such metrics we show that the theory admits exact plane wave solutions in any dimension $D\\geq3$. The field equations are reduced to two, in general coupled, differential equations when the background metric assumes the maximally symmetric form. Specifically, when the background metric is flat, i.e. for the $pp$-wave spacetimes, these equations decouple...
Moreno Oliva, Víctor Iván; Castañeda Mendoza, Álvaro; Campos García, Manuel; Díaz Uribe, Rufino
2011-09-01
The null screen is a geometric method that allows the testing of fast aspherical surfaces, this method measured the local slope at the surface and by numerical integration the shape of the surface is measured. The usual technique for the numerical evaluation of the surface is the trapezoidal rule, is well-known fact that the truncation error increases with the second power of the spacing between spots of the integration path. Those paths are constructed following spots reflected on the surface and starting in an initial select spot. To reduce the numerical errors in this work we propose the use of the Dijkstra algorithm.1 This algorithm can find the shortest path from one spot (or vertex) to another spot in a weighted connex graph. Using a modification of the algorithm it is possible to find the minimal path from one select spot to all others ones. This automates and simplifies the integration process in the test with null screens. In this work is shown the efficient proposed evaluating a previously surface with a traditional process.
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R. Muralidaran
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The influence of evolutionary algorithms enhanced its scope of getting its existence in almost every complex optimization problems. In this paper, cuckoo search algorithm, an algorithm based on the brood parasite behavior along with Levy weights has been proposed for the radiation pattern correction of a linear array of isotropic antennas with uniform spacing when failed with more than one antenna element. Even though deterioration produced by the failure of antenna elements results in various undesirable effects, consideration in this paper is given to the correction of side lobe level and null placement at two places. Various articles in the past have already shown that the idea to correct the radiation pattern is to alter the amplitude weights of the remaining unfailed elements, instead of replacing the faulty elements. This approach is made use of modifying the current excitations of unfailed elements using cuckoo search algorithm such that the resulting radiation pattern is similar to the unfailed original pattern in terms of side lobe level and null placement at two places. Examples shown in this paper demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm in achieving the desired objectives.
GPS Jamming: Strengthening Anti Jam GPS System with Adaptive Phase Only Nulling Using Cuckoo Search
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V. Thyagarajan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS signals are spread spectrum, modulated with very low average power caused by background noise. Signal received is mostly 165 dB down than thermal noise level. Such signals are easily jammed either through intentional noise sources (jammer or unintentionally from broadcasting stations harmonics or other out of band sources. This study proposes to reveal how a nulling antenna with adaptive spatial filtering technique can efficiently mitigate intentional and non-intentional interference. A beam forming antenna array is an antennas set whose outputs are weighted by complex values and combined form array output. The complex valued weights effect is to steer the array pattern’s main lobes to desired directions which may be unknown and hence antenna weights are adjusted adaptively till some array performance measure is improved, revealing proper lobe or null placement. This study proposes a Cuckoo Search (CS algorithm based new optimization method for multiple interference cancellation design that increases gain to desired signal and improves jamming rejection performance.
Null Models and Modularity Based Community Detection in Multi-Layer Networks
Paul, Subhadeep
2016-01-01
Multi-layer networks are networks on a set of entities (nodes) with multiple types of relations (edges) among them where each type of relation/interaction is represented as a network layer. As with single layer networks, community detection is an important task in multi-layer networks. A large group of popular community detection methods in networks are based on optimizing a quality function known as the modularity score, which is a measure of presence of modules or communities in networks. Hence a first step in community detection is defining a suitable modularity score that is appropriate for the network in question. Here we introduce several multi-layer network modularity measures under different null models of the network, motivated by empirical observations in networks from a diverse field of applications. In particular we define the multi-layer configuration model, the multi-layer expected degree model and their various modifications as null models for multi-layer networks to derive different modulariti...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian Weiming; Kyriakides, Themis R, E-mail: themis.kyriakides@yale.ed [Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Departments of Pathology and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519 (United States)
2009-02-15
Thrombospondin (TSP)-2 is a matricellular protein that participates in the processes of tissue repair and the foreign body response. In addition, TSP2 has been shown to influence synaptogenesis and recovery of the brain following stroke. In the present study we investigated the response following the implantation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges in the brain. PVA sponges were implanted into the brain cortex of wild type and TSP2-null mice for a period of 4 and 8 weeks and the response was analyzed by histochemistry and quantitative immunohistochemistry. TSP2 expression was detected in the interstices of the sponge and co-localized with the extracellular matrix and astrocytes. PVA sponge invasion in TSP2-null mice was characterized by dense deposition of extracellular matrix and increased invasion of reactive astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Furthermore, the angiogenic response was elevated and the detection of mouse serum albumin (MSA) in the brain cortex indicated excessive vessel leakage, suggesting that TSP2 plays a role in the repair/maintenance of the blood brain barrier. Finally, immunostaining demonstrated an increase in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, our observations support a role for TSP2 as critical determinant of the brain response to biomaterials.
Girard, Philippe
2011-01-01
Null alleles are common technical artifacts in genetic-based analysis. Powerful methods enabling their detection in either panmictic or inbred populations have been proposed. However, none of these methods appears unbiased in both types of mating systems, necessitating a priori knowledge of the inbreeding level of the population under study. To counter this problem, I propose to use the software FDist2 to detect the atypical fixation indices that characterize markers with null alleles. The rational behind this approach and the parameter settings are explained. The power of the method for various sample sizes, degrees of inbreeding and null allele frequencies is evaluated using simulated microsatellite and SNP datasets and then compared to two other null allele detection methods. The results clearly show the robustness of the method proposed here as well as its greater accuracy in both panmictic and inbred populations for both types of marker. By allowing a proper detection of null alleles for a wide range of mating systems and markers, this new method is particularly appealing for numerous genetic studies using co-dominant loci. PMID:21381434
Dynamic topology and flux rope evolution during non-linear tearing of 3D null point current sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wyper, P. F., E-mail: peterw@maths.dundee.ac.uk; Pontin, D. I., E-mail: dpontin@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)
2014-10-15
In this work, the dynamic magnetic field within a tearing-unstable three-dimensional current sheet about a magnetic null point is described in detail. We focus on the evolution of the magnetic null points and flux ropes that are formed during the tearing process. Generally, we find that both magnetic structures are created prolifically within the layer and are non-trivially related. We examine how nulls are created and annihilated during bifurcation processes, and describe how they evolve within the current layer. The type of null bifurcation first observed is associated with the formation of pairs of flux ropes within the current layer. We also find that new nulls form within these flux ropes, both following internal reconnection and as adjacent flux ropes interact. The flux ropes exhibit a complex evolution, driven by a combination of ideal kinking and their interaction with the outflow jets from the main layer. The finite size of the unstable layer also allows us to consider the wider effects of flux rope generation. We find that the unstable current layer acts as a source of torsional magnetohydrodynamic waves and dynamic braiding of magnetic fields. The implications of these results to several areas of heliophysics are discussed.
Freed, Michael; McKenize, David
2014-01-01
This article compiles and examines a comprehensive coronal magnetic-null-point survey created by potential-field-source-surface (PFSS) modeling and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) observations. The locations of 582 potential magnetic null points in the corona were predicted from the PFSS model between Carrington Rotations (CR) 2098 (June 2010) and 2139 (July 2013). These locations were manually inspected, using contrast-enhanced SDO/AIA images in 171 angstroms at the east and west solar limb, for structures associated with nulls. A Kolmogorov--Smirnov (K--S) test showed a statistically significant difference between observed and predicted latitudinal distributions of null points. This finding is explored further to show that the observability of null points could be affected by the Sun's asymmetric hemisphere activity. Additional K--S tests show no effect on observability related to eigenvalues associated with the fan and spine structure surrounding null points or to the orie...
GSTM1 null genotype in COPD and lung cancer: evidence of a modifier or confounding effect?
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Young RP
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Robert P Young1,2, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Bryan A Hay1, Gregory D Gamble11Schools of Biological Science and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 2Department of Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Studies over the past two decades have reported associations between GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase mu 1 null genotype and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD or lung cancer. However, a modifier or confounding effect from COPD mediating the GSTM1 association with lung cancer has not been previously explored.Aim and methods: This variant was examined in a case-control study of current or former smokers with COPD (n = 669, lung cancer (n = 454, or normal lung function (n = 488. Sex, age, and smoking history were comparable between groups.Results: The GSTM1 null genotype was found to be more frequent in smokers with COPD alone (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.66, P = 0.031 and lung cancer (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.96–1.65, P = 0.083 than in matched smokers with normal lung function (62%, 61%, and 56%, respectively. However, when smokers with lung cancer were subgrouped according to the presence of COPD, then the association with all COPD subjects (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07–1.70, P = 0.010 and with COPD and lung cancer (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06–2.12, P = 0.018 continued to be significant while that with lung cancer only was reduced (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78–1.56, P = 0.55. These associations were independent of age, sex, height, lung function, and smoking history.Conclusion: Findings suggest that COPD is an important subphenotype of lung cancer and may underlie previously reported associations with the GSTM1 null genotype.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GSTM1, association study, polymorphism, copy number variant
Human PTCHD3 nulls: rare copy number and sequence variants suggest a non-essential gene
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Lionel Anath C
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs can contribute to variable degrees of fitness and/or disease predisposition. Recent studies show that at least 1% of any given genome is copy number variable when compared to the human reference sequence assembly. Homozygous deletions (or CNV nulls that are found in the normal population are of particular interest because they may serve to define non-essential genes in human biology. Results In a genomic screen investigating CNV in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs we detected a heterozygous deletion on chromosome 10p12.1, spanning the Patched-domain containing 3 (PTCHD3 gene, at a frequency of ~1.4% (6/427. This finding seemed interesting, given recent discoveries on the role of another Patched-domain containing gene (PTCHD1 in ASD. Screening of another 177 ASD probands yielded two additional heterozygous deletions bringing the frequency to 1.3% (8/604. The deletion was found at a frequency of ~0.73% (27/3,695 in combined control population from North America and Northern Europe predominately of European ancestry. Screening of the human genome diversity panel (HGDP-CEPH covering worldwide populations yielded deletions in 7/1,043 unrelated individuals and those detected were confined to individuals of European/Mediterranean/Middle Eastern ancestry. Breakpoint mapping yielded an identical 102,624 bp deletion in all cases and controls tested, suggesting a common ancestral event. Interestingly, this CNV occurs at a break of synteny between humans and mouse. Considering all data, however, no significant association of these rare PTCHD3 deletions with ASD was observed. Notwithstanding, our RNA expression studies detected PTCHD3 in several tissues, and a novel shorter isoform for PTCHD3 was characterized. Expression in transfected COS-7 cells showed PTCHD3 isoforms colocalize with calnexin in the endoplasmic reticulum. The presence of a patched (Ptc domain suggested a role for PTCHD3 in various biological
Sensory-motor deficits and neurofilament disorganization in gigaxonin-null mice
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Boizot Alexia
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder with early onset characterized by a severe deterioration of the peripheral and central nervous system, involving both the motor and the sensory tracts and leading to ataxia, speech defect and intellectual disabilities. The broad deterioration of the nervous system is accompanied by a generalized disorganization of the intermediate filaments, including neurofilaments in neurons, but the implication of this defect in disease onset or progression remains unknown. The identification of gigaxonin, the substrate adaptor of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as the defective protein in GAN allows us to now investigate the crucial role of the gigaxonin-E3 ligase in sustaining neuronal and intermediate filament integrity. To study the mechanisms controlled by gigaxonin in these processes and to provide a relevant model to test the therapeutic approaches under development for GAN, we generated a Gigaxonin-null mouse by gene targeting. Results We investigated for the first time in Gigaxonin-null mice the deterioration of the motor and sensory functions over time as well as the spatial disorganization of neurofilaments. We showed that gigaxonin depletion in mice induces mild but persistent motor deficits starting at 60 weeks of age in the 129/SvJ-genetic background, while sensory deficits were demonstrated in C57BL/6 animals. In our hands, another gigaxonin-null mouse did not display the early and severe motor deficits reported previously. No apparent neurodegeneration was observed in our knock-out mice, but dysregulation of neurofilaments in proximal and distal axons was massive. Indeed, neurofilaments were not only more abundant but they also showed the abnormal increase in diameter and misorientation that are characteristics of the human pathology. Conclusions Together, our results show that gigaxonin depletion in mice induces mild motor and sensory deficits but recapitulates the
Xiao, C J; Pu, Z Y; Zhao, H; Wang, J X; Ma, Z W; Fu, S Y; Kivelson, M G; Liu, Z X; Zong, Q G; Glassmeier, K H; Balogh, A; Korth, A; Reme, H; Escoubet, C P
2006-01-01
Magnetic reconnection is one of the most important processes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. Identifying the structure around the point at which the magnetic field lines break and subsequently reform, known as the magnetic null point, is crucial to improving our understanding reconnection. But owing to the inherently three-dimensional nature of this process, magnetic nulls are only detectable through measurements obtained simultaneously from at least four points in space. Using data collected by the four spacecraft of the Cluster constellation as they traversed a diffusion region in the Earth's magnetotail on 15 September, 2001, we report here the first in situ evidence for the structure of an isolated magnetic null. The results indicate that it has a positive-spiral structure whose spatial extent is of the same order as the local ion inertial length scale, suggesting that the Hall effect could play an important role in 3D reconnection dynamics.
DeRouin, Andrew; Ghee Ong, Keat
2016-03-01
Magnetoelastic sensors are mass sensitive sensors commonly used for stress and pressure measurement, as well as chemical and biological monitoring when combined with a functionalized coating. Magnetoelastic sensors are typically made of free-standing, rectangular strips of magnetoelastic materials that exhibit longitudinal, extensional vibrations due to the excitation of magnetic fields. A single magnetoelastic sensor is generally used to monitor one parameter since only the fundamental resonant frequency is measured. Multiple-parameter sensing in close proximity has previously been achieved by using multiple magnetoelastic sensors of different dimensions and tracking their resonant frequencies independently. However, this requires a large surface area and inconvenient layout of dissimilarly shaped sensors. This paper presents a technique for monitoring multiple parameters with a single magnetoelastic sensor by applying separate mass loads at the null points (points of zero vibration) of multiple resonant modes. Applying a load at a null location does not affect the corresponding resonant mode but alters the resonant frequencies of other modes. Therefore, by isolating the variables of interest to multiple null points and simultaneously measuring the resonant frequency shifts of related resonant modes, the masses at each null location can be calculated. Results showed that changing the coverage at a null location along the width of the sensor can be used to minimize the loading effect on the corresponding resonant mode. In contrast, changing the lengthwise coverage can maximize the loading effect on other resonant modes, thus increasing the mass sensitivity of the sensor. Furthermore, simultaneously applying loads to null points of multiple resonant modes had a nearly additive effect, allowing detection of multiple parameters with a single magnetoelastic sensor.
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Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu
Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.
Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Castañeda, Luis; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino
2016-08-22
A new method to design Hartmann type null screens to test either qualitatively or quantitatively fast plano-convex aspherical lenses is presented. We design both radial and square null screens that produce arrays of circular spots uniformly distributed at predefined planes, considering that the CCD sensor is solely placed inside the caustic region. The designs of these null screens are based on knowledge of the caustic by refraction and on exact ray tracing. The null screens also serve to improve the alignment in optical systems. PMID:27557218
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Multi-directional vortexes are found in the annulus of flapper–nozzle pilot stage. • CFD results show better agreement to momentum conversation based flow force model. • Conner vortex forces increase with increment of inlet pressure and null clearance. • Smaller flappers are favorable to reduce impact of flow reattachment. • Energy loss increases with increasing of inlet pressure and null clearance. - Abstract: A well understanding on the flow forces and energy loss characteristics in a flapper–nozzle pilot valve is necessarily important in the performance improvement of a two-stage electrohydraulic servo-valve. This paper presents the CFD analysis of flow forces and energy loss characteristics in a flapper–nozzle pilot valve with different null clearances. Five different flapper–nozzle structures with three different null clearances of 0.1 mm, 0.05 mm and 0.033 mm are considered in this analysis. For every flapper–nozzle structure, the systematic CFD simulations of flow forces and energy loss characteristics are performed for seven different flow conditions varying nozzle inlet pressures from 1 MPa to 7 MPa. Experimental measurements are also conducted for energy loss characteristics and then compared with simulated results. Meanwhile, the CFD flow force results are verified with the results of exiting simplified flow force models and vice versa. From each nozzle side, the main flow force acting on the flapper is accompanied by four tiny lateral forces resulted from the impact of radial jet reattachment on the flapper curved surface. For each of given null clearances, the main flow force and lateral forces linearly increase with the increment of nozzle inlet pressure. For the same null clearance, applying larger flapper can give 1.5–13.6% larger lateral force in drag direction and 1.5–10.2% larger lateral force in lift direction compared to deploying smaller flapper. Compared to the main flow force, the magnitudes of the
Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Macpherson, Anne M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Robertson, Sarah A.
2009-01-01
Genetic deficiency in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF2, GM-CSF) results in altered placental structure in mice. To investigate the mechanism of action of CSF2 in placental morphogenesis, the placental gene expression and cell composition were examined in Csf2 null mutant and wild-type mice. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses on Embryonic Day (E) 13 placentae revealed that the Csf2 null mutation caused altered expression of 17 genes not previously known to be ass...
Causality of spacetimes admitting a parallel null vector and weak KAM theory
Minguzzi, E
2012-01-01
The causal spacetimes admitting a covariantly constant null vector provide a connection between relativistic and non-relativistic physics. We explore this relationship in several directions. We start proving a formula which relates the Lorentzian distance in the full spacetime with the least action of a mechanical system living in a quotient classical space time. The timelike eikonal equation satisfied by the Lorentzian distance is proved to be equivalent to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the least action. We also prove that the Legendre transform on the classical base corresponds to the musical isomorphism on the light cone, and the Young-Fenchel inequality is nothing but a well known geometric inequality in Lorentzian geometry. A strategy to simplify the dynamics passing to a reference frame moving with the E.-L. flow is explained. It is then proved that the causality properties can be conveniently expressed in terms of the least action. In particular, strong causality coincides with stable causality and ...
A gravitational shock wave generated by a beam of null matter in quadratic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work we approximate an ultrarelativistic jet by a homogeneous beam of null matter with finite width. Then, we study the influence of this beam over the spacetime metric in the framework of higher-derivative gravity. We find an exact shock wave solution of the quadratic gravity field equations and compare it with the solution to Einstein's gravity. We show that the effect of higher-curvature gravity becomes negligible at large distances from the beam axis. We also observe that only the Ricci-squared term contribute to modify the Einstein's gravity prediction. Furthermore, we note that this higher-curvature term contributes to regularize the discontinuities associated with the solution to Einstein's general relativity
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing of Black Hole with Global Monopole
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M. Sharif
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study two interesting features of a black hole with an ordinary as well as phantom global monopole. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics which imply unstable orbital motion of particles for both cases. Secondly, we evaluate deflection angle in strong field regime. We then find Einstein rings, magnifications, and observables of the relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC4486B. We also examine time delays for different galaxies and present our results numerically. It is found that the deflection angle for ordinary/phantom global monopole is greater/smaller than that of Schwarzschild black hole. In strong field limit, the remaining properties of these black holes are quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole.
A Nulling Wide Field Imager for Exoplanets Detection and General Astrophysics
Guyon, O; Guyon, Olivier; Roddier, Francois
2002-01-01
We present a solution to obtain a high-resolution image of a wide field with the central source removed by destructive interference. The wide-field image is created by aperture synthesis with a rotating sparse array of telescopes in space. Nulling of the central source is achieved using a phase-mask coronagraph. The full (u,v) plane coverage delivered by the 60m, six 3-meter telescope array is particularly well-suited for the detection and characterization of exoplanets in the infrared (DARWIN and Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions) as well as for other generic science observations. Detection (S/N=10) of an Earth-like planet is achieved in less than 10 hours with a 1 micron bandwidth at 10 micron.
Defrère, D; Foresto, V Coudé du; Danchi, W C; Hartog, R den
2008-01-01
Characterising the circumstellar dust around nearby main sequence stars is a necessary step in understanding the planetary formation process and is crucial for future life-finding space missions such as ESA's Darwin or NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF). Besides paving the technological way to Darwin/TPF, the space-based infrared interferometers Pegase and FKSI (Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer) will be valuable scientific precursors in that respect. In this paper, we investigate the performance of Pegase and FKSI for exozodiacal disc detection and compare the results with ground-based nulling interferometers. Besides their main scientific goal (characterising hot giant extrasolar planets), Pegase and FKSI are very efficient in assessing within a few minutes the level of circumstellar dust in the habitable zone around nearby main sequence stars. They are capable of detecting exozodiacal discs respectively 5 and 1 time as dense as the solar zodiacal cloud and they outperform any ground-based instrumen...
Self-Nulling Eddy Current Probe for Surface and Subsurface Flaw Detection
Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.; Simpson, J. W.
1994-01-01
An eddy current probe which provides a null-signal in the presence of unflawed material without the need for any balancing circuitry has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a unique capability of the probe reduces set-up time, eliminates tester configuration errors, and decreases instrumentation requirements. The probe is highly sensitive to surface breaking fatigue cracks, and shows excellent resolution for the measurement of material thickness, including material loss due to corrosion damage. The presence of flaws in the material under test causes an increase in the extremely stable and reproducible output voltage of the probe. The design of the probe and some examples illustrating its flaw detection capabilities are presented.
Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice
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Peng Zhou
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2 is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT. Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2−/− mice. Moreover, in Id2−/− BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner.
Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice.
Zhou, Peng; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Mathew, Deepa; Duffield, Giles E
2016-01-01
Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2-/- mice. Moreover, in Id2-/- BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27144179
Non-contact time-resolved diffuse reflectance imaging at null source-detector separation.
Mazurenka, M; Jelzow, A; Wabnitz, H; Contini, D; Spinelli, L; Pifferi, A; Cubeddu, R; Mora, A Dalla; Tosi, A; Zappa, F; Macdonald, R
2012-01-01
We report results of the proof-of-principle tests of a novel non-contact tissue imaging system. The system utilizes a quasi-null source-detector separation approach for time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy, taking advantage of an innovative state-of-the-art fast-gated single photon counting detector. Measurements on phantoms demonstrate the feasibility of the non-contact approach for the detection of optically absorbing perturbations buried up to a few centimeters beneath the surface of a tissue-like turbid medium. The measured depth sensitivity and spatial resolution of the new system are close to the values predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for the inhomogeneous medium and an ideal fast-gated detector, thus proving the feasibility of the non-contact approach for high density diffuse reflectance measurements on tissue. Potential applications of the system are also discussed. PMID:22274351
Are effect sizes and confidence levels problems for or solutions to the null hypothesis test?
Riopelle, A J
2000-04-01
Some have proposed that the null hypothesis significance test, as usually conducted using the t test of the difference between means, is an impediment to progress in psychology. To improve its prospects, using Neyman-Pearson confidence intervals and Cohen's standardized effect sizes, d, is recommended. The purpose of these approaches is to enable us to understand what can appropriately be said about the distances between the means and their reliability. Others have written extensively that these recommended strategies are highly interrelated and use identical information. This essay was written to remind us that the t test, based on the sample--not the true--standard deviation, does not apply solely to distance between means. The t test pertains to a much more ambiguous specification: the difference between samples, including sampling variations of the standard deviation. PMID:10843262
Reaction Null Space of a multibody system with applications in robotics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. N. Nenchev
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of implementation examples based on the Reaction Null Space formalism, developed initially to tackle the problem of satellite-base disturbance of a free-floating space robot, when the robot arm is activated. The method has been applied throughout the years to other unfixed-base systems, e.g. flexible-base and macro/mini robot systems, as well as to the balance control problem of humanoid robots. The paper also includes most recent results about complete dynamical decoupling of the end-link of a fixed-base robot, wherein the end-link is regarded as the unfixed-base. This interpretation is shown to be useful with regard to motion/force control scenarios. Respective implementation results are provided.
Almost Linear Systems - A null-model for genetic regulatory networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intracellular signalling in general or genetic regulation and enzyme kinetics in specific are processes known to be of highly non linear nature. Yet, the idea of parsimony guides evolution of theory along the way of the simplest available models in sufficient agreement with experimental observations. Almost Linear Systems, - i.e. systems that follow a linear dynamic for the concentration of agents under the constraint that agent concentrations must be non-negative -, can be understood as a null-model of observed genetic regulation processes like for instance - the recruitment of various agents into functional protein complexes. In this way Almost Linear Systems provide a starting-point for a systematic identification of crucial non-linear agent interactions that defy linearization or can be used to predict the dynamics of agents missing in considered assays. (author)
Design of a star, planet and exo-zodiacal cloud simulator for the nulling testbench PERSEE
Hénault, François; Girard, Paul; Marcotto, Aurelie; Mauclert, Nicolas; Bailet, Christophe; Lopez, Bruno; Millour, Florentin; Rabbia, Yves; Roussel, Alain; Barillot, Marc; Lozi, Julien; Cassaing, Frederic; Houairi, Kamel; Sorrente, Beatrice; Montri, Joseph; Lhome, Emilie; Reess, Jean-Michel; Pham, Laurie; Buey, Jean-Tristan; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Jacquinod, Sophie; Ollivier, Marc; Le Duigou, Jean-Michel
2011-10-01
On-going developments on the PERSEE nulling testbench include the realization of a focal plane simulator featuring one central star, an extra-solar planet orbiting around it, and an Exo-Zodiacal Cloud (EZC) surrounding the observed stellar system. PERSEE (Pégase Experiment for Research and Stabilization of Extreme Extinction) is a laboratory testbench jointly developed by a Consortium of six French institutes and companies, incorporating Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (OCA) who is in charge of the manufacturing and procurement of the future Star and Planet Simulator (SPS). In this communication is presented a complete description of the SPS, including general requirements, techniques employed for simulating the observed planet and EZC, opto-mechanical design and expected performance. The current status of the SPS activities is summarized in the conclusion, pending final integration on the PERSEE test bench in September 2011.
Slow-Mode MHD Wave Penetration into a Coronal Null Point due to the Mode Transmission
Afanasyev, Andrey N.; Uralov, Arkadiy M.
2016-05-01
Recent observations of magnetohydrodynamic oscillations and waves in solar active regions revealed their close link to quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring light curves. The nature of that link has not yet been understood in detail. In our analytical modelling we investigate propagation of slow magnetoacoustic waves in a solar active region, taking into account wave refraction and transmission of the slow magnetoacoustic mode into the fast one. The wave propagation is analysed in the geometrical acoustics approximation. Special attention is paid to the penetration of waves in the vicinity of a magnetic null point. The modelling has shown that the interaction of slow magnetoacoustic waves with the magnetic reconnection site is possible due to the mode transmission at the equipartition level where the sound speed is equal to the Alfvén speed. The efficiency of the transmission is also calculated.
Divertor target profiles and recycling studies in TCV single null lower standard discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A 'standard', single null lower diverted discharge has been developed to enable continuous monitoring of the first wall conditions and to characterise the effectiveness and influence of wall conditioning in the TCV tokamak. Measurements over a period encompassing nearly 2000 ohmic discharges of varying configuration and input power show the global confinement time and main plasma impurity concentrations to be good general indicators of the first wall condition, whilst divertor target profiles demonstrate strikingly the short term beneficial effects of He glow. Good agreement, consistent with a reduction in recycling at the plates is found between the predictions of the fluid code UEDGE and the observed outer divertor profiles of Te and ne before and after He glow. (author) 5 figs., 7 refs
High-contrast Imaging from Space: Speckle Nulling in a Low Aberration Regime
Bordé, P J; Borde, Pascal J.; Traub, Wesley A.
2006-01-01
High-contrast imaging from space must overcome two major noise sources to successfully detect a terrestrial planet angularly close to its parent star: photon noise from diffracted star light, and speckle noise from star light scattered by instrumentally-generated wavefront perturbation. Coronagraphs tackle only the photon noise contribution by reducing diffracted star light at the location of a planet. Speckle noise should be addressed with adaptative-optics systems. Following the tracks of Malbet, Yu and Shao (1995), we develop in this paper two analytical methods for wavefront sensing and control that aims at creating dark holes, i.e. areas of the image plane cleared out of speckles, assuming an ideal coronagraph and small aberrations. The first method, speckle field nulling, is a fast FFT-based algorithm that requires the deformable-mirror influence functions to have identical shapes. The second method, speckle energy minimization, is more general and provides the optimal deformable mirror shape via matrix...
Phase Mixing of Alfvén Waves Near a 2D Magnetic Null Point
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. A. McLaughlin
2013-09-01
The propagation of linear Alfvén wave pulses in an inhomogeneous plasma near a 2D coronal null point is investigated. When a uniform plasma density is considered, it is seen that an initially planar Alfvén wavefront remains planar, despite the varying equilibrium Alfvén speed, and that all the wave collects at the separatrices. Thus, in the non-ideal case, these Alfvénic disturbances preferentially dissipate their energy at these locations. For a non-uniform equilibrium density, it is found that the Alfvén wavefront is significantly distorted away from the initially planar geometry, inviting the possibility of dissipation due to phase mixing. Despite this however, we conclude that for the Alfvén wave, current density accumulation and preferential heating still primarily occur at the separatrices, even when an extremely non-uniform density profile is considered.
Angelopoulos, Yannis
2014-01-01
We study spherically symmetric solutions of semilinear wave equations in the case where the nonlinearity satisfies the null condition on extremal Reissner--Nordstrom black hole spacetimes. We show that solutions which arise from sufficiently small compactly supported smooth data prescribed on a Cauchy hypersfurace \\widetilde{{\\Sigma}}_0 crossing the future event horizon \\mathcal{H}^{+} are globally well-posed in the domain of outer communications up to and including \\mathcal{H}^{+}. Our method allows us to close all bootstrap estimates under very weak decay results (compatible with those known for the linear case). Moreover we establish a certain number of non-decay and blow-up results along the horizon \\mathcal{H}^{+} which generalize known instability results for the linear case. Our results apply to spherically symmetric wave maps for a wide class of target spaces.
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing of Black Hole with Global Monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study two interesting features of a black hole with an ordinary as well as phantom global monopole. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics which imply unstable orbital motion of particles for both cases. Secondly, we evaluate deflection angle in strong field regime. We then find Einstein rings, magnifications, and observables of the relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC4486B. We also examine time delays for different galaxies and present our results numerically. It is found that the deflection angle for ordinary/phantom global monopole is greater/smaller than that of Schwarzschild black hole. In strong field limit, the remaining properties of these black holes are quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole
Behavioral Disturbances in Estrogen-Related Receptor alpha-Null Mice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huxing Cui
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are common and severe mental illnesses of unknown etiology. Recently, we identified a rare missense mutation in the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ESRRA that is associated with the development of eating disorders. However, little is known about ESRRA function in the brain. Here, we report that Esrra is expressed in the mouse brain and demonstrate that Esrra levels are regulated by energy reserves. Esrra-null female mice display a reduced operant response to a high-fat diet, compulsivity/behavioral rigidity, and social deficits. Selective Esrra knockdown in the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices of adult female mice recapitulates reduced operant response and increased compulsivity, respectively. These results indicate that Esrra deficiency in the mouse brain impairs behavioral responses in multiple functional domains.
A HIGH RESOLUTION WIDE SWATH SAR METHOD BASED ON INTRA-PULSE NULL STEERING AND MIMO
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
High Resolution Wide Swath(HRWS)Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR)often Sufiers from low Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR)due to small transmitting antenna,especially in phased array antenna systems.Digital Beam Forming(DBF)based on Single Input and Multiple Output(SIMO)achieves receiving array gain at the cost of increasing data rate.This letter proposes a new HRWS SAR method, which employs intra-pulse null steering to get receiving gain in elevation and decrease the data rate,and Multiple Input and Multiple Output(MIMO)using Space-Time Block Coding(STBC)in azimuth to get transmitting gain and receiving array gain simultaneously.The feasibility is verified by deduction and simulations.
Preamble and pilot symbol design for channel estimation in OFDM systems with null subcarriers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohno Shuichi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this article, design of preamble for channel estimation and pilot symbols for pilot-assisted channel estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system with null subcarriers is studied. Both the preambles and pilot symbols are designed to minimize the l 2 or the l ∞ norm of the channel estimate mean-squared errors (MSE in frequency-selective environments. We use convex optimization technique to find optimal power distribution to the preamble by casting the MSE minimization problem into a semidefinite programming problem. Then, using the designed optimal preamble as an initial value, we iteratively select the placement and optimally distribute power to the selected pilot symbols. Design examples consistent with IEEE 802.11a as well as IEEE 802.16e are provided to illustrate the superior performance of our proposed method over the equi-spaced equi-powered pilot symbols and the partially equi-spaced pilot symbols.
Lightlike sets with applications to the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness
Silva, I P Costa e
2014-01-01
An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian Geometry is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified concusions may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the especialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of maximal compact surfaces. Motivated by some general properties appearing in these proofs, we develop the theory of lightlike sets, entities similar to achronal sets, but more appropriate to deal with low-regularity null submanifolds.
Characterization of (asymptotically) Kerr-de Sitter-like spacetimes at null infinity
Mars, Marc; Senovilla, José M M; Simon, Walter
2016-01-01
We investigate solutions $(\\mathcal{M}, g)$ to Einstein's vacuum field equations with positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ which admit a smooth past null infinity $\\mathcal{J}^-$ \\`a la Penrose and a Killing vector field whose associated Mars-Simon tensor (MST) vanishes. The main purpose of this work is to provide a characterization of these spacetimes in terms of their Cauchy data on $\\mathcal{J}^-$. Along the way, we also study spacetimes for which the MST does not vanish. In that case there is an ambiguity in its definition which is captured by a scalar function $Q$. We analyze properties of the MST for different choices of $Q$. In doing so, we are led to a definition of "asymptotically Kerr-de Sitter-like spacetimes", which we also characterize in terms of their asymptotic data on $\\mathcal{J}^-$.
Characterization of (asymptotically) Kerr–de Sitter-like spacetimes at null infinity
Mars, Marc; Paetz, Tim-Torben; Senovilla, José M. M.; Simon, Walter
2016-08-01
We investigate solutions ({M},g) to Einstein's vacuum field equations with positive cosmological constant Λ which admit a smooth past null infinity {{I}}- à la Penrose and a Killing vector field whose associated Mars–Simon tensor (MST) vanishes. The main purpose of this work is to provide a characterization of these spacetimes in terms of their Cauchy data on {{I}}-. Along the way, we also study spacetimes for which the MST does not vanish. In that case there is an ambiguity in its definition which is captured by a scalar function Q. We analyze properties of the MST for different choices of Q. In doing so, we are led to a definition of ‘asymptotically Kerr–de Sitter-like spacetimes’, which we also characterize in terms of their asymptotic data on {{I}}-. Preprint UWThPh-2016-5.
Tripp, John S.; Patek, Stephen D.
1988-01-01
Measurement of planar skin friction forces in aerodynamic testing currently requires installation of two perpendicularly mounted, single-axis balances; consequently, force components must be sensed at two distinct locations. A two-axis instrument developed at the Langley Research Center to overcome this disadvantage allows measurement of a two-dimensional force at one location. This paper describes a feedback-controlled nulling circuit developed for the NASA two-axis balance which, without external compensation, is inherently unstable because of its low friction mechanical design. Linear multivariable control theory is applied to an experimentally validated mathematical model of the balance to synthesize a state-variable feedback control law. Pole placement techniques and computer simulation studies are employed to select eigenvalues which provide ideal transient response with decoupled sensing dynamics.
Two special classes of space-times admitting a non-null valence two Killing spinor
Bergh, Norbert Van den
2009-01-01
Non-conformally flat space-times admitting a non-null Killing spinor of valence two are investigated in the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Contrary to popular belief these space-times are not all explicitly known. It is shown that the standard construction hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations, KS1 and KS2, for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. An exhaustive list of (conformal classes of) space-times, in which either KS1 or KS2 are violated, is presented. The resulting space-times are each other's Sachs transforms, in general admit no Killing vectors and are characterized by a single arbitrary function.
Null Space Integration Method for Constrained Multibody Systems with No Constraint Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for integrating equations of motion of constrained multibody systems with no constraint violation is presented. A mathematical model, shaped as a differential-algebraic system of index 1, is transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using the null-space projection method. Equations of motion are set in a non-minimal form. During integration, violations of constraints are corrected by solving constraint equations at the position and velocity level, utilizing the metric of the system's configuration space, and projective criterion to the coordinate partitioning method. The method is applied to dynamic simulation of 3D constrained biomechanical system. The simulation results are evaluated by comparing them to the values of characteristic parameters obtained by kinematics analysis of analyzed motion based unmeasured kinematics data
How to interpret a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhou, Ye-Ling [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhen-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2015-09-15
The Majorana nature of massive neutrinos will be crucially probed in the next-generation experiments of the neutrinoless double-beta (0ν2β) decay. The effective mass term of this process, left angle m right angle {sub ee}, may be contaminated by new physics. So how to interpret a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay in the foreseeable future is highly nontrivial. In this paper we introduce a novel three-dimensional description of vertical stroke left angle m right angle {sub ee} vertical stroke, which allows us to see its sensitivity to the lightest neutrino mass and two Majorana phases in a transparent way. We take a look at to what extent the free parameters of vertical stroke left angle m right angle {sub ee} vertical stroke can be well constrained provided a signal of the 0ν2β decay is observed someday. To fully explore lepton number violation, all the six effective Majorana mass terms left angle m right angle {sub αβ} (for α, β = e, μ, τ) are calculated and their lower bounds are illustrated with the two-dimensional contour figures. The effect of possible new physics on the 0ν2β decay is also discussed in a model-independent way. We find that the result of vertical stroke left angle m right angle {sub ee} vertical stroke in the normal (or inverted) neutrino mass ordering case modified by the new physics effect may somewhat mimic that in the inverted (or normal) mass ordering case in the standard three-flavor scheme. Hence a proper interpretation of a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay may demand extra information from some other measurements. (orig.)
Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan Cai
Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.
How to interpret a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Majorana nature of massive neutrinos will be crucially probed in the next-generation experiments of the neutrinoless double-beta (0ν2β) decay. The effective mass term of this process, left angle m right angle ee, may be contaminated by new physics. So how to interpret a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay in the foreseeable future is highly nontrivial. In this paper we introduce a novel three-dimensional description of vertical stroke left angle m right angle ee vertical stroke, which allows us to see its sensitivity to the lightest neutrino mass and two Majorana phases in a transparent way. We take a look at to what extent the free parameters of vertical stroke left angle m right angle ee vertical stroke can be well constrained provided a signal of the 0ν2β decay is observed someday. To fully explore lepton number violation, all the six effective Majorana mass terms left angle m right angle αβ (for α, β = e, μ, τ) are calculated and their lower bounds are illustrated with the two-dimensional contour figures. The effect of possible new physics on the 0ν2β decay is also discussed in a model-independent way. We find that the result of vertical stroke left angle m right angle ee vertical stroke in the normal (or inverted) neutrino mass ordering case modified by the new physics effect may somewhat mimic that in the inverted (or normal) mass ordering case in the standard three-flavor scheme. Hence a proper interpretation of a discovery or null result of the 0ν2β decay may demand extra information from some other measurements. (orig.)
Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Rivets with Self-Nulling Probe
Wincheski, Buzz; Fulton, Jim; Nath, Shridhar; Namkung, Min
1994-01-01
A new eddy current probe developed at NASA Langley Research Center has been used to detect small cracks at rivets in aircraft lap splices [1]. The device has earlier been used to detect isolated fatigue cracks with a minimum detectable flaw size of roughly 1/2 to 1/3 the diameter of the probe [2]. The present work shows that the detectable flaw size for cracks originating at rivets can be greatly improved upon from that of isolated flaws. The use of a rotating probe method combined with spatial filtering has been used to detect 0.18 cm EDM notches, as measured from the rivet shank, with a 1.27 cm diameter probe and to detect flaws buried under the rivet head, down to a length of 0.076 cm, using a 0.32 cm diameter probe. The Self-Nulling Electromagnetic Flaw Detector induces a high density eddy current ring in the sample under test. A ferromagnetic flux focusing lens is incorporated such that in the absence of any inhomogeneities in the material under test only a minimal magnetic field will reach the interior of the probe. A magnetometer (pickup coil) located in the center of the probe therefore registers a null voltage in the absence of material defects. When a fatigue crack or other discontinuity is present in the test article the path of the eddy currents in the material is changed. The magnetic field associated with these eddy currents then enter into the interior of the probe, producing a large output voltage across the pickup coil leads. Further
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Zhou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper develops an ultra-low power asynchronous circuit design methodology, called Multi-Threshold NULL Convention Logic (MTNCL, also known as Sleep Convention Logic (SCL, which combines Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS with NULL Convention Logic (NCL, to yield significant power reduction without any of the drawbacks of applying MTCMOS to synchronous circuits. In contrast to other power reduction techniques that usually result in large area overhead, MTNCL circuits are actually smaller than their original NCL versions. MTNCL utilizes high-Vt transistors to gate power and ground of a low-Vt logic block to provide for both fast switching and very low leakage power when idle. To demonstrate the advantages of MTNCL, a number of 32-bit IEEE single-precision floating-point co-processors were designed for comparison using the 1.2 V IBM 8RF-LM 130 nm CMOS process: original NCL, MTNCL with just combinational logic (C/L slept, Bit-Wise MTNCL (BWMTNCL, MTNCL with C/L and completion logic slept, MTNCL with C/L, completion logic, and registers slept, MTNCL with Safe Sleep architecture, and synchronous MTCMOS. These designs are compared in terms of throughput, area, dynamic energy, and idle power, showing the tradeoffs between the various MTNCL architectures, and that the best MTNCL design is much better than the original NCL design in all aspects, and much better than the synchronous MTCMOS design in terms of area, energy per operation, and idle power, although the synchronous design can operate faster.
Acyrthosiphon pisum AQP2: a multifunctional insect aquaglyceroporin
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wallace, I. S.; Shakesby, A. J.; Hwang, J. H.; Choi, W. G.; Martínková, Natália; Douglas, A. E.; Roberts, D. M.
2012-01-01
Roč. 1818, č. 3 (2012), s. 627-635. ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aphid * Buchnera aphidicola * channel proteins * osmoregulation * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.389, year: 2012
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan; Carlsen, Berit C; Johansen, Jeanne D; Engkilde, Kåre; Hansen, Torben; Pociot, Flemming; Pedersen, Oluf; Meldgaard, Michael; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Menné, Torkil
2011-01-01
Background Filaggrin proteins are located in the skin and prevent epidermal water loss and impede the entry of micro-organisms, allergens and chemicals. Filaggrin null mutations are strongly associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. Objective The authors aimed to investigate the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genes are risk factors of cataract among Iranian population in a molecular epidemiological way. Blood samples from 150 subjects with cataract (72 male; 78 female) and 150 age- and sex-matched healthy persons were collected. Both patient and control groups were unrelated Iranian Muslims. Using PCR-based method, the genotypes were determined. The null GSTM1 genotype was associated with a 2.38-fold increase in the risk of developing cataract (OR=2.38; 95% CI=1.46-3.89; P=0.0003). After stratification by sex of subjects, the association was apparent only among women (OR=3.20; 95% CI=1.58-6.52; P=0.0007). The GSTT1 null genotype was associated with a 1.10-fold increased risk of developing cataract, but this association was not statistically significant. After stratification by sex of subjects, same results were obtained. Female patients with null genotype for GSTM1 and no history of smoking had a 3.45-fold increased cataract risk (P<0.05), whereas females who were null for GSTM1 and having history of smoking were not at increased risk of cataract
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Guoqiang; YANG Yixin; SUN Chao
2009-01-01
Abstract Combined the decomposition of time reversal operator and the time reversal reverberation nulling, a new time reversal processing approach for echo-to-reverberation ratio enhancement is proposed. In this method, a 2-dimensional signal subspace for the range of the target and two bottom focusing weight vectors for the ranges near the target are obtained by the decomposition of time reversal operator. From the signal subspace and focusing weight vectors, a constrained optimal excitation weight vector of source receiver array can be deduced to null the acoustic energy on the corresponding bottom and maximize the energy at the target. This method remedies the shortages of conventional time reversal processing, time reversal reverberation nulling and time reversal selective focusing method. It focuses sound energy at the target and nulls the energy at the bottom near the target range simultaneously, therefore enhancing the echo-to-reverberation ratio without probe source and prior-knowledge of the relative scattering intensity of target and bottom. Numerical simulations in typical shallow water environments showed the effectiveness of the proposed method and its improved performance for echo-reverberation enhancement than conventional time reversal processing.
Micali, Jason D.; Greivenkamp, John E.
2016-03-01
Complex surface forms are becoming increasingly prevalent in optical designs, requiring advances in manufacturing and surface metrology to maintain the state of the art. Non-null interferometry extends the range of standard interferometers to test complex shapes without the need for complicated and expensive compensating elements. However, non-null measurements will accumulate significant retrace errors, or interferometer-induced errors, which can be difficult to isolate from surface figure errors. Methods discussed in the literature to correct for retrace errors in a reflection-based interferometer are computationally intensive and limited in spatial resolution. A method is presented for reconstructing complex surface shapes in a reflection-based non-null interferometer configuration, which is computationally efficient, easy to implement, and can produce high spatial resolution surface reconstructions. The method is verified against simulated surfaces that contain more than 200 μm of surface departure from a null configuration. Examples are provided to demonstrate the effects of measurement noise and interferometer model uncertainties, as well as an experimental validation of the method.
McLaughlin, J. A.
2016-03-01
The propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in the neighbourhood of a 2D null point is investigated for both β=0 and β ≠ 0 plasmas. Previous work has shown that the Alfvén speed, here v A ∝ r, plays a vital role in such systems and so a natural choice is to switch to polar coordinates. For β=0 plasma, we derive an analytical solution for the behaviour of the fast magnetoacoustic wave in terms of the Klein-Gordon equation. We also solve the system with a semi-analytical WKB approximation which shows that the β=0 wave focuses on the null and contracts around it but, due to exponential decay, never reaches the null in a finite time. For the β ≠ 0 plasma, we solve the system numerically and find the behaviour to be similar to that of the β=0 system at large radii, but completely different close to the null. We show that for an initially cylindrically-symmetric fast magnetoacoustic wave perturbation, there is a decrease in wave speed along the separatrices and so the perturbation starts to take on a quasi-diamond shape; with the corners located along the separatrices. This is due to the growth in pressure gradients that reach a maximum along the separatrices, which in turn reduces the acceleration of the fast wave along the separatrices leading to a deformation of the wave morphology.
Defrère, D; Skemer, A J; Kennedy, G M; Bailey, V P; Hoffmann, W F; Mennesson, B; Millan-Gabet, R; Danchi, W C; Absil, O; Arbo, P; Beichman, C; Brusa, G; Bryden, G; Downey, E C; Durney, O; Esposito, S; Gaspar, A; Grenz, P; Haniff, C; Hill, J M; Lebreton, J; Leisenring, J M; Males, J R; Marion, L; McMahon, T J; Montoya, M; Morzinski, K M; Pinna, E; Puglisi, A; Rieke, G; Roberge, A; Serabyn, E; Sosa, R; Stapeldfeldt, K; Su, K; Vaitheeswaran, V; Vaz, A; Weinberger, A J; Wyatt, M C
2015-01-01
We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81 - 12.41 um) emission around the nearby main-sequence star eta Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% +/- 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6\\,AU at the distance of eta Corvi) and shows no significant variation over 35{\\deg} of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by Spitzer/IRS (~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the Solar zodiacal cloud, unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Brunner
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and rigorous way, mouse models of autism that are of interest because of their construct validity and wide availability to the scientific community. We implemented a broad behavioral battery that included but was not restricted to core autism domains, with the goal of identifying robust, reliable phenotypes amenable for further testing. Here we describe comprehensive findings from two known mouse models of autism, obtained at different developmental stages, using a systematic behavioral test battery combining standard tests as well as novel, quantitative, computer-vision based systems. The first mouse model recapitulates a deletion in human chromosome 16p11.2, found in 1% of individuals with autism. The second mouse model harbors homozygous null mutations in Cntnap2, associated with autism and Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome. Consistent with previous results, 16p11.2 heterozygous null mice, also known as Del(7Slx1b-Sept14Aam weighed less than wild type littermates displayed hyperactivity and no social deficits. Cntnap2 homozygous null mice were also hyperactive, froze less during testing, showed a mild gait phenotype and deficits in the three-chamber social preference test, although less robust than previously published. In the open field test with exposure to urine of an estrous female, however, the Cntnap2 null mice showed reduced vocalizations. In addition, Cntnap2 null mice performed slightly better in a cognitive procedural learning test. Although finding and replicating robust behavioral phenotypes in animal models is a challenging task, such functional readouts remain important in the development of
Brunner, Daniela; Kabitzke, Patricia; He, Dansha; Cox, Kimberly; Thiede, Lucinda; Hanania, Taleen; Sabath, Emily; Alexandrov, Vadim; Saxe, Michael; Peles, Elior; Mills, Alea; Spooren, Will; Ghosh, Anirvan; Feliciano, Pamela; Benedetti, Marta; Luo Clayton, Alice; Biemans, Barbara
2015-01-01
Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and rigorous way, mouse models of autism that are of interest because of their construct validity and wide availability to the scientific community. We implemented a broad behavioral battery that included but was not restricted to core autism domains, with the goal of identifying robust, reliable phenotypes amenable for further testing. Here we describe comprehensive findings from two known mouse models of autism, obtained at different developmental stages, using a systematic behavioral test battery combining standard tests as well as novel, quantitative, computer-vision based systems. The first mouse model recapitulates a deletion in human chromosome 16p11.2, found in 1% of individuals with autism. The second mouse model harbors homozygous null mutations in Cntnap2, associated with autism and Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome. Consistent with previous results, 16p11.2 heterozygous null mice, also known as Del(7Slx1b-Sept1)4Aam weighed less than wild type littermates displayed hyperactivity and no social deficits. Cntnap2 homozygous null mice were also hyperactive, froze less during testing, showed a mild gait phenotype and deficits in the three-chamber social preference test, although less robust than previously published. In the open field test with exposure to urine of an estrous female, however, the Cntnap2 null mice showed reduced vocalizations. In addition, Cntnap2 null mice performed slightly better in a cognitive procedural learning test. Although finding and replicating robust behavioral phenotypes in animal models is a challenging task, such functional readouts remain important in the development of therapeutics and we
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Yang
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs may contribute to lung cancer risk. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in Asian population but yielded inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 23 studies including 4065 cases and 5390 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of GSTT1 with lung cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by source of controls, smoking status, histological types, and sample size. A statistically significant correlation between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer in Asian population was observed (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 62.0%. Sub-group analysis revealed there was a statistically increased lung cancer risk in ever-smokers who carried the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.96; P heterogeneity = 0.02 and I(2 = 58.1%. It was also indicated that GSTT1 null genotype could increase lung cancer risk among population-based studies (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.003 and I(2 = 56.8%. The positive association was also found in studies of sample size (≤500 participants (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.62; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 65.4%. CONCLUSIONS: These meta-analysis results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.
Self-Nulling Lock-in Detection Electronics for Capacitance Probe Electrometer
Blaes, Brent R.; Schaefer, Rembrandt T.
2012-01-01
A multi-channel electrometer voltmeter that employs self-nulling lock-in detection electronics in conjunction with a mechanical resonator with noncontact voltage sensing electrodes has been developed for space-based measurement of an Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor (IESDM). The IESDM is new sensor technology targeted for integration into a Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) subsystem used for the characterization and monitoring of deep dielectric charging on spacecraft. Use of an AC-coupled lock-in amplifier with closed-loop sense-signal nulling via generation of an active guard-driving feedback voltage provides the resolution, accuracy, linearity and stability needed for long-term space-based measurement of the IESDM. This implementation relies on adjusting the feedback voltage to drive the sense current received from the resonator s variable-capacitance-probe voltage transducer to approximately zero, as limited by the signal-to-noise performance of the loop electronics. The magnitude of the sense current is proportional to the difference between the input voltage being measured and the feedback voltage, which matches the input voltage when the sense current is zero. High signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is achieved by synchronous detection of the sense signal using the correlated reference signal derived from the oscillator circuit that drives the mechanical resonator. The magnitude of the feedback voltage, while the loop is in a settled state with essentially zero sense current, is an accurate estimate of the input voltage being measured. This technique has many beneficial attributes including immunity to drift, high linearity, high SNR from synchronous detection of a single-frequency carrier selected to avoid potentially noisy 1/f low-frequency spectrum of the signal-chain electronics, and high accuracy provided through the benefits of a driven shield encasing the capacitance- probe transducer and guarded input triaxial lead-in. Measurements obtained from a
Calcium Homeostasis and Muscle Energy Metabolism Are Modified in HspB1-Null Mice
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Brigitte Picard
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Hsp27—encoded by HspB1—is a member of the small heat shock proteins (sHsp, 12–43 kDa (kilodalton family. This protein is constitutively present in a wide variety of tissues and in many cell lines. The abundance of Hsp27 is highest in skeletal muscle, indicating a crucial role for muscle physiology. The protein identified as a beef tenderness biomarker was found at a crucial hub in a functional network involved in beef tenderness. The aim of this study was to analyze the proteins impacted by the targeted invalidation of HspB1 in the Tibialis anterior muscle of the mouse. Comparative proteomics using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed 22 spots that were differentially abundant between HspB1-null mice and their controls that could be identified by mass spectrometry. Eighteen spots were more abundant in the muscle of the mutant mice, and four were less abundant. The proteins impacted by the absence of Hsp27 belonged mainly to calcium homeostasis (Srl and Calsq1, contraction (TnnT3, energy metabolism (Tpi1, Mdh1, PdhB, Ckm, Pygm, ApoA1 and the Hsp proteins family (HspA9. These data suggest a crucial role for these proteins in meat tenderization. The information gained by this study could also be helpful to predict the side effects of Hsp27 depletion in muscle development and pathologies linked to small Hsps.
Dancing with the dead: Eph receptors and their kinase-null partners.
Truitt, Luke; Freywald, Andrew
2011-04-01
Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, ephrins, are membrane proteins coordinating a wide range of biological functions both in developing embryos and in adult multicellular organisms. Numerous studies have implicated Eph receptors in the induction of opposing responses, including cell adhesion or repulsion, support or inhibition of cell proliferation and cell migration, and progression or suppression of multiple malignancies. Similar to other receptor tyrosine kinases, Eph receptors rely on their ability to catalyze tyrosine phosphorylation for signal transduction. Interestingly, however, Eph receptors also actively utilize three kinase-deficient receptor tyrosine kinases, EphB6, EphA10, and Ryk, in their signaling network. The accumulating evidence suggests that the unusual flexibility of the Eph family, allowing it to initiate antagonistic responses, might be partially explained by the influence of the kinase-dead participants and that the exact outcome of an Eph-mediated action is likely to be defined by the balance between the signaling of catalytically potent and catalytically null receptors. We discuss in this minireview the emerging functions of the kinase-dead EphB6, EphA10, and Ryk receptors both in normal biological responses and in malignancy, and analyze currently available information related to the molecular mechanisms of their action in the context of the Eph family. PMID:21455264
Holographic Non-Abelian Charged Hydrodynamics from the Dynamics of Null Horizons
Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron
2010-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of a four-dimensional null hypersurface in a five-dimensional bulk spacetime with Einstein-Yang-Mills fields. In an appropriate ansatz, the projection of the field equations onto the hypersurface takes the form of conservation laws for relativistic hydrodynamics with global non-abelian charges. A Chern-Simons term in the bulk action corresponds to anomalies in the global charges, with a vorticity term arising in the hydrodynamics. We derive the entropy current and obtain unique expressions for some of the leading-order transport coefficients (in the abelian case, all of them) for arbitrary equations of state. As a special case and a concrete example, we discuss the event horizon of a boosted Einstein-Yang-Mills black brane in an asymptotically Anti-de-Sitter spacetime. The evolution equations in that case describe the hydrodynamic limit of a conformal field theory with anomalous global non-abelian charges on the Anti-de-Sitter boundary.
Kogut, Alan J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J.; Dwek, E.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Meyer, S. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Seiffert, M. D.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E. J.
2011-01-01
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a concept for an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The instrument consists of a polarizing Michelson interferometer configured as a nulling polarimeter to measure the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. Rhe proposed instrument can map the absolute intensity and linear polarization (Stokes I, Q, and U parameters) over the full sky in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded optics provide background-limited sensitivity using only 4 detectors, while the highly symmetric design and multiple signal modulations provide robust rejection of potential systematic errors. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10..3 at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set can also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy.
The Gravitational Exclusion Principle and Null States in Anti-de Sitter Space
Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander
2011-01-01
The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS_3, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signaling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS_3. In particula...
Sun, Fei; He, Sailing
2015-10-01
A new theory on designing electromagnetic/optical devices is proposed, namely, an optical surface transformation (OST). One arbitrary surface can establish the corresponding relationship with another surface entirely optically with an optic-null medium (ONM), (i.e. the electromagnetic wave propagates from one surface to its equivalent surface without any phase delay). Many novel optical devices can be designed by an OST with the help of an ONM. Compared with traditional devices designed by Transformation Optics, our optical surface-reshaping devices have two main advantages. Firstly, the design process is very simple (i.e. we do not need to consider any mathematics on how to make a coordinate transformation, and what we need to do is simply to design the shapes of the input and the output surfaces of the devices). Secondly, we only need one homogeneous anisotropic medium to realize all devices designed by this method. Our method will explore a new way to design novel optical devices without considering any coordinate transformations.
Starting the universe: Stable violation of the null energy condition and non-standard cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a consistent effective theory that violates the null energy condition (NEC) without developing any instabilities or other pathological features. The model is the ghost condensate with the global shift symmetry softly broken by a potential. We show that this system can drive a cosmological expansion with H-dot > 0. Demanding the absence of instabilities in this model requires H-dot or approx. H2. We then construct a general low-energy effective theory that describes scalar fluctuations about an arbitrary FRW background, and argue that the qualitative features found in our model are very general for stable systems that violate the NEC. Violating the NEC allows dramatically non- standard cosmological histories. To illustrate this, we construct an explicit model in which the expansion of our universe originates from an asymptotically flat state in the past, smoothing out the big-bang singularity within control of a low- energy effective theory. This gives an interesting alternative to standard inflation for solving the horizon problem. We also construct models in which the present acceleration has w < -1; a periodic ever-expanding universe; and a model with a smooth 'bounce' connecting a contracting and expanding phase. (author)
Characteristics of X-point Lobe Structures in Single-Null Discharges on MAST
Harrison, J R; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E; Thornton, A J
2013-01-01
Lobe structures due to the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been observed using wide-angle imaging of light from He1+ ions in the vicinity of the lower X-point in MAST. The data presented are from lower single-null discharges where RMPs of toroidal mode number, n, of 4 and 6 were applied. It has been found that, above a threshold value, the lobe structures extend radially, linearly with the coil current, both in L-mode and H-mode. It is observed that after the application of the RMP, as the toroidal rotation in the confined plasma decreases, the lobes extend radially, suggesting the plasma is less effectively screening the RMP field. Comparing the imaging data with results from vacuum modelling shows that this technique can accurately predict the number and poloidal location of the lobes, but over-estimates their radial extent. More accurate estimates of the extent of the lobes can be made by accounting for plasma screening of the RMP field. Qualitative agreement between simulation a...
Characteristics of X-point lobe structures in single-null discharges on MAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobe structures due to the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been observed using wide-angle imaging of light from He1+ ions in the vicinity of the lower X-point in MAST. The data presented are from lower single-null discharges where RMPs of toroidal mode number, n, of 4 and 6 were applied. It has been found that, above a threshold value, the lobe structures extend radially, linearly with the coil current, both in L-mode and H-mode. It is observed that after the application of the RMP, as the toroidal rotation in the confined plasma decreases, the lobes extend radially. This suggests the plasma is less effectively screening the RMP field. Comparing the imaging data with results from vacuum modelling shows that this technique can accurately predict the number and poloidal location of the lobes, but over-estimates their radial extent. More accurate estimates of the extent of the lobes can be made by accounting for plasma screening of the RMP field. Qualitative agreement between simulation and experiment is found if it is assumed that the RMP penetrates 2% in normalized radius from the last closed flux surface. (paper)
Estimation of Neutral Density in Edge Plasma with Double Null Configuration in EAST
Zhang, Ling; Xu, Guosheng; Ding, Siye; Gao, Wei; Wu, Zhenwei; Chen, Yingjie; Huang, Juan; Liu, Xiaoju; Zang, Qing; Chang, Jiafeng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yingying; Qian, Jinping
2011-08-01
In this work, population coefficients of hydrogen's n = 3 excited state from the hydrogen collisional-radiative (CR) model, from the data file of DEGAS 2, are used to calculate the photon emissivity coefficients (PECs) of hydrogen Balmer-α (n = 3 → n = 2) (Hα). The results are compared with the PECs from Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database, and a good agreement is found. A magnetic surface-averaged neutral density profile of typical double-null (DN) plasma in EAST is obtained by using FRANTIC, the 1.5-D fluid transport code. It is found that the sum of integral Dα and Hα emission intensity calculated via the neutral density agrees with the measured results obtained by using the absolutely calibrated multi-channel poloidal photodiode array systems viewing the lower divertor at the last closed flux surface (LCFS). It is revealed that the typical magnetic surface-averaged neutral density at LCFS is about 3.5 × 1016 m-3.
Estimation of Neutral Density in Edge Plasma with Double Null Configuration in EAST
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, population coefficients of hydrogen's n = 3 excited state from the hydrogen collisional-radiative (CR) model, from the data file of DEGAS 2, are used to calculate the photon emissivity coefficients (PECs) of hydrogen Balmer-α (n = 3 → n = 2) (Hα). The results are compared with the PECs from Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database, and a good agreement is found. A magnetic surface-averaged neutral density profile of typical double-null (DN) plasma in EAST is obtained by using FRANTIC, the 1.5-D fluid transport code. It is found that the sum of integral Dα and Hα emission intensity calculated via the neutral density agrees with the measured results obtained by using the absolutely calibrated multi-channel poloidal photodiode array systems viewing the lower divertor at the last closed flux surface (LCFS). It is revealed that the typical magnetic surface-averaged neutral density at LCFS is about 3.5 x 1016 m-3. (magnetically confined plasma)
Lack of major genome instability in tumors of p53 null rats.
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Roel Hermsen
Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is often associated with loss of tumor suppressor genes (such as TP53, genomic instability and telomere lengthening. Previously, we generated and characterized a rat p53 knockout model in which the homozygous rats predominantly develop hemangiosarcomas whereas the heterozygous rats mainly develop osteosarcomas. Using genome-wide analyses, we find that the tumors that arise in the heterozygous and homozygous Tp53C273X mutant animals are also different in their genomic instability profiles. While p53 was fully inactivated in both heterozygous and homozygous knockout rats, tumors from homozygous animals show very limited aneuploidy and low degrees of somatic copy number variation as compared to the tumors from heterozygous animals. In addition, complex structural rearrangements such as chromothripsis and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles were never found in tumors from homozygous animals, while these were readily detectable in tumors from heterozygous animals. Finally, we measured telomere length and telomere lengthening pathway activity and found that tumors of homozygous animals have longer telomeres but do not show clear telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT activity differences as compared to the tumors from heterozygous animals. Taken together, our results demonstrate that host p53 status in this rat p53 knockout model has a large effect on both tumor type and genomic instability characteristics, where full loss of functional p53 is not the main driver of large-scale structural variations. Our results also suggest that chromothripsis primarily occurs under p53 heterozygous rather than p53 null conditions.
Joint dysfunction and functional decline in middle age myostatin null mice.
Guo, Wen; Miller, Andrew D; Pencina, Karol; Wong, Siu; Lee, Amanda; Yee, Michael; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jasuja, Ravi; Bhasin, Shalender
2016-02-01
Since its discovery as a potent inhibitor for muscle development, myostatin has been actively pursued as a drug target for age- and disease-related muscle loss. However, potential adverse effects of long-term myostatin deficiency have not been thoroughly investigated. We report herein that male myostatin null mice (mstn(-/-)), in spite of their greater muscle mass compared to wild-type (wt) mice, displayed more significant functional decline from young (3-6months) to middle age (12-15months) than age-matched wt mice, measured as gripping strength and treadmill endurance. Mstn(-/-) mice displayed markedly restricted ankle mobility and degenerative changes of the ankle joints, including disorganization of bone, tendon and peri-articular connective tissue, as well as synovial thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Messenger RNA expression of several pro-osteogenic genes was higher in the Achilles tendon-bone insertion in mstn(-/-) mice than wt mice, even at the neonatal age. At middle age, higher plasma concentrations of growth factors characteristic of excessive bone remodeling were found in mstn(-/-) mice than wt controls. These data collectively indicate that myostatin may play an important role in maintaining ankle and wrist joint health, possibly through negative regulation of the pro-osteogenic WNT/BMP pathway. PMID:26549246
The Covariant Entropy Bound, Brane Cosmology, and the Null Energy Condition
McInnes, B
2002-01-01
In discussions of Bousso's Covariant Entropy Bound, the Null Energy Condition is always assumed, as a sufficient *but not necessary* condition which helps to ensure that the entropy on any lightsheet shall necessarily be finite. The spectacular failure of the Strong Energy Condition in cosmology has, however, led many astrophysicists and cosmologists to consider models which violate all of the energy conditions, and indeed the current data do not completely rule out such models. The NEC also has a questionable status in brane cosmology: it is probably necessary to violate the NEC in the bulk in order to obtain a "self-tuning" theory of the cosmological constant. In order to investigate these proposals, we modify the Karch-Randall model by introducing NEC-violating matter into $AdS_5$ in such a way that the brane cosmological constant relaxes to zero. The entropy on lightsheets remains finite. However, we still find that the spacetime is fundamentally incompatible with the Covariant Entropy Bound machinery, in...
Evidence of Aortopathy in Mice with Haploinsufficiency of Notch1 in Nos3-Null Background
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Sara N. Koenig
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. While the exact etiology is unknown, genetic factors play an important role. Mutations in NOTCH1 have been linked to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and aortopathy in humans. The aim of this study was to determine if haploinsufficiency of Notch1 contributes to aortopathy using Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice. Echocardiographic analysis of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals effacement of the sinotubular junction and a trend toward dilation of the aortic sinus. Furthermore, examination of the proximal aorta of Notch1+/−; Nos3−/− mice reveals elastic fiber degradation, a trend toward increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression, and increased smooth muscle cell apoptosis, features characteristic of aneurysmal disease. Although at a lower penetrance, we also found features consistent with aortopathic changes in Notch1 heterozygote mice and in Nos3-null mice. Our findings implicate a novel role for Notch1 in aortopathy of the proximal aorta.
Null geodesics in the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime the view from the bridge
Clark, C; Larson, S L; Clark, Chad; Hiscock, William A.; Larson, Shane L.
1999-01-01
The null geodesic equations in the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime are numerically integrated to determine the angular deflection and redshift of photons which propagate through the distortion of the ``warp drive'' bubble to reach an observer at the origin of the warp effect. We find that for a starship with an effective warp speed exceeding the speed of light, stars in the forward hemisphere will appear closer to the direction of motion than they would to an observer at rest. This aberration is qualitatively similar to that caused by special relativity. Behind the starship, a conical region forms from within which no signal can reach the starship, an effective ``horizon''. Conversely, there is also an horizon-like structure in a conical region in front of the starship, into which the starship cannot send a signal. These causal structures are somewhat analogous to the Mach cones associated with supersonic fluid flow. The existence of these structures suggests that the divergence of quantum vacuum energy when ...
Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4 from perturbed W minimal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS4, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU(n-4)4/U(1)n-5 generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n = 6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n=6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS3 case.
Particle transport studies for single-null divertor discharges in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper an investigation of the particle confinement for beam-heated single-null discharges in the open divertor configuration of Doublet III-D (DIII-D) [E. J. Doyle et al., Phys. Fluids B 3, 2300 (1991)] is described. Results are based on a Monte Carlo neutral transport model with a relatively simple plasma model that utilizes experimental data on density, temperature, and heat flux profiles in the edge plasma. For a typical discharge, it is found that the particle confinement time in the quiescent H-mode phase is only about a factor of 2 larger than during the L-mode phase, an increase comparable to the energy confinement time increase. For both H-mode and L-mode phases the particle confinement time is about a factor of 4 larger than the energy confinement time. It is also found that the core plasma fueling rate is higher in the H mode due to the increased transparency of a thinner scrape-off layer. The longer particle confinement time and the increased fueling rate both contribute to the observed density rise during the quiescent period following the L--H transition. Flux surface-averaged transport modeling of the time evolution for the core plasma density profile during H mode suggests that a strong inward particle pinch is necessary near the separatrix
Cheng, Ya-Jen; Fang, Shu; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Chen, Yi-Ling; Fu, Hua-Wen; Patel, Nipam H; Ting, Chau-Ti
2012-01-01
Odysseus (OdsH) has been identified as a hybrid male sterility gene between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans with accelerated evolutionary rate in both expression and DNA sequence. Loss of a testis-specific expression of OdsH causes male fertility defect in D. melanogaster. Yet, the underlying mechanisms at the cellular level are unknown. In an attempt to identify the possible mechanisms and functional roles of OdsH in spermatogenesis, the cell numbers at different developmental stages during spermatogenesis between the OdsH null mutant and wild-type flies were compared. The results showed that the early developing germ cells, including spermatogonia and spermatocytes, were reduced in the OdsH mutant males. In addition, the number of germline stem cells in aged males was also reduced, presumably due to the disruption of germline stem cell maintenance, which resulted in more severe fertility defect. These results suggest that the function of the enhancement of sperm production by OdsH acted across males of all ages. PMID:23229314
The Null Space Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis of Heterogeneity for Preferential Flow Simulation
Ghasemizade, M.; Radny, D.; Schirmer, M.
2014-12-01
Preferential flow paths can have a huge impact on the amount and time of runoff generation, particularly in areas where subsurface flow dominates this process. In order to simulate preferential flow mechanisms, many different approaches have been suggested. However, the efficiency of such approaches are rarely investigated in a predictive sense. The main reason is that the models which are used to simulate preferential flows require many parameters. This can lead to a dramatic increase of model run times, especially in the context of highly nonlinear models which themselves are demanding. We attempted in this research to simulate the daily recharge values of a weighing lysimeter, including preferential flows, with the 3-D physically based model HydroGeoSphere. To accomplish that, we used the matrix pore concept with varying hydraulic conductivities within the lysimeter to represent heterogeneity. It was assumed that spatially correlated heterogeneity is the main driver of triggering preferential flow paths. In order to capture the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity values we used pilot points and geostatistical model structures. Since hydraulic conductivity values at each pilot point are functioning as parameters, the model is a highly parameterized one. Due to this fact, we used the robust and newly developed method of null space Monte Carlo for analyzing the uncertainty of the model outputs. Results of the uncertainty analysis show that the method of pilot points is reliable in order to represent preferential flow paths.
The covariant entropy bound, brane cosmology, and the null energy condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In discussions of Bousso's Covariant Entropy Bound, the Null Energy Condition is always assumed, as a sufficient but not necessary condition which helps to ensure that the entropy on any lightsheet shall necessarily be finite. The spectacular failure of the Strong Energy Condition in cosmology has, however, led many astrophysicists and cosmologists to consider models of dark energy which violate all of the energy conditions, and indeed the current data do not completely rule out such models. The NEC also has a questionable status in brane cosmology: it is probably necessary to violate the NEC in the bulk in order to obtain a 'self-tuning' theory of the cosmological constant. In order to investigate these proposals, we modify the Karch-Randall model by introducing NEC-violating matter into AdS5 in such a way that the brane cosmological constant relaxes to zero. The entropy on lightsheets remains finite. However, we still find that the spacetime is fundamentally incompatible with the Covariant Entropy Bound machinery, in the sense that it fails the Bousso-Randall consistency condition. We argue that holography probably forbids all cosmological violations of the NEC, and that holography is in fact the fundamental physical principle underlying the cosmological version of the NEC. (author)
Naphthoquinone Derivative PPE8 Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in p53 Null H1299 Cells
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Jin-Cherng Lien
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER plays a key role in synthesizing secretory proteins and sensing signal function in eukaryotic cells. Responding to calcium disturbance, oxidation state change, or pharmacological agents, ER transmembrane protein, inositol-regulating enzyme 1 (IRE1, senses the stress and triggers downstream signals. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 dissociates from IRE1 to assist protein folding and guard against cell death. In prolonged ER stress, IRE1 recruits and activates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 as well as downstream JNK for cell death. Naphthoquinones are widespread natural phenolic compounds. Vitamin K3, a derivative of naphthoquinone, inhibits variant tumor cell growth via oxygen uptake and oxygen stress. We synthesized a novel naphthoquinone derivative PPE8 and evaluated capacity to induce ER stress in p53 null H1299 and p53 wild-type A549 cells. In H1299 cells, PPE8 induced ER enlargement, GRP78 expression, and transient IER1 activation. Activated IRE1 recruited ASK1 for downstream JNK phosphorylation. IRE1 knockdown by siRNA attenuated PPE8-induced JNK phosphorylation and cytotoxicity. Prolonged JNK phosphorylation may be involved in PPE8-induced cytotoxicity. Such results did not arise in A549 cells, but p53 knockdown by siRNA restored PPE8-induced GRP78 expression and JNK phosphorylation. We offer a novel compound to induce ER stress and cytotoxicity in p53-deficient cancer cells, presenting an opportunity for treatment.
Ju, Anes; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Tantra, Martesa; Krueger, Dilja; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore
2014-08-15
Neuroligin-4 (Nlgn4) is a member of the neuroligin family of postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules. Loss-of-function mutations of NLGN4 are among the most frequent, known genetic causes of heritable autism. Adult Nlgn4 null mutant (Nlgn4(-/-)) mice are a construct valid model of human autism, with both genders displaying a remarkable autistic phenotype, including deficits in social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors. In contrast to adults, autism-related abnormalities in neonatal and juvenile Nlgn4(-/-) mice have not been reported yet. The present study has been designed to systematically investigate in male and female Nlgn4(-/-) pups versus wildtype littermates (WT, Nlgn4(+/+)) developmental milestones and stimulus-induced ultrasound vocalization (USV). Neonatal development, followed daily from postnatal days (PND) 4 to 21, including physical development, neurological reflexes and neuromotor coordination, did not yield any differences between Nlgn4(-/-) and their WT littermates. USV in pups (PND8-9) in response to brief separation from their mothers revealed remarkable gender effects, and a genotype influence in females regarding latency to first call. In juveniles (PND22-23), USV monitoring upon exposure to an anesthetized female intruder mouse uncovered a clear genotype effect with reduced USV in Nlgn4(-/-) mice, and again a more prominent phenotype in females. Together, these data support an early manifestation of communication deficits in Nlgn4(-/-) mice that appear more pronounced in immature females with their overall stronger USV as compared to males. PMID:24855039
TEMPEST simulations of the plasma transport in a single-null tokamak geometry
Xu, X. Q.; Bodi, K.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Rognlien, T. D.
2010-06-01
We present edge kinetic ion transport simulations of tokamak plasmas in magnetic divertor geometry using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. Besides neoclassical transport, a term for divergence of anomalous kinetic radial flux is added to mock up the effect of turbulent transport. To study the relative roles of neoclassical and anomalous transport, TEMPEST simulations were carried out for plasma transport and flow dynamics in a single-null tokamak geometry, including the pedestal region that extends across the separatrix into the scrape-off layer and private flux region. A series of TEMPEST simulations were conducted to investigate the transition of midplane pedestal heat flux and flow from the neoclassical to the turbulent limit and the transition of divertor heat flux and flow from the kinetic to the fluid regime via an anomalous transport scan and a density scan. The TEMPEST simulation results demonstrate that turbulent transport (as modelled by large diffusion) plays a similar role to collisional decorrelation of particle orbits and that the large turbulent transport (large diffusion) leads to an apparent Maxwellianization of the particle distribution. We also show the transition of parallel heat flux and flow at the entrance to the divertor plates from the fluid to the kinetic regime. For an absorbing divertor plate boundary condition, a non-half-Maxwellian is found due to the balance between upstream radial anomalous transport and energetic ion endloss.
TEMPEST simulations of the neoclassical transport in a single-null tokamak geometry
Xu, X. Q.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.
2009-05-01
TEMPEST simulations were carried out for plasma transport and flow dynamics in a single-null tokamak geometry. The core radial boundary ion distribution is a fixed Maxwellian FM with N0=N(ψ0) and Ti0=Ti(ψ0)=300eV, and exterior radial boundary ion distribution is Neumann boundary condition with Fi(,,μ)/ψ|ψw=0 during a simulation. Given boundary conditions and initial profiles, the interior plasmas in the simulations should evolve into a neoclassical steady state. A volume source term in the private flux region is included, representing the ionization in the private flux region to achieve the neoclassical steady state. A series of TEMPEST simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the neoclassical transport and flow as a function of ν*i via a density scan. Here ν*i is the effective collision frequency, defined by ν*i=&-3/2circ;νii√2qR0/vTi, νii is the ion-ion collision, and vTi the ion thermal velocity. Simulation results show significant poloidal variation of density and ion temperature profiles due to the endloss machanism at the divertor plates. Each region (Edge, the SOL and private flux) achieves the dynamical steady state at its own time scale due to the different physical processes. The impact of self-consistent electric field on transport and flow will be presented.
Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria
Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.
2013-01-01
Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684
Wood, W; Turmaine, M; Weber, R; Camp, V; Maki, R A; McKercher, S R; Martin, P
2000-12-01
Apoptosis is one of the key tools used by an embryo to regulate cell numbers and sculpt body shape. Although massive numbers of cells die during development, they are so rapidly phagocytosed that very few corpses are ever seen in most embryonic tissues. In this paper, we focus on the catastrophic cell death that occurs as the developing footplate is remodelled to transform webbed regions into free interdigital spaces. In the wild-type embryo, these dead cells are rapidly engulfed and cleared by macrophages. We show that in a macrophageless mouse embryo, null for the haemopoetic-lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1, the task of phagocytosis is taken over by 'stand-in' mesenchymal neighbours in a clear example of cell redundancy. However, it takes three times as many of these mesenchymal phagocytes to complete the task and, at each stage of the clearance process - in the recognition of apoptotic debris, its engulfment and finally its digestion - they appear to be less efficient than macrophages. A molecular explanation for this may be that several of the engulfment genes expressed by macrophages, including the ABC1 transporter (believed to be part of the phagocytic machinery conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to mouse), are not upregulated by these 'stand-in' phagocytes. PMID:11076747
Forelimb contractures and abnormal tendon collagen fibrillogenesis in fibulin-4 null mice.
Markova, Dessislava Z; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Zhang, Guiyun; Sasaki, Takako; Arita, Machiko; Birk, David E; Chu, Mon-Li
2016-06-01
Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein essential for elastic fiber formation. Mice deficient in fibulin-4 die perinatally because of severe pulmonary and vascular defects associated with the lack of intact elastic fibers. Patients with fibulin-4 mutations demonstrate similar defects, and a significant number die shortly after birth or in early childhood from cardiopulmonary failure. The patients also demonstrate skeletal and other systemic connective tissue abnormalities, including joint laxity and flexion contractures of the wrist. A fibulin-4 null mouse strain was generated and used to analyze the roles of fibulin-4 in tendon fibrillogenesis. This mouse model displayed bilateral forelimb contractures, in addition to pulmonary and cardiovascular defects. The forelimb and hindlimb tendons exhibited disruption in collagen fibrillogenesis in the absence of fibulin-4 as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fibrils were assembled, and fibrils were disorganized compared with wild-type controls. The organization of developing tenocytes and compartmentalization of the extracellular space was also disrupted. Fibulin-4 was co-localized with fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in limb tendons by using immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, fibulin-4 seems to play a role in regulating tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, in addition to its essential function in elastogenesis. PMID:26711913
High frequency induction of mitotic recombination by ionizing radiation in Mlh1 null mouse cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitotic recombination in somatic cells involves crossover events between homologous autosomal chromosomes. This process can convert a cell with a heterozygous deficiency to one with a homozygous deficiency if a mutant allele is present on one of the two homologous autosomes. Thus mitotic recombination often represents the second mutational step in tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In this study we examined the frequency and spectrum of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced autosomal mutations affecting Aprt expression in a mouse kidney cell line null for the Mlh1 mismatch repair (MMR) gene. The mutant frequency results demonstrated high frequency induction of mutations by IR exposure and the spectral analysis revealed that most of this response was due to the induction of mitotic recombinational events. High frequency induction of mitotic recombination was not observed in a DNA repair-proficient cell line or in a cell line with an MMR-independent mutator phenotype. These results demonstrate that IR exposure can initiate a process leading to mitotic recombinational events and that MMR function suppresses these events from occurring
Null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS_4 from perturbed W minimal models
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Yuji
2012-01-01
We study the null-polygonal minimal surfaces in AdS_4, which correspond to the gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The area of the minimal surfaces with n cusps is characterized by the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations or the Y-system of the homogeneous sine-Gordon model, which is regarded as the SU(n-4)_4/U(1)^{n-5} generalized parafermion theory perturbed by the weight-zero adjoint operators. Based on the relation to the TBA systems of the perturbed W minimal models, we solve the TBA equations by using the conformal perturbation theory, and obtain the analytic expansion of the remainder function around the UV/regular-polygonal limit for n=6 and 7. We compare the rescaled remainder function for n=6 with the two-loop one, to observe that they are close to each other similarly to the AdS_3 case.
YNOGK: A New Public Code for Calculating Null Geodesics in the Kerr Spacetime
Yang, Xiaolin; Wang, Jiancheng
2013-07-01
Following the work of Dexter & Agol, we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass's and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter p, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is the main difference between our code and previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points does not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles, and the observer-emitter problem, become root-finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as in Dexter & Agol, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by Cunningham & Bardeen have been extended, which allow one to readily handle situations in which the emitter or the observer has an arbitrary distance from, and motion state with respect to, the central compact object. The validation of the code has been extensively tested through applications to toy problems from the literature. The source FORTRAN code is freely available for download on our Web site http://www1.ynao.ac.cn/~yangxl/yxl.html.
YNOGK: A new public code for calculating null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime
Yang, Xiaolin
2013-01-01
Following \\cite{dexagol2009} we present a new public code for the fast calculation of null geodesics in the Kerr spacetime. Using Weierstrass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions, we express all coordinates and affine parameters as analytical and numerical functions of a parameter $p$, which is an integral value along the geodesic. This is a main difference of our code compares with previous similar ones. The advantage of this treatment is that the information about the turning points do not need to be specified in advance by the user, and many applications such as imaging, the calculation of line profiles or the observer-emitter problem, etc become root finding problems. All elliptic integrations are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method as \\cite{dexagol2009} did, which guarantees the fast computational speed of our code. The formulae to compute the constants of motion given by \\cite{cunnbard1973} have been extended, which allow one readily to handle the situations, in which the emitter or the observer ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a concept for an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The instrument consists of a polarizing Michelson interferometer configured as a nulling polarimeter to measure the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. Rhe proposed instrument can map the absolute intensity and linear polarization (Stokes I, Q, and U parameters) over the full sky in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 μm wavelength). Multi-moded optics provide background-limited sensitivity using only 4 detectors, while the highly symmetric design and multiple signal modulations provide robust rejection of potential systematic errors. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r −3 at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set can also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy
Hagedorn, Charles; Venkateswara, Krishna; Gundlach, Jens
2016-03-01
Proper execution of an experiment is independent of its result. Physicists who test fundamental physical law face the reality that signals for new physics receive more attention and scrutiny than null results. Yet, null results may have greater impact upon the direction of both experiment and theory. Blind experiments and result-blind review are bulwarks against systematic human bias for both experimenters and referees. I'll describe the method that made possible an irreversible public unblinding of our torsion-balance parallel-plate test of gravity at submillimeter scales in 2015. One publicly-available computer procedure generated from blind raw data the analysis, the final result, and the complete documenting thesis. The experiment included an optical ``foil monitor'' to constrain a systematic effect intrinsic to all short-range parallel-plate gravity experiments. I'll describe the experiment, successes, lessons learned, and result. Supported by NSF (PHY-1305726) and DOE support for CENPA.
Reduction of aberrant NF-κB signalling ameliorates Rett syndrome phenotypes in Mecp2-null mice.
Kishi, Noriyuki; MacDonald, Jessica L; Ye, Julia; Molyneaux, Bradley J; Azim, Eiman; Macklis, Jeffrey D
2016-01-01
Mutations in the transcriptional regulator Mecp2 cause the severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). In this study, we investigate genes that function downstream of MeCP2 in cerebral cortex circuitry, and identify upregulation of Irak1, a central component of the NF-κB pathway. We show that overexpression of Irak1 mimics the reduced dendritic complexity of Mecp2-null cortical callosal projection neurons (CPN), and that NF-κB signalling is upregulated in the cortex with Mecp2 loss-of-function. Strikingly, we find that genetically reducing NF-κB signalling in Mecp2-null mice not only ameliorates CPN dendritic complexity but also substantially extends their normally shortened lifespan, indicating broader roles for NF-κB signalling in RTT pathogenesis. These results provide new insight into both the fundamental neurobiology of RTT, and potential therapeutic strategies via NF-κB pathway modulation. PMID:26821816
Suleesathira, Raungrong
2010-01-01
Combined with space-time coding, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system explores space diversity. It is a potential scheme to offer spectral efficiency and robust high data rate transmissions over frequency-selective fading channel. However, space-time coding impairs the system ability to suppress interferences as the signals transmitted from two transmit antennas are superposed and interfered at the receiver antennas. In this paper, we developed an adaptive beamforming based on least mean squared error algorithm and null deepening to combat co-channel interference (CCI) for the space-time coded OFDM (STC-OFDM) system. To illustrate the performance of the presented approach, it is compared to the null steering beamformer which requires a prior knowledge of directions of arrival (DOAs). The structure of space-time decoders are preserved although there is the use of beamformers before decoding. By incorporating the proposed beamformer as a CCI canceller in the STC-OFDM systems, the perform...
Constraints on force-free magnetospheres for Kerr(-AdS) black holes with non-null currents
Wang, Xun
2015-01-01
Force-free magnetospheres are of particular interest due to their role in energy extraction from Kerr black holes via the Blandford-Znajek process. Recently, a class of exact analytic solutions has been found with null currents [1,2]. In this paper, we elaborate some constraints on various force-free magnetosphere solutions with non-null currents, utilizing the Newman-Penrose electromagnetic scalars to categorize a range of different cases. We perform a thorough search for stationary and axisymmetric (SAS) solutions, and find that putative SAS solutions within the categories considered generically exhibit singularities on the horizon. We also present some non-SAS solutions found via spacetime-dependent electric-magnetic duality rotations. Additional special solutions in flat, pure AdS and near-horizon-extreme-Kerr (NHEK) spacetimes are also presented.
Falconer, Isobel
2016-01-01
In 1877 James Clerk Maxwell and his student Donald McAlister refined Henry Cavendish's 1773 null experiment demonstrating the absence of electric charge inside a charged conductor. Such absence of charge was a mathematical prediction of the inverse square law, and both Cavendish and Maxwell took the experiment as verifying the law. However, Maxwell had previously expressed absolute conviction in the law, based on results of Faraday's. So what was the value to Maxwell of replicating Cavendish's experiment? This paper examines the mathematical and instrumental contexts of Maxwell's experiment. It situates the experiment in an assessment of the status of the inverse square law in the 1870s based on textbooks, Maxwell's drive to develop both an electrical programme and a "doctrine of method", and an investigation of the understanding of null methods in the 1870s. It demonstrates that he had previously shifted the evidential context of Faraday's work to suit his aims. It concludes that the experiment served both a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% ± 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (∼2.6 AU for the distance of η Crv) and shows no significant variation over 35° of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS; ∼23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the solar zodiacal cloud unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (∼3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust for the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is by now well known that the standard local (i.e., pointwise) energy conditions always can be violated in quantum field theory in curved (and flat) spacetime, even when these energy conditions hold for the corresponding classical field. Nevertheless, some global constraints on the stress-energy tensor may exist. Indeed recent work has shown that the averaged null energy condition (ANEC), which requires the positivity of energy suitably averaged along null geodesics, holds for a wide class of states of a minimally coupled scalar field on Minkowski spacetime, and also (in the massless case) on a wide class of states in curved two-dimensional spacetimes satisfying certain asymptotic regularity properties. In this paper, we strengthen these results by proving that, for the massless scalar field in an arbitrary globally hyperbolic two-dimensional spacetime, the ANEC holds for all Hadamard states along any complete, achronal null geodesic. In our analysis, the general, algebraic notion of ''state'' is used, so, in particular, it is not even assumed that our state belongs to any Fock representation. Our proof shows that the ANEC is a direct consequence of the general positivity condition which must hold for the two-point function of any state. Our results also can be extended (with a restriction on states) to the massive scalar field in two-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and (with an additional restriction on states) to the (massless or massive) minimally coupled scalar field on four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. In the case of a (curved) four-dimensional spacetime with a bifurcate Killing horizon, our proof also extends to establish the ANEC for the null geodesic generators of the horizon (provided that there exists a stationary Hadamard state of the field). This latter result implies that the ANEC must hold for the massive Klein-Gordon field in de Sitter spacetime
Labadie, L.; Labeye, P.; Kern, P.; Schanen, I.; Arezki, B.; Broquin, J. -E.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the work achieved for the manufacturing and characterization of first single-mode waveguides to be used as modal filters for nulling interferometry in the mid-infrared range [4-20 um]. As very high dynamic range is mandatory for detection of Earth-like planets, modal filtering is one of the most stringent instrumental aspects. The hollow metallic waveguides (HMW) presented here are manufactured using micro-machining techniques. Single-mode behavior has been investigated in...
Role of RANKL (TNFSF11)-Dependent Osteopetrosis in the Dental Phenotype of Msx2 Null Mutant Mice
Castaneda, Beatriz; Simon, Yohann; Ferbus, Didier; Robert, Benoit; Chesneau, Julie; Mueller, Christopher; Berdal, Ariane; Lézot, Frédéric
2013-01-01
The MSX2 homeoprotein is implicated in all aspects of craniofacial skeletal development. During postnatal growth, MSX2 is expressed in all cells involved in mineralized tissue formation and plays a role in their differentiation and function. Msx2 null (Msx2 −/−) mice display complex craniofacial skeleton abnormalities with bone and tooth defects. A moderate form osteopetrotic phenotype is observed, along with decreased expression of RANKL (TNFSF11), the main osteoclast-differentiating factor....
Lavender, Thomas Michael; Schamp, Brandon S; Lamb, Eric G
2016-01-01
Null models exploring species co-occurrence and trait-based limiting similarity are increasingly used to explore the influence of competition on community assembly; however, assessments of common models have not thoroughly explored the influence of variation in matrix size on error rates, in spite of the fact that studies have explored community matrices that vary considerably in size. To determine how smaller matrices, which are of greatest concern, perform statistically, we generated biologically realistic presence-absence matrices ranging in size from 3-50 species and sites, as well as associated trait matrices. We examined co-occurrence tests using the C-Score statistic and independent swap algorithm. For trait-based limiting similarity null models, we used the mean nearest neighbour trait distance (NN) and the standard deviation of nearest neighbour distances (SDNN) as test statistics, and considered two common randomization algorithms: abundance independent trait shuffling (AITS), and abundance weighted trait shuffling (AWTS). Matrices as small as three × three resulted in acceptable type I error rates (p ) was associated with increased type I error rates, particularly for matrices with fewer than eight species. Type I error rates increased for limiting similarity tests using the AWTS randomization scheme when community matrices contained more than 35 sites; a similar randomization used in null models of phylogenetic dispersion has previously been viewed as robust. Notwithstanding other potential deficiencies related to the use of small matrices to represent communities, the application of both classes of null model should be restricted to matrices with 10 or more species to avoid the possibility of type II errors. Additionally, researchers should restrict the use of the AWTS randomization to matrices with fewer than 35 sites to avoid type I errors when testing for trait-based limiting similarity. The AITS randomization scheme performed better in terms of
Garcia, J P; Beingesser, J; Fisher, D J; Sayeed, S; McClane, B A; Posthaus, H; Uzal, F A
2012-06-15
Clostridium perfringens type C is an important cause of enteritis and/or enterocolitis in several animal species, including pigs, sheep, goats, horses and humans. The disease is a classic enterotoxemia and the enteric lesions and associated systemic effects are thought to be caused primarily by beta toxin (CPB), one of two typing toxins produced by C. perfringens type C. This has been demonstrated recently by fulfilling molecular Koch's postulates in rabbits and mice. We present here an experimental study to fulfill these postulates in goats, a natural host of C. perfringens type C disease. Nine healthy male or female Anglo Nubian goat kids were inoculated with the virulent C. perfringens type C wild-type strain CN3685, an isogenic CPB null mutant or a strain where the cpb null mutation had been reversed. Three goats inoculated with the wild-type strain presented abdominal pain, hemorrhagic diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary edema, hydropericardium and death within 24h of inoculation. Two goats inoculated with the CPB null mutant and two goats inoculated with sterile culture media (negative controls) remained clinically healthy during 24h after inoculation and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in the tissues of any of them. Reversal of the null mutation to partially restore CPB production also increased virulence; 2 goats inoculated with this reversed mutant presented clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in goats inoculated with the wild-type strain, except that spontaneous death was not observed. These results indicate that CPB is required for C. perfringens type C to induce disease in goats, supporting a key role for this toxin in natural C. perfringens type C disease pathogenesis. PMID:22296994
Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Sheynis, Tanya; Jelinek, Raz; Shanahan, Michael T.; Ouellette, Andre J.; Gizeli, Electra
2008-01-01
Mammalian α-defensins all have a conserved triple-stranded β-sheet structure that is constrained by an invariant tridisulfide array, and the peptides exert bactericidal effects by permeabilizing the target cell envelope. Curiously, the disordered, disulfide-null variant of mouse α-defensin cryptdin-4 (Crp4), termed (6C/A)-Crp4, has equal or greater bactericidal activity than the native peptide, providing rationale for comparing the mechanisms by which the peptides interact with and disrupt ph...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Skemer, A. J.; Bailey, V. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Arbo, P.; Brusa, G.; Downey, E. C.; Durney, O.; Gaspar, A.; Grenz, P. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kennedy, G. M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mennesson, B.; Bryden, G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R.; Beichman, C. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Danchi, W. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Absil, O. [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Esposito, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Haniff, C., E-mail: ddefrere@email.arizona.edu [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); and others
2015-01-20
We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% ± 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (∼2.6 AU for the distance of η Crv) and shows no significant variation over 35° of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS; ∼23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the solar zodiacal cloud unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (∼3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust for the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU)
Mistlberger, Ralph; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Lisa; Bowman, Melody; Tecott, Laurence; Sullivan, Elinor
2010-01-01
The ability to entrain circadian rhythms to food availability is important for survival. Food-entrained circadian rhythms are characterized by increased locomotor activity in anticipation of food availability (food anticipatory activity). However, the molecular components and neural circuitry underlying the regulation of food anticipatory activity remain unclear. Here we show that serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2CR) null mutant mice subjected to a daytime restricted feeding schedule exhibit enhanc...
Wang, Shu; Wu, Dayong; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Lecker, Jaime L; Lichtenstein, Alice H
2010-01-01
The effect of an atherogenic diet on inflammatory response and elicited peritoneal macrophage (Mφ) cholesterol accumulation in relation to aortic lesion formation was assessed in LDL receptor null (LDLr−/−) mice. Mice were fed an atherogenic or control diet for 32 weeks. The atherogenic relative to control diet resulted in significantly higher plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations, more aortic wall Mφ depo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang XL
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Xi-Liang Zhang, Yong-Hui Cui Department of Gastroenterology, The First People’s Hospital of Shangqiu City, Shangqiu, Henan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Although a number of studies have been conducted on the association between the GSTM1 null genotype and gastric cancer in People’s Republic of China, this association remains elusive and controversial. To clarify the effects of the GSTM1 null genotype on the risk of gastric cancer, an updated meta-analysis was performed in the Chinese population. Related studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM up to November 5, 2014. A total of 25 studies including 3,491 cases and 5,921 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association (odds ratio [OR] =1.47, 95% CI: 1.28–1.69 was found between the null GSTM1 and gastric cancer risk when all studies in Chinese population were pooled into the meta-analysis. In subgroup analyses stratified by quality score, geographic area, and source of controls, the same results were observed. Additionally, a significant association was found both in smokers and non-smokers. This meta-analysis showed that the null GSTM1 may be a potential biomarker for gastric cancer risk in Chinese, and further studies with gene–gene and gene–environment interactions are required for definite conclusions. Keywords: meta-analysis, GSTM1, polymorphism, gastric cancer
On the behaviour of non-radial null geodesics in self-similar Tolman-Bondi collapse
Ortiz, Néstor; Zannias, Thomas
2015-01-01
Motivated by recent work on the structure of the singularity in inhomogeneous Tolman-Bondi collapse models, we investigate the behaviour of null geodesics in the particular case where the collapse is self-similar. The presence of the homothetic Killing vector field implies that the geodesic equation can be described by an integrable Hamiltonian system, and exploiting this fact we provide a full qualitative picture for its phase flow.
Hsu, Jennifer L.; Lisa Yu; Elinor Sullivan; Melodi Bowman; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Tecott, Laurence H.
2010-01-01
The ability to entrain circadian rhythms to food availability is important for survival. Food-entrained circadian rhythms are characterized by increased locomotor activity in anticipation of food availability (food anticipatory activity). However, the molecular components and neural circuitry underlying the regulation of food anticipatory activity remain unclear. Here we show that serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT2CR) null mutant mice subjected to a daytime restricted feeding schedule exhibit enha...
Manoff, Sawa
2003-01-01
The notion of null (isotropic) vector field is considered in spaces with affine connections and metrics as models of space or space-time. On its basis the propagation of signals in space-time is considered. The Doppler effect is generalized for these types of spaces. The notions of standard (longitudinal) Doppler effect and transversal Doppler effect are introduced. On their grounds, the Hubble effect and the aberration effect appear as Doppler effects with explicit forms of the centrifugal (...
Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.
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Jeffrey B Eells
Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.
Fibrillin levels in a severely affected Marfan syndrome patient with a null allele
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boxer, M.; Withers, A.P.; Al-Ghaban, Z. [Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)]|[Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)] [and others
1994-09-01
Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by defects in the cardiovascular, skeletal and ocular systems. A patient was first examined in 1992 having survived an acute sortic dissection with subsequent composite repair and insertion of a prosthetic aortic valve. Clinical examination revealed arachnodactyly, narrow, high arched palate with dental crowding, an arm span exceeding her height by 10.5 cm, joint laxity and bilateral lens subluxation. Analysis of the family showed affected members in three generations and the fibrillin gene, FBN1, was shown to segregate with the disease when using polymorphic markers including an RsaI polymorphism in the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the gene. Analysis of patient mRNA for this RsaI polymorphism by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products showed that the copy of the gene segregating with the disease was not transcribed. No low level expression of this allele was observed despite RT-PCR amplification incorporating radioactively labelled dCTP, thus revealing a null allele phenotype. Western blotting analysis of fibrillin secreted by the patient`s dermal fibroblasts using fibrillin-specific antibodies showed only normal sized fibrillin protein. However, immunohistochemical studies of the patient`s tissue and fibroblasts showed markedly lowered levels in staining of microfibrillar structures compared with age-matched controls. This low level of expression of the protein affected in Marfan syndrome in a patient with such severe clinical manifestations is surprising since current understanding would suggest that this molecular phenotype should lead to a mild clinical disorder.
Timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the Bonnor-Sackfield relativistic disk
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Guillermo A. González
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A study of timelike and null equatorial geodesics in the BonnorSackfield relativistic thin disk is presented. The motion of test particles in the equatorial plane is analyzed, both for the newtonian thin disk model as for the corresponding relativistic disk. The nature of the possible orbits is studied by means of a qualitative analysis of the effective potential and by numerically solving the motion equation for radial and non-radial equatorial trajectories. The existence of stable, unstable and marginally stable circular orbits is analyzed, both for the newtonian and relativistic case. Examples of the numerical results, obtained with some simple values of the parameters, are presented. Resumen. En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de las geodésicas temporales y nulas en el disco delgado relativista y newtoniano de Bonnor-Sackfield. Se analiza el movimiento de las partículas de prueba en el plano ecuatorial, tanto para el modelo newtoniano del disco delgado como para el disco relativista correspondiente. La naturaleza de las órbitas posibles se estudia por medio de un análisis cualitativo del potencial efectivo, y numéricamente mediante la solución de la ecuación de movimiento de las trayectorias ecuatorial radial y no radial: Se analiza la existencia de órbitas estables, circulares inestables y estables marginalmente, tanto para el caso newtoniano, como el relativista. Se presentan ejemplos de los resultados numéricos obtenidos con algunos valores de los parámetros simples.
Maturation stage enamel malformations in Amtn and Klk4 null mice.
Núñez, Stephanie M; Chun, Yong-Hee P; Ganss, Bernhard; Hu, Yuanyuan; Richardson, Amelia S; Schmitz, James E; Fajardo, Roberto; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jan C-C; Simmer, James P
2016-01-01
Amelotin (AMTN) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) are secreted proteins specialized for enamel biomineralization. We characterized enamel from wild-type, Amtn(-/-), Klk4(-/-), Amtn(+/-)Klk4(+/-) and Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) mice to gain insights into AMTN and KLK4 functions during amelogenesis. All of the null mice were healthy and fertile. The mandibular incisors in Amtn(-/-), Klk4(-/-) and Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) mice were chalky-white and chipped. No abnormalities except in enamel were observed, and no significant differences were detected in enamel thickness or volume, or in rod decussation. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) maximum intensity projections localized the onset of enamel maturation in wild-type incisors distal to the first molar, but mesial to this position in Amtn(-/-), Klk4(-/-) and Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) mice, demonstrating a delay in enamel maturation in Amtn(-/-) incisors. Micro-CT detected significantly reduced enamel mineral density (2.5 and 2.4gHA/cm(3)) in the Klk4(-/-) and Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) mice respectively, compared with wild-type enamel (3.1gHA/cm(3)). Backscatter scanning electron microscopy showed that mineral density progressively diminished with enamel depth in the Klk4(-/-) and Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) mice. The Knoop hardness of the Amtn(-/-) outer enamel was significantly reduced relative to the wild-type and was not as hard as the middle or inner enamel. Klk4(-/-) enamel hardness was significantly reduced at all levels, but the outer enamel was significantly harder than the inner and middle enamel. Thus the hardness patterns of the Amtn(-/-) and Klk4(-/-) mice were distinctly different, while the Amtn(-/-)Klk4(-/-) outer enamel was not as hard as in the Amtn(-/-) and Klk4(-/-) mice. We conclude that AMTN and KLK4 function independently, but are both necessary for proper enamel maturation. PMID:26620968
Lens transcriptome profile during cataract development in Mip-null mice.
Bennett, Thomas M; Zhou, Yuefang; Shiels, Alan
2016-09-16
Major intrinsic protein or aquaporin-0 (MIP/AQP0) functions as a water channel and a cell-junction molecule in the vertebrate eye lens. Loss of MIP function in the lens leads to degraded optical quality and cataract formation by pathogenic mechanisms that are unclear. Here we have used microarray-hybridization analysis to detect lens transcriptome changes during cataract formation in mice that are functionally null for MIP (Mip-/-). In newborn Mip-/- lenses (P1) 11 genes were up-regulated and 18 were down-regulated (>2-fold, p=6-fold) in the Mip-/- lens at P1 included those coding for a mitochondrial translocase (Timmdc1), a matrix metallopeptidase (Mmp2), a Rho GTPase-interacting protein (Ubxn11) and a transcription factor (Twist2). Apart from Mip, the most down-regulated genes (>4-fold) in the Mip-/- lens at P1 included those coding for a proteasome sub-unit (Psmd8), a ribonuclease (Pop4), and a heat-shock protein (Hspb1). Lens fiber cell degeneration in the Mip-/- lens was associated with increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cell nuclei and dramatically elevated levels of calpain-mediated proteolysis of αII-spectrin. However red-ox status, measured by glutathione and free-radical levels, was similar to that of wild-type. These data suggest that while relatively few genes (∼1.5% of the transcriptome) were differentially regulated >2-fold in the Mip-/- lens, calpain hyper-activation acts as a terminal pathogenic event during lens fiber cell death and cataract formation. PMID:27524245
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Theresa Alexandra Mattioli
Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.
Tomasi, Mirta; Canato, Marta; Paolini, Cecilia; Dainese, Marco; Reggiani, Carlo; Volpe, Pompeo; Protasi, Feliciano; Nori, Alessandra
2012-02-01
Amplitude of Ca(2+) transients, ultrastructure of Ca(2+) release units, and molecular composition of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are altered in fast-twitch skeletal muscles of calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1)-null mice. To determine whether such changes are directly caused by CASQ1 ablation or are instead the result of adaptive mechanisms, here we assessed ability of CASQ1 in rescuing the null phenotype. In vivo reintroduction of CASQ1 was carried out by cDNA electro transfer in flexor digitorum brevis muscle of the mouse. Exogenous CASQ1 was found to be correctly targeted to the junctional SR (jSR), as judged by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy; terminal cisternae (TC) lumen was filled with electron dense material and its width was significantly increased, as judged by electron microscopy; peak amplitude of Ca(2+) transients was significantly increased compared with null muscle fibers transfected only with green fluorescent protein (control); and finally, transfected fibers were able to sustain cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration during prolonged tetanic stimulation. Only the expression of TC proteins, such as calsequestrin 2, sarcalumenin, and triadin, was not rescued as judged by Western blot. Thus our results support the view that CASQ1 plays a key role in both Ca(2+) homeostasis and TC structure. PMID:22049211
Guo, Ruilong; Pu, Zuyin; Chen, Li-Jen; Fu, Suiyan; Xie, Lun; Wang, Xiaogang; Dunlop, Malcolm; Bogdanova, Yulia V.; Yao, Zhonghua; Xiao, Chijie; He, Jiansen; Fazakerley, Andrew N.
2016-05-01
Signatures of secondary islands are frequently observed in the magnetic reconnection regions of magnetotail plasmas. In this paper, magnetic structures with the secondary-island signatures observed by Cluster are reassembled by a fitting-reconstruction method. The results show three-dimensionally that a secondary island event can manifest the flux rope formed with an As-type null and a Bs-type null paired via their spines. We call this As-spine-Bs-like configuration the helically wrapped spine model. The reconstructed field lines wrap around the spine to form the flux rope, and an O-type topology is therefore seen on the plane perpendicular to the spine. Magnetized electrons are found to rotate on and cross the fan surface, suggesting that both the torsional-spine and the spine-fan reconnection take place in the configuration. Furthermore, detailed analysis implies that the spiral nulls and flux ropes were locally generated nearby the spacecraft in the reconnection outflow region, indicating that secondary reconnection may occur in the exhaust away from the primary reconnection site.
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Barbara Ghinassi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Ex vivo expanded erythroblasts (EBs may serve as advanced transfusion products provided that lodgment occurs in the macrophage-niche of the marrow permitting maturation. EBs expanded from adult and cord blood expressed the receptors (CXCR4, VLA-4, and P-selectin ligand 1 necessary for interaction with macrophages. However, 4-days following transfusion to intact NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice, CD235apos EBs were observed inside CD235aneg splenic cells suggesting that they underwent phagocytosis. When splenectomized and intact NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice were transfused using retrovirally labeled human EBs, human cells were visualized by bioluminescence imaging only in splenectomized animals. Four days after injection, human CD235apos cells were detected in marrow and liver of splenectomized mice but only in spleen of controls. Human CD235apos erythrocytes in blood remained low in all cases. These studies establish splenectomized NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice as a suitable model for tracking and quantification of human EBs in vivo.
Thorne, Lawrence R
2011-01-01
I propose a novel approach to balancing equations that is applicable to all chemical-reaction equations; it is readily accessible to students via scientific calculators and basic computer spreadsheets that have a matrix-inversion application. The new approach utilizes the familiar matrix-inversion operation in an unfamiliar and innovative way; its purpose is not to identify undetermined coefficients as usual, but, instead, to compute a matrix null space (or matrix kernel). The null space then provides the coefficients that balance the equation. Indeed, the null space contains everything there is to know about balancing any chemical-reaction equation!
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Gaile Daniel P
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We provide a re-analysis of the Golden Spike dataset, a first generation "spike-in" control microarray dataset. The original analysis of the Golden Spike dataset was presented in a manuscript by Choe et al. and raised questions concerning the performance of several statistical methods for the control of the false discovery rate (across a set of tests for differential expression. These original findings are now in question as it has been reported that the p-values associated with the tests of differential expression for null probesets (i.e., probesets designed to be fold change 1 across the two arms of the experiment are not uniformly distributed. Two recent publications have speculated as to the reasons the null distributions are non-uniform. A publication by Dabney and Storey concludes that the non-uniform distributions of null p-values are the direct consequence of an experimental design which requires technical replicates to approximate biological replicates. Irizarry et al. identify four characteristics of the feature level data (three related to experimental design and one artifact. Irizarry et al. argue that the four observed characteristics imply that the assumptions common to most pre-processing algorithms are not satisfied and hence the expression measure methodologies considered by Choe et al. are likely to be flawed. Results We replicate and extend the analyses of Dabney and Storey and present our results in the context of a two stage analysis. We provide evidence that the Stage I pre-processing algorithms considered in Dabney and Storey fail to provide expression values that are adequately centered or scaled. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the distributions of the p-values, test statistics, and probabilities associated with the relative locations and variabilities of the Stage II expression values vary with signal intensity. We provide diagnostic plots and a simple logistic regression based test statistic to
Evaluation of the Self-Nulling Rotating Eddy Current Probe System
Hagemaier, Don; Rengel, Kent; Wincheski, Buzz; Namkung, Min
1999-01-01
In order to detect multi-site fatigue cracks located under flush-head rivets, automated eddy current equipment is required. To assure a reliable system, the eddy current probe must be centered easily over the installed rivets. To meet these requirements, the NDE Group at NASA LaRC developed the Self-Nulling Rotating Eddy Current Probe System (SNRECPS) which will be referred to as RPS in this document. The system was evaluated at the FAA, NDI Validation Center, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The system was capable of detecting a 0.032 inch long crack with a 90/95% PoD. Further evaluations were conducted at Boeing in Long Beach, California. These evaluations included fatigue cracks and notches in a range from 0.025 to 0.100 inch long under flush-head aluminum rivets, and titanium or steel flush-head fasteners. The results of these tests are reported herein. Subsequently, the system was loaned to the USAF Structures Laboratory for the purpose of detecting and measuring short cracks under flush-head rivets in a variety of fatigue test specimens. The inspection task was to detect and plot crack growth from numbered fasteners in lettered rows. In January, 1998, the system was taken to Northwest Airlines Maintenance Base, in Atlanta, to inspect a DC-9, for multi-site cracks in three circumferential splices. The aircraft had 83,000 cycles. The inspection was conducted at 30 kHz from longeron 5 left to longeron 5 right. The system was calibrated using a 0,030 EDM first layer notch. The instrument gain was set to 19 mV from the notch. The reject level was set at 10 mV and the unflawed fasteners yielded a signal amplitude of 2 to 3 mV. Only one fastener location, out of about 2,500 tested, yielded a signal of 58 mV. The rivet was removed and visually evaluated. It appeared to be a slight gouge in the counter-sink zone. No fatigue cracks were detected. The same fastener locations were also inspected using the Boeing MAUS system at 60 kHz. No cracks were detected. Thus far, the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grassilli, Emanuela; Narloch, Robert; Federzoni, Elena;
2013-01-01
Evasion from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis due to p53 loss strongly contributes to drug resistance. Identification of specific targets for the treatment of drug-resistant p53-null tumors would therefore increase the effectiveness of cancer therapy.......Evasion from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis due to p53 loss strongly contributes to drug resistance. Identification of specific targets for the treatment of drug-resistant p53-null tumors would therefore increase the effectiveness of cancer therapy....
Simona Boncompagni; Monique Thomas; Jose R Lopez; Allen, Paul D.; Qunying Yuan; Kranias, Evangelia G.; Clara Franzini-Armstrong; Perez, Claudio F.
2012-01-01
Triadin (Tdn) and Junctin (Jct) are structurally related transmembrane proteins thought to be key mediators of structural and functional interactions between calsequestrin (CASQ) and ryanodine receptor (RyRs) at the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR). However, the specific contribution of each protein to the jSR architecture and to excitation-contraction (e-c) coupling has not been fully established. Here, using mouse models lacking either Tdn (Tdn-null), Jct (Jct-null) or both (Tdn/Jct-...
Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Blanco, Eduardo; Pedraza, Carmen; Chun, Jerold; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J.
2013-01-01
This work was aimed to assess whether voluntary exercise rescued behavioral and hippocampal alterations in mice lacking the lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor (LPA1-null mice), studying the potential relationship between the amount of exercise performed and its effects. Normal and LPA1-null mice underwent 23 days of free wheel running and were tested for open-field behavior and adult hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation, immature neurons, cell survival). Running decreased anxiety-lik...
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Hua Jiang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap.
Identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli.
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Freddy Ibanez
Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQPs proteins transport water and uncharged low molecular-weight solutes across biological membranes. Six to 8 AQP genes have been identified in many insect species, but presently only three aquaporins have been characterized in phloem feeding insects. The objective of this study was to identify candidate AQPs in the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli. Herein, we identified four candidate aquaporin cDNAs in B. cockerelli transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that candidate BcAQP2-like had high similarity to PRIP aquaporins; while candidates BcAQP4-like, BcAQP5-like and BcAQP9-like clustered within clade B. In particular, candidates BcAQP4-like and BcAQP5-like clustered with functionally validated insect aquaglyceroporin proteins. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR showed that all candidates were expressed in all life stages and tissues. Candidates BcAQP4-like and BcAQP5-like were highly expressed in bacteriocytes, while BcAQP9-like appeared to be expressed at high levels in whole body but not in the assayed tissues. This study is the first global attempt to identify putative aquaporins in a phloem feeding insect.
Astrocyte Aquaporin Dynamics in Health and Disease.
Potokar, Maja; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Zorec, Robert
2016-01-01
The family of aquaporins (AQPs), membrane water channels, consists of diverse types of proteins that are mainly permeable to water; some are also permeable to small solutes, such as glycerol and urea. They have been identified in a wide range of organisms, from microbes to vertebrates and plants, and are expressed in various tissues. Here, we focus on AQP types and their isoforms in astrocytes, a major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes have anatomical contact with the microvasculature, pia, and neurons. Of the many roles that astrocytes have in the CNS, they are key in maintaining water homeostasis. The processes involved in this regulation have been investigated intensively, in particular regulation of the permeability and expression patterns of different AQP types in astrocytes. Three aquaporin types have been described in astrocytes: aquaporins AQP1 and AQP4 and aquaglyceroporin AQP9. The aim here is to review their isoforms, subcellular localization, permeability regulation, and expression patterns in the CNS. In the human CNS, AQP4 is expressed in normal physiological and pathological conditions, but astrocytic expression of AQP1 and AQP9 is mainly associated with a pathological state. PMID:27420057
Study on the Quality of NILs of Wheat cv.Longfumai 3 Possessing HMWGS Null and 1 Subunits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li-li; ZHANG Yan-bin; SONG Qing-jie; ZHAO Hai-bin; YU Hai-yang; ZHANG Chun-li; XIN Wen-li; XIAO Zhi-min
2008-01-01
To determine the genetic differences between high molecular weigh glutenin subunits(HMW-GS)null and 1.HMW-GS1 was introduced into Longfumai 3(N,7+8,5+10)by 5 consecutive backcrosses with biochemical marker assisted selection.The near isogenic lines(NILs)of HMW-GS null and 1 were obtained and planted in the experimental field of Crop Breeding Institute of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Science in 2004 and 2005.The field experiments were designed using the method of two-line contrast arrangement with four replicates.The result of two years experiment showed that the statistic differences of quality parameters between Longfumai 3 with subunit 1 and with null were not significant in flour protein content,dry gluten content,and water absorption.However the gluten index,' Zeleny sedimentation,the ratio of sedimentation/dry gluten,the development time,stability,and the breakdown time in the NIL with 1 subunit were increased by 5.8% (P＜0.01),9.3% (P＜0.01),8.6% (P=0.01),127.3% (P＜0.01),79.2% (P＜0.01),and 53.6% (P＜0.01),and the ratio of wet gluten/dry gluten and the degree of softening were decreased by 1.7%(P=0.05)and 16.5% (P=0.13),respectively.The impact of the HMW-GS 1 on the gluten strength was highly positive in NILs containing HMW-GS 5 + 10,suggesting that HMW-GS 1 can be an indispensable subunit for breeding strong gluten wheat.
Jia, Angela Y.; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Zhao, Yu-Ting; Li, Ye-Xiong; Wang, Zhi; Rong, Wei-Qi; Wang, Li-Ming; Jin, Jing; Wang, Shu-Lian; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Wang, Wen-Qing; Liu, Xin-Fan; Yu, Zi-Hao
2015-01-01
Background The current study is the first to examine the effectiveness and toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) abutting the vasculature. Specifically, we aim to assess the role of IMRT in patients with ICC undergoing null-margin (no real resection margin) resection. Methods Thirty-eight patients with ICC adherent to major blood vessels were included in this retrospective study. Null-margin resection was performed on all patients; 14 patients were further treated with IMRT. The median radiation dose delivered was 56.8 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy). The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results At a median follow-up of 24.6 months, the median OS and DFS of all patients (n=38) were 17.7 months (95% CI, 13.2-22.2) and 9.9 months (95% CI, 2.8-17.0), respectively. Median OS was 21.8 months (95% CI, 15.5-28.1) among the 14 patients in the postoperative IMRT group and 15.0 months (95% CI, 9.2-20.9) among the 24 patients in the surgery-only group (P=0.049). Median DFS was 12.5 months (95% CI, 6.8-18.2) in the postoperative IMRT group and 5.5 months (95% CI, 0.7-12.3) in the surgery-only group (P=0.081). IMRT was well-tolerated. Acute toxicity included one case of Grade 3 leukopenia; late toxicity included one case of asymptomatic duodenal ulcer discovered through endoscopy. Conclusions The study results suggest that postoperative IMRT is a safe and effective treatment option following null-margin resections of ICC. Larger prospective and randomized trials are necessary to establish postoperative IMRT as a standard practice for the treatment of ICC adherent to major hepatic vessels. PMID:25830032
Campos, Tania; Ziehe, Javiera; Fuentes-Villalobos, Francisco; Riquelme, Orlando; Peña, Daniela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Lavandero, Sergio; Morin, Violeta; Pincheira, Roxana; Castro, Ariel F
2016-06-01
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) disease results from inactivation of the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, and is characterized by benign tumors in several organs. Because TSC tumorigenesis correlates with hyperactivation of mTORC1, current therapies focus on mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin or its analogs. Rapamycin-induced tumor shrinkage has been reported, but tumor recurrence occurs on withdrawal from rapamycin. Autophagy has been associated with development of TSC tumors and with tumor cell survival during rapamycin treatment. mTORC1 and AMPK directly inhibit and activate autophagy, respectively. AMPK is hyperactivated in TSC cells and tumors, and drives cytoplasmic sequestration of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27KIP (p27). Whether AMPK and p27 are involved in rapamycin-induced autophagy and survival of TSC cells remain unexplored. Here, we show that inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by shRNA-mediated depletion of LKB1 reduces activation of autophagy by rapamycin in Tsc2-null cells. Similarly, shRNA-mediated depletion of p27 inhibited rapamycin-induced autophagy. In support of p27 lying downstream of AMPK on the activation of autophagy in Tsc2-null cells, a p27 mutant that preferentially localizes in the cytosol recovered the effect of rapamycin on autophagy in both p27- and LKB1-depleted cells, but a nuclear p27 mutant was inactive. Finally, we show that p27-dependent activation of autophagy is involved in Tsc2-null cell survival under rapamycin treatment. These results indicate that an AMPK/p27 axis is promoting a survival mechanism that could explain in part the relapse of TSC tumors treated with rapamycin, exposing new avenues for designing more efficient treatments for TSC patients. PMID:26975583
Influence of dietary iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland in Slc26a4-null mutant mice
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Iwata Tomoyuki
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pendred syndrome (PDS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine organification. The thyroid function phenotype can range from normal function to overt hypothyroidism. It is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC26A4 (PDS gene. The severity of the goiter has been postulated to depend on the amount of dietary iodine intake. However, direct evidence has not been shown to support this hypothesis. Because Slc26a4-null mice have deafness but do not develop goiter, we fed the mutant mice a control diet or an iodine-deficient diet to evaluate whether iodine deficiency is a causative environmental factor for goiter development in PDS. Methods We evaluated the thyroid volume in histological sections with the use of three-dimensional reconstitution software, we measured serum levels of total tri-iodothyronine (TT3 and total thyroxine (TT4 levels, and we studied the thyroid gland morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results TT4 levels became low but TT3 levels did not change significantly after eight weeks of an iodine-deficient diet compared to levels in the control diet animals. Even in Slc26a4-null mice fed an iodine-deficient diet, the volume of the thyroid gland did not increase although the size of each epithelial cell increased with a concomitant decrease of thyroid colloidal area. Conclusions An iodine-deficient diet did not induce goiter in Slc26a4-null mice, suggesting that other environmental, epigenetic or genetic factors are involved in goiter development in PDS.
Expression of TP53 Isoforms p53β or p53γ Enhances Chemosensitivity in TP53null Cell Lines
Elisabeth Silden; Hjelle, Sigrun M; Line Wergeland; André Sulen; Vibeke Andresen; Jean-Christophe Bourdon; Micklem, David R; Emmet McCormack; Bjørn Tore Gjertsen
2013-01-01
The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53(null) background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate wi...
Jha, Abhinav K.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Frey, Eric C.; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.
2015-09-01
Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and
Identification of the GST-T1 and GST-M1 Null Genotypes using High Resolution Melting Analysis
Drobná, Zuzana; Del Razo, Luz Maria; Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Loomis, Dana; Stýblo, Miroslav
2011-01-01
Glutathione S-transferases, including GST-T1 and GST-M1, are known to be involved in the phase II detoxification pathways for xenobiotics as well as in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis and associated with risk factors that predispose to certain inflammatory diseases. In addition, GST-T1 and GST-M1 null genotypes have been shown to be responsible for interindividual variations in metabolism of...
Active phase-nulling of the self-mixing phase in a terahertz frequency quantum cascade laser.
Dean, P; Keeley, J; Valavanis, A; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Taimre, T; Alhathlool, R; Li, L H; Indjin, D; Rakić, A D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G
2015-03-15
We demonstrate an active phase-nulling scheme for terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) under optical feedback, by active electronic feedback control of the emission frequency. Using this scheme, the frequency tuning rate of a THz QCL is characterized, with significantly reduced experimental complexity compared to alternative approaches. Furthermore, we demonstrate real-time displacement sensing of targets, overcoming the resolution limits imposed by quantization in previously implemented fringe-counting methods. Our approach is readily applicable to high-frequency vibrometry and surface profiling of targets, as well as frequency-stabilization schemes for THz QCLs. PMID:25768154
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and
Expression of TP53 Isoforms p53β or p53γ Enhances Chemosensitivity in TP53null Cell Lines
Silden, Elisabeth; Hjelle, Sigrun M; Wergeland, Line; Sulen, André; Andresen, Vibeke; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Micklem, David R.; McCormack, Emmet; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore
2013-01-01
The carboxy-terminal truncated p53 alternative spliced isoforms, p53β and p53γ, are expressed at disparate levels in cancer and are suggested to influence treatment response and therapy outcome. However, their functional role in cancer remains to be elucidated. We investigated their individual functionality in the p53null background of cell lines H1299 and SAOS-2 by stable retroviral transduction or transient transfection. Expression status of p53β and p53γ protein was found to correlate with...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1, a member of the μ class GST gene family, has been shown to be polymorphic because of a partial gene deletion. This results in a failure to express the GSTM1 gene in 50-60% of individuals. Several studies have demonstrated a possible link with the GSTM1-null genotype and susceptibility to cancer. Furthermore, a GSTM1 isoenzyme has been positively associated with protective effect against mutagenic drugs, such as alkylating agents and anthracyclines. To determine whether GSTM1 polymorphisms are associated with tumour characteristics and survival in advanced breast cancer patients, and whether it may constitute a prognostic factor. We genotyped 92 patients receiving primary chemotherapy, which included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicine and 5-fluorouracil. The relationships between allelism at GSTM1 and clinicopathological parameters including age, menopausal status, tumour size, grade hormone receptors, involved nodes and p53 gene mutations were analysed. Of the patients with GSTM1-positive genotype, tissue samples obtained before and after treatment were available from 28 cases, allowing RNA extraction and GSTM1 expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Relationships with clinical response to chemotherapy, and disease-free and overall survival were also evaluated. The data obtained was analysed using logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Of 92 patients, 57.6% (n = 53) were classified as heritably GSTM1-deficient, and 42.4% (n = 39) were of the GSTM1-positive genotype. There were no statistically significant relationships between GSTM1-null genotype and the clinicopathological parameters analysed. No relationship was observed between GSTM1 RNA expression and objective clinical response to chemotherapy. Objective clinical response to chemotherapy was related only to clinical tumour size (P = 0.0177) and to the absence of intraductal carcinoma (P = 0.0013). GSTM1-null genotype
SaiSree, L.; Reddy, Manjula; Gowrishankar, J
2000-01-01
The uvrD gene in Escherichia coli encodes a 720-amino-acid 3′-5′ DNA helicase which, although nonessential for viability, is required for methyl-directed mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair and furthermore is believed to participate in recombination and DNA replication. We have shown in this study that null mutations in uvrD are incompatible with lon, the incompatibility being a consequence of the chronic induction of SOS in uvrD strains and the resultant accumulation of the cell s...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Li; GUO Ximing; ZHANG Guofan
2009-01-01
Microsatellites were screened in a backcross family of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Fifteen microsatellite loci were distinguishable and polymorphic with 6 types of allele-combinations. Null alleles were detected in 46.7% of loci, accounting for 11.7% of the total alleles. Four loci did not segregate in Mendelian Ratios. Three linkage groups were identified among 7 of the 15 segregating loci. Fluorescence-based automated capillary electrophoresis (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer) that used to detect the microsatellite loci, has been proved a fast, precise, and reliable method in microsatellite genotyping.
Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming
2002-12-01
Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids, which contains all kinds of amino acid, especially 8 amino acids necessary for human, but also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as Trypsin inhibitor and Lipoxygenase. Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, a new soybean variety Zhonghuang 16 (originally name as Zhongzuo 96-952) was developed by Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences through years of biochemical marker assistant selection for null trypsin inhibitor by Native-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) and null lipoxygenase by means of isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in the hybrid progenies of "ti15176" (Female parent)--a high-yielding, mosaic virus resistant and null trypsin inhibitor line and "Century-2.3" (Male parent)--a null lipoxygenase near isogene line of an elite American variety "Century". This variety was subjected to Beijing regional trial for summer-sowing soybean during 1999-2000, and to Beijing demonstration test in 2001. In 2002, it was passed the examination and approval by the Beijing Committee of Crop Variety Examination and Approval because of its outstanding characteristics such as high and stable yielding, good quality (high protein and fat content, high protein content and good protein quality-null Ti and Lox2.3), disease resistant and good general character. It is the first new soybean variety with null Ti and Lox2.3 genes in our country. In this paper, the development process and cultivation of Zhonghuang 16 were described. PMID:12693103