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Sample records for aqua regia

  1. Patterning of platinum (Pt) thin films by chemical wet etching in Aqua Regia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllensperger, P. A.; Karl, W. J.; Ahmad, M. M.; Pike, W. T.; Green, M.

    2012-06-01

    The chemical and physical properties of platinum (Pt) make it a useful material for microelectromechanical systems and microfluidic applications such as lab-on-a-chip devices. Platinum thin-films are frequently employed in applications where electrodes with high chemical stability, low electrical resistance or a high melting point are needed. Due to its chemical inertness it is however also one of the most difficult metals to pattern. The gold standard for patterning is chlorine RIE etching, a capital-intensive process not available in all labs. Here we present simple fabrication protocols for wet etching Pt thin-films in hot Aqua Regia based on sputtered Ti/Pt/Cr and Cr/Pt/Cr metal multilayers. Chromium (Cr) or titanium (Ti) is used as an adhesion layer for the Pt. Cr is used as a hard masking layer during the Pt etch as it can be easily and accurately patterned with photoresist and withstands the Aqua Regia. The Cr pattern is transferred into the Pt and the Cr mask later removed. Only standard chemicals and cleanroom equipment/tools are required. Prior to the Aqua Regia etch any surface passivation on the Pt is needs to be removed. This is usually achieved by a quick dip in dilute hydrofluoric acid (HF). HF is usually also used for wet-etching the Ti adhesion layer. We avoid the use of HF for both steps by replacing the HF-dip with an argon (Ar) plasma treatment and etching the Ti layer with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based etchant.

  2. Determination of heavy metals (Pd, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr) in sedimentary reference materials with IDMS: Total concentration and aqua regia soluble portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, A.; Heumann, K.G.

    1988-12-01

    The total concentration and the aqua regia soluble portion of traces of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Cr are determined with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in three different types of sediments using a thermal quadrupole instrument (THQ). The results are compared with those obtained by other methods during a certification project to establish these sediments (BCR 277, BCR 280, BCR 320) as standard reference materials. The IDMS (THQ) results are in good agreement with the preliminary certification values and the results of two other laboratories, which applied IDMS using magnetic sector field mass spectrometers. Significant differences between the different analytical methods were found for the total Pb concentration, which could be explained by adsorption and coprecipitation effects during the chemical pretreatment of samples. Using aqua regia instead of HF/HNO/sub 3/ for the decomposition of sediments, only 65%-95% of the total Pb and 60%-90% of the total Cr could be dissolved. On the other hand, only a small or negligible portion of Zn, Cd, and Cu could not be dissolved by aqua regia. The IDMS values for the aqua regia soluble Cr portion are significantly higher compared to the results of other methods. This can be explained by adsorption effects.

  3. Microwave assisted aqua regia extraction of thallium from sediment and coal fly ash samples and interference free determination by continuum source ETAAS after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Madhavi, K; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2013-01-30

    A simple cloud point extraction method is described for the separation and pre-concentration of thallium from the microwave assisted aqua regia extracts of sediment and coal fly ash samples. The method is based on the formation of extractable species of thallium and its interaction with hydrophobic solubilizing sites of Triton X-114 micelles in the presence of aqua regia and electrolyte NaCl. These interactions of micelles are used for extraction of thallium from a bulk aqueous phase into a small micelles-rich phase. The potential chloride interferences are eliminated effectively, which enabled interference free determination of thallium from aqua regia extracts using continuum source ETAAS. The parameters affecting the extraction process are optimized. Under the optimized conditions, pre-concentration factor and limit of detection are 40 and 0.2 ng g(-1), respectively. The recoveries are in the range of 95-102%. A characteristic mass, 13 pg was obtained. The accuracy of the method is verified by analyzing certified reference materials such as NIST 1633b coal fly ash, NIST 1944 marine sediment and GBW 07312 stream sediments. The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values and method is also applied to real samples.

  4. Mineralogical basis for the interpretation of multi-element (ICP-AES), oxalic acid, and aqua regia partial digestions of stream sediments for reconnaissance exploration geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Mosier, E.L.; Motooka, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have applied partial digestion procedures, primarily oxalic acid and aqua regia leaches, to several regional geochemical reconnaissance studies carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analytical methods. We have chosen to use these two acids because the oxalic acid primarily attacks those compounds formed during secondary geochemical processes, whereas aqua regia will digest the primary sulfide phases as well as secondary phases. Application of the partial digestion technique has proven superior to total digestion because the concentration of metals in hydromorphic compounds and the sulfides is enhanced relative to the metals bound in the unattacked silicate phases. The aqua regia digestion attacks and leaches metals from the mafic chain silicates and the phyllosilicates (coordination number of VI or more), yielding a characteristic geochemical signature, but does not leach appreciable metal from many other silicates. In order to interpret the results from these leach studies, we have initiated an investigation of a large suite of hand-picked mineral separates. The study includes analyses of about two hundred minerals representing the common rock-forming minerals as well as end-member compositions of various silicates, oxides, sulfides, carbonates, sulfates, and some vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, and phosphates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leaching by acids of particular lattice sites in specific mineral structures. ?? 1987.

  5. Determination of Trace Cadmium in Geological Samples by Aerosol Dilution ICP-MS with Inverse Aqua Regia Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Guo, W.; Jin, L.; Hu, S.; Chai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that occurs at ppb level in most terrestrial materials. The determination of Cd in geological samples by ICP-MS is subject to Zr and/or Mo based oxide/hydroxide interference. This study developed a valid method for the determination of Cd by Ar aerosol dilution ICP-MS with inverse aqua regia extraction (in a water bath at 95℃ for 2h). An Agilent 7700x ICP-MS (Agilent Technologies, USA) with an aerosol dilution system was used. The extraction procedure separated most of the Zr matrix (>90%) from the analyte, and the residual Zr- hydroxides and Mo-oxides or hydroxides were successfully eliminated by adding an amount of Ar to the sample aerosol prior to the plasma. Compared to the conventional operation, the amounts of oxide and hydroxide ions formed in the plasma were reduced by up to 10 times. The relative yields of the interfering oxides and hydroxides were as low as 0.012% ((94Mo16OH++95Mo16O+)/(94Mo++95Mo+)) and 0.007% (94Zr16OH+/94Zr+). Under the optimized dilution gas flow rate (0.85 L min-1) and carrier gas flow rate (0.24 L min-1), the limit of detection (LOD, 3s) for 111Cd was 1.3 ng g-1. The accuracy of the method was assessed by using two USGS SRMs (andesite AGV-2 and basalt BCR-2). The Cd contents determined for AGV-2 and BCR-2 are 0.058±0.004μg g-1 and 0.148±0.007μg g-1 (N=10), which are in good agreement with the USGS reference values (0.061μg g-1 and 0.14μg g-1). The proposed method was also applied to determine Cd contents in 65 IGGE SRMs (28 soils, 28 sediments and 9 rocks). The measured Cd levels in these samples agree well with their certified values. The developed method shows great potential for the direct determination of trace levels of Cd in geological samples.

  6. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter using multivariate optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jmoreda@udc.es; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2004-11-22

    A highly sensitive and simple method, based on hydride generation and atomic fluorescence detection, has been developed for the determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter samples. Atmospheric particulates matter was collected on glass fiber filters using a medium volume sampler (PM1 particulate matter). Two-level factorial designs have been used to optimise the hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) procedure. The effects of several parameters affecting the hydride generation efficiency (hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations and flow rates) have been evaluated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. In addition, parameters affecting the hydride measurement (delay, analysis and memory times) have been also investigated. The significant parameters obtained (sodium tetrahydroborate concentration, sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate and analysis time for As; hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Se(IV); and sodium tetrahydroborate concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Te(IV)) have been optimized by using 2{sup n} + star central composite design. Hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate were the significant parameters obtained for Sb and Bi determination, respectively. Using a univariate approach these parameters were optimized. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using several certified reference materials: SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter) and SRM 1649a (urban dust). Detection limits in the range of 6 x 10{sup -3} to 0.2 ng m{sup -3} have been achieved. The developed methods were applied to several atmospheric particulate matter samples corresponding to A Coruna city (NW Spain)

  7. Detection of Metal Ions in Silica by Reverse Aqua Regia Digestion and Ion Chromatography%硅胶中六种金属离子反王水消解-离子色谱检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 贾艳侠; 唐涛; 孙元社; 张维冰; 李英杰; 李彤

    2012-01-01

    Silica is the most commonly used HPLC column packing and trace metal ion impurities in silica can seriously affect the performance of chromatographic separation. It is important to develop a rapid, highly selective and sensitive method for the quality control of silica. In this paper, an analytical method for the determination of metal ions in silica by ion chromatography with reverse aqua regia digestion was proposed. The pretreatment method of sample was systematically studied in detail. The optimum conditions for the pretreatment were as follow: digestion reagent was hydrofluoric acid and reverse aqua regia, reducing agent was ascorbic acid. Under the optimized conditions, six metal ions (sodium, zinc, potassium, iron, magnesium and calcium) were obtained good baseline resoluions. The results demonstrated that the proposed method was simple,rapid,sensitive and reproducible for determination of metal ions in actual silica samples.%本文建立了硅胶中金属离子反王水消解-离子色谱检测的方法.系统研究了硅胶的最佳前处理条件,选择消解试剂为氢氟酸和反王水,还原剂为抗坏血酸,实现了Na+、Zn2+、K+、Fe2+、Mg2+和Ca2+六种金属离子基线分离.该方法简便快速、灵敏、重现性好.进一步以该方法对实际硅胶样品中微量金属离子测定,获得较好的结果.

  8. 王水溶样-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铁铜铅锌硫化物矿石中8个元素%Simultaneous Determination of 8 Elemental Components of Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in Sulfide Ores by ICP-AES with Aqua Regia Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宏利; 马生凤; 马新荣; 王蕾; 范凡; 巩爱华

    2011-01-01

    建立了王水溶样-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铁、铜、铅、锌硫化物矿中Cu、Pb、Zn、As、Ag、Cd、Hg和Mo等8个元素的分析方法.确定了方法的溶矿及测定条件,用国家一级标准物质GBW07162(多金属贫矿石)和GBW07164(多金属矿石)进行精密度实验,除个别元素外,大多数的元素精密度(RSD,n=11)小于5%,准确度(RE)小于10%.通过一系列硫化物矿石标准物质进行方法验证,检测结果基本都在标准值的误差范围内,符合地质矿产开发的要求.方法简单,同时测定元素较多,线性范围宽,检出限低,尤其有利于硫化物矿石中的亲硫元素As、Ag、Hg的分析,实用性强.%A method is presented in this paper for examining sulphide ores, in order to determine Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg and Mo within Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn contained in the ores. This method utilizes Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry ( ICP-AES) with aqua regia digestion. The technique for sample dissolution and measuring conditions is also presented. The accuracy and precision of the method were examined by analyzing reference materials GBW07162 (multi-metal lean ore) and GBW07164 (multi-metal ore). The test results indicate that the relative standard deviation ( RSD, n = 11) of most elemental components is less than 5% and the accuracy (RE) is less than 10% for most elements. The method was validated by different reference materials and the results were in good agreement with the certified values, thereby meeting the requirements of mineral exploitation. The method has the advantage of providing a simple, simultaneous determination of multiple elements, along with having a wide linearity range and low detection limit, especially for the determination of As, Ag and Hg.

  9. Determination of As,Sb,S,Cu,Pb,Zn in Arsenic Ore and Stibium Ore by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry With Aqua Regia Digestion%王水溶矿-等离子体光谱法测定砷矿石和锑矿石中砷锑硫铜铅锌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马新荣; 马生凤; 王蕾; 温宏利; 巩爱华; 许俊玉

    2011-01-01

    建立了王水溶矿-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定砷矿石和锑矿石中主、次量元素砷、锑、硫及含量范围在100μg/g以上的铜、铅、锌等元素的方法.研究了放置时间、溶液酸度、氧化剂与络合剂对砷、锑、硫及其他元素测定的影响.不同王水浓度酸度对可同时测定的其他元素的影响不明显;当溶液酸度较小时,不能放置,应及时测定;如需放置,应在溶液定容前加入酒石酸防止水解.样品中砷、锑、硫的含量在0.74%~39.7%时,相对误差(RE)在-0.17%~7.74%,5次独立测定的相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于2%;含量在100~500 μg/g以下的Sb,RE在-2.5%~4.79%,5次独立测定的RSD均小于2%.由于稀释倍数较大(DF=1000),不能准确测定含量在100 μg/g以下的铜、铅、锌;含量在100μg/g以上的铜、铅、锌的RE在-10.3%~10.3%,5次独立测定的RSD基本小于5%.经标准物质验证获得满意结果.方法也可应用于砷、锑含量较高的硫化矿的测定.%The method for determining concentrations of As, Sb, S, and Cu, Pb , Zn which are above 100 μg/g, within arsenic ore and stibium ore by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with aqua regia digestion is reported in this paper. The experimental conditions such as placement time, solution acidity, and the influence of oxidant and complexing agents on As, Sb, S and the other elements were studied. The relative error ( RE) was determined to be between -0.17% and 7.74% with a RSD (n=5) of <2% if the concentrations of As, Sb, S in the samples were in the range of 0.74-39.7%. However, the RE was from -2.5% to 4.79% and RSD(n =5) was < 2% if the Sb concentration is lower than 100-500 μg/g. The RE was determined to be between - 10.3% and 10.3% with a RSD(n=5) of generally less than 5% if the Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were more than 100 μg/g. No accurate data were obtained for Cu, Pb and Zn if the concentrations

  10. AquaBuOY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Alla; Fredrikson, Göran; Claeson, Lennart;

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of the mathematical model simulating ocean performance of an offshore wave energy point absorber device-AquaBuOY. The AquaBuOY is the next generation of the technology, based on the IPS point absorber system and the hose pump, both of Sweden. AquaEnergy Group Ltd......., USA, is developing the system in cooperation with RAMBOLL, Denmark. In March 2003 the Danish Energy Authority awarded a grant for a design study that includes development of the numerical model for the AquaBuOY operation, experimental testing and design optimisation. The scale model tests...... results from the model tests on mooring forces under survival conditions will be presented during the conference in conjunction with different footprint configurations and different mooring systems. Finally the performance data based on theoretical and experimental results will be presented for the AquaBu...

  11. Antiplaque Activity of Juglans Regia L. and Characterization of Juglone from Juglans Regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oral hygiene has become the most important in current era. Due to growing need for aesthetic and hygeine oral hygiene has gained impetus. In this research paper we have studied new varieties of natural products which help in improving the oral hygiene. Approach: Two varieties of Juglans regia bark were extracted using hot and cold extraction methods and there in vitro antimicrobial activities were tested against four microorganisms related to dental caries (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces viscosus which are known to be implicated in dental caries. Results: Both the varieties of Juglans regia showed good anti plaque activity. Kashmir variety of Juglans regia showed maximum Antiplaque activity. Conclusion: Natural products like Juglans regia can be used for improving oral hygiene and can be included in the products of oral hygein.

  12. Aqua Logistics Opens Office in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Aqua Logistics forays into the region with its subsidiary Aqua Logistics China Ltd. Aqua Logistics Ltd.,India-based full scope multi-national service provider,opened its subsidiary-Aqua Logistics China Ltd.(ALCL) in Beijing on October 23.

  13. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water...

  14. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua carries six state-of-the-art instruments to observe the Earth's oceans, atmosphere, land, ice and snow covers, and vegetation, providing high measurement...

  15. Ecotoxicological tests with cadmium and chromium using postlarvae of silverside Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia Hildebrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Vera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the mean effective concentrations (EC50% of cadmium (Cd+2 and chromium (Cr+6 using postlarvae of the silverside fish Odontesthes (Austromenidia regia regia were determined. The postlarvae were exposed to different concentrations of the metals, between 0,142 and 1,208 mg.L–1 of cadmium and between 0,53 and 33,74 mg.L–1 of chromium. The mean effective concentrations (EC50% obtained were 0,648 mg.L–1 of cadmium (at 96 h and 2,68 mg.L–1 of chromium (at 96 h. Comparatively, cadmium is more toxic than chromium, and silverside is more tolerant than other organisms.

  16. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  17. Budding of Walnut ( Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlind Kasmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The walnut is classified as a strategic species for human nutrition and is included in the FAO’s list of priority plants. Walnut, (Juglans regia L. propagation is more difficult, compared to most fruit species. Due to walnut heterozygosity, propagation by seeds does not lead to inheritance of all the characteristics of certain varieties. That is the reason why propagation technologies are being improved worldwide. The purpose of this experiment was to increase the success of inoculation of the walnut budding var. Franquete. Methods such as the patch budding and chip budding have been employed during the experiment. To establish the most appropriate season of inoculation, June budding on 28 June (with buds taken in the current season, autumn budding on 28 August (with buds taken in the current season and spring budding on 28 May (with buds collected from the winter dormant period, were tested. As rootstocks for the June and August budding, the seedlings of Juglans regia L. of the current year's growth have been employed. For the spring inoculation the one year old scions have been used. Patch budding resulted the most successful method for walnuts. However, the success of the method of patch budding depends on the season of inoculation. An 80 % of successful inoculation was achieved by June budding (on 28 June. Furthermore, cutting off the leaf 20 days before the buds being taken for budding, led to even higher results reaching 87% of successful inoculation. According to the results of the present study, the June budding of the patch method seems to be the best solution for the production of grafted young walnut trees.

  18. Sexual reproduction in Odontella regia (Schultze) Simonsen 1974 (Bacillariophyta)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hegde, S.; Narale, D.D.; Anil, A.C.

    The sequence of spermatogenesis and sperm cell count of Odontella regia (Schultze) Simonsen from Indian waters is reported. The sequence of events in the spermatogenesis producing 16 spermatogonia following four differentiating (depauperating...

  19. Study of Antioxidant Activity of Juglans regia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD HATAMJAFARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity for Juglans regia leaves. The Methanol extract from Iranian Juglans regia leaves that grow in Karaj and Tonekabon regions was examined. In addition, total amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities and reductive power of crude extracted its different fractions were determined. The antioxidant activity data by DPPH has been compared in both regions.

  20. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Zakavi; Leila Golpasand Hagh; Arash Daraeighadikolaei; Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh; Arsham Daraeighadikolaei; Zahra Leilavi Shooshtari

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and w...

  1. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  2. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  3. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia. PMID:27641607

  4. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) protect endogenous antioxidants in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellagic acid monomers, polymeric tannins and related phenolic compounds isolated from English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) have been reported to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress in animal models. To determine whether dietary and endogenous antioxidants are pres...

  5. Two new diarylheptanoids from the pericarps of Juglans regia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new cyclic diarylheptanoids juglanin A (1) and juglanin B (2) were isolated from the pericarps of Juglans regia L. Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY) and HR-ESIMS.

  6. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  7. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  8. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Goldson Barnaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications.

  9. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  10. Aspectos biológico-pesqueros del pejerrey (Odontesthes regia regia en el puerto de Ilo durante 1996-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Treviño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los aspectos biológicos y pesqueros del pejerrey peruano (Odontesthes regia regia población en Ilo, desde enero de 1996 a septiembre de 1998. Las capturas fueron tres veces más alta (72,76 t que las de 1996 hasta 1997, mientras que con el calentamiento de "El Niño" en 1998 éstas se redujeron a 0,62 t. Durante el evento "El Niño 1997-1998" la población mostró también una serie de cambios en la distribución, la reproducción y la composición de la dieta. Estos cambios se asociaron a la incursión de agua subtropical superficial.

  11. Tannins and Antioxidant Activities of the Walnut (Juglans regia) Pellicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-12-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.

  12. Development and characterization of new microsatellites for walnut (Juglans regia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Y; Han, J W; Jin, Q; Wang, Y; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) database represents a potentially valuable resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for use in evolutionary studies. EST-SSRs reveal polymorphisms not only within the source taxon, but in related taxa as well. In this paper, we describe a case study in which the publicly available walnut (Juglans regia) EST database was used to develop SSR markers for use in the genetic analysis of the widespread Juglans nigra and Carya cathayensis and an endangered species Annamocarya sinensis. A total of 7262 unigenes, including 1911 contigs and 5351 singletons, were obtained from 13,559 ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. The 7262 unigenes were further reduced to 706 EST-SSR sequences containing 805 SSR loci. Then, 309 EST-SSR primers were randomly designed, and 77 were identified with five high across-species transferability cross-species: namely, J. regia, J. nigra, C. cathayensis, Carya dabieshanensis, and A. sinensis. Thirteen highly polymorphic EST-SSRs were further used for genetic analyses in these above five species.

  13. [Chemical constituents from the seed coat of Juglans regia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanshui; Tai, Zhigang; Feng, Siquan; Fang, Yunshan; Cai, Le; Ding, Zhongtao

    2012-05-01

    Fifteen compounds were isolated from the seed coat of Juglans regia by silica gel, MCI gel and Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography, as well as high preparative performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified as salidroside (1), (6S, 9S)-roseoside (2), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (3), blumenol C glucoside (4), byzantionoside B (5), 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (6), gallic acid (7), glycerol 1-(9Z-octadecenoate)-2-(9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoate)-3-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z-octadecatrienoate) (8), glycerol 1, 2, 3-tri-(9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoate) (9), glycerol 1, 2, 3-tri-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z-octadecatrienoate) (10), glycerol 1-hexadecanoate-2, 3-di-(9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoate) (11) on the basis of EI-MS, FAB-MS and NMR spectra. Moreover, 35 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS.

  14. Purification and characterization of tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekiri, Florime; Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan G; Michael, Claudia; Mayer, Rupert L; Gerner, Christopher; Rompel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a type-3 copper enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to their quinone derivates, which are further converted to melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. In this study a plant originated tyrosinase was isolated from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) and biochemically characterized. It was possible to isolate and purify the enzyme by means of an aqueous two-phase extraction method followed by chromatographic purification and identification. Interestingly, the enzyme showed a rather high monophenolase activity considering that the main part of plant PPOs with some exceptions solely possess diphenolase activity. The average molecular mass of 39,047 Da (Asp(101)→Arg(445)) was determined very accurately by high resolution mass spectrometry. This proteolytically activated tyrosinase species was identified as a polyphenol oxidase corresponding to the known jrPPO1 sequence by peptide sequencing applying nanoUHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The polypeptide backbone with sequence coverage of 96% was determined to start from Asp(101) and not to exceed Arg(445).

  15. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  16. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Farooqui

    Full Text Available Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  17. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens. PMID:25719410

  18. Seasonal changes in english walnut (Juglans regia L.) (Juglandaceae), fruit properties and host use patterns by Rhagoletis zoqui (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhagoletis zoqui Bush is a Neosubtropical, univoltine, frugivorous tephritid fly that exploits both native Juglans spp. and the introduced, Palearctic English walnut, Juglans regia. The seasonal development of commercial J. regia fruit and the pattern of host exploitation by R. zoqui were tracked ov...

  19. The walnut (Juglans regia) genome sequence reveals diversity in genes coding for the biosynthesis of non-structural polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich...

  20. Mechanical and electrical performance of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2012-08-01

    The present paper investigates mechanical and electrical properties of Roystonea regia/glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Five varieties of hybrid composites have been prepared by varying the glass fibre loading. Roystonea regia (royal palm), a natural fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. Roystonea regia, -glass short fibres were used together as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to form hybrid composites. It has been observed that tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of hybrid composites considerably increased with increase in glass fibre loading. But electrical conductivity and dielectric constant values decreased with increase in glass fibre content in the hybrid composites at all frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy of fractured hybrid composites has been carried out to study the fibre matrix adhesion.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Samhwangsasimtang aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eun

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Samhwangsasimtang aqua-acupuncture at gansoo(B18 and chungwan(CV12 on antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant were investigated in rat fed high fat diet. Concentrations of triglyceride, free fatty acids, lipoprotein and glucose in plasma showed a tendency to decrease in the aqua-acupuncture groups. In plasma lipid composition, total cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in aqua-acupuncture groups, however the values of HDL-cholesterol showed no significantly different in the treatment groups. Concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS in plasma and liver showed a low in the aqua-acupuncture groups. The values of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px and catalase(CAT activity showed a tendency to increase in aqua-acupuncture groups. However the values of superoxide dismutase(SOD activity showed no significantly different in the treatment groups.

  2. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-27

    To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

  3. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region. PMID:25030024

  4. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region.

  5. Anthocyanin Characterization of Pilot Plant Water Extracts of Delonix regia Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile M. Gaydou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia.

  6. Seasonal Variation and Correlation with Environmental Factors of Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Juglans regia and Ziziphus jujuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bo Yang; Shu-Qing An; Osbert-Jianxin Sun; Zuo-Min Shi; Xin-Song She; Qing-Ye Sun; Shi-Rong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Both the photosynthetic light curves and CO.2 curves of Juglans regia L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa in three seasons were measured using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system. The maximal net photosynthetic rate (Ainu), apparent quantum efficlency(ψ), maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the two species were calculated based on the curves. The results showed that Amax of J. regia reached its maximum at the late-season, while the highest values of Amax of Z. jujuba occurred at the mid-season. The Amax of J. regia was more affected by relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere, while that of Z, Jujuba was more affected by the air temperature. Light saturation point (LSP) and Light compensation point (LCP) of J. regia had a higher correlation with RH of the atmosphere, those of Z. jujube, however, had a higher correlation with air temperature. Vcmax of both J. regia and Z. jujube had negative correlation with RH of the atmosphere. WUE of J. regia would decrease with the rise of the air temperature while that of Z. Jujuba increased. Thus it could be seen that RH, temperature and soil moisture had main effect on photosynthesis and WUE of J. regia and Z.jujuba. Incorporating data on the physiological differences among tree species into forest carbon models will greatly improve our ability to predict alterations to the forest carbon budgets under various environmental scenarios such as global climate change, or with differing species composition.

  7. Anti-diabetes Agents---Ⅰ: Tetralone Derivative from Juglans regia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, 4-hydroxy-α-tetralone-4-O-β-D-[6′-O-(3″,4″,5″-trihydroxybenzoyl) glucopyranoside (1), together with a known compound, 4-hydroxy-(-tetralone (2), has been isolated from the roots of Juglans regia.2 showed moderate bioactivity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B).

  8. 胡桃属一新变型%A New Forma of Juglans regia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘济明; 徐国瑞

    2011-01-01

    A new forma of Juglans L. from Guizhou is reported. It is named Juglans regia L. f. luodianense Liu et Xu. To J. regia L. , it differs in the following aspects: nut diameter(3 to 4 cm) is short as well as stable, there are more leaflets(7 to 13) and lateral nerves( 13 to 17 ) in compound leaf, florescence( Mar. to Apr. ) and fruit period(Sep. ) are earlier.%发表了胡桃属一新变型,即罗甸小米核桃(Juglans regia L. f. luodianense Liu et Xu)。与普通核桃(J.regia L.)的主要区别表现在:果实直径小且稳定(3~4cm);复叶上的小叶数(7~13片)及侧脉(13~17对)多;花期(3~4月)与果期(9月)提前。

  9. On the occurrence of Platalea regia, Gould on Celebes, Boeroe and Timor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1907-01-01

    While making the osteological catalogue of the birds of our Museum, I met with an imperfect skull of a spoonbill, which has been sent over from Celebes by von Rosenberg in the year 1864. The skull belongs to the black-billed australian spoonbill, Platalea regia Gould. This object is the bill of a bi

  10. AquaCrop模型及其研究进展%Review on the Processes of AquaCrop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 魏新平

    2014-01-01

    结合国内外有关AquaCrop模型的研究工作,以研究模型的应用领域为基点,对AquaCrop模型运用成果的特点进行归纳.在此基础上,指出了模型在理论合理性和实际适用性等方面存在的问题,并对AquaCrop模型的发展前景进行了展望,以期为我国作物模型的研究提供借鉴.

  11. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 2G Precipitation Estimate V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  13. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF DELONIX REGIA FLOWERS IN EXPERIMENTAL INDUCED ULCER IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiramane Rajabhau S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of flowers of Delonix regia (leguminosae was obtained and investigated for its gastro protective activity in experimental induced ulcer model. Pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers at the doses (100, 250 and 500mg/kg.p.o were administered through the oral route. The Antiulcer effect of ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers was studied in aspirin, alcohol and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration experimental models and the results were compared with that of lansoprazole (8mg/kg, p.o. as reference standard drug. The various parameters like Ulcer index and percentage protection in all the models and gastric volume, pH of gastric juice, free acidity and total acidity in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulceration model were monitored. From the findings of our study, the ethanolic extract of flowers of Delonix regia showed gastroprotective effect of in a dose dependant manner.

  14. The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Juglans regia leaves in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Delaviz, Hamdollah; Malekzadeh, Jan Mohammad; Roozbehi, Amrollah

    2012-04-01

    Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis 417, a Copper-Resistant Strain Isolated from Juglans regia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ulisses P; Gouran, Hossein; Nascimento, Rafael; Adaskaveg, James E; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis 417, a copper-resistant strain isolated from a blighted walnut fruit (Juglans regia L. cv. Chandler). The genome consists of a single chromosome (5,218 kb).

  16. Etch rates for (100) gallium arsenide using aqueous H2SO4:H2O2 and aqua regia based etchants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etch rate experiments were carried out for (100) GaAs using etching solutions of H2SO4 :H2O2 :H2 O (3:1:1, 3:1:15), HCl:HNO3 (3:1), HCl:HNO3 :H2 O (1:1:1) and HCl:HNO3 :glycerol (with various dilutions of glycerol). Several differences were seen for the (100) plane compared to previous results for other crystal orientations. The sulphuric acid solutions showed much lower activation energies for etching the (100) plane. The HCl:HNO3 :glycerol solutions showed considerably lower etch rates for the (100) plane, probably indicating that they etch GaAs anisotropically. For a 1:1:2 solution of HCl:HNO3 :glycerol a decrease in the etch rate of (100) GaAs was observed in the presence of stirring. This is the opposite result to what is commonly assumed for this polishing etchant. It indicates that the main polishing process attributed to this etchant is not present, and in fact, the polishing quality of the etchant is probably limited by the etching process which is present. 14 refs., 8 figs

  17. Comparative Analysis of Mineral Elements and Essential Amino Acids Compositions in Juglans sigillata and J. regia Walnuts Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhi ZHAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut high nutritional and economic values. The kernel is usually considered to be a good source of minerals and essential amino acids. In this paper, mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc and essential amino acids (phenylalanine, valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, and lysine composition's of kernels from 11 kinds of walnuts (Juglans sigillata and 17 kinds of walnuts (Juglans regia originated from China were determined by ICP-MS and HPLC, respectively. The order of nutritive mineral elements depending on their content (mg/100g of samples was Mg> Ca> Zn> Mn> Fe> Cu in J. regia, while the order in J. sigillata was Mg> Ca> Mn> Fe > Zn > Cu. For essential amino acids, the order depending on the content (mg/g of the essential amino acids in J. regia samples was leucine> isoleucine> valine> phenylalanine> lysine> threonine> methionine, while the order in J. sigillata was leucine> isoleucine> lysine> phenylalanine> valine> threonine> methionine. The kernels of walnuts (J. regia and J. regia are good sources of health foods and dietary supplements. ‘Y029’ in Juglans sigillata and ‘XJ004’ in Juglans regia provided the best profiles of mineral elements and essential amino acids in comparison to others.

  18. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (Pofficinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  19. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia) improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Asadi-Shekaari; Abuzar Karimi; Mohammad Shabani; Vahid Sheibani; Khadije Esmaeilpour

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia) is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK) has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into t...

  20. Determination of total polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids in Juglans regia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-07-01

    Juglans regia leaves have been widely used in traditional medicines because of its antimicrobial, antihelmintic, astringent, keratolytic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic, depurative, tonic, carminative activity. Total polyphenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and flavonoids were quantified using the HPLC-PDA after the hydrolysis of the plant material with HCl. Among the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin, apigenin and kaempferol were found in appreciable amount.

  1. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Rahimzadeh; Samaneh Jahanshahi; Soheila Moein; Mahmood Reza Moein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhi...

  2. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Farooqui; Adnan Khan; Ilaria Borghetto; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Salvatore Rubino; Bianca Paglietti

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, ...

  3. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antimicrobial activity ans antioxidant potential of different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J. A.; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, A.; Valentão, P.; Andrade, P.B.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Ferreres, F.; Bento, Albino; Seabra, R.M.; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2007-01-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-pcoumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivativ...

  4. Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as passive biomonitors and as bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpebor, Emmanuel Ehiabhi; Ukpebor, Justina Ebehirieme; Aigbokhan, Emmanuel; Goji, Idris; Onojeghuo, Alex Okiemute; Okonkwo, Anthony Chinedum

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of two common and ubiquitously distributed and exotic ornamental plant species in Nigeria-Delonix regia and Casuarina equisetifolia as biomonitors and as effective bioaccumulators of atmospheric trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu) has been evaluated. Bark and leaf samples from these plant species were collected in June and July 2006 at five locations in Benin City. Four of the sampling sites were in areas of high traffic density and commercial activities, the fifth site is a remote site, selected to act as a control and also to provide background information for the metals. The plant samples were collected and processed using standard procedures and trace metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The bark of the plants was able to bioaccumulate the trace metals, especially Pb which originates from anthropogenic contributions in the city. The Pb range of 20.00-70.00 microg/g measured for the bark samples of D. regia, exceeded the normal plant Pb concentration of 0.2-20.0 microg/g and most Pb data available in literature. The bark of the plants was observed to accumulate more metals compared to the leave, while D. regia was found to be slightly better than C. equisetifolia in trace metal uptake efficiency. Spatial variations in the distributions of Pb and Zn were significant (p < 0.05), and the continuous use of leaded fuel in Nigeria was identified as the predominant source of Pb in the atmosphere.

  5. Corrections to the MODIS Aqua Calibration Derived From MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan Alden

    2013-01-01

    Ocean color products such as, e.g., chlorophyll-a concentration, can be derived from the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by imaging sensors on earth-orbiting satellites. There are currently three National Aeronautics and Space Administration sensors in orbit capable of providing ocean color products. One of these sensors is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, whose ocean color products are currently the most widely used of the three. A recent improvement to the MODIS calibration methodology has used land targets to improve the calibration accuracy. This study evaluates the new calibration methodology and describes further calibration improvements that are built upon the new methodology by including ocean measurements in the form of global temporally averaged water-leaving reflectance measurements. The calibration improvements presented here mainly modify the calibration at the scan edges, taking advantage of the good performance of the land target trending in the center of the scan.

  6. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  7. Determination of the Juglone Content of Juglans regia Leaves by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matławska, Irena; Bylka, Wiesława; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Stanisz, Beata

    2015-07-01

    The constituents of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are represented by tannins, phenolics, and naphthoquinones, the characteristic compound being juglone. The content of juglone in the methanolic extract of the leaves determined by the GC/MS method was 9.9 ± 0.2 mg/100 g; small amounts (1.3 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) were recorded in the infusion, whereas in the decoction it was not detected. As some studies indicate toxicity of juglone, only decoctions should be recommended for therapeutic use.

  8. Modelos femeninos de actuación en la familia regia asturleonesa, 700-1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isla Frez, Amancio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The female members of the royal family had the power to act in a limited number of areas. The roles they played in the period 700-1000 are examined and the alliances they forged as mediators between families analysed. Some queens were even disowned as a result of a change in alliance. We study what was required of these queens through the epithalamium for Leodegundia. Royal widows and princesses were involved in religious life to different extents but they all largely maintained their status and enjoyed considerable power. This involvement in religion afforded them some protection and rather than preventing them from managing their wealth, it enabled them to do so more easily.Los miembros femeninos de la familia regia actuaron en unos espacios de poder limitados. Se exploran las conductas que desarrollaron en el período 700- 1000. Se analizan las alianzas que generaron, actuando como mediadoras entre las familias. Las reinas padecieron repudios en virtud del cambio de esas alianzas. Estudiamos los rasgos exigidos a esas reinas merced al epitalamio de Leodegundia. La aproximación de viudas regias o infantas a la vida religiosa cobró distintos grados, pero en buena medida todas siguieron manteniendo su status y desarrollaron niveles de poder relevantes. En cualquier caso, esta entrada en religión generó una cierta protección sobre estos personajes y no les impidió gestionar un notable patrimonio, sino al contrario.

  9. Prenylated 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives with potent antioxidant properties from Chlorophora regia (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Kusari, Souvik; Adosraku, Reimmel Kwame; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of Chlorophora regia are frequently used in Ghana in traditional medicine. There is, however, no reported data on the chemical composition of the plant. Comprehensive phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of C. regia resulted in the isolation of three new prenylated 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives, regiafuran A-C (1-3), and one new prenylated flavonol (4), together with fifteen known compounds (5-19). Their structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic analysis of their NMR and HRESI-MS(n) data. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 9 and 15 exhibited remarkable free radical scavenging properties with IC50 values of 1.9 μg/ml, 2.4 μg/ml, 2.2 μg/ml, 2.1 μg/ml and 1.8 μg/ml, respectively, compared to the standard trolox (IC50 1.1 μg/ml). The isolated compounds did not, however, show any anti-inflammatory potential when tested using a PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) competitive enzyme immunoassay.

  10. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  11. Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of two populations of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault var. flos-aquae and four populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii Elenkin in eutrophic water bodies over 1 year from February 2006 to January 2007. The growth of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was promoted at high temperatures even if in one case the biomass development was very low when other co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp. and Microcystis spp. were abundant. In contrast, the highest density of the other population of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was observed in August when the population density of M. aeruginosa (Kützing Kützing reached an annual peak. A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae usually bloomed in summer but could also tolerate low temperatures in the winter, and was present in relatively high densities. The populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii observed in this study can be divided into three groups based on preferred temperature; three populations increased in winter, and the other increased in summer. Large biomasses of the low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae were observed mainly during winter when population densities of co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp. and Planktothrix raciborskii (Woloszynska Anagnostidis & Komárek were relatively low or almost absent. The increase in or existence of cooccurring cyanoprokaryotes during the summer resulted in a decrease of the A. flos-aquae population density. It was revealed that high temperatures (20-25 °C are suitable for maintaining A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii strains isolated from the study ponds, implying that low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae can grow over a wide range of water temperatures. The high-temperatureadapted A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii co-existed with M. aeruginosa during summer; however, its peak population density was significantly lower than those in previous years when M. aeruginosa was absent

  12. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  13. Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar eMurugesan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions namely solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.

  14. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Carolina Almonte-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC. Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w. and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w. over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets.

  15. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets.

  16. The walnut (Juglans regia) genome sequence reveals diversity in genes coding for the biosynthesis of non-structural polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Crepeau, Marc W; Puiu, Daniela; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Whalen, Jeanne; Stevens, Kristian A; Paul, Robin; Butterfield, Timothy S; Britton, Monica T; Reagan, Russell L; Chakraborty, Sandeep; Walawage, Sriema L; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Cardeno, Charis; Famula, Randi A; Pratt, Kevin; Kuruganti, Sowmya; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Salzberg, Steven L; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Langley, Charles H; Neale, David B

    2016-09-01

    The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and is one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. The high nutritional value of J. regia nuts is associated with a rich array of polyphenolic compounds, whose complete biosynthetic pathways are still unknown. A J. regia genome sequence was obtained from the cultivar 'Chandler' to discover target genes and additional unknown genes. The 667-Mbp genome was assembled using two different methods (SOAPdenovo2 and MaSuRCA), with an N50 scaffold size of 464 955 bp (based on a genome size of 606 Mbp), 221 640 contigs and a GC content of 37%. Annotation with MAKER-P and other genomic resources yielded 32 498 gene models. Previous studies in walnut relying on tissue-specific methods have only identified a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene (JrPPO1). Enabled by the J. regia genome sequence, a second homolog of PPO (JrPPO2) was discovered. In addition, about 130 genes in the large gallate 1-β-glucosyltransferase (GGT) superfamily were detected. Specifically, two genes, JrGGT1 and JrGGT2, were significantly homologous to the GGT from Quercus robur (QrGGT), which is involved in the synthesis of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, a precursor for the synthesis of hydrolysable tannins. The reference genome for J. regia provides meaningful insight into the complex pathways required for the synthesis of polyphenols. The walnut genome sequence provides important tools and methods to accelerate breeding and to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits.

  17. The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michael; Williamson, David L.; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrea M.; Rajendran, Kavirajan; Kotoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Climate simulations by 16 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) are compared on an aqua-planet, a water-covered Earth with prescribed sea surface temperature varying only in latitude. The idealised configuration is designed to expose differences in the circulation simulated by different models. Basic features of the aqua-planet climate are characterised by comparison with Earth. The models display a wide range of behaviour. The balanced component of the tropospheric mean flow, and mid-latitude eddy covariances subject to budget constraints, vary relatively little among the models. In contrast, differences in damping in the dynamical core strongly influence transient eddy amplitudes. Historical uncertainty in modelled lower stratospheric temperatures persists in APE.Aspects of the circulation generated more directly by interactions between the resolved fluid dynamics and parameterized moist processes vary greatly. The tropical Hadley circulation forms either a single or double inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) at the equator, with large variations in mean precipitation. The equatorial wave spectrum shows a wide range of precipitation intensity and propagation characteristics. Kelvin mode-like eastward propagation with remarkably constant phase speed dominates in most models. Westward propagation, less dispersive than the equatorial Rossby modes, dominates in a few models or occurs within an eastward propagating envelope in others. The mean structure of the ITCZ is related to precipitation variability, consistent with previous studies.The aqua-planet global energy balance is unknown but the models produce a surprisingly large range of top of atmosphere global net flux, dominated by differences in shortwave reflection by clouds. A number of newly developed models, not optimised for Earth climate, contribute to this. Possible reasons for differences in the optimised models are discussed.The aqua-planet configuration is intended as one component of an

  18. A Review on the Research and Application of AquaCrop Model%AquaCrop作物模型应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连喜; 吴建生; 李琪; 顾嘉熠; 薛红喜

    2015-01-01

    介绍了AquaCrop模型的基本原理以及研究和应用进展,重点介绍了AquaCrop模型的应用情况.AquaCrop模型在作物灌溉管理、种植制度、未来气候情景模拟中的应用已取得了较好成果.总结了AquaCrop模型当前应用应注意的问题,指出:AquaCrop模型的研究集中于单点尺度,在国内的研究多集中于模型的校正与验证,模型参数在我国的适用性还有待进一步验证;在严重水分胁迫条件下,会影响AquaCrop模型的模拟性能.最后,提出了未来发展的几点建议,以期为AquaCrop模型今后在我国的农业生产实践中起到指导作用.

  19. Antiradical activity of different parts of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit as a function of genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Vali; Jamei, Rashid; Heidari, Reza; Esfahlan, Ali Jahanban

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this work was to analyse phenolic compounds and antiradical capacity of different parts of walnut fruit among six genotypes of Juglans regia L. Therefore, total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined and methanolic extracts of walnut genotypes were considered by the reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenging. Significant differences were found in phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of different parts of fruits and among various genotypes. High correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.81) was observed between phenol content and radical scavenging activity, but this was not always true (R(2)=0.01). These results demonstrated that walnut genotypes have different phenolic compounds and phenolic compounds have different radical scavenging power. The differences of phenolic compounds were confirmed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  20. Characterization of Carya illinoiensis and Juglans regia oils obtained by different extraction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Costa-Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to evaluate the extraction processes of vegetable oils used in food, considering that the nuts are rich sources of triacylglycerols. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing the methods of solvent extraction and extraction by pressing of the lipid fractions of walnut (Juglans regia and pecan nut (Carya illinoensis, in order to elucidate their influence on the content of bioactive substances. The samples were analyzed regarding fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, presenting relevant quantities of these bioactive substances. It was found that the extraction of oils by pressing minimized degradation of tocopherol when compared to solvent extraction. However, solvent extraction is more efficient to extract bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

  1. Genetic diversity among Juglans regia L. genotypes assessed by morphological traits and microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mahmoodi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic diversity was assayed among 16 accessions and five cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. using morphological traits and nine simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Samples were collected from Agriculture Research Center of Urmia city (North West Iran. Study on important morphological traits revealed genetic similarity of -0.6 to 0.99 based on CORR coefficient. The microsatellite marker system produced 34 alleles in range of 160-290 bp. The minimum (2 and maximum (7 number of alleles were obtained from WGA71 and WGA202 genetic loci, respectively. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.25. Jaccard’s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.76. The results of this paper indicate high diversity among these genotypes which could be used for breeding management.

  2. Genetic diversity among Juglans regia L. genotypes assessed by morphological traits and microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, R.; Rahmani, F.; Rezaee, R.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, genetic diversity was assayed among 16 accessions and five cultivars of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) using morphological traits and nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Samples were collected from Agriculture Research Center of Urmia city (North West Iran). Study on important morphological traits revealed genetic similarity of -0.6 to 0.99 based on CORR coefficient. The microsatellite marker system produced 34 alleles in range of 160-290 bp. The minimum (2) and maximum (7) number of alleles were obtained from WGA71 and WGA202 genetic loci, respectively. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.25. Jaccards similarity coefficient ranged from 0.13 to 0.76. The results of this paper indicate high diversity among these genotypes which could be used for breeding management. (Author) 28 refs.

  3. Genotoxic assessment of D-004, extract from Roystonea regia fruit, by means of micronuclei assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-004 is a lipid extract from the real palm fruit (Roystonea regia), which has demonstrated that is effective to prevent prostatic hyperplasia from testosterone and from phenylephrine in rats' experimental models. Aim of this paper was to determine if D-004 provoke changes in appearance frequency of micronuclei during oral administration of repeated doses for 8 weeks. Five experimental groups were created (7animals/group): a solvent control-group, three treated with D-004(500, 1 000, and 1 500 mg/kg), and a positive control-group treated with cyclophosphamide. There were no deaths or clinical signs of toxicity neither significant differences among controls and treated ones as regards the frequency of micronucleated polychromatophils erythrocytes, and the cytotoxic index. In conclusion, D-004 administered per os at doses used has neither clastogenic nor cytotoxic activity in bone marrow male OF-1mice in vivo. (Author)

  4. Nutraceutical potential of tinctures from fruits, green husks, and leaves of Juglans regia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Durak, Agata; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the phenolic composition and nutraceutical potential of tinctures from fruits in two stages of maturity (F3, younger; F25, older), green husks (GH), and leaves (L) of Juglans regia L. In all extracts gallic, protocatechuic, 3-caffeoylquinic, 3-ρ-coumaroylquinic, 4-caffeoylquinic, 4-ρ-coumaroylquinic, and ρ -coumaric acids and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside were detected using UPLC-MS technique. Caffeic acid hexoside I and quercetin-3-O-deoxyhexoside I have been identified in GH tincture. The highest ability to chelate Fe(2+) was observed for GH tincture (EC50 = 71.01 ± 3.55 mg FM/mL), whereas the lowest was observed (EC50 = 131.06 ± 6.55 mg FM/mL) for F3 tincture. The highest reducing power was found for F3 and F25 (EC50 = 32.47 ± 1.53 and 36.07 ± 1.72 mg FM/mL, resp.). Ability of tinctures to prevent lipids against oxidation was relatively low. The highest activity (EC50 = 126.49 ± 6.32 mg FM/mL) was determined for F25. Tested tinctures showed relatively high antiradical activity-EC50 values ranged from 100.56 ± 5.03 to 129.04 ± 6.45 mg FM/mL for L and F25, respectively. The results obtained suggest that J. regia can be a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties.

  5. A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmpetis, Y.I.A.; Aravanopoulos, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L.) populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetr

  6. Early on-orbit calibration results from Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2003-04-01

    Aqua MODIS, also known as the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1), was launched on May 4, 2002. It opened its nadir aperture door (NAD) on June 24, 2002, beginning its Earth observing mission. In this paper, we present early results from Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization and assess the instrument's overall performance. MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). Bands 1-19, and 26 with wavelengths from 0.412 to 2.1 microns are the reflective solar bands (RSB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD). The degradation of the SD is tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bands 20-25, and 27-36 with wavelengths from 3.75 to 14.5 microns are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a blackbody (BB). Early results indicate that the on-orbit performance has been in good agreement with the predications determined from pre-launch measurements. Except for band 21, the low gain fire band, band 6, known to have some inoperable detectors from pre-launch characterization, and one noisy detector in band 36, all of the detectors' noise characterizations are within their specifications. Examples of the sensor's short-term and limited long-term responses in both TEB and RSB will be provided to illustrate the sensor's on-orbit stability. In addition, we will show some of the improvements that Aqua MODIS made over its predecessor, Terra MODIS (Protoflight Model - PFM), such as removal of the optical leak into the long-wave infrared (LWIR) photoconductive (PC) bands and reduction of electronic crosstalk and out-of-band (OOB) thermal leak into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands.

  7. catena-Poly[[di-μ-aqua-bis[aquacobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co2(C9H4N2O42(H2O4]n, is a one-dimensional polymeric complex with bridging 1H-benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylate and aqua ligands. The CoII cation has an octahedral coordination environment provided by an NO5 donor set. Adjacent polymeric chains extended along the [100] direction are linked by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  8. Application on Plugging Removal Technology Using of Agua Regia Acidification in Oil and Water well%油水井王水酸酸化解堵技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高磊; 周亚东; 孙昆

    2011-01-01

    Acidification oil production is one of measures adopted to acidification,effectively removing the plugging channel formation circuit.According to statistical analysis of experimental data show that the conventional measures acidification can plug the formation of the removal of 30 percent to 40 percent,thereby improving and enhancing the formation of infiltration capability and increase oil production capacity.However,conventional acidification usually reservoir lithology and plug the nature of the constraints,making removal of inefficient plug.Especially for some special lithology such as rocks,rough rocks,granite,conventional acidification less effective.Acidification nitrate powder technology is to use "aqua regia" to plug all the dissolution of almost 100 percent.At the same time using nitrate powder corrosive weak,for injection,and other characteristics of a good solution to the problem of aqua regia acid.%酸化是油田的增产措施之一,通过采取酸化措施,有效地去除地层油路通道的堵塞。根据实验数据统计分析表明,常规酸化措施能清除地层堵塞物的30%-40%,从而改善和提高了地层的渗透能力,增加油井产能。但常规酸化通常受到储层岩性和堵塞物性质的制约,使得去除堵塞物效率低。特别是对于一些特殊岩性如变质岩、粗面岩、花岗岩,常规酸化效果较差。硝酸粉末酸化工艺技术是利用"王水"对所有的堵塞物几乎100%溶解。同时利用硝酸固体粉末腐蚀性弱、便于注入等特点,很好地解决了王水酸化的问题。

  9. Pistillate Flower Abcission Symptoms of ‘Serr’ Walnut (Juglans RegiaL.) Sintomatología del Aborto en flores Pistiladas de Nogal (Juglans regiaL.) ‘Serr’

    OpenAIRE

    Cristián González R; Gamalier Lemus S; Gabino Reginato

    2008-01-01

    Pistillate flower abscission (PFA) severely affects walnut (Juglans regia L.) production, mainly of the cultivar ‘Serr’. A study on symptoms of flower abortion in walnut ‘Serr’, induced by excess or lack of pollen, was carried out following the evolution of flowers and peduncles. Hand pollinated flowers, with different pollen concentrations: 0, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100% pollen diluted (w/w) in talcum powder, showed external and internal abortion symptoms. External symptoms were recorded directly ...

  10. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Family of Cyclophilins, the AquaCyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Roman P; Schmidpeter, Philipp A M; Koch, Johanna R; Schmid, Franz X; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitous cis-trans-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) found in all kingdoms of life. Here, we identify a novel family of cyclophilins, termed AquaCyps, which specifically occurs in marine Alphaproteobacteria, but not in related terrestric species. In addition to a canonical PPIase domain, AquaCyps contain large extensions and insertions. The crystal structures of two representatives from Hirschia baltica, AquaCyp293 and AquaCyp300, reveal the formation of a compact domain, the NIC domain, by the N- and C-terminal extensions together with a central insertion. The NIC domain adopts a novel mixed alpha-helical, beta-sheet fold that is linked to the cyclophilin domain via a conserved disulfide bond. In its overall fold, AquaCyp293 resembles AquaCyp300, but the two proteins utilize distinct sets of active site residues, consistent with differences in their PPIase catalytic properties. While AquaCyp293 is a highly active general PPIase, AquaCyp300 is specific for hydrophobic substrate peptides and exhibits lower overall activity. PMID:27276069

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Family of Cyclophilins, the AquaCyps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P Jakob

    Full Text Available Cyclophilins are ubiquitous cis-trans-prolyl isomerases (PPIases found in all kingdoms of life. Here, we identify a novel family of cyclophilins, termed AquaCyps, which specifically occurs in marine Alphaproteobacteria, but not in related terrestric species. In addition to a canonical PPIase domain, AquaCyps contain large extensions and insertions. The crystal structures of two representatives from Hirschia baltica, AquaCyp293 and AquaCyp300, reveal the formation of a compact domain, the NIC domain, by the N- and C-terminal extensions together with a central insertion. The NIC domain adopts a novel mixed alpha-helical, beta-sheet fold that is linked to the cyclophilin domain via a conserved disulfide bond. In its overall fold, AquaCyp293 resembles AquaCyp300, but the two proteins utilize distinct sets of active site residues, consistent with differences in their PPIase catalytic properties. While AquaCyp293 is a highly active general PPIase, AquaCyp300 is specific for hydrophobic substrate peptides and exhibits lower overall activity.

  12. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily...

  13. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Family of Cyclophilins, the AquaCyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Roman P.; Schmidpeter, Philipp A. M.; Koch, Johanna R.; Schmid, Franz X.; Maier, Timm

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitous cis-trans-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) found in all kingdoms of life. Here, we identify a novel family of cyclophilins, termed AquaCyps, which specifically occurs in marine Alphaproteobacteria, but not in related terrestric species. In addition to a canonical PPIase domain, AquaCyps contain large extensions and insertions. The crystal structures of two representatives from Hirschia baltica, AquaCyp293 and AquaCyp300, reveal the formation of a compact domain, the NIC domain, by the N- and C-terminal extensions together with a central insertion. The NIC domain adopts a novel mixed alpha-helical, beta-sheet fold that is linked to the cyclophilin domain via a conserved disulfide bond. In its overall fold, AquaCyp293 resembles AquaCyp300, but the two proteins utilize distinct sets of active site residues, consistent with differences in their PPIase catalytic properties. While AquaCyp293 is a highly active general PPIase, AquaCyp300 is specific for hydrophobic substrate peptides and exhibits lower overall activity. PMID:27276069

  14. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic mechanical properties of Roystonea regia/glass–epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2012-12-01

    The paper evaluates effect of fibre surface modification and hybridization on dynamic mechanical properties of Roystonea regia/epoxy composites. Surface modification involved alkali and silane treatments. Alkali treatment proved to be more effective on dynamic mechanical properties as compared to silane treatment. Storage and loss modulus values increased after treatments with simultaneous decrease in tan values. Roystonea regia and glass fibres were used together with varying proportions as reinforcement in epoxy matrix to study the hybridization effect on dynamic mechanical properties. Storage and loss modulus values increased with increase in glass fibre content whereas tan values were found to decrease. Scanning electron microscopy of tensile fractured surfaces was carried out to study the interface adhesion of different composites.

  15. Operational Experiences in Planning and Reconstructing Aqua Inclination Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David; Reilly, Jacqueline; Schiff, Conrad

    2004-01-01

    As the lead satellite in NASA's growing Earth Observing System (EOS) PM constellation, it is increasingly critical that Aqua maintain its various orbit requirements. The two of interest for this paper are maintaining an orbit inclination that provides for a consistent mean local time and a semi-major Axis (SMA) that allows for ground track repeatability. Maneuvers to adjust the orbit inclination involve several flight dynamics constraints and complexities which make planning such maneuvers challenging. In particular, coupling between the orbital and attitude degrees of freedom lead to changes in SMA when changes in inclination are effected. A long term mission mean local time trend analysis was performed in order to determine the size and placement of the required inclination maneuvers. Following this analysis, detailed modeling of each burn and its Various segments was performed to determine its effects on the immediate orbit state. Data gathered from an inclination slew test of the spacecraft and first inclination maneuver uncovered discrepancies in the modeling method that were investigated and resolved. The new modeling techniques were applied and validated during the second spacecraft inclination maneuver. These improvements should position Aqua to successfully complete a series of inclination maneuvers in the fall of 2004. The following paper presents the events and results related

  16. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun-Hee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of the mice which were derived pain by injecting acetic acid into the abdomen, after stimulating Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 and non acupuncture point on the backside were measured. Results:1. It showed that the writhing reflex were appeared on the groups which injected acetic acid only, and saline-acetic acid group(sample I, but not on the group bee venom-saline group(sample II. 2. The change of writhing reflex by Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the order of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group III(2.5×10-3g/kg, II(2.5×10-4g/kg, and I(2.5×10-5g/kg, compared with control group. There were significant decrease of number of writhing reflex in 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of Chung wan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group I, and in 0~5, 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of II and III, compared with control group. 3. The change of writhing reflex by non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the 0~5 and 5~10 minutes intervals and the total number of writhing reflex in 2.5×10-4g/kg group, compared with control group 4. The effects of writhing reflex of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group showed significant decrease, compared with non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group. Conclusion:This study shows that the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 decreases the numbers of writhing reflex. As the

  17. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and VIIRS SNPP: Calibration Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Sawyer, Virginia; Kleidman, Richard; Patadia, Falguni; Zhou, Yaping; Gupta, Pawan; Shi, Yingxi; Remer, Lorraine; Holz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    MODIS-DT Collection 6 - Aqua/Terra level 2, 3; entire record processed - "Trending" issues reduced - Still a 15% or 0.02 Terra vs Aqua offset. - Terra/Aqua convergence improved with C6+, but bias remains. - Other calibration efforts yield mixed results. VIIRS-­-DT in development - VIIRS is similar, yet different then MODIS - With 50% wider swath, VIIRS has daily coverage - Ensures algorithm consistency with MODIS. - Currently: 20% NPP vs Aqua offset over ocean. - Only small bias (%) over land (2012-­-2016) - Can VIIRS/MODIS create aerosol CDR? Calibration for MODIS - VIIRS continues to fundamentally important. It's not just Terra, or just Aqua, or just NPP-­-VIIRS, I really want to push synergistic calibration.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  19. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. Leaves and Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity via Intracellular and Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11 μg/g, dry weight, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91 μg/g, quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04 μg/g, kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04 μg/g, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61 μg/g, and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46 μg/g. The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods.

  20. Flavonoids in Juglans regia L. leaves and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity via intracellular and chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Liu, Tao; Li, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are rich in Juglans regia L. leaves. They have potent antioxidant properties, which have been related to regulating immune function and enhancing anticancer activity. Herein, qualitative and quantitative determination of flavonoids from J. regia leaves was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization and negative ion detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) by comparison of the retention times and mass spectral fragments with standard substances or related literatures. Seventeen compounds were identified and major components are quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (453.11 μg/g, dry weight), quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (73.91 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-xyloside (70.04 μg/g), kaempferol-O-pentoside derivative (49.04 μg/g), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (48.61 μg/g), and kaempferol-O-pentoside (48.46 μg/g). The in vitro intracellular antioxidation indicated that flavonoids from J. regia leaves could reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in RAW264.7 cells and showed good radical scavenging activities. These results proved to be more related to the flavonoids that could be considered in the design of new formulations of dietary supplements or functional foods.

  1. Effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties of Roystonea regia-reinforced epoxy partially biodegradable composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Govardhan Goud; R N Rao

    2011-12-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable. The reinforcement Roystonea regia (royal palm) fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. The poor adhesion between fibre and matrix is commonly encountered problem in natural-fibre-reinforced composites. To overcome this problem, specific physical and chemical treatments were suggested for surface modification of fibres by investigators. Alkali treatment is one of the simple and effective surface modification techniques which is widely used in natural fibre composites. In the present study both untreated and alkali-treated fibres were used as reinforcement in Roystonea regia epoxy composites and the tensile, flexural and impact properties were determined at different fibre contents. The alkali treatment found to be effective in improving the tensile and flexural properties while the impact strength decreased.

  2. The Tropical Water Vapor Feedback Implied by Aqua Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschwaner, K.; Dessler, A. E.; Sawaengphokhai, P. C.; Laight, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the climate feedback by water vapor in the middle and upper troposphere of the tropics using data from Earth Observing System instruments on the Aqua satellite. The measured water vapor and sea surface temperatures are obtained from AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), and outgoing longwave fluxes from CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System). These data are used to quantify any response in tropical mean water vapor to changes in sea surface temperatures. We focus on the effect of variations in both tropical mean sea surface temperature and on variability confined to regions of active convection. Results are compared to feedback estimates based on previous measurements from UARS MLS, as well as the water vapor feedback predicted by global climate model simulations as part of the IPCC AR4 analysis.

  3. Skeletal growth, ultrastructure and composition of the azooxanthellate scleractinian coral Balanophyllia regia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, C.; Meibom, A.; Smith, D. C.; Stolarski, J.; Auzoux-Bordenave, S.; Nouet, J.; Doumenc, D.; Djediat, C.; Domart-Coulon, I.

    2010-03-01

    The biomineralization process and skeletal growth dynamics of azooxanthellate corals are poorly known. Here, the growth rate of the shallow-water dendrophyllid scleractinian coral Balanophyllia regia was evaluated with calcein-labeling experiments that showed higher lateral than vertical extension. The structure, mineralogy and trace element composition of the skeleton were characterized at high spatial resolution. The epitheca and basal floor had the same ultrastructural organization as septa, indicating a common biological control over their formation. In all of these aragonitic skeletal structures, two main ultrastructural components were present: “centers of calcification” (COC) also called rapid accretion deposits (RAD) and “fibers” (thickening deposits, TD). Heterogeneity in the trace element composition, i.e., the Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios, was correlated with the ultrastructural organization: magnesium was enriched by a factor three in the rapid accretion deposits compared with the thickening deposits. At the interface with the skeleton, the skeletogenic tissue (calicoblastic epithelium) was characterized by heterogeneity of cell types, with chromophile cells distributed in clusters regularly spaced between calicoblasts. Cytoplasmic extensions at the apical surface of the calicoblastic epithelium created a three-dimensional organization that could be related to the skeletal surface microarchitecture. Combined measurements of growth rate and skeletal ultrastructural increments suggest that azooxanthellate shallow-water corals produce well-defined daily growth steps.

  4. Comparison of Juglans regia L. bare-root nursery stocks for plantations: morphological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Good results in plantations are strictly related to the fitness of the nursery stock. Plant fitness, or quality, depends on inherent genetic characters and on physiological and physical (dimensional, morphological and nutritional characteristics. In arboriculture for wood production the role of stock quality is essential for a prompt expression of plant growth potential. So the necessity to define stock quality standards is widely recognized, though is still discussed how to assess stock cultural value by characteristics easy to measure. First step in such activities is to individuate in the above-ground part of the plantlets some traits related to the root system development. The study was carried out in two public forest nurseries (property of Regione Piemonte on 163 Juglans regia seedlings and transplants produced for wood plantations. In order to evaluate Walnut nursery stock production, different kinds of bare-root seedlings and transplants have been compared. For each kind, shoot and root system dimensional and morphological traits have been investigated after assignment of plants in 3 dimensional (height categories. Relations between shoots and roots traits have been studied to allow a visual evaluation of nursery plants based on data easy to collect. This study is to be considered a preliminary survey in the evaluation of stock quality based on field performance.

  5. Maternal feeding with walnuts (Juglans regia improves learning and memory in their adult pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Shekaari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Walnut (Juglans Regia is a domestic fruit of Iran. Walnut kernel (WK has many beneficial constituents such as unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and vitamin E. Scientific studies have shown that fatty acids and vitamin E can modulate learning and memory processes. The aim of the present work was to study effects of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation on learning and memory in adult rat offsprings. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into three groups: control (fed with ordinary food, 20 g daily, gestation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during pregnancy, and gestation and lactation (fed with WK, 6% of food intake during gestation and lactation. Morris water maze test was performed for their adult offsprings. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in learning and memory of rat offsprings between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These data may indicate that feeding mothers with WK results in improvement in learning and memory of their offsprings.

  6. Identification of Italian ecotypes of Juglans regia L. by molecular, morphological and biochemical markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollegioni P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. is a multipurpose species important for quality wood and fruit production. In order to contrast the erosion and to properly conserve, manage and revaluate the genetic resources of Italian walnut, possible ecotypes, naturally adapted and still present in Italy have been researched. Leaves and fruits have been sampled in Campania region, localities of Montella, Cervinara, Fisciano, and in Abruzzo region, localities of Sulmona, Pescasseroli, Villetta Barrea, and Civitella Alfedena. The sites are located at different altitudes and climatic conditions. Materials have been collected on a total of 276 plants. Molecular, morphological and preliminary biochemical analyses have been carried out on this germplasm and on material belonging to 80 plants of 4 famous Italian walnut varieties (Bleggiana and Feltrina, North Italy; Sorrento and Malizia, Southern Italy, in order to have a comparison model. 134 ISSR, morphological and biochemical data have shown peculiar characters for Montella and Pescasseroli in comparison with the other accessions. Because of the peculiar environmental conditions of their locations, the effect of the temperature on the fruit development and fatty acid contents, it is possible to suppose that Montella and Pescasseroli are ecotypes which could be utilised as essential fat acid source and as material for afforestation of mountain zones.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from Juglans regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Deng, Guang; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaohua; Li, Linling; Cheng, Hua; Rong, Xiaofeng; Li, Jinbao

    2012-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL), implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  8. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one. PMID:17637491

  9. Juglans regia and J. nigra, two trees important in traditional medicine: A comparison of leaf essential oil compositions and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prajwal; Satyal, Prabodh; Dosoky, Noura S; Maharjan, Samjhana; Setzer, William N

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Juglans regia, collected from Kathmandu, Nepal, and Juglans nigra from Huntsville, Alabama, USA, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 69 compounds were identified in the J. regia oil, accounting for 99.0% of the eluting components of the oil while three different samples of J. nigra were analyzed identifying a total of 99.3%, 99.4% and 99.7% of the oils. The leaf essential oil of J. regia was dominated by the aromatic compounds eugenol (27.5%) and methyl salicylate (16.2%), and the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (21.4%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (8.2%). The essential oils from three different samples of. J. nigra contained (E)-caryophyllene (17.3%-20.4%) and germacrene D (7.1%-22.5%) with smaller amounts of juglone (1.0%-8.8%), alpha-hydrojuglone (1.0-9.5%), and delta-cadinene (3.8%-8.7%). J. regia leaf oil, devoid of juglone, showed allelopathic activity, while J. nigra leaf oil was less phytotoxic. The presence of eugenol and methyl salicylate in the leaves of J. regia are consistent with the traditional uses of this plant to treat toothache, rheumatism, and fungal infections.

  10. Kinerja Saham PT Aqua Golden Mississippi Tbk. Setelah Pembatalan Go Private dan Estimasi Harga Saham Aqua Tahun 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Wandita Putri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Aqua Golden Mississippi is a company that plans to go private, but until today have not obtained approval from the shareholders. Failure may be caused from several things: the company offer price is too small, no quorum, shares held is still profitable for shareholders, and other factors. The existence of the company's plan to go private would affect the performance of the company stock. Stock performance can be analyzed with - average rate of profit, the level of risk, and sensitivity to the stock exchange. The method used in the calculation of stock performance in this paper is the GMR, STDEV, CAPM, and DDM for the calculation of estimated stock price. Through the conducted analysis, investors / shareholders are encouraged to pay attention to the news and information related to go private to be conducted by the company, stock performance, and perform estimate calculations. This is to find out what the right decision for private investors. 

  11. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS, 4.4 km, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific evaluation by professional...

  12. Debris Likelihood, based on GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS, and GOES Imager, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Debris Likelihood Index (Estimated) is calculated from GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended...

  13. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B HSB geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  14. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  15. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  16. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  17. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  18. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  19. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, OSU DB, 0.0125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  20. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  1. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  2. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  3. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  4. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  5. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, 0.125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSU distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  6. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  7. EOS Aqua Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  8. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  9. Physical and chemical composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L genotypes grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyuncu, M. Ali

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut ( Juglans regia L. samples were collected during the 2000 and 2001 harvests from different selections of trees grown in Turkey . Important physical and biochemical properties of fruit were examined in these walnut types. At the end of this study, 10 types were selected and nut and kernel properties, fatty acid composition and the proximate composition of these selections which are commonly grown in Turkey were evaluated. Physical properties are attributed to the quality criteria of nuts. Investigated genotypes showed good quality according to the test results. The total oil content ranged from 61.97 to 70.92 % while the crude protein ranged from 15.17 to 19.24 %. Ash ranged from 1.26 to 2.06 % while the moisture was found between 3.25-3.91 % of the kernel. The total carbohydrate was calculated as between 8.05-13.23 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 21.18 to 40.20% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 43.94 to 60.12 % and the linolenic contents from 6.91 to11.52 %. It was found that palmitic acid was between 5.24 and 7.62 %, while stearic acid ranged from 2.56 to 3.67 %Las nueces ( Juglans regia L. fueron recolectadas durante los años 2000 y 2001 en diversos nogales seleccionados de Turquía y analizadas para determinar sus propiedades físicas y bioquímicas. Se seleccionaron 10 genotipos en los que fueron determinadas las propiedades de la cáscara y la semilla, la composición en ácidos grasos, así como su composición general. Las propiedades físicas son un atributo de calidad de las nueces. Los genotipos investigados mostraron una buena calidad de acuerdo a los resultados. El contenido total en aceite varió entre el 61.97 y el 70.92 % mientras que la proteína cruda fue del 15.17-19.24 %. La ceniza fue del 1.26-2.06 % y la humedad fue del 3.25-3.91 % de la semilla. Los carbohidratos totales fueron el 8.05-13.23 %. El contenido en ácido oleico fue del 21.18-40.20 % de los

  10. Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanical Garden in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadiy Afanasyevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Juglans regia L. was the first exotic species of this genus to be cultivated at Peter the Great Botanical Garden of the V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS in Saint Petersburg – it was mentioned at M.M. Terekhovsky’s Catalogue in 1796. Firstly it was cultivated indoors. It was tested by E.L. Regel as early as in 1871 but unsuccessfully. It has been cultivated trustworthy outdoors since 1914. It was seriously frost damaging during the 20th century in cold winters with temperature below -25 oC, such as in 1955/56, 1968/69, 1978/79, аnd 1984/85. The winter of 1986/87 with absolute minimum temperature -34,7oC was very unfavourable, and many trees died after it. At present, the winter hardiness has increased with the warming of the climate. There are no frost damages at all or they are small and insignificant. The largest trees now reach 19 m high and 31 cm of trunk diameter in the age of 67 years old. The majority of trees produce fruits. Twenty trees of modern collection represent the five generations. The visible increasing of adaptation abilities is observed starting with the fifth generation. The trees of the fifth generation are good looking single-trunked trees without frost damages. Since 2014 they have been producing fruits, and subsequently this is possible to obtain plants of the sixth generation. Apparently the specimens of the fifth and the next generations are of special value to test at areas outside of the city to promote the distribution of the walnut in cultivation.

  11. Intercomparison of column aerosol optical depths from CALIPSO and MODIS-Aqua

    OpenAIRE

    Kittaka, C.; Winker, D. M.; M. A. Vaughan; Omar, A.; Remer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) is carried on the CALIPSO satellite and has acquired global aerosol profiles since June 2006. CALIPSO is flown in formation with the Aqua satellite as part of the A-train satellite constellation, so that a large number of coincident aerosol observations are available from CALIOP and the MODIS-Aqua instrument. This study compares column aerosol optical depth at 0.532 μm derived from CALIOP aerosol profiles with MO...

  12. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on blood pressure and its interaction with adrenergic system of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ebrahimiyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in recent century with several complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves (Walnut tree on blood pressure and its interaction with the adrenergic system in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study that established in the physiology lab, School of scinse in Shiraz University from September to October 2013, in order to determine some of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaves effect on blood pressure, the present study was performed by following procedure: 10 adult male wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used. They were divided into two groups (Each group contained 5 rats randomly: Juglans regia L. leaf extract group and Juglans regia L. leaf extract and adrenaline group. Then each rat was anesthetized by IP injection of 1.2 g/kg urethane. After tracheostomy the femoral vine and artery were cannulated for drug injection and blood pressure recording respectively. Arterial cannula for recording arterial blood pressure connected to a pressure transducer (PowerLab, ADInstruments, Sydney, Australia. Blood pressure parameters were recorded before and after IV administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf, solvent, adrenalin and extract with adrenaline. Results: The result showed a significant decrease of mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic pressure in response to extract with compare to control and sham group (P<0.05. Also a significant decrease of blood pressure showed in presence of walnut leaf extract and adrenaline with compare to sham group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf suggested as a hypotensive agent. It seems that this effect is probably due to inhibitory effect on adrenergic system.

  13. Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Carol K.L.; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R. Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10-8) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we

  14. The Optimization of Hurdle Factors during Storage of Juglans regia%核桃贮藏工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学彬; 王泽斌; 刘薇; 骆建忠; 罗爱民

    2013-01-01

    利用单因素试验和正交试验方法考察了核桃(Juglans regia)含水率、破碎程度、贮藏温度、气调条件、光照等因素对核桃酸价及过氧化值的影响.结果表明,最佳工艺为核桃含水率4.0%、破碎程度l/16,、充氮气、5℃下避光保存.

  15. The Effect of Deep Water Aqua Treadmill Training on the Plasma Biochemical Parameters of Show Jumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Vincze

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aqua treadmill is mainly used for rehabilitation purposes, but research indicates that this equipment could be used for training as well. The few studies performed with aqua treadmill mainly followed lactate and heart rate changes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the effect of high water treadmill training on several blood parameters and on the correlations between them. Eight similarly trained Standardbred show jumper horse competing at the same level were selected with age between 6 to 11 years. The horses were subjected to a one week standardized exercise test which included normal training, training with show jumping and aqua treadmill training. The aqua treadmill training consisted of a 10 min walk (filling up, 4.5 km/h, 30 min trot (13 km/h and 4 min walk (emptying, 4.5 km/h. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein before aqua training, at the completion of each work bout, after drying and after one and two hour rest. Blood plasma were separated and lactate, LDH, CK, AST, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total-bilirubin and cortisol level were determined. In conclusion plasma lactate response itself does not reflect correctly the intensity of workload in high water level aqua training, therefore measurement of several blood parameters is advisable. Further studies needed to understand the relationship of metabolic processes altered due to the effect of partial water submersion.

  16. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  17. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-28

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a plant PPO exhibiting monophenolase activity from J. regia (jrPPO1) in its active form (Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}) are reported. Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Pro{sup 444}) and jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445})] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp{sup 101}–Arg{sup 445}), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014 ▶), 101, 5–15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a = 115.56, b = 91.90, c = 86.87 Å, α = 90, β = 130.186, γ = 90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  19. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters:nuricell-aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Ariful Islam; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Alamgir; Md Khalilur Rahman; Md Kamal; Subhash Chandra Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer), Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition:β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil) and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil), using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus) as cultured species.Methods:Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g), specific growth rate, survivability (%) test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software.Results:After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day), which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day) which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer.Conclusions:These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  20. Frost hardiness in walnut trees (Juglans regia L.): how to link physiology and modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Guillaume; Poirier, Magalie; Bonhomme, Marc; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    In the literature, frost hardiness (FH) studies in trees have often been restricted to one organ (buds, leaves, needles or twigs). To extend our knowledge and gain a unified view, FH differences between organs and tissues or throughout the life of the tree have to be characterized in relation to physiological changes. In this study, different organs and tissues of young potted and mature orchard walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) were compared for seasonal changes in FH during different years. FH was assessed using the electrolyte leakage method. Physiological parameters were concomitantly monitored focusing on two significant traits: water content (WC) and carbohydrate content (glucose + fructose + sucrose, GFS). No seasonal variation in FH was observed in the root system, but acclimation and deacclimation were observed aboveground. Among organs and tissues, cold sensitivity levels were different in deep winter, with buds most sensitive and bark most resistant, but acclimation/deacclimation dynamics followed similar patterns. Physiological variation was also similar among organs: FH increased when WC decreased and/or soluble carbohydrates increased. Based on these results, relations between soluble carbohydrate content, WC and FH were calculated independently or in interaction. The key results were that: (i) the relationship between FH and physiological parameters (GFS and WC), which had previously been shown for branches only, could be generalized to all aboveground organs; (ii) lower WC increased the cryoprotective effect of GFS, showing a synergic effect of the two factors; (iii) the best fit was a non-linear function of WC and GFS, yielding a predictive model with an root mean square error of 5.07 °C on an independent dataset and 2.59 °C for the most sensitive stages; and (iv) the same parameters used for all organs yielded a unified model of FH depending on physiology, although the variability of GFS or WC was wide. The model should be of value for predicting

  1. Juglans regia L., phenotypic selection and assessment of genetic variation within a simulated seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Noble hardwoods are very important for the Italian furniture industry. Since 1985, approximately 170,000 ha have been planted in Italy with noble hardwoods. Among them, about 50% of species are represented by walnuts. Walnut (Juglans regia L., not native in Italy, has been the focus of a substantial research effort for breeding and improvement programmes. The priority has been to preserve the in situ genetic resource still existing after intensive felling. Phenotypes suitable for timber production showing important traits such as straight stem, nice branch architecture, dominance and adaptation (phenology have needed to be developed and selected. In order to reach this goals, selection of valuable progenies and the evaluation of the interaction genotype x environment, methods based essentially on a multi-trait Selection Index, were developed. Studies have been undertaken also to measure the variation of phenological traits, more correlated to traits valuable for architecture; in addition, neutral markers were used to assess genetic variation among different intensities of the adopted selections. The individual genetic component was found to be higher than at the inter-population level. Results showed that a hypothetical seed orchard made with progenies selected by morphology, phenology and genetic traits could provide material with a good performance and supply a variability similar to larger populations as the total plantation or the pseudo-natural system chosen for comparison. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso

  2. Incidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in and on ‘Paradox’ (Juglans hindsii x Juglans regia) walnut seed collected from commercial nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut rootstock Paradox (Juglans hindsii (Jeps) Rehder x J. regia L.) is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7) which often results in a high incidence of crown gall in nursery or walnut production orchards. Though A. tumefaciens is susceptible to the commonly used preplant soil fumigant...

  3. Genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans regia and J. sigillata; Juglandaceae): Species distinctions, human impacts, and the conservation of agrobiodiversity in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Bee F; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Salick, Jan M; Miller, Allison J; Yongping, Yang; Lin, Liu; Xian, Hai

    2010-04-01

    Walnuts are a major crop of many countries and mostly cultivated in large-scale plantations with few cultivars. Landraces provide important genetic reservoirs; thus, understanding factors influencing the geographic distribution of genetic variation in crop resources is a fundamental goal of agrobiodiversity conservation. Here, we investigated the role of human settlements and kinship on genetic variation and population structure of two walnut species: Juglans regia, an introduced species widely cultivated for its nuts, and J. sigillata, a native species cultivated locally in Yunnan. The objectives of this study were to characterize sympatric populations of J. regia and J. sigillata using 14 molecular markers and evaluate the role of Tibetan villages and kin groups (related households) on genotypic variation and population structure of J. regia and J. sigillata. Our results based on 220 walnut trees from six Tibetan villages show that although J. regia and J. sigillata are morphologically distinct, the two species are indistinguishable based on microsatellite data. Despite the lack of interspecific differences, AMOVAs partitioned among villages (5.41%, P = 0.0068) and kin groups within villages (3.34%, P = 0.0068) showed significant genetic variation. These findings suggest that village environments and familial relationships are factors contributing to the geographic structure of genetic variation in Tibetan walnuts.

  4. The Method of Aqua Regia Sample with Dithizone Spectrophotometric for Determining the Silver Content in Rocks%王水溶样双硫腙分光光度法测定银的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连起

    2010-01-01

    试验确立了一种快速、准确测定岩石中Ag的方法.试样经焙烧除去汞、硫及有机物后,王水溶解样品,蒸至湿盐状,氯化钠络合银,EDTA掩蔽干扰元素,在PH=4.7的缓冲溶液中,双硫腙与AgCl2-生成可被四氯化碳萃取的有色络合物,在波长620nm处,该络合物的吸收较小,而试剂双硫腙却有最大吸收.借助测量过量双硫腙的吸光度来完成银的测定.银检出限为:0.038μg/g,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.46%,灵敏度高,精密度好.经对国家一级标准样品银的检测,证明方法准确,简单.

  5. Performance of the Star Tracker Lightshades on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Thomas; Schroeder, Michael; Donnelly, Michael; McNally, Mark; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The TRW built EOS Aqua spacecraft uses two Ball Aerospace CT-602 star trackers to provide attitude updates to the 3-axis, zero momentum, controller. Two months prior to the scheduled launch of Aqua, Ball reported an error in the design of the star tracker lightshades. The lightshades, which had been designed specifically for the EOS Common spacecraft, were not expected to meet the stray light rejection requirements of the mission and thus impact the overall spacecraft pointing performance. What ensued was an effort to characterize the actual performance of the existing shade design, determine what could be done within the physical envelope available, and modify the hardware to meet requirements. Changes were made based on this review activity and Aqua was launched on May 4, 2002. To date the spacecraft is meeting all of its science pointing requirements. Reported here are the lightshade design predictions, test results, and the measured on orbit performance of these shades.

  6. NASA GES DISC DAAC Data Holdings for AIRS/Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S.; Phelps, C. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Qin, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a high-resolution infrared sounder on the Earth Observing System polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua, which was successfully launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS is closely coupled with two microwave instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) and the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB). The data products from AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB are archived and distributed at the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). AIRS has 2,378 channels measuring in the infrared range 3.74-15.4 μm and four channels measuring in the visible/near-infrared range 0.4-1.1 μm. AMSU-A is a temperature sounder that primarily provides atmospheric information in the presence of clouds, which is used to correct the AIRS infrared measurements for the effects of the clouds. Likewise, HSB provides information on snow/ice cover, precipitation, and the coarse distribution of moisture in the troposphere. Combined with simultaneous measurements from AIRS, the calibrated brightness temperature from AMSU-A and HSB is used to initialize the atmospheric moisture profile required for the retrieval of the final AIRS geophysical products. The data product suite includes level 1B combined, geolocated and calibrated radiances and will include level 2 final retrievals of surface skin temperature, surface albedo, integrated precipitable water, radiative fluxes, various cloud properties and trace gases (ozone, methane, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide). Furthermore, AIRS/AMSU-A/HSB will obtain atmospheric temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1K for every 1 km layer in the troposphere (1K for every 4 km layer in stratosphere) and humidity profiles with an accuracy 20% in 2 km layers from the surface up through the troposphere. Global coverage is obtained twice daily (day and night) on a 1:30 p.m. sun-synchronous orbit from a 705-km altitude. For processing convenience, the data

  7. Stable Failure-Inducing Micro-Silica Aqua Epoxy Bonding Material for Floating Concrete Module Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Jay Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies in the development of floating concrete structures focused on a connection system made of modules. In the connection system, the modules are designed to be attached by pre-stressing (PS while floating on the water, which exposes them to loads on the surface of the water. Therefore, the development of a pre-connection material becomes critical to ensure successful bonding of floating concrete modules. Micro-silica mixed aqua-epoxy (MSAE was developed for this task. To find the proper MSAE mix proportion, 0% to 4% micro-silica was mixed in a standard mixture of aqua-epoxy for material testing. Also, the effect of micro-silica on the viscosity of the aqua epoxy was evaluated by controlling the epoxy silane at proportions of 0%, ±5%, and ±10%. After completion of the performance tests of the MSAE, we evaluated the effect of MSAE in a connected structure. The plain unreinforced concrete module joint specimens applied with MSAE at thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 mm were prepared to be tested. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MSAE-applied reinforced concrete (RC module specimens connected by PS tendons, and these were compared with those of continuous RC and non-MSAE-applied beams. The results showed that the mix of micro-silica in the aqua-epoxy changed the performance of the aqua-epoxy and the mix ratio of 2% micro-silica gave a stable failure behavior. The flexural capacity of concrete blocks bonded with MSAE changed according to the bond thickness and was better than that of concrete blocks bonded with aqua-epoxy without micro-silica. Even though MSAE insignificantly increases the load-carrying capacity of the attached concrete module structure, the stress concentration reduction effect stabilized the failure of the structure.

  8. Cross-calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  9. Composition of fatty acids, triacylglycerols and polar compounds of different walnut varieties (Juglans regia L.) from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdallah, I; Bouali, I; Martinez-Force, E; Albouchi, A; Perez Camino, M C; Boukhchina, S

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition (total oil content, fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and polar compounds) of six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) cultivars (Lauzeronne, Franquette, Hartley, Local pt, Local gd and Parisienne) collected from Mateur (north of Tunisia) was evaluated. The major fatty acids found in the walnut oils are linoleic acid (60.42-65.77%), oleic acid (13.21-19.94%) and linolenic acid (7.61-13%). The TAG species were mainly composed of trilinolein (LLL), dilinoleoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol, dilinoleoyl-oleoyl-glycerol and palmitoyl-dilinoleoyl-glycerol classes. The results revealed that Local pt variety has the highest level of oil (62.56%), linoleic acid (65.77%) and LLL (33.48%). Significant differences among oil samples were observed, therefore showing a great variability in the oil composition among cultivars.

  10. Diversity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Cyanobacterium) Populations along a Baltic Sea Salinity Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Laamanen, Maria J.; Forsström, Laura; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2002-01-01

    Colony-forming cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon form massive blooms in the brackish water of the Baltic Sea during the warmest summer months. There have been recent suggestions claiming that the Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon species may be different from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae found in lakes. In this study, we examined variability in the morphology and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of A. flos-aquae populations along a salinity gradient from a string of lakes to...

  11. Aqua[6-carboxylato-N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidenepyridine-2-carbohydrazidato]copper(II trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(C13H8N4O3(H2O]·3H2O, the complex molecule, except for the aqua ligand, is essentially planar [r.m.s. deviation = 0.034 (2 Å]. The coordination polyhedron of the Cu2+ cation is a square-pyramid, with the aqua ligand at the apex. The compound exhibits a three-dimensional structure, which is is stabilized by O—H...O and O—-H...N hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 2.987 (3 Å].

  12. Poly[μ2-aqua-aqua[μ3-N-butyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyldithiocarbamato-κ3O,O′:S]sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzaffar A. Bhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na(C7H14NOS2(H2O2]n, the NaI cation is coordinated by five O atoms [Na—O = 2.3142 (11–2.4677 (10 Å] from three aqua and two N-butyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyldithiocarbamate (L ligands and one S atom [Na—S = 3.0074 (6 Å] from a third L ligand in a highly distorted octahedral geometry. Two aqua ligands related by an inversion center bridge two NaI cations, and each L ligand coordinates three NaI cations, leading to a layered arrangement aligned parallel to the bc plane. Intermolecular O—H...S hydrogen bonds are observed in the inner part of each polymeric layer; these are packed along the a axis and held together by weak van der Waals forces.

  13. Comparison of cytotoxic and anti-platelet activities of polyphenolic extracts from Arnica montana flowers and Juglans regia husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rywaniak, Joanna; Luzak, Boguslawa; Podsedek, Anna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marcin; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of plant origin are well known to be beneficial to human health: they exert protective effects on haemostasis and have a particular influence on blood platelets. However, the anti-platelet properties of polyphenolic compounds observed so far have not been weighed against their potential cytotoxic action against platelets. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that anti-platelet and cytotoxic effects on blood platelets may interfere and therefore, may often lead to confusion when evaluating the properties of plant extracts or other agents towards blood platelets. The anti-platelet and cytotoxic in vitro effects of plant extracts obtained from the husks of walnuts (J. regia) and flowers of arnica (A. montana) on platelet reactivity and viability were examined. Platelet function was assessed using standard methods (flow cytometry: P-selectin expression, activation of GPIIbIIIa complex, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, VASP index; turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry) and newly set assays (flow cytometric monitoring of platelet cytotoxicity). The results reveal that none of the studied plant extracts demonstrated cytotoxicity towards blood platelets. The phenolic acid-rich extract of A. montana (7.5 and 15 µg/ml) significantly reduced the ADP-induced aggregation in both whole blood and PRP, and decreased the platelet reactivity index (PRI; VASP phosphorylation) in whole blood, while showing excellent antioxidant capacity. The extract of J. regia husks significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood when applied at 7.5 µg/ml, and only slightly decreased the PRI at 15 µg/ml. Both examined extracts suppressed platelet hyper-reactivity, and such influence did not interfere with cytotoxic effects of the extracts. Thus, its high polyphenol content, excellent antioxidant capacity and distinct anti-platelet properties, in combination with its lack of toxicity, make the extract of A. montana flowers a possible

  14. Aqua-Sim水声信道仿真平台扩展研究%Study on the Extension of Underwater Acoustic Channel with Aqua-Sim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2014-01-01

    The simulator of underwater acoustic channel is one of the most important technologies to ocean network study and has been received extensive attention. Underwater acoustic channel is too complex and volatile to implement the computer simula-tor. For issues of existing studies on models and simulations of underwater acoustic channel, a modified simulator with Aqua-Sim is proposed. In order to build satisfactory experimental environments, the seawater characteristics, such as temperature, salinity, lati-tude, depth and so on, are set with the user interface, and are used as parameters for formulas of sound velocity and background noise. The simulation experiment shows that the effect of improved Aqua-Sim is closer to the actual seawater.%水声信道计算机仿真平台作为海洋网络研究的关键部分已受到广泛关注。由于水声信道具有复杂多变的特性,水声信道的普适性计算机仿真平台研究具有一定难度。本文针对现有水声信道仿真研究存在的问题,对Aqua-Sim水声信道仿真平台进行改进。将海水温度、盐度、纬度和深度等海域环境特征作为仿真平台水下声速和背景噪声计算参数,在仿真实验搭建过程中通过动态参数接口灵活搭建符合实验要求的仿真环境。仿真实验表明,改进后的Aqua-Sim平台仿真效果更加逼近实际海水信道环境。

  15. A Review on the Research and Application of AquaCrop Model%AquaCrop作物模型研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀芳; 李宜展; 潘耀忠; 史培军

    2014-01-01

    AquaCrop是由国际粮农组织(FAO)开发并向全球免费推广的一款新的作物生长模型,自从2009年发布以来,已经受到各国研究者的重视,而国内对该模型的应用尚处于起步阶段.为国内同仁更深入的了解该模型以及在中国的进一步验证和应用该模型提供有用的背景和参考信息,对模型原理、模型计算方案、模型应用现状和存在问题进行介绍和探讨.众多研究结果证明,AquaCrop模型有很好的模拟精度,可以辅助灌溉管理决策等.AquaCrop作为一个新发展的模型,其适应性还有待进一步验证,研究领域也有待进一步拓宽.

  16. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU; Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI; Kehinde Peter ADEKOYA

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is...

  17. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover...

  18. Structure of O67745_AQUAE, a hypothetical protein from Aquifex aeolicus

    OpenAIRE

    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Adams, Paul D.; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2007-01-01

    Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data obtained from a gold-derivatized crystal, the X-ray crystal structure of the protein 067745_AQUAE from the prokaryotic organism Aquifex aeolicus has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å.

  19. 75 FR 16732 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... facilitating or coordinating the export of approximately 174 rolls of hog hair filter media, part number HH6O..., 2004, Aqua-Loop ordered or financed approximately 174 rolls of hog hair filter media, part number... approximately 185 rolls of hog hair filter media, part number HHB6O 130 and valued at approximately...

  20. AquaEnv: an aquatic acid–base modelling environment in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, A.F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    AquaEnv is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes information necessary to describe pH, related

  1. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  2. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover...

  3. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover...

  4. Evaluation of aqua crop simulation of early season evaporation and water flux in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AquaCrop model of crop growth, water use, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) is intended for use by extension personnel, farm and irrigation managers, planners and other less advanced users of simulation models in irrigation planning and scheduling. It could be useful in estimating changes in ...

  5. Simulating yield response to water of Teff (Eragrostis tef) with FAO's AquaCrop model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a semi-arid environment, the main challenge for crop production is water deficit. FAO's AquaCrop model, which simulates yield response to water, has been calibrated to explore alternative water management strategies in teff crop. To calibrate and evaluate this model, we used independent data sets

  6. Validating the FAO AquaCrop model for irrigated and water deficient field maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate crop development models are important tools in evaluating the effects of water deficits on crop yield or productivity. The FAO AquaCrop model, predicting crop productivity and water requirement under water-limiting conditions, was calibrated and validated for maize (Zea mays L.) using six ...

  7. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover...

  8. Comparisons of Terra- and Aqua MODIS in band reflectance and vegetation index%Terra MODIS和Aqua MODIS波段反射率及植被指数比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 郭铌

    2008-01-01

    对Terra MODIS和Aqua MODIS之间单波段反射率及植被指数进行了比较.结果表明:Terra MODIS和Aqua MODIS单波段反射率及植被指数具有极显著的相关性,植被指数较单波段反射率相关性更高些;Terra MODIS单波段反射率值普遍较Aqua MODIS值低,而植被指数值普遍较Aqua MODIS值高;不同时段Terra MODIS和Aqua MODIS单波段反射率及植被指数间差异不同,植被指数在冬季差异最大,而单波段反射率则在夏秋季差异较大;不同植被类型Terra MODIS和Aqua MODIS间植被指数差异总体规律相似,但单波段反射率间差异较为复杂;草甸、草原无论是单波段反射率还是植被指数,Terra MODIS和AquaMODIS的差异均比其他几种植被类型小,而阔叶林和一年两熟作物则差异相对大些.

  9. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH4)2SO4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia (15 NH3aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m3 ha-1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha-1 of N-NH3aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha-1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH3, in presence of the ion H+, to stay in the NH4+ form in solution. (author)

  10. Parameterization of FAO's AquaCrop Model by Integrating a Hydrological Model and Climate Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.; Doria, R.; Jiskoot, H.; Cheng, H.

    2014-12-01

    One of the greatest global challenges is to meet growing food demand under rapidly changing climate conditions. Continued global population growth increases the pressure on the agriculture sector to produce enough food to feed the world. In 2013, the province of Alberta, Canada, set a record high for principal field crop production of 34.5 million tonnes (Matejovsky, 2014). AquaCrop, a crop yield and water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), attempts to balance the accuracy, simplicity and robustness of crop modelling (Steduto et al., 2009). The model is focused on the three components of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. AquaCrop is applied in this study for simulating hard red spring wheat and durum wheat yields, and simulated yields are verified against observed yields available from a crop insurer. One of the challenges of crop yield modelling is the selection of a realistic seeding date, which can vary by four to five weeks (end of March to end of April). In order to enable realistic simulation for the historical period 1950-2010 as well the future period 2041-2070, AquaCrop is coupled with the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system to determine the soil moisture conditions after the spring snow melt, and with a WMO climate index which determines the climatological beginning of the growing season. Therefore, the selection of a realistic seeding data for individual years can be dynamically optimized, based on the combination of the beginning of the climatological growing season and soil moisture status. The results of the coupling of ACRU and calculated climate indices with AquaCrop will be presented to show how improvements of parameterization of the AquaCrop model can be used to simulate wheat yields in Southern Alberta under changing climate conditions.

  11. The Effects of Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-Acupuncture on Liver Injury of Rats Induced by CCI4 (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Hee-Soo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of the effects of Aqua-acupuncture with Gardeniae Fructus on thc recovery of rat's liver which was damaged by 0.3ml/ea of CCI4. Rats were divided into 4 groups; Normal-group(None treated group, Control-group(Not treated after CCI4-intoxicated, Exp. I(Treated with Saline Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated and Exp. ll(Treated with Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated. Biochemical assays for each serum enzyme activities of AST, ALT, Albumin, LDH, γ-GT, TG and Total cholesterol were performed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. AST activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In companson with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group *The professor of Dept. of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, 2. At T activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In com pan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked effectively to rat's damaged liver. 3. Albumin in serum increased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupurkture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. 4. LDH in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In comparison with Saline-treated group after CClcintox icated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked highly effectively to rat's damaged liver. 5. γ-GT In serum significantly decreased In the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture trea ted group after CCI4-intoxicated. In compan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Crardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated was not recognized significantly. 6. TG in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus

  12. Determination of Sterol and Fatty Acid Compositions, Oxidative Stability, and Nutritional Value of Six Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars Grown in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Casal, Susana; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.

    2003-01-01

    Six cultivars (Franquette, Marbot, Mayette, Mellanaise, Lara, and Parisienne) of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) were collected during the 2001 crop, from Bragança, Portugal. Chemical composition, including moisture, total oil content, crude protein, ash, carbohydrates, and nutritional value, was evaluated. Fat was the predominant component, ranging from 62.3 to 66.5%. Total oil was extracted and analyzed for fatty acids, sterols, oxidative stability, and peroxide value. Fatty acids and s...

  13. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, ...

  14. 核桃栽培存在的问题与对策探讨%Discussion on Cultivation Problems and Solutions for Juglans regia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李细牛; 叶章均; 付群; 魏春华

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve problems of cultivation and management of Juglans regia L.,the authors have investigated its distribution and cultivation of and found its five main issues production in Shiyan,which are extensive management,lack of pruning,pest damage,picked too early and Seedling planting.the authors have alse put forward solutions and corresponding countermeasures,to resolve the issues existed,improve the level of Juglans regia L.cultivation,and promote the industrialization process of Juglans regia L..%为解决核桃栽培管理方面的问题,笔者采用全面普查和典型调查方法,对十堰市核桃分布及栽培情况进行调查分析,提出了十堰核桃生产中目前存在的粗放管理、病虫害、过早采摘等5个主要问题,并相应提出了解决办法和对策。为提高核桃栽培水平,促进核桃产业化进程进行了初步探讨。

  15. 核桃冻害的预防和补救措施%Preventive and Remedial Measures for Freeze Injury of Juglans Regia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金辉; 蔡宁航; 闫卫国

    2014-01-01

    Juglans regia L .is an important economic tree species ,w hich has a great effect on regional economic development .Aiming at the harm of freeze injury to Juglans regia L .,this article analyzes the reason and type which cause freeze injury and puts forward some precautionary measures as well as managing and remedial measures , including strengthening tree vigor ,pinching ,healing disease and preventing insect ,pouring frozen water ,cold-proof and so on .This article aims at providing some guidance and reference for the production of Juglans regia L .%指出了核桃是陕西重要的经济林树种,对区域经济的发展具有重要作用。针对冻害对核桃造成的危害,分析了桃核发生冻害的原因及类型,从增强树势、摘心、治病防虫、浇封冻水以及防寒等方面提出了预防核桃冻害的措施以及冻害后的管理与补救办法,旨在对核桃的生产提供一定的指导和参考。

  16. AquaFuel: An example of the emerging new energies and the new methods for their scientific study

    OpenAIRE

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we initiate studies of the emerging new forms of energy by using as a representative example the new combustible gas called AquaFuel, discovered and patented by William H. Richardson, jr., whose rights are now owned by Toups Technology Licensing, Inc. (TTL), of Largo, Florida. In essence, AquaFuel is a new energy converter capable of transforming Carbon and water into a new combustible gas via an electric discharge. We show that AquaFuel can be produced easily, safely and rapidl...

  17. International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group September 27-29, 2016 Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series powerpoint presentation will be presented at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque, NM. Topics to be discussed are: recap Aqua 2016 IAM campaign maneuver results and post 2016 IAM MLT evolution; current DMU strategy; 2017 IAM campaign dates and planning; Aqua latest lifetime MLT team predictions. Susan Good is a contractor who supports David Tracewell in code 595 therefore this is being routed through 595. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical has reviewed and approved this presentation.

  18. Perceived benefits, motives, and barriers to aqua-based exercise among older adults with and without osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisken, Alison; Keogh, Justin W L; Waters, Debra L; Hing, Wayne A

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to (a) identify factors that motivate older adults to participate in aqua-based exercise; (b) identify potential barriers; and (c) compare perceptions between older adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA). Fifteen adults above 60 years of age participated in one of three focus groups during which they discussed perceived benefits, motives, and barriers to aqua exercise. Pain reduction was considered a major benefit among those with OA, improved health and fitness was a principal benefit for those without OA. All participants felt that the instructor could act as both a motivator and barrier; the most significant barrier was cold changing facilities in winter. With the exception of pain reduction, perceived benefits, motivators, and barriers to aqua-based exercise are similar among older adults with and without OA. A greater understanding of these factors may help us to facilitate older adults with OA to initiate and adhere to aqua-based exercise. PMID:25765822

  19. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of PAL gene was isolated from Juglans regia for the first time, and designated as JrPAL. The full-length cDNA of the JrPAL gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from Petroselinum crispum (PcPAL, implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that JrPAL was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that JrPAL expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  20. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark's living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in tree stems.

  1. Content of carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, and volatile compounds in six walnuts (Juglans regia L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ikram Bou; Tlili, Nizar; Martinez-Force, Enrique; Rubio, Ana Gracia Pérez; Perez-Camino, Maria Carmen; Albouchi, Ali; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the content of tocopherols, sterols, triterpenic and aliphatic alcohols, carotenoids, and volatile compounds in the kernel oils from six walnut (Juglans regia L.) varieties. The levels of β-carotene ranged between 0.22 and 0.62 mg/kg, followed by lutein (0.01-0.06 mg/kg). The total content of tocopherol ranged from 186.5 to 436.2 mg/kg of the extracted oil and the major isoform in all samples was γ-tocopherol. The most abundant phytosterol was β-sitosterol (974-1494 mg/kg) followed by campesterol then Δ-5-avenasterol. The major triterpenic alcohol was cycloartenol (226.4-532.1 mg/kg). Hexacosanol (9.71-28.15 mg/kg) was the major aliphatic alcohol. The detected volatile compounds were pentanal, hexanal, nonanal, 2-decenal and hexanol. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties, which are probably due to genetic factors.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of polyphenol oxidase from Juglans regia (jrPPO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekiri, Florime; Bijelic, Aleksandar; Molitor, Christian; Rompel, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper enzyme that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of melanins. The first plant tyrosinase from walnut leaves (Juglans regia) was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. During the purification, two forms of the enzyme differing only in their C-termini [jrPPO1(Asp101-Pro444) and jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445)] were obtained. The most abundant form jrPPO1(Asp101-Arg445), as described in Zekiri et al. [Phytochemistry (2014), 101, 5-15], was crystallized, resulting in crystals that belonged to space group C121, with unit-cell parameters a=115.56, b=91.90, c=86.87 Å, α=90, β=130.186, γ=90°, and diffracted to 2.39 Å resolution. Crystals were only obtained from solutions containing at least 30% polyethylene glycol 5000 monomethyl ether in a close-to-neutral pH range.

  3. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Freeze-thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice-liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree-water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark's living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze-thaw cycles in tree stems. PMID:26585223

  4. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  5. Mathematical and numerical modeling of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacher, A.; Nielsen, K.

    2008-12-15

    We have introduced a mathematical model of the vertical dynamics of the AquaBuOY's IPS buoy and hose-pump power take off system. The numerical results obtained proved to be very accurate as compared to real life data of Finavera's fiftieth and tenth scales of the AquaBuOY. The numerical implementation of the model is extremely fast for the regular wave regime and nearly real time for the irregular wave regime, however the results in the irregular wave regime are far more accurate than for regular waves. The model and method have proved to be robust, efficient and accurate however future work is recommended in the time integration scheme used to solve the ordinary differential equations in the irregular wave regime as it would be useful for optimization over many variables to make the numerical integration faster. (Author)

  6. Synthesis, characterization and photochemistry of a new heptamolybdate supported magnesium-aqua coordination complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Savita S Khandolkar; Pallepogu Raghavaiah; Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, redox characteristics and photochemistry of a new heptamolyb-date supported magnesium-aqua coordination complex viz. (hmtH)2 [{Mg(H2O)5}2 {Mo7O24}]·3H2O 1 (hmt = hexamethylenetetramine) is reported. The cyclic voltammogram reveals quasireversible redox behaviour while the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) by 1 under sunlight irradiation indicates its photocatalytic activity. In the crystal structure of 1, two [Mg(H2O)5]2+ units are linked by a 2-bridging bidentate hepta-molybdate ligand resulting in a heptamolybdate supported magnesium-aqua coordinated dianionic complex [{Mg(H2O)5}2 {Mo7O24}]2− charge balanced by two (hmtH)+ cations. The cations, anions and the lattice water molecules are linked by several hydrogen bonding interactions.

  7. AQUA-USERS: AQUAculture USEr Driven Operational Remote Sensing Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, Marnix; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; de Reus, Nils; Ghebrehiwot, Semhar; Eleveld, Marieke; Miller, Peter; Groom, Steve; Clements, Oliver; Kurekin, Andrey; Martinez Vicente, Victor; Brotas, Vanda; Sa, Carolina; Couto, Andre; Brito, Ana; Amorim, Ana; Dale, Trine; Sorensen, Kai; Boye Hansen, Lars; Huber, Silvia; Kaas, Hanne; Andersson, Henrik; Icely, John; Fragoso, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The FP7 project AQUA-USERS provides the aquaculture industry with user-relevant and timely information based on the most up-to-date satellite data and innovative optical in-situ measurements. Its key purpose is to develop an application that brings together satellite information on water quality and temperature with in-situ observations as well as relevant weather prediction and met-ocean data. The application and its underlying database are linked to a decision support system that includes a set of (user-determined) management options. Specific focus is on the development of indicators for aquaculture management including indicators for harmful algae bloom (HAB) events. The methods and services developed within AQUA-USERS are tested by the members of the user board, who represent different geographic areas and aquaculture production systems.

  8. Electronic Crosstalk in Aqua MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have discovered that Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS long-wave infrared (LWIR photovoltaic (PV bands, bands 27–30, have strong crosstalk among themselves. The linear model developed to test the electronic crosstalk effect was instrumental in the first discovery of the effect in Terra MODIS band 27, and through subsequent investigations the model and the correction algorithm were tested further and established to be correct. It was shown that the correction algorithm successfully mitigated the anomalous features in the calibration coefficients as well as the severe striping and the long-term drift in the Earth view (EV retrievals for the affected Terra bands. Here, the examination into Aqua MODIS using the established methodology confirms the existence of significant crosstalk contamination in its four LWIR PV, although the finding shows the overall effect to be of lesser degree. The crosstalk effect is characterized and the crosstalk correction coefficients are derived for all four Aqua LWIR PV bands via analysis of signal contamination in the lunar imagery. Sudden changes in the crosstalk contamination are clearly seen, as also in the Terra counterparts in previous investigations. These sudden changes are consistent with the sudden jumps observed in the linear calibration coefficients for many years, thus this latest finding provides an explanation to the long-standing but unexplained anomalies in the calibration coefficients of the four Aqua LWIR bands. It is also shown that the crosstalk contamination for these bands are of similar level for the two MODIS instruments in the early mission that can lead to as much as 2 K increase in brightness temperature for the affected bands, thus demonstrating significant impact on the science results already started at the early going. As Aqua MODIS is a legacy sensor, the crosstalk correction to its LWIR PV bands will be important to remove the impact of

  9. An Overview of Lunar Calibration and Characterization for the EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, S.; Humphries, S.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Moon can be used as a stable source for Earth-observing sensors on-orbit radiometric and spatial stability monitoring in the VIS and NIR spectral regions. It can also serve as a calibration transfer vehicle among multiple sensors. Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODE) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Terra and Aqua MODIS each make observations in 36 spectral bands covering the spectral range from 0.41 to 14.5 microns and are calibrated on-orbit by a set of on-board calibrations (OBCs) including: 1) a solar diffuser (SD), 2) a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), 3) a blackbody (BB), and 4) a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). In addition to fully utilizing the OBCs, the Moon has been used extensively by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. A 4 This paper provides an overview of applications of lunar calibration and characterization from the MODIS perspective, including monitoring radiometric calibration stability for the reflective solar bands (RSBs), tracking changes of the sensors response versus scan-angle (RVS), examining the sensors spatial performance , and characterizing optical leaks and electronic crosstalk among different spectral bands and detectors. On-orbit calibration consistency between the two MODIS instruments is also addressed. Based on the existing on-orbit time series of the Terra and Aqua MODIS lunar observations, the radiometric difference between the two sensors is less than +/-1% for the RSBs. This method provides a powerful means of performing calibration comparisons among Earth-observing sensors and assures consistent data and science products for the long-term studies of climate and environmental changes.

  10. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  11. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, isolated from Montargil reservoir, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P; Onodera, H; Andrinolo, D; Franca, S; Araújo, F; Lagos, N; Oshima, Y

    2000-12-01

    Montargil reservoir, located in a dry flat area in the centre of Portugal, was filled in 1958 to fulfil agricultural, electric and industrial requirements. In May 1996, an intensive bloom of phytoplankton was detected. The algal community was strongly dominated by cyanobacteria with predominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae from May to June and Microcystis aeruginosa from July to August. Extracts of samples collected during the bloom period showed high toxicity by mouse bioassay. During the M. aeruginosa predominance period, the toxicity was ascribed to the presence of hepatotoxins, but clear symptoms of paralytic shellfish poison were observed when A. flos-aquae was the dominant species. In order to confirm the production of neurotoxins a strain of A. flos-aquae was isolated and established in culture. In this manuscript, we show the morphological characteristics and confirm paralytic shellfish toxins production by the strain isolated and maintained in culture. Identification of the saxitoxin analogs was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry technique (LC-MS). The toxins found in the culture extract were GTX5 (64.5 mol%), neoSTX (23.0 mol%), dcSTX (6.1 mol%), STX (5.4 mol%) and GTX6 (1.1 mol%). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of unambiguous evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria in Portugal. The toxin profile is rather different from the previously reported PSP producing A. flos-aquae and demonstrates its diversity in terms of toxin production. PMID:10858510

  12. Simulating yield response of rice to salinity stress with the AquaCrop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, M Shahjahan; Saleh, Abul Fazal M; Razzaque Akanda, Md Abdur; Biswas, Sujit K; Md Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar; Zaman, Sinora; Lazar, Attila N; Clarke, Derek

    2015-06-01

    The FAO AquaCrop model has been widely applied throughout the world to simulate crop responses to deficit water applications. However, its application to saline conditions is not yet reported, though saline soils are common in coastal areas. In this study, we parameterized and tested AquaCrop to simulate rice yield under different salinity regimes. The data and information required in the model were collected through a field experiment at the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur. The experiment was conducted with the BRRI Dhan28, a popular boro rice variety in Bangladesh, with five levels of saline water irrigation, three replicates for each level. In addition, field monitoring was carried out at Satkhira in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh to collect data and information based on farmers' practices and to further validate the model. The results indicated that the AquaCrop model with most of its default parameters could replicate the variation of rice yield with the variation of salinity reasonably well. The root mean square error and mean absolute error of the model yield were only 0.12 t per ha and 0.03 t per ha, respectively. The crop response versus soil salinity stress curve was found to be convex in shape with a lower threshold of 2 dS m(-1), an upper threshold of 10 dS m(-1) and a shape factor of 2.4. As the crop production system in the coastal belt of Bangladesh has become vulnerable to climate induced sea-level rise and the consequent increase in water and soil salinity, the AquaCrop would be a useful tool in assessing the potential impact of these future changes as well as other climatic parameters on rice yield in the coastal region.

  13. Estimation of Daily Sunshine Duration from Terra and Aqua MODIS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kandirmaz, H. M.; K. Kaba

    2014-01-01

    Some studies have shown that the estimation of global sunshine duration can be done with the help of geostationary satellites because they can record several images of the same location in a day. In this paper, images obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors of polar orbiting satellites Aqua and Terra were used to estimate daily global sunshine duration for any region in Turkey. A new quadratic correlation between daily mean cloud cover index and relati...

  14. Optimized Merger of Ocean Chlorophyll Algorithms of MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS

    OpenAIRE

    Kahru, M.; Kudela, RM; Anderson, CR; Mitchell, BG

    2015-01-01

    Standard ocean chlorophyll-a (Chla) products from currently operational satellite sensors Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) underestimate medium and high in situ Chla concentrations and have approximately 9% bias between each other in the California Current. By using the regional optimization approach of Kahru et al., we minimized the differences between satellite estimates and in situ match-ups as well as between e...

  15. Assessment of diverse algorithms applied on MODIS Aqua and Terra data over land surfaces in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Glantz, P.; Tesche, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Ångström exponent (α), obtained with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm for MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground) and MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations over land surfaces in Europe. The three time periods investigated in ...

  16. Inter-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS Feflective Solar Bands using Suomi NPP VIIRS

    OpenAIRE

    Blonski, Slawomir; Cao, Changyong; Uprety, Sirish; Shao, Xi

    2013-01-01

    VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) onboard the Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite has been acquiring Earth observations for more than a year. During that time, SNO (Simultaneous Nadir Overpass) events have provided many opportunities for inter-comparisons between VIIRS and the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments from the Aqua and Terra satellites. The SNOs have occurred over snow-covered Antarctica, which provided bright surfa...

  17. AquaCrop模型的适用性及应用初探%The Applicability and Application of AquaCrop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 刘钰; 蔡甲冰; 毛晓敏

    2011-01-01

    AquaCrop模型是FAO新推出的以水分为驱动的作物生长模型。为了评价其在华北地区的适用性,于2009-2010年在中国水利水电科学研究院大兴试验站进行了夏玉米水分处理试验,其中2010年的试验数据用于参数率定,2009年的试验教据用于模型验证,并在此基础上对模型参数进行敏感性分析。结果表明,AquaCrop模型能够较好地模拟夏玉米的产量、生物量、冠层覆盖率及土壤水分的动态变化,产量和生物量模拟值和实测值的相对误盖为0%~15.6%,冠层覆盖率和土壤含水率变化过程的模拟值和实测值间相关性的决定系数最小分别为0.959、0.657,均方根误差RMSE最大分别为5.837%、1.873 m3/m3,模型效率指数RE最小分别为0.670、0.956;敏感性分析量示,达到最大冠层覆盖率的日期、冠层开始衰老的日期、田间持水率、凋萎含水率及初始含水率为敏感参数,相对敏感度RS处于0.161 4~0.398 2。说明模型在该区的适用性良好,具有广阔的发展前景。%AquaCrop model driven by water is a new crop simulated model recommend by FAO. In order to evaluate its applicability in North China , this irrigation experiment for summer maize was conducted in two successive year (2009-2010) in Daxing station in north china plain, of which, the measured date in 2010 was used to calibrate the crop parameters, and the other was used to test it. Then the OTA method was a-dopted to analyze sensitivities of the model parameter. The validation results showed that the AquaCrop model could preferably simulate the yield, biomass and the dynamic changes of canopy cover and soil moisture of summer maize. The relative error of simulated yield and biomass is 0%~15. 6%. For simulated the process of canopy cover and soil moisture, the minimum correlation coefficient of determination were 0. 657, 0. 959, the maximum of root mean square error 5. 837%, 1. 873 m3/m3 and the minimum model

  18. Structure of O67745-AQUAE, a hypothetical protein from Aquifex aeolicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Adams, Paul D.; Jancarik, Jarmila; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou, E-mail: shkim@lbl.gov [Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data obtained from a gold-derivatized crystal, the X-ray crystal structure of the protein 067745-AQUAE from the prokaryotic organism Aquifex aeolicus has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data obtained from a gold-derivatized crystal, the X-ray crystal structure of the protein 067745-AQUAE from the prokaryotic organism Aquifex aeolicus has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Amino-acid residues 1–371 of the 44 kDa protein were identified by Pfam as an HD domain and a member of the metal-dependent phosphohydrolase superfamily (accession No. PF01966). Although three families from this large and diverse group of enzymatic proteins are represented in the PDB, the structure of 067745-AQUAE reveals a unique fold that is unlike the others and that is likely to represent a new subfamily, further organizing the families and characterizing the proteins. Data are presented that provide the first insights into the structural organization of the proteins within this clan and a distal alternative GDP-binding domain outside the metal-binding active site is proposed.

  19. Structure of O67745-AQUAE, a hypothetical protein from Aquifex aeolicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data obtained from a gold-derivatized crystal, the X-ray crystal structure of the protein 067745-AQUAE from the prokaryotic organism Aquifex aeolicus has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion data obtained from a gold-derivatized crystal, the X-ray crystal structure of the protein 067745-AQUAE from the prokaryotic organism Aquifex aeolicus has been determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Amino-acid residues 1–371 of the 44 kDa protein were identified by Pfam as an HD domain and a member of the metal-dependent phosphohydrolase superfamily (accession No. PF01966). Although three families from this large and diverse group of enzymatic proteins are represented in the PDB, the structure of 067745-AQUAE reveals a unique fold that is unlike the others and that is likely to represent a new subfamily, further organizing the families and characterizing the proteins. Data are presented that provide the first insights into the structural organization of the proteins within this clan and a distal alternative GDP-binding domain outside the metal-binding active site is proposed

  20. AquaCrop model simulation under different irrigation water and nitrogen strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Mojtaba; Mostafazadeh-Fard, Behrouz; Heidarpour, Manouchehr; Kiani, Ali-Reza

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, irrigated agriculture consumes about 72% of available freshwater resources. Deficit irrigation can be applied in the field to save irrigation water and still lead to acceptable crop production. The AquaCrop model is a simulation model for management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer. This model is a new model that is accurate, robust and requires fewer data inputs compared with the other models. The purpose of this study was to simulate canopy cover, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) for soybean using the AquaCrop model. A field line source sprinkler irrigation system was conducted under full and deficit irrigation using different nitrogen fertilizer applications during two cropping seasons for soybean at Gorgan province in Iran. The simulation results showed a reasonably accurate prediction of yield, canopy cover and WUE in all cases (error less than 23%). The simulated pattern of canopy progression over time was close to measured values, with Willmott's index of agreement for all the cases being ≥0.95 for different parameters. The AquaCrop model has the ability to simulate the WUE of soybean under different irrigation water and nitrogen applications. This model is a useful tool for managing the crop water productivity.

  1. Pistillate Flower Abcission Symptoms of ‘Serr’ Walnut (Juglans RegiaL. Sintomatología del Aborto en flores Pistiladas de Nogal (Juglans regiaL. ‘Serr’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián González R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistillate flower abscission (PFA severely affects walnut (Juglans regia L. production, mainly of the cultivar ‘Serr’. A study on symptoms of flower abortion in walnut ‘Serr’, induced by excess or lack of pollen, was carried out following the evolution of flowers and peduncles. Hand pollinated flowers, with different pollen concentrations: 0, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100% pollen diluted (w/w in talcum powder, showed external and internal abortion symptoms. External symptoms were recorded directly from the tree, while for internal symptoms, flower excisions stained with blue Toluidin-O at 0.05%, were analyzed under an optical microscope. Excess pollen abortion produced flowers with rapid damage. The growth rate was very low, involucre brightness was lost and the stigma turned necrotic, in contrast to the flower aborted from lack of pollen. Normal flowers continued growing to fruit harvest, without losing brightness. Excess pollen abortion induced flower drop, with or without attached peduncle. Two separation zones can be present: the distal and proximal areas of the peduncle. Peduncle scars allowed for differentiating abortion induced from excess or lack of pollen, or other reasons.El aborto en flores postiladas (PFA por exceso de polen que afecta al nogal (Juglans regia L., disminuye considerablemente la producción de nueces, principalmente en el cultivar ‘Serr’. Se estudió la sintomatología del aborto por exceso y falta de polinización en flores y pedúnculo de este cultivar. Para esto se realizó polinización manual, utilizando diferentes concentraciones de polen sobre flores en diferentes estados de receptividad. Las concentraciones se obtuvieron mediante diluciones (peso/peso de polen combinado con talco. Las concentraciones utilizadas fueron 0; 1; 5; 25; 50 y 100% de polen. Se observó la sintomatología externa e interna de la flor, mediante apreciación visual en el árbol y a través de cortes longitudinales en la flor para

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  3. Genetic Diversity of Juglans regia L.Cultivars Revealed by AFLP Analysis%普通核桃遗传多样性的AFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞; 赵书岗; 高仪; 张志华; 玄立春

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of walnut cultivars were discussed at the molecular level, thus providing a scientific basis for more effective protection and use of these resources.[Method]The genetic diversity and relationship of 131 Juglans regia L.cultivars were analyzed by AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) -silver staining protocol.The specific bands were counted and analyzed by NTSYSpc2.11 a software.[Result]AFLP fingerprinting of 131 Juglans regia L.cultivars with twenty pairs of EcoR Ⅰ/Mse Ⅰ primers revealed a total number of 1 643 unambiguous bands, of which 1 512 ones were polymorphic and 82.15 polymorphic bands were detected by each pair of primer on average.The polymorphism frequency was 92.03%.This result showed the abundant diversities of enzyme digestion sites among Juglans regia L.cultivars.As analyzed by NTSYSpc2.11a, the similarity coefficient of 131 Juglans regia L.cultivars ranged from 0.637 to 0.928.These Juglans regia L.cultivars were divided into eight groups by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic aver age) based on similarity coefficient.The genetic relationship of 131 Juglans regia L.cultivars was analyzed according to the similarity coefficient.[Conclusion]There are rich genetic diversity and complex genetic background in walnut germplasms, but it is difficult to distinguish distinctly the precocious walnut and serotinous walnut by cluster analysis.%[目的]从分子水平上探讨普通核桃品种的遗传多样性和亲缘关系,为更有效地保护和利用这些品种资源提供科学依据.[方法]采用AFLP-银染分子标记技术,对131份核桃品种进行遗传多样性和亲缘关系分析,应用 NTSYSpc2.11a 分析软件对统计结果进行聚类分析.[结果]选用20对多态性高、分辨力强的EcoR I/Mse I引物组合分别对供试材料的基因组DNA进行扩增,共获得1 643条清晰可辨的条带,其中多态性带1 512条,平均每

  4. Potenciales efectos estrogénicos del D-004, extracto lipídico del fruto de la Roystonea regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balia Pardo Acosta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El D-004 es un extracto lipídico obtenido de los frutos de la palma real (Roystonea regia (Arecaceae que consiste en una mezcla reproducible de ácidos grasos. Para evaluar si el D-004 presenta actividad estrogénica, se empleó el modelo de ratas ovarectomizadas. Se utilizaron ratas Sprague Dawley hembras, distribuidas aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos experimentales. A tres grupos de animales se les practicó la ovarectomía bilateral. Uno fue tratado oralmente con el vehículo; al segundo, se le administró por vía subcutánea estradiol 30 ¿g/kg; y el otro recibió tratamiento con 400 mg/kg de D-004 por vía oral. El cuarto grupo fue el control del procedimiento quirúrgico (CPQ. Al inicio del tratamiento, el peso corporal de todos los grupos de ratas ovarectomizadas fue significativamente mayor que el del grupo CPQ. Después de los 14 días, la diferencia del peso corporal de los grupos control negativo y D-004 respecto al CPQ se mantuvo ( p < 0,001, si bien desapareció la diferencia de peso entre el control positivo y el CPQ. El peso del útero del grupo control positivo mostró un marcado incremento (más de 10 veces que el control negativo. Por otra parte, los valores del grupo D-004 fueron estadísticamente similares a los del control negativo. El D-004 carece de efectos estrogénicos en el modelo utilizado y a las dosis de tratamiento empleadas.

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively.

  6. In vitro Induction and Proliferation of Callus from Immature Cotyledons and Embryos of Juglans regia cv. 'Xiangling'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong CAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Callus holds great potential for biotechnology applications in plants. In this study, several experiments were performed to establish a protocol for in vitro induction of good quality callus by using immature cotyledons and embryos of Juglans regia cv. ‘Xiangling’ as the explants. DKW basal media supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators were applied to determine the induction rate, texture and color of the recovered callus. Results showed that the optimum culture medium for the callus induction from these explants was a DKW basal medium consisting of 1 mg/L BA, 2 mg/L KT 250 mg/L glutamine, 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate, 200 mg/L Vc, 50 g/L sucrose and 2.8 g/L Gelrite (i.e., the T8 medium. The average rate of callus induction on the medium reached 80.7% for the immature cotyledons and 66.7% for the immature embryos, and all the callus was characterized by a friable, creamy or yellow appearance. In vitro proliferation of callus was not very successful as a result of the fact that the friable callus with creamy or yellow color grew very slowly, whereas the fast-growing callus was easy to turn brown and died eventually. Even though further investigation will be required to overcome the problem of browning and assess the regeneration ability of the callus, this approach for the production of friable callus may have valuable applications for walnut and other woody trees.

  7. Proximate composition, minerals and fatty acid composition of Juglans Regia L. genotypes and cultivars grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Yerlikaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of eleven walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes (28 ŞK 010, 28 ŞK 055, 28 ŞK 041, 28 ŞK 601, 28 ŞK 925, 28 ŞK 028, 28 ŞK 118, 28 ŞK 350, 28 ŞK 930, 28 ŞK 850, 28 ŞK 036 and three walnut cultivars (Şebin, Bilecik, Kaman 1 produced in Turkey were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 61.32 to 69.35%, corresponding to an energy value of approximately 710 kcal per 100 g of kernel. The protein content ranged from 10.58 to 18.19%, and the carbohydrate composition was between 9.05 and 18.92%. The ash content ranged from 1.53 to 1.99%, and the moisture content of the kernels was between 1.91 and 4.48% the oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 17.90 to 33.35% of the total fatty acids. The linoleic acid content ranged from 43.15 to 60.20%. The linolenic acid content ranged from 9.98 to 13.00%. The palmitic acid content was between 5.21 and 8.40%. Stearic acid ranged from 2.36 to 4.25%. Potassium was the major mineral in all the samples, ranging from 359.73 to 482.97 mg/100 g. Calcium was the next most abundant mineral, ranging from 109.45 to 335.97 mg/100 g, followed by magnesium, ranging from 126.01 to 165.15 mg/100 g.

  8. Cavitation and water fluxes driven by ice water potential in Juglans regia during freeze–thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Charrier, Guillaume; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bonhomme, Marc; Foucat, Loïc; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Freeze–thaw cycles induce major hydraulic changes due to liquid-to-ice transition within tree stems. The very low water potential at the ice–liquid interface is crucial as it may cause lysis of living cells as well as water fluxes and embolism in sap conduits, which impacts whole tree–water relations. We investigated water fluxes induced by ice formation during freeze–thaw cycles in Juglans regia L. stems using four non-invasive and complementary approaches: a microdendrometer, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray microtomography, and ultrasonic acoustic emissions analysis. When the temperature dropped, ice nucleation occurred, probably in the cambium or pith areas, inducing high water potential gradients within the stem. The water was therefore redistributed within the stem toward the ice front. We could thus observe dehydration of the bark’s living cells leading to drastic shrinkage of this tissue, as well as high tension within wood conduits reaching the cavitation threshold in sap vessels. Ultrasonic emissions, which were strictly emitted only during freezing, indicated cavitation events (i.e. bubble formation) following ice formation in the xylem sap. However, embolism formation (i.e. bubble expansion) in stems was observed only on thawing via X-ray microtomography for the first time on the same sample. Ultrasonic emissions were detected during freezing and were not directly related to embolism formation. These results provide new insights into the complex process and dynamics of water movements and ice formation during freeze–thaw cycles in tree stems. PMID:26585223

  9. Antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from the Roystonea regia fruit, on the plasma of healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emesto López; Vivian Molina; José Illnait; Ambar Oyarzábal; Lilia C.Fernández; Rosa Más; Rafael Gámez; Julio C.Fernández; Sonia Jiménez; Meilis Mesa; Ivón Hollands; Sarahí Mendoza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of thisstudy was to conduct a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the Roystonea regia fruit that prevents testosterone- and phenylepinephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men. We enrolled male volunteers (20-55 years) in good health and without lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-four eligible participants were randomized to placebo or D-004 (320 mg) capsules administered daily for 6 weeks. An interim check-up and a final visit were conducted after 3 and 6 weeks of therapy, respectively. Physical examinations were performed at each visit, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and at treatment completion. Oxidative variables included plasma malondiaidehyde (MDA), total hydroxyperoxides (TOH), sulphydryl (SH) groups and total antioxidant status (TAS). We assessed treatment compliance and addressed adverse experiences (AEs) at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, with D-004, the mean reductions of plasma MDA (26.7%), TOH (18.8%) and SH groups (31.6%), and the mean increase of TAS (35.3%) were significantly different from those of placebo (P<0.001 for plasma TAS, P<0.0001 for all other comparisons). D-004 did not differ from the placebo in safety indicators. There were two withdrawals (both in the D-004 group), with one due to dyspepsia (the only AE during the trial). In conclusion, D-004 displayed antioxidant effects on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men, which was consistent with findings from laboratory experimental studies.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Manzoor A; Dar, Bilal A; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Wani, Bilal A; Shah, Wajahat A; Bhat, Bilal A; Ganai, Bashir A; Bhat, Khursheed A; Anand, Rajneesh; Qurishi, Mushtaq A

    2012-10-15

    The essential oil from the leaves of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) growing wild in Kashmir (India) was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 38 compounds, representing 92.7% of the oil, were identified and the major components were found to be α-pinene (15.1%), β-pinene (30.5%), β-caryophyllene (15.5%) germacrene D (14.4%) and limonene (3.6%). The essential oil and the main individual constituents were screened for antibacterial activity and the essential oil evaluated for antioxidant activity. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically significant Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC-435, Bacillus subtilis MTCC-441, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris MTCC-321, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-1688, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dyssenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). The essential oil and its major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with Gram-positive being more susceptible to the oil than Gram-negative bacteria. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radicals. In general, the essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards at the same dose (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl toluene, BHT) with IC(50) values of 34.5 and 56.4μg/ml calculated by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays respectively. PMID:22951389

  11. 基于水分驱动的 AquaCrop 模型及其研究进展%AquaCrop model based on water-driven principle and its research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万红; 刘文兆; 王芸

    2014-01-01

    介绍了AquaCrop模型的原理及基本参数,从模型的校验与应用两方面阐述了该模型的研究进展。指出目前仍缺乏实测数据验证AquaCrop模型对蒸发及蒸腾的模拟效果;AquaCrop模型在严重水分及盐分胁迫下模拟结果精度较差;已开展的模拟研究地域范围窄;由于缺少更复杂的生理子模块,AquaCrop模型不能很好解释水分胁迫对光合产物向籽粒运输分配过程的影响。为了提高模型的模拟精度并进一步延伸模型的应用范围,应完善模型水分及盐胁迫模块,并在较广范围内获取丰富的实测数据对模型开展进一步的校验研究。%The theory ,parameters and characteristics of AquaCrop model were introduced and its research progress was reviewed from the viewpoints of validation and application of the model .It was pointed that :the measured data of e-vaporation and transpiration were still lacked for the validation of simulating results of AquaCrop model ;the performance of AquaCrop model was poor under severe water and salt stress conditions ;The locations for model study were not di-verse;Because of lacking of the move complicated plant physiological submodel ,AquaCrop model was not able to account for water stress impact on biomass partitioning into yield .In order to increase the accuracy degree of AquaCrop model and extend its application range ,it is necessary to get abundant data measured for diverse locations and perfect the module of water and salt stress .

  12. Development Situation,Problem and Countermeasure of Juglans regia L.Industrial in Yichang City%宜昌市核桃产业发展现状、问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓中美

    2012-01-01

    The Cultivation History of Juglans regia L.was very long.It is wood oil fruit,wich has high nutrition value.The author point out Juglans regia L.Industrial development situation,problem and countermeasure in Yichang city in oder to provide reference for colleagues.%核桃在湖北省宜昌市栽培历史悠久,是营养价值很高的木本油料果树。笔者就宜昌市核桃产业发展现状、问题及对策谈了几点看法,供同仁参考。

  13. The Closed Aquatic System AquaHab® as part of a CELSS for Exploration, Space and Earth Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, Klaus

    AquaHab R is a small, self-sustaining closed microcosm, based on the former space shuttle payload C.E.B.A.S. (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System). AquaHab R contains on laboratory scale within 8 liters of water volume different groups of organisms (fish, snails, amphipods, plants). During the last years, it was developed to a system for the risk assessment of chemicals as well as an early warning tool for air and water contamination, major concerns during long-term stays in closed habitats for example on Earth's subsurface (deep sea) or later on the Moon or Mars. AquaHab R is now enhanced developed for exploratory missions having implemented an algae reactor system for biomass production etc.. During first tests, the transport of oxygen from the algae reactor into the AquaHab R was demonstrated successfully. In the common AquaHab R - bioreactor system, the different subsystems will serve for several tasks. In the AquaHab R - tank, the removal of waste water (mainly nutrients) as well as the production of some higher plants and fish as food source will be most beneficial; additionally the AquaHab R -tank is supporting astronauts psychological health recovery (home aquaria effect, taking care for pets). The beneficially output of the algae reactors will e.g. be the increased delivery of oxygen and metabolic products with application potential for humans (as e.g. vitamins, drug like acting substances) as well as being a food source in general and also the removal of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, specialized algae can also serve as early warning tool, as all the organisms in the AquaHab R do, or producing energy equivalents. The different subsystems will interact with each other to treat the products of humans being in the closed habitat in the most effective way. This new life support subsystem will be bioregenerative and sustainable in the meaning, that no material transport into the system is needed, and non-usable and maybe toxic end products won‘t be

  14. Effects of Hominis Placenta Aqua-acupuncture on Kidney and Liver Intoxicated by HgCI2 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Sang-Keel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was perfomled to examine the therapeutic effect of aqua-acupuncture solution of Hominis Placenta(HP on kidney and liver intoxicated by HgCl2 in rats. Methods: 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture were carried out everyday for 8 days on corresponding bilateral loci of Shinsu(BL23 and Kansu(BL18, respectively, after mercuric chloride intoxication in rats. Thereafter BUN, creatinine, GOT, GPT, ALP, -GT, albumin and total bilirubin were measured before intoxication, and at the 4th and the 8th experimental day. Histopathological and immunochemical observation were also carried out. Results: 1. It showed significant decreases of BUN in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th experimental day as compared with the control group. 2. It showed significant decreases of creatinine in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th and the 8th experimental days as compared with the control group. 3. There were not any significant changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, γ-GT, albumin and total bilirubin in the HP aqua-acupuncture groups compared with the control group. 4. By the histopathological observations on kidney under a light microscope, all the 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu showed the preventive effect on tubulo-interstitial necrosis and muItifocal calcification in tubular lumen respectively compared with the control group. 5. By the histopathological observations on liver under a light mIcroscope, the groups 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Kansu did not show any significant changes in the liver compared with the control group. 6. By the immunochemical analysis of heat shock protein(hsp and glucose-regulated protein(grp in rat renal cortex, the expressions of hsp70 and grp78 were decreased in the and HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu respectively compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hominis Placenta aqua-acupuncture have an effect on prevention and protection of

  15. AquaFuel An example of the emerging new energies and the new methods for their scientific study

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we initiate studies of the emerging new forms of energy by using as a representative example the new combustible gas called AquaFuel, discovered and patented by William H. Richardson, jr., whose rights are now owned by Toups Technology Licensing, Inc. (TTL), of Largo, Florida. In essence, AquaFuel is a new energy converter capable of transforming Carbon and water into a new combustible gas via an electric discharge. We show that AquaFuel can be produced easily, safely and rapidly in large amounts, and exhibits greatly reduced emission pollutants as compared to fossil fuels of current use. Despite its simplicity, the chemical and physical characteristics of AquaFuel are largely unknown at this writing. We then review nine basic experimental measurements which are necessary for a scientific appraisal of AquaFuel. We outline the limitations of quantum mechanics and chemistry for the treatment of beyond} said theories. We finally point out the availability of broader theories specifically constructe...

  16. Application of AquaCrop Model for Water Consumption Characteristics of Turfgrass%AquaCrop模型在草坪草耗水特性研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖波

    2016-01-01

    以草地早熟禾为试验材料,在温室内开展草坪草土壤水分梯度控制试验,将AquaCrop模型应用到非充分灌溉条件下草坪草蒸散耗水特性的研究中,通过参数调试、模型检验和田间验证,最终建立草坪草生物量水分响应模型.结果表明:AquaCrop模型模拟草坪草生长发育的效果与实测结果较为一致,模拟值与测量值非常接近,建立的草坪草AquaCrop模型,具有较强的科学性和实用性.

  17. Coordinated aqua vs methanol substitution kinetics in fac-Re(I) tricarbonyl tropolonato complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Marietjie; Roodt, Andreas; Visser, Hendrik G

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L,L'-Bid)(X)] (L,L'-Bid = tropolonato, X = H(2)O, methanol) complexes have been synthesized, and the aqua and methanol substitution reactions were investigated in water (pH range 6.3-10.0) and methanol, respectively, and compared. Thiocyanate ions were used as monodentate entering ligand. The complexes were characterized by UV-vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of the complexes [NEt(4)] fac-[Re(Trop)(CO)(3)(H(2)O)].NO(3).H(2)O (reactant) and fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(Py)], a substitution product, are reported. Overall it was found that the aqua substitution of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(H(2)O)] is about 10 times faster than the methanol substitution reaction for fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(MeOH)], with forward and reverse rate and stability constants [k(1) (M(-1) s(-1)), k(-1) (s(-1)), K(1), (M(-1))] for thiocyanate as monodentate entering ligand as follows: fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(H(2)O)] = 2.54 ± 0.03, 0.0077 ± 0.0005, 330 ± 22/207 ± 14 and fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(MeOH)] = 0.268 ± 0.002, 0.0044 ± 0.0002, (61 ± 3)/(52 ± 4). The activation parameters [ΔH(‡)(k1) (kJ mol(-1)), ΔS(‡)(k1) (J K(-1) mol(-1))] for the aqua and methanol complex respectively are 56.1 ± 0.7, -49 ± 2 and 64 ± 1, -43 ± 5. PMID:23088314

  18. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  19. Evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in stony soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a water balance model is also based on the ability to correctly perform simulations in heterogeneous soils. The objective of this paper is to test CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in order to evaluate their suitability in estimating evapotranspiration at the field scale in two types of soil in the Mediterranean region: non-stony and stony soil. The first step of the work was to calibrate both models under the non-stony conditions. The models were calibrated by using observations on wheat crop (leaf area index or canopy cover, and phenological stages as a function of degree days and pedo-climatic measurements. The second step consisted in the analysing the impact of the soil type on the models performances by comparing simulated and measured values. The outputs retained in the analysis were soil water content (at the daily scale and crop evapotranspiration (at two time scales: daily and crop season. The model performances were evaluated through four statistical tests: normalised difference (D% at the seasonal time scale; and relative root mean square error (RRMSE, efficiency index (EF, coefficient of determination (r2 at the daily scale. At the seasonal scale, values of D% were less than 15% in stony and on-stony soils, indicating a good performance attained by both models. At the daily scale, the RRMSE values (<30% indicate that the evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA is acceptable in both soil types. In the stony soil conditions, 3 out 4 statistical tests (RRMSE, EF, r2 indicate the inadequacy of AquaCrop to simulate correctly daily evapotranspiration. The higher performance of CRITERIA model to simulate daily evapotranspiration in stony soils, is due to the soil submodel, which requires the percentage skeleton as an input, while AquaCrop model takes into account the presence of skeleton by reducing the soil volume.

  20. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  1. Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and

  2. Aqua ch´i ©™ - para um envelhecimento ativo

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Esta monografia é resultado de um breve estudo sobre o envelhecimento humano e sobre um novo método de terapia aquática pouco conhecido na Europa, o método Spiritwalking: Aqua Ch´i ©™ da Norte Americana Bett Lujan Martinez. Abordaremos, inicialmente, as características do envelhecimento sob os aspetos biopsicosociais, bem como a importância do exercício ao longo do processo de envelhecimento como forma de prevenção, promoção da saúde. A sociedade ocidental, cada vez mais, tem vindo a ad...

  3. Assessment of diverse algorithms applied on MODIS Aqua and Terra data over land surfaces in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Glantz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to validate AOT (aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent (α, obtained with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval algorithm for MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground and MODIS Collection 5 (c005 standard product retrievals (10 km, against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork observations over land surfaces in Europe. The three time periods investigated in this study have been chosen to enable a validation of the algorithm for a maximal possible variation in sun elevations. For several of the cases analyzed here the Aqua and Terra satellites passed the investigation area twice during a day. Thus, beside a variation in the sun elevation the satellite retrievals have also on a daily basis been performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry. An inter-comparison of the two algorithms has also been performed. The validation with AERONET shows that the MODIS c005 retrieved AOT is, for the wavelengths 0.469 and 0.500 nm, on the whole within the expected uncertainty for one standard deviation of the MODIS c005 retrievals over Europe (Δ AOT = ±0.05±0.15 AOT. The SAER estimated AOT for the wavelength 0.443 nm also agree reasonable well with AERONET. Thus, the majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger root mean square deviation occurs compared to the results obtained with the MODIS c005 algorithm. The discrepancy between SAER and AERONET AOT is, however, substantially larger for the wavelength 488 nm, which means that the values are to a large extent outside of the expected MODIS uncertainty range. Both satellite retrieval algorithms are unable to estimate α accurately, although the MODIS c005 algorithm performs better. Based on the inter-comparison of the SAER and MODIS c005 algorithms it was found that the SAER is able to obtain

  4. Earth System Science Research Using Datra and Products from Terra, Aqua, and ACRIM Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the research conducted at CSR to extend MODIS data and products to the applications required by users in the State of Texas. This research presented in this report was completed during the timeframe of August 2004 - December 31, 2007. However, since annual reports were filed in December 2005 and 2006, results obtained during calendar year 2007 are emphasized in the report. The stated goals of the project were to complete the fundamental research needed to create two types of new, Level 3 products for the air quality community in Texas from data collected by NASA s EOS Terra and Aqua missions.

  5. Validation of MODIS Terra and Aqua Ice Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. K.; Shuman, C. A.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-surface temperature (IST) is used in many studies, for example for validation of model output and for detection of leads and thin ice in sea ice. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites are useful for mapping IST of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet (Hall et al., 2012), and validation of the ISTs derived from MODIS has been an ongoing effort (e.g., Koenig & Hall, 2010; Shuman et al., 2014). Recent results call into question the calibration of the MODIS-derived ISTs at very cold temperatures that are characteristic of the Greenland ice sheet high interior during winter (Shuman et al., 2014). In the present work, we investigate the calibration of MODIS IR bands 31 (10.780 - 11.280 µm) and 32 (11.770 - 12.270 µm) under very cold conditions. MODIS IR bands are calibrated using a quadratic algorithm. In Collection 6 (C6), the offset and nonlinear calibration coefficients are computed from data collected during the blackbody cool-down vs the warm-up data used in Collection 5 (C5). To improve the calibration accuracy for low-temperature scenes, the offset terms are set to 0. In general, Aqua MODIS bands 31 and 32 perform better than Terra MODIS bands 31 and 32. One of the reasons is that the Aqua bands have a lower saturation temperature (~340 K) than the Terra (~380 K) bands, and lower saturation or smaller dynamic range means better resolution. As compared to ~2-m NOAA air temperatures (TA) at Summit, Greenland, Shuman et al. (2014) show a small (~0.5°C) offset in Terra MODIS-derived IST vs TA near 0°C, and an increasingly larger offset (up to ~5°C) as TA drops to -60°C. To investigate this further, we compare Terra and Aqua C5 and C6 ISTs with TA data from Summit. This work will document the calibration of bands 31 and 32 at very low temperatures in C5 and C6. Hall, D.K., et al., 2012: Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

  6. Surface engineered nanostructured lipid carriers for efficient nose to brain delivery of ondansetron HCl using Delonix regia gum as a natural mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Tejas B; Tekade, Avinash R; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to fabricate ondansetron hydrochloride [OND] loaded mucoadhesive nanostructured lipid carriers [NLCs] for efficient delivery to brain through nasal route. Mucoadhesive NLCs thereby sustaining drug release for longer time in nasal cavity. NLCs were prepared by high pressure homogenization [HPH] technique using glycerol monostearate [GMS]; as solid lipid, Capryol 90; as liquid lipid, soya lecithin; as surfactant and poloxamer 188; as cosurfactant. In the fabrication of NLCs, Delonix regia gum [DRG], isolated from seeds of D. regia belonging to family fabiaceae was used as a mucoadhesive polymer. The NLCs were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug-entrapment efficiency [%EE], mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, histological examination, ex vivo permeation study, in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies in the brain/blood following intravenous [i.v.] and intranasal [i.n.] administration. Particle size, PDI, Zeta potential was observed in the range of 92.28-135nm, 0.32-0.46, and -11.5 to -36.2 respectively. Prepared NLCs achieved thermodynamic stability, control release pattern with minor histopathological changes in sheep nasal mucosa. The significantly [P<0.05] higher values for selected batch was observed, when administered by i.n. route showed higher drug targeting efficiency [506%] and direct transport percentage [97.14%] which confirms the development of promising OND-loaded NLC for efficient nose-to-brain delivery. PMID:25033434

  7. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de S. Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from the nighttime overpass of the MODIS/AQUA sensor for the months of June, July and August from 2006 to 2012, and data from three conventional weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET were used. Consistency was observed between Tmin data measured in weather stations and LST data obtained from the MODIS sensor. According to the results, LSTs below 3 ºC recorded by the MODIS/AQUA sensor are an indication of a favorable scenario to frost occurrence.

  8. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  9. Six-month oral toxicity of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balia Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El D-004 es un extracto lipídico obtenido del fruto de la palma real (Roystonea regia que consiste en una mezcla de ácidos grasos, en la cual los ácidos oleico, palmítico, láurico y mirístico son los más abundantes. El tratamiento oral con D-004 inhibe significativamente la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona en roedores. Este ensayo se realizó para investigar la toxicidad inducida por el D-004 en ratas Sprague Dawley (SD. Las ratas de ambos sexos fueron distribuidas al azar en cuatro grupos experimentales (24 ratas sexo/grupo, un control que recibió el vehículo tween 65/agua y tres grupos tratados con D-004 a las dosis de 500, 750 y 1 000 mg/(kg · d, respectivamente. Las observaciones clínicas se realizaron diariamente. El peso corporal y el consumo de alimentos se determinaron semanalmente durante las primeras 13 semanas y mensualmente hasta el final del estudio. Los animales fueron sacrificados en atmósfera de éter. Ninguna evidencia de efectos tóxicos fue detectada en relación con el tratamiento. Las observaciones clínicas, peso corporal, consumo de alimentos, indicadores de bioquímica y hematología sanguínea, peso de órganos y hallazgos histopatológicos no arrojaron diferencias significativas entre grupos tratados y control. Las lesiones histopatológicas encontradas en este estudio fueron comunes a esta especie y línea. Basado en los presentes resultados, la mayor dosis investigada (1 000 mg/kg durante la administración oral del D-004 durante seis meses a ratas SD, se comportó como un nivel de dosis que no produjo efectos tóxicos, lo que hace pensar que esta sustancia presenta una toxicidad oral potencialmente baja.

  10. Optimized extraction of daily bio-optical time series derived from MODIS/Aqua imagery for Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie; Bergamino, N; Stenuite, S;

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is one of the world's great freshwater ecosystems. In recent decades its hydrodynamic characteristics have undergone important changes that have had consequences on the lake's primary productivity. The establishment of a long-term Ocean Color dataset for Lake Tanganyika...... the MODIS-Aqua sensor. Standard MODIS Aqua Ocean Color products were found to not provide a suitable calibration for high altitude lakes such as the Lake Tanganyika. An optimization of the extraction process and the validation of the dataset were performed with independent sets of in situ measurements. Our...

  11. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  12. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  13. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up to...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  14. Dinuclear ru-aqua complexes for selective epoxidation catalysis based on supramolecular substrate orientation effects

    KAUST Repository

    Di Giovanni, Carlo

    2014-03-03

    Ru-aqua complex {[RuII(trpy)(H2O)] 2(μ-pyr-dc)}+ is a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes. High turnover numbers (TNs), up to 17000, and turnover frequencies (TOF), up to 24120 h-1 (6.7 s -1), have been obtained using PhIO as oxidant. This species presents an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides. In addition, it shows different reactivity to cis and trans olefins due to a substrate orientation supramolecular effect transmitted by its ligand scaffold. This effect together with the impressive reaction rates are rationalized using electrochemical techniques and DFT calculations. A new Ru-aqua complex that behaves as a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes is reported. High turnover numbers and frequencies are obtained by using PhIO as oxidant. The complex shows an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Lutetium(iii) aqua ion: On the dynamical structure of the heaviest lanthanoid hydration complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Francesco; Spezia, Riccardo; D'Angelo, Paola

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of the lutetium(iii) ion in aqueous solution have been investigated by means of a polarizable force field molecular dynamics (MD). An 8-fold square antiprism (SAP) geometry has been found to be the dominant configuration of the lutetium(iii) aqua ion. Nevertheless, a low percentage of 9-fold complexes arranged in a tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) geometry has been also detected. Dynamic properties have been explored by carrying out six independent MD simulations for each of four different temperatures: 277 K, 298 K, 423 K, 632 K. The mean residence time of water molecules in the first hydration shell at room temperature has been found to increase as compared to the central elements of the lanthanoid series in agreement with previous experimental findings. Water exchange kinetic rate constants at each temperature and activation parameters of the process have been determined from the MD simulations. The obtained structural and dynamical results suggest that the water exchange process for the lutetium(iii) aqua ion proceeds with an associative mechanism, in which the SAP hydration complex undergoes temporary structural changes passing through a 9-fold TTP intermediate. Such results are consistent with the water exchange mechanism proposed for heavy lanthanoid atoms.

  16. AquaPathogen X--A template database for tracking field isolates of aquatic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Evi; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    AquaPathogen X is a template database for recording information on individual isolates of aquatic pathogens and is available for download from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) website (http://wfrc.usgs.gov). This template database can accommodate the nucleotide sequence data generated in molecular epidemiological studies along with the myriad of abiotic and biotic traits associated with isolates of various pathogens (for example, viruses, parasites, or bacteria) from multiple aquatic animal host species (for example, fish, shellfish, or shrimp). The simultaneous cataloging of isolates from different aquatic pathogens is a unique feature to the AquaPathogen X database, which can be used in surveillance of emerging aquatic animal diseases and clarification of main risk factors associated with pathogen incursions into new water systems. As a template database, the data fields are empty upon download and can be modified to user specifications. For example, an application of the template database that stores the epidemiological profiles of fish virus isolates, called Fish ViroTrak (fig. 1), was also developed (Emmenegger and others, 2011).

  17. Aqua Polis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    A discussion of a range of different strategies related to an sustainable waterfront development, including public space strategies, Housing strategies, Cultural projects, Terrain Vague.......A discussion of a range of different strategies related to an sustainable waterfront development, including public space strategies, Housing strategies, Cultural projects, Terrain Vague....

  18. AquaCrop 模型在农业旱灾损失评估中的应用%Application of AquaCrop model in evaluation of agricultural drought losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常文娟; 梁忠民

    2014-01-01

    利用作物生长机理模型---AquaCrop 模型,建立作物生长环境要素(气象、土壤水分等)与产量之间的定量关系,以此构建农业旱灾损失定量评估模型,并对云南省曲靖市沾益县一季中稻的旱灾损失进行了实例计算。结果表明, AquaCrop 模型能够客观地评估农业因旱损失,为旱灾风险分析计算提供灾损数据支撑。%T he AquaCrop model, based on t he mechanism of crop growth process, was introduced to develop the quantitative rela-tionship betw een crop environmental factors( w eather, soil moisture, etc) and crop yields, and t hen to construct a quantitat ive e-valuation model of the agricultural drought losses. The model w as applied to calculate the agricultural drought losses of season rice in Zhanyi County of Qujing City in Yunnan Province. The results showed that the AquaCrop model can assess the agricul-tural drought losses objectively and provide data support for drought risk analysis.

  19. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate o

  20. Validation of JAXA/MODIS Sea Surface Temperature in Water around Taiwan Using the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research vessel-based Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD provides underwater measurements of the bulk sea surface temperature (SST at the depths of shallower than 5 m. The CTD observations of the seas around Taiwan provide useful data for comparison with SST of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers aboard Aqua and Terra satellites archived by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. We produce a high-resolution (1 km MODIS SST by using Multi-Channel SST (MCSST algorithm. There were 1516 cloud-free match-up data pairs of MODIS SST and in situ measurements during the period from 2003 - 2005. The difference of the root mean square error (RMSE of satellite observations from each platform during the day and at night was: _ in Aqua daytime, _ in Aqua nighttime, _ in Terra daytime, and _ in Terra nighttime. The total analysis of MODIS-derived SST shows good agreement with a bias of _ and RMSE of _ The analyses indicate that the bias of Aqua daytime was always positive throughout the year and the large RMSE should be attributed to the large positive bias _ under diurnal warming. It was also found that the bias of Terra daytime was usually negative with a mean bias of _ its large RMSE should be treated with care because of low solar radiation in the morning.

  1. Instrumentation of the model in scaled 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The objective of this report is to provide guidelines for the instrumentation of a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter. The model will be located in Nissum Bredning area: this is an important waterway already used by Aalborg University for real sea tests of wave...

  2. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs.

  3. A comparative fluctuating asymmetry study between two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations may contribute as an early signal for bio-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourmpetis YAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stability, the ability of an individual to eliminate environmental disturbances while expressing a heritable phenotypic trait, was compared in two walnut (Juglans regia L. populations, a natural and an artificial. Bilateral leaf morphometrics were used to estimate fluctuating asymmetry which refers to random deviation from perfect symmetry of bilateral traits resulting from extrinsic and intrinsic perturbations not buffered during development. Fluctuating asymmetry was used as a proxy of developmental stability. We analyzed our data from a Bayesian perspective showing that developmental stability levels are decreased in the natural population. Our results indicate that an attention may be directed towards the conservation of the natural walnut resources of the area. Fluctuating asymmetry as an indicator of developmental stability may contribute especially in the framework of comparative studies as a population biomonitoring tool.

  4. Poly[aqua(μ3-pyridazine-4-carboxylato-κ2O:O:O′lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which two LiI ions are bridged by a carboxylate O atom, each donated by a ligand, acting in a bidentate mode. The second carboxylato O atoms bridge the dimers to LiI ions in adjacent dimers, forming molecular layers parallel to (001. Each LiI ion is coordinated by two bridging carboxylate O atoms, a bridging carboxylate O atom donated by the adjacent dimer and an aqua O atom, resulting in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The layers are held together by O—H...N hydrogen bonds in which coordinated water O atoms act as donors and ligand hetero-ring N atoms as acceptors.

  5. Visible-Light-Induced Morphological Changes of Giant Vesicles by Photoisomerization of a Ruthenium Aqua Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirahara, Masanari; Tsukamoto, Akira; Goto, Hiroki; Tada, Shigeru; Yagi, Masayuki; Umemura, Yasushi

    2016-02-18

    Visible- and red-light responsive vesicles were prepared by incorporating a ruthenium aqua complex having two alkyl chains on tridentate and asymmetrical bidentate ligands (proximal-2: [Ru(C10 tpy)(C10 pyqu)OH2 ](2+) , C10 tpy=4'-decyloxy-2,2';6',2"-terpyridine, C10 pyqu=2-[2'-(6'-decyloxy)-pyridyl]quinoline). The ruthenium complex of proximal-2 with closed alkyl chain geometry and a cylinder-like molecular shape exhibited photoisomerization to distal-2 with an open alkyl chain geometry and a cone-like shape, both in an aqueous solution and in vesicle dispersions. We observed that light irradiation of giant vesicles containing proximal-2 induced diverse morphological changes. PMID:26711139

  6. Aerosol retrieval over land by exploiting the synergy of TERRA and AQUA MODIS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Jiakui; XUE; Yong; YU; Tong; GUAN; Yanning; CAI; Guoyin

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval over land from satellite remotely sensed data remains internationally a difficult task. By using MODIS data, the Dark Dense Vegetation (DDV) algorithm aerosol distribution and properties retrieval over land has shown excellent competence. However, this algorithm is restricted to lower surface reflectance such as water bodies and dense vegetation, which limits its actual application, and is unable to be used for high reflective surface such as over urban areas. In this paper, we introduce a new aerosol retrieval model by exploiting the Synergy of TERRA and AQUA MODIS data (SYNTAM), which can be used for various ground surfaces, including for high reflective surface. Preliminary validations have been carried out by comparing with AERONET measured data, which shows good accuracy and promising potential. Further research work is undergoing.

  7. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  8. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation sequences using 10 years daily weather data. The simulation results suggest that “2 irrigation frequency” is the most water-efficient schedule for wheat under the prevailing climatic and soil conditions. The results also indicate decreasing yield trend under late sowing. The normal/recommended sequence of irrigation performed better than the seven-days shifting from the normal. The results will help to formulate irrigation management plan based on the resource availability (water, and land availability from previous crop.

  9. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. PMID:24615533

  10. An Algorithm For Climate-Quality Atmospheric Profiling Continuity From EOS Aqua To Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We will present results from an algorithm that is being developed to produce climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to hyperspectral sounding instrument data from Suomi-NPP, EOS Aqua, and other spacecraft. The current focus is on data from the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments as well as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua. The algorithm development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) has common heritage with the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm operationally processing S-NPP data in the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), but the ESDR algorithm has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration and has several features adapted to the climate orientation of ESDRs. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. The radiative transfer component uses an enhanced version of optimal spectral sampling (OSS) with updated spectroscopy, treatment of emission that is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), efficiency gains with "global" optimal sampling over all channels, and support for channel selection. The algorithm is designed for adaptive treatment of clouds, with capability to apply "cloud clearing" or simultaneous cloud parameter retrieval, depending on conditions. We will present retrieval results demonstrating the impact of a new capability to perform the retrievals on sigma or hybrid vertical grid (as opposed to a fixed pressure grid), which particularly affects profile accuracy over land with variable terrain height and with sharp vertical structure near the surface. In addition, we will show impacts of alternative treatments of regularization of the inversion. While OE algorithms typically implement regularization by using background estimates from

  11. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  12. Expression and localization of aqua-glyceroporins AQP3 and AQP9 in rat oral epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Marlene; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Enokiya, Yasunobu; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Sasaki, Hodaka; Sakurai, Kaoru; Shimono, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small integral membrane proteins made up of 6 hydrophobic, a-helical, membrane-spanning domains surrounding a highly selective aqueous pore. AQP3, AQP7, and AQP9, termed aqua-glyceroporins, are known to be involved in the transport of water, glycerol, and other small molecules. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization of aqua-glyceroporins in rat oral stratified squamous epithelia of the palate, the buccal mucosa, the inferior aspect of the tongue, and the oral floor by using RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunogold electron microscopy. AQP3 and AQP9 mRNAs were expressed in whole oral epithelium. Immunostaining for AQP3 was recognized in each type of epithelium. The results suggest that AQP3 synthesis begins predominantly in the cytoplasm of the basal cells. During the process of epithelial cell differentiation, AQP3 protein appears to accumulate and be transported to the plasma membrane, from where it is incorporated into the cornified or surface layers. The intracellular localization of AQP3 appears to correlate with the differentiation of keratinocytes, suggesting that it acts as an enhancer of the physiological permeability barrier together with membrane coating granules. The distribution pattern of AQP9 was limited to the marginal areas of the basal and suprabasal layers, which was different from that of AQP3. This difference in distribution between AQP3 and AQP9 suggests that AQP9 in rat oral epithelia acts as a channel by facilitating glycerol uptake from the blood through the endothelial cells of the capillary vessels to the oral stratified squamous epithelium. AQP3 and AQP9 facilitate both transcellular osmotic water flow and glycerol transport as pore-like passive transporters in the keratinocytes of oral epithelia, and may play a key role in not only hydration and the permeability barrier, but also cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, development, and wound healing by generating ATP.

  13. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial–aquatic robotic platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire–abstract–implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial–aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. (topical review)

  14. Parameterization and application of the AquaCrop model for simulating bioenergy crops in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilga, Navneet Kaur

    The objective of this study was to parameterize the AquaCrop model for two bioenergy crops, switchgrass and forage sorghum, using field measurements from Stillwater, Oklahoma in 2011. The parameterized model was then validated for additional sites at Chickasha and Woodward, Oklahoma. After parameterization at Stillwater, the simulated canopy cover closely matched the measured canopy cover dynamics with a RMSE of 6% in switchgrass and 5% in forage sorghum. The water stress thresholds for canopy expansion and stomatal conductance were similar for switchgrass and forage sorghum, but senescence was induced at 35% available water depletion for forage sorghum compared to 85% for switchgrass. The maximum rooting depth of switchgrass was estimated at 190 cm and that of forage sorghum at 120 cm. The normalized water productivity of switchgrass was found to be 14 g m-2, approximately half that of forage sorghum which was 27 g m-2. The parameterized model reasonably simulated soil water depletion at Stillwater (RMSE AquaCrop five water levels: rainfed with initial soil moisture conditions of 60% available water capacity, 80% available water capacity, 100% available water capacity, and irrigation treatments at 70% allowable depletion, and at 50% allowable depletion. The simulation study was done over a period of ten years 2002-2011 to assess the long term performance. County average yields were consistent with simulated grain yields for corn under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Forage sorghum produced 30 % higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn under irrigated environments but not under rainfed environments. Switchgrass did not produce significantly higher theoretical ethanol yields than corn at any water level. Based on this modeling study, forage sorghum may have potential as an alternative to corn in the Oklahoma Panhandle given the advent of cellulosic ethanol production but forage sorghum is unlikely to help meet the challenge of groundwater depletion.

  15. A decadal microwave record of tropical air temperature from AMSU-A/aqua observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Li, King-Fai; Yung, Yuk L.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Shi, Zuoqiang; Hou, Thomas Y.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric temperature is one of the most important climate variables. This observational study presents detailed descriptions of the temperature variability imprinted in the 9-year brightness temperature data acquired by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-Instrument A (AMSU-A) aboard Aqua since September 2002 over tropical oceans. A non-linear, adaptive method called the Ensemble Joint Multiple Extraction has been employed to extract the principal modes of variability in the AMSU-A/Aqua data. The semi-annual, annual, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modes and QBO-annual beat in the troposphere and the stratosphere have been successfully recovered. The modulation by the El Niño/Southern oscillation (ENSO) in the troposphere was found and correlates well with the Multivariate ENSO Index. The long-term variations during 2002-2011 reveal a cooling trend (-0.5 K/decade at 10 hPa) in the tropical stratosphere; the trend below the tropical tropopause is not statistically significant due to the length of our data. A new tropospheric near-annual mode (period ~1.6 years) was also revealed in the troposphere, whose existence was confirmed using National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis air temperature data. The near-annual mode in the troposphere is found to prevail in the eastern Pacific region and is coherent with a near-annual mode in the observed sea surface temperature over the Warm Pool region that has previously been reported. It remains a challenge for climate models to simulate the trends and principal modes of natural variability reported in this work.

  16. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  17. 基于寒地春小麦AquaCrop与WOFOST模型适应性验证分析%The Adaptability Test Analysis of AquaCrop and WOFOST Model Based on the Cold Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁楠; 付驰; 李晶; 顾万荣; 许为政; 芦玉双; 魏湜

    2013-01-01

    使用AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型对哈尔滨地区春小麦生长进行模拟,以春小麦的地上生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水量为指标,对比分析两个模型的模拟精度.结果表明:使用经过校正的两个模型均能够较为准确地模拟哈尔滨地区春小麦的生长发育情况及产量形成,观测值与模拟值一致性较好,误差均在合理范围内.在非正常年际AquaCrop模型模拟结果与实测结果偏差较大,说明该模型适合于正常年景的作物生长模拟,WOFOST模型适应性更强.在对201 1年土壤水分含量的模拟中,两个模型观测值与模拟值总体趋势相同,误差均在合理范围内.总体来说,经过修正和校准后的AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型均适合寒地春小麦的模拟研究.%The main object of the study was analyzing the accuracy of the two models AquaCrop and WOFOST which were used for simulating the growth of spring wheat in Harbin based on biomass,yield and soil volume moisture content.The results indicated that the spring wheat growth and yield formation could be simulated accurately with the two optimized models.What's more,the values of observation and simulation value were closer and the error was creditable.The simulation results of AquaCrop model exhibit more difference with the measured results in abnormal year which revealed that the model was suitable for the crop growth in normal year while the WOFOST model showed more adaptability.The observation values of soil moisture content in 2011 were consistent with the total trend in the two models used in the research,also the error was creditable.In general,the optimized models AquaCrop and WOFOST were suitable for the cold spring wheat simulation research.

  18. Model of recreational and training sessions based on the use of funds aqua professionally applied in the preparation of students of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko N. V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study, develop and test a model of health-training exercises with the use of aqua. Material: in the experiment involved 69 students aged 17-18 years. Results : It was found that the developed model has a positive effect on physical performance of students promotes adaptive processes to the future professional activity and improve the learning process. Should consider the following: 1 the means and methods should be adequate aqua morphofunctional features and enhance the activity of the cardiovascular system, general endurance, power capabilities, flexibility, neurobehavioral performance, and 2 as a means of aqua aerobic exercise is advisable to use orientation and moderate intensity, and 3 use tools and techniques aqua should foster interest in a systematic and independent physical activities. Conclusions : the model promotes the development and improvement of the skills and abilities necessary to the future experts in economics.

  19. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Aqua satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 2002 on board the Aqua satellite platform (a...

  20. AquaScan: A miniaturized UV/VIS/IR hyperspectral imager for autonomous airborne and underwater imaging spectroscopy of coastal & oceanic environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AquaScan, a miniaturized UV/VIS/NIR hyperspectral imager will be built for deployment on a UAV or small manned aircraft for ocean coastal remote sensing...

  1. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Gird SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  2. MODIS/Aqua MYD11_L2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity 5-Minute L2 Swath 1 km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  3. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C3 Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  4. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  5. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C2 Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  6. MODIS/Aqua MYD11B1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  7. MODIS/Aqua MYD11C1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  8. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JayaShankar Tumuluru

    2013-04-01

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  9. Inter-Comparison of S-NPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands Using Hyperspectral Infrared Sounder Measurements as a Transfer Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghong Li; Aisheng Wu; Xiaoxiong Xiong

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration consistency of the spectrally-matched thermal emissive bands (TEB) between the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), using observations from their simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO). Nearly-simultaneous hyperspectral measurements from the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder(AIRS) and the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) a...

  10. Evaluation of monthwise and overall trends of AOD over Indian cities using MODIS Aqua and Terra retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Ghosh, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been shown to have profound impact on climate system and human health. Regular and systematic monitoring of ambient air is thus necessary in order to asses its impact. There are several ground based stations worldwide employed in this service but still their numbers are inadequate and it is even almost impossible to have such stations at difficult geographical terrains and take measurement throughout the year. Aerosol optical depth or AOD, which is a measure of extinction of incoming solar radiation, serves as proxy to atmospheric aerosol loading. Various sensors onboard different satellites take routine measurement of AOD throughout the year. Satellite based AOD is used in many studies due to their wide coverage and availability for a longer time period. Satellite measures reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Column integrated value of aerosol are routinely estimated from those measurements using suitable inversion algorithms. MODIS instrument onboard Aqua and Terra satellites of Earth Observing System takes routine measurement in wide spectral range. We used those data to evaluate trend of AOD over almost fifty Indian cities having population more than a million. The cities we have chosen spread over almost entire length and breadth of the country. Few such studies have already been conducted using MODIS data. They typically used level 3 data. Since Level 3 data comes in 1x 1 degree gridded form they provide average value over a vast geographical region. We used level 2 dataset to enable us taking smaller region(1/2 x 1/2 degree here) centering the region of our interest . We used seasonal Mann-Kendall (M-K) statistics coupled with Sen's non-parametric slope estimation procedure to estimate monthwise and overall(i.e., yearly trend taking seasonality into account) AOD trend. We used median AOD for each month of every year to discard very high AOD's which we often get due to cloud contamination. Seasonal M-K test takes

  11. Solving the Hydration Structure of the Heaviest Actinide Aqua Ion Known: The Californium(III) Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, Ch.; Guillaumont, D. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, Radiochem Proc Dept, SCPS LILA, 30 (France); Galbis, E.; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos Sanchez, E. [Univ Seville, Dept Quim Fis, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Hernandez-Cobos, J. [Inst Ciencias Fis, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos (Mexico); Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [Univ Paris Sud, Inst Phys Nucl Orsay, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    In summary, the first MC simulation of the trivalent cation of californium, based on an exchangeable hydrated ion-water intermolecular potential, has been shown to extend and improve the hydrated ion model. Likewise, the CfL{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectrum of an acidic 1 mm Cf(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3} aqueous solution recorded under optimized experimental conditions has greatly improved the signal/noise ratio of the only previously recorded spectrum. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS spectrum with the two computed ones, obtained from two different intermolecular potentials that predict eight (BP86) or nine (MP2) water molecules in the first coordination shell, leads to the conclusion that the lowest hydration number is preferred. Then, as Cf{sup III} is the heaviest actinide aqua ion for which there is experimental information, the actinide contraction is supported by the present study. (For U{sup III}, R{sub U-O}=2.56 Angstroms, and CN=9{+-}1; for Pu{sup III}, R{sub Pu-O}=2.51 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1; for Cm{sup III}, R{sub Cm-O}=2.47 Angstroms and CN=9{+-}1). The role of the second hydration shell is important in defining the structure and dynamics of the Cf{sup III} aqua ion, but the contribution of second-shell water molecules to the EXAFS signal as back-scatters is marginal. Finally, this work gives an illustrative example of the benefits which can be achieved from the combination of experimental X-ray absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. The usefulness of the simultaneous analysis of the results as well as the importance of the structural statistical average has been clearly demonstrated herein. Each technique independently was not adequate. We believe that this study traces out a still poorly explored combined methodology which may be extremely useful for many other complexes and chemical problems. A systematic theoretical and experimental examination of the other known actinide cations on the same basis should be undertaken to confirm the

  12. The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Fahey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The AquaVIT-1 Intercomparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor Measurement Techniques was conducted at the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, in October 2007. The overall objective was to intercompare state-of-the-art and prototype atmospheric hygrometers with each other and with independent humidity standards under controlled conditions. This activity was conducted as a blind intercomparison with coordination by selected referees. The effort was motivated by persistent discrepancies found in atmospheric measurements involving multiple instruments operating on research aircraft and balloon platforms, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where water vapor reaches its lowest atmospheric values (less than 10 ppm. With the AIDA chamber volume of 84 m3, multiple instruments analyzed air with a common water vapor mixing ratio, either by extracting air into instrument flow systems, locating instruments inside the chamber, or sampling the chamber volume optically. The intercomparison was successfully conducted over 10 days during which pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio were systematically varied (50 to 500 hPa, 185 to 243 K, and 0.3 to 152 ppm. In the absence of an accepted reference instrument, the reference value was taken to be the ensemble mean of a core subset of the measurements. For these core instruments, the agreement between 10 and 150 ppm of water vapor is considered good with variation about the reference value of about ±10% (±1σ. In the region of most interest between 1 and 10 ppm, the core subset agreement is fair with variation about the reference value of ±20% (±1σ. The upper limit of precision was also derived for each instrument from the reported data. These results indicate that the core instruments, in general, have intrinsic skill to determine unknown water vapor mixing ratios with an accuracy of at least ±20%. The implication for atmospheric

  13. 光度法检测核桃青皮中类胡萝卜素含量%Determination of Carotenoids from Green Husk of Juglans regia L by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪卿; 段嘉瑞; 侯欣颖; 胡云斐; 段续续; 杨卫民

    2015-01-01

    Using green husk of Juglans regia L as raw material,extraction to obtain the terpenoids and analysis of content of carotenoid in the normal temperature and freezing storage by photometer were performed.The results showed that under normal temperature and freezing storage the contents of carotenoid of green husk of Juglans regia L varied greatly,0.06% and 0.14% respectively.The freezing storage is more conducive to the preservation of carot-enoids in green husk of Juglans regia L.%以核桃青皮为原料,浸提法获得萜类,用光度计对常温保存和冷冻贮藏下的类胡萝卜素含量进行分析。结果显示,常温保存和冷冻贮藏下,核桃青皮中类胡萝卜素含量差异很大。其中,常温保存时核桃青皮中类胡萝卜素含量为0.8%;冷冻贮藏时核桃青皮中类胡萝卜素含量为1.4%。结果表明,冷冻状态更有利于核桃青皮中类胡萝卜素的保存。

  14. Detection of microcystin synthetase genes in health food supplements containing the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    OpenAIRE

    Saker, Martin L.; Jungblut, Anne-Dorothee; Neilan, Brett A.; Rawn, Dorothea F. K.; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacterial contaminants in food supplements manufactured from blooms of the non-toxic freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Previous reports investigating the contamination of health food supplements with toxin-producing cyanobacteria have used chemical and or biochemical methods such as HPLC, ELISA and protein phosphatase assays. Whilst these studies have drawn attention to the presence of hepatotoxic microcystin...

  15. Chemical Characterization of Polysaccharide from the Slime Layer of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40

    OpenAIRE

    Plude, John L.; Parker, Dorothy L.; Schommer, Olivia J.; Timmerman, Robert J.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Joers, James M.; Hnasko, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Macromolecular material from the slime layer of the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40 was defined as material that adhered to cells during centrifugation in growth medium but was dislodged by washing with deionized water and retained within dialysis tubing with a molecular-weight cutoff of 3,500. At each step of this isolation procedure, the slime was observed microscopically. Cells in the centrifugal pellet were surrounded by large amounts of slime that excluded negative stain, whe...

  16. Brand positioning practices in the Norwegian fishing and aqua culture industry : a comparison of brand positioning practices and normative theory

    OpenAIRE

    Onsøyen, Peder; Teslo, Øystein Strand

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the importance of Brand Positioning. We look at Brand Positioning with regards to how practices are within one of Norway‟s most important industries - the Norwegian Fishing- and Aqua Culture Industry. There is the first research contributing to this particular field within this industry. We based our research on three research questions. First, we wanted to present and analyze relevant Brand Positioning theory. The chosen theory is mainly based on four renowned theoris...

  17. Assessment of two aerosol optical thickness retrieval algorithms applied to MODIS Aqua and Terra measurements in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Glantz, P.; Tesche, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Ångström exponent (α), obtained from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground) with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm and with MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km horizontal resolution), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer observations over land su...

  18. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  19. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  20. Inter-satellite comparison and evaluation of Navy SNPP VIIRS and MODIS-Aqua ocean color properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, S. D.; Arnone, R.; Vandermeulen, R.; Martinolich, P.; Lawson, A.; Bowers, J.; Crout, R.; Ondrusek, M.; Fargion, G.

    2014-05-01

    Navy operational ocean color products of inherent optical properties and radiances are evaluated for the Suomi-NPP VIIRS and MODIS-Aqua sensors. Statistical comparisons with shipboard measurements were determined in a wide variety of coastal, shelf and offshore locations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during two cruises in 2013. Product consistency between MODIS-Aqua, nearing its end-of-life expectancy, and Suomi-NPP VIIRS is being evaluated for the Navy to retrieve accurate ocean color properties operationally from VIIRS in a variety of water types. Currently, the existence, accuracy and consistency of multiple ocean color sensors (VIIRS, MODIS-Aqua) provides multiple looks per day for monitoring the temporal and spatial variability of coastal waters. Consistent processing methods and algorithms are used in the Navy's Automated Processing System (APS) for both sensors for this evaluation. The inherent optical properties from both sensors are derived using a coupled ocean-atmosphere NIR correction extending well into the bays and estuaries where high sediment and CDOM absorption dominate the optical signature. Coastal optical properties are more complex and vary from chlorophyll-dominated waters offshore. The in-water optical properties were derived using vicariously calibrated remote sensing reflectances and the Quasi Analytical Algorithm (QAA) to derive the Inherent Optical Properties (IOP's). The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the JPSS program have been actively engaged in calibration/validation activities for Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) ocean color products.

  1. Aqua(2,2′-bipyridine-κ2N,N′bis(thiophene-2-carboxylato-κOcopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cu(C5H3O2S2(C10H8N2(H2O], the CuII atom is in a distorted square-pyramidal environment, with an Addison τ parameter of 0.07. The coordination geometry is defined by two nitrogen donors from the 2,2′-bipyridine ligand, two O atoms from two monodentate thiophene-2-carboxylate ligands and one O atom from the aqua ligand. The latter occupies the elongated apical position. This is different from the related structure of aqua(1,10-phenanthrolinebis(thiophene-2-carboxylatocopper(II where a carboxylate O atom is in the apical position [Feng et al. (2005. Z. Kristallogr. New Cryst. Struct. 220, 429–430]. The uncoordinated carboxylate O atoms form intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds to the aqua ligand. Two neighbouring 2,2′-bipyridine ligands form a π-stack, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.683 (2 Å.

  2. Variability of particulate organic carbon in inland waters observed from MODIS Aqua imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) in shallow inland lakes were estimated using MODIS Aqua data. A power regression model of the direct empirical relationship between POC and the atmospherically Rayleigh-corrected MODIS product (Rrc,645-Rrc,1240)/(Rrc,859-Rrc,1240) was developed (R2 = 0.72, RMSE = 35.86 μgL−1, p < 0.0001, N = 47) and validated (RMSE = 44.46 μgL−1, N = 16) with field data from 56 lakes in the Middle and Lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. This algorithm was applied to an 11 year series of MODIS data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of POC in a wide range of lakes with different trophic and optical properties. The results indicate that there is a general increase in minimum POC concentrations in lakes from middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The temporal dynamics of springtime POC in smaller lakes were found to be influenced by local meteorological conditions, in particular precipitation and wind speed, while larger lakes were found to be more sensitive to air temperature. (letter)

  3. Synthesis, properties and supramolecular structure of di(aqua)bis(ethylenediamine)nickel(II) bis(4-nitrobenzoate)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; Gayatri K Rane

    2009-03-01

    The reaction of the sodium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid (4-nbaH) with [Ni(H2O)6]Cl2 or [Ni(en)3]Cl2.2H2O (en is ethylenediamine) results in the formation of the known octahedral compound [Ni(H2O)4(1-4-nba)2].2H2O (4-nba = 4-nitrobenzoate) 1 or the title compound di(aqua)bis(ethylenediamine) nickel(II) bis(4-nitrobenzoate) 2 respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, DSC thermograms, weight loss studies and the structure of 2 was determined. Both 1 and 2 can be thermally decomposed to green NiO. The title compound [Ni(H2O)2(en)2](4-nba)2 2 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group 21/ with the Ni(II) situated on an inversion center. The crystal structure of 2 consists of a hexacoordinated Ni(II) complex cation and an uncoordinated 4-nba anion. In the octahedral complex cation, the central metal is linked to two symmetry related bidentate en ligands and two water molecules. In the crystal structure, the cations and anions are linked by three varieties of hydrogen bonding interactions. A comparative study of seven nickel 4-nitrobenzoate compounds is described.

  4. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  5. Molecular Biological Study of Anti-cancer Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chan-Yol

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available To study anti-cancer effect and molecular biological mechanism of bee venom for aqua-acupuncture, the effects of bee venom on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay, tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, flow cytometric analysis, and activity of caspase-3 protease activity assay. To explore whether anti-cancer effects of bee venom are associated with the transcriptional control of gene expression, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related genes was performed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was decreased by bee venom in a dose-dependant manner. 2. Significant induction of apoptosis was identified using tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, and flow cytometric analysis of sub G1 fraction. 3. In analysis of caspase-3 protease activity, the activity had increased significantly, in a dose-dependant manner. 4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the apoptosis-related genes showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated whereas Bax was up-regulated by bee venom treatment.

  6. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises. PMID:26240648

  7. A Comparison of Cirrus Clouds Retrieved From POLDER-3/PARASOL and MODIS/Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Yang, P.; Riedi, J.; Kattawar, G.

    2007-12-01

    MODIS on board Aqua and POLDER-3 on board PARASOL are two key instruments in the A-Train constellation of satellites. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelength ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 μm, but makes measurement at only one direction without information about polarization. POLDER performs multidirectional measurements, of both reflectance and polarization, at nine spectral channels (from 443 to 1020 nm). The two instruments offer different, and somehow complementary, advantages for the remote sensing of microphysical and optical properties of cirrus clouds. In this study, a comparison of cirrus clouds retrieved from the two instruments is made to obtain understanding of the possibility, advantages and limitations of synergetic retrieval. First, the comparison is made between the single scattering properties of "Inhomogeneous Hexagonal Monocrystals" (IHM) used in POLDER retrieval algorithm and the ice-crystal ensemble model used for MODIS. Substantial differences are found in the scattering phase matrix. Co-located cloud mask and cloud top height retrievals are compared, with the emphasis on high and thin cirrus clouds. The optical thicknesses of cirrus clouds retrieved by POLDER are compared with those by MODIS, with and without the constraint that the cloud effective particle size retrieved by MODIS must be similar to that of IHM.

  8. Comparison of chlorophyll in the Red Sea derived from MODIS-Aqua and in vivo fluorescence

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J W

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine environment but relatively unexplored. The only available long-term biological dataset at large spatial and temporal scales is remotely-sensed chlorophyll observations (an index of phytoplankton biomass) derived using satellite measurements of ocean colour. Yet such observations have rarely been compared with in situ data in the Red Sea. In this paper, satellite chlorophyll estimates in the Red Sea from the MODIS instrument onboard the Aqua satellite are compared with three recent cruises of in vivo fluorometric chlorophyll measurements taken in October 2008, March 2010 and September to October 2011. The performance of the standard NASA chlorophyll algorithm, and that of a new band-difference algorithm, is found to be comparable with other oligotrophic regions in the global ocean, supporting the use of satellite ocean colour in the Red Sea. However, given the unique environmental conditions of the study area, regional algorithms are likely to fare better and this is demonstrated through a simple adjustment to the band-difference algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  10. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased.

  11. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L. on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Javidanpour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intra peritoneally. Thirty male Wistar rats divided into five groups, to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas β-cells regenerative effects of oral methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit peel of walnut. Rats were made diabetic by intravenous (IV injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (STZ. Negative control group did not get STZ and any treatment. Positive control, leaf extract, peel extract and insulin groups were treated orally by extract solvent, 200 mg kg-1 leaf extract, 200 mg kg-1 peel extract and 5 IU kg-1 of subcutaneous neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, respectively. Four weeks later, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and pancreases were removed for β-cells counts in histological sections. Diabetes leads to increase of fast blood sugar (FBS and HbA1c, and decrease of β-cell number and insulin. FBS decreased only in leaf extract group. HbA1c decreased in leaf extract and insulin groups. The β-cells number increased in leaf and peel extract groups. Insulin increased moderately in all treatment groups. We showed the proliferative properties of leaves and peel of Juglans regia L. methanolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract.

  12. The Wavenumber-Frequency Characteristics of the Tropical Waves in an Aqua-Planet GCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zaizhi; MAO Jiangyu; WU Guoxiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the aqua-planet experiments, the wavenumber-frequency characteristics of tropical waves and their influcing factors in SST distribution and the convective parameterization scheme are investigated using the spectral atmospheric general circulation model (SAMIL). Space-time spectral analysis is used to obtain the variance of convectively coupled tropical waves. In the Control experiment with maximum SST located at the equator the simulated tropical-wave behaviors are in agreement with those in observations and theoretical solutions. When the maximum SST is located at 5°N, the symmetric and antisymmetric waves are much weaker than those in the control experiment, suggesting that tropical wave activities are very sensitive to the SST distributions. Importantly, the variance maximum of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is found to occur around 5°N, which suggests that the development of the MJO depends largely on the latitude of maximum SST. Furthermore, the seasonal variations of MJO may be mainly caused by the seasonal variations of the maximum SST. The experiment results with two different cumulus schemes--the Manabe moist convective adjustment and Zhang-McFarlane (ZM) convective scheme, were also compared to examine the impacts of convective parameterization. Weakened variances of each individual tropical wave when the ZM scheme is used suggest that the ZM scheme is not favorable for the tropical wave activities. However, the wave characteristics are different when the ZM scheme is used in different models, which may imply that the simulated basic state is important to the meridional distributions of the waves. The MJO signals suggest that the parameterization scheme may have great influence on the strength, but have less direct impact on the MJO distribution. The frequency of the tropical waves may be associated with the moisture control of convection and the large-scale condensation scheme used in the model.

  13. Unmasking the 1349 earthquake source (southern Italy): paleoseismological and archaeoseismological indications from the Aquae Iuliae fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo Antonio Costantino; Naso, José Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The 9th September, 1349, earthquake was one of the most catastrophic events experienced along the Apennines. At least three main shocks struck a vast area of the Molise-Latium-Abruzzi regions, and damage was even sustained by the distant monumental buildings of Rome. The southern-most shock (Mw ˜ 6.7) occurred at the border between southern Latium and western Molise, razing to the ground the towns of Isernia, Venafro and Cassino, amongst others, and devastating Montecassino Abbey. As with other Medieval catastrophic sequences (e.g., in December 1456, Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0), this earthquake has not yet been associated to any seismogenic source; thus, it still represents a thorn in the flesh of earthquake geologists. We have here carried out a reappraisal of the effects of this earthquake, and through an interpretation of aerial photographs and a field survey, we have carried out paleoseismological analyses across a poorly known, ˜N130 normal fault that crosses the Molise-Campania border. This structure showed repeated surface ruptures during the late Holocene, the last one of which fits excellently with the 1349 event, both in terms of the dating and the rupture dimension. On the other hand, archaeoseismic analyses have also indicated the faulting of an Augustean aqueduct. The amount of apparent offset of the aqueduct across the fault traces shows that there were other surface faulting event(s) during the Roman-High Middle-Age period. Therefore, in trying to ascertain whether these events were associated with known (potentially of 346 AD or 848 AD), or unknown earthquakes in the area, it became possible that this ˜20-km-long fault (here named the Aquae Iuliae fault) is characterized by high slip rates and a short recurrence time. This is in agreement with both the similar behaviour of the neighbouring northern Matese fault system, and with recent GPS analyses showing unexpectedly high extension rates in this area.

  14. Modeling and Mapping Oyster Norovirus Outbreak Risks in Gulf of Mexico Using NASA MODIS Aqua Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious virus and the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks such as oyster norovirus outbreaks. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent norovirus infection and no drug to treat it. This paper presents an integrated modeling and mapping framework for predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks in oyster harvesting waters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The framework involves (1) the construction of three novel remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, and gage height (tide level) using NASA MODIS Aqua data; (2) the development of probability-based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the prediction of oyster norovirus outbreak risk, and (3) the application of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for mapping norovirus outbreak risks in oyster harvesting areas in the Northern Gulf of Mexico using the remotely sensed NASA data, retrieved data from the three remote sensing algorithms, and the ANN model predictions. The three remote sensing algorithms are able to correctly retrieve 94.1% of sea surface salinity, 94.0% of sea surface temperature, and 77.8% of gage height observed along the US coast, including the Pacific coast, the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the Atlantic coast. The gage height, temperature, and salinity are the three most important explanatory variables of the ANN model in terms of spatially distributed input variables. The ANN model is capable of hindcasting/predicting all oyster norovirus outbreaks occurred in oyster growing areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast where environmental data are available. The integrated modeling and mapping framework makes it possible to map daily risks of norovirus outbreaks in all oyster harvesting waters and particularly the oyster growing areas where no in-situ environmental data are available, greatly improving the safety of seafood and reducing outbreaks of foodborne disease.

  15. Effect of Saffron aqua Extract on Angiogenesis in Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies confirmed anticancer properties of saffron extract. Angiogenesis, formation of new blood vessels which is necessary in many physiological stages and pathological events such as tumor growth. So it would be an effective strategy to inhibit angiogenesis to treat many cancers and metastasis. In this experimental study, effects of saffron on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane (CAM were investigated. Materials and Methods: Fifity ross fertilized eggs divided in 5 groups, including: control, sham exposed, experimental group 1, 2 and 3. In second day of incubation window was opened on eggs. In day 8 gelatin sponges contain gelatin and albumin was put on chorioalantoic membrane and was soaked with Saffron aqua extract in concentration 100, 400 and 800 μg/ml. In 12th day all cases were photographed by photo stereomicroscope. Numbers and lengths of vessels around the sponges were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 in significant level p<0.05. Results: According to data analysis, changes had no correlation on the average length of blood vessels in the first experimental group (41.5±5.5 mm, compared with the control group, (44.5±2.4 mm. While in the second and third experimental group (40.2±2.1 mm and (38.4±3.8 mm these changes were significant (p=0.001. On the other hand, the average number of blood vessels in the first experimental group (22.07±5.2 in compare with the control group (27.46±4.4 shows a significant reduction (p=0.02, this decline between the second (18.80±4.4 and third (15.87±3.8 experimental groups was significant at the level of p=0.001. Conclusion: Saffron extract has a dose dependent inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in chick chorioalantoic membrane.

  16. MODIS-Aqua detects Noctiluca scintillans and hotspots in the central Arabian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, R; Priyaja, P; Rafeeq, M; Sudhakar, M

    2016-01-01

    Northern Arabian Sea is considered as an ecologically sensitive area as it experiences a massive upwelling and long-lasting algal bloom, Noctiluca scintillans (green tide) during summer and spring-winter, respectively. Diatom bloom is also found to be co-located with N. scintillans and both have an impact on ecology of the basin. In-house technique of detecting species of these blooms from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data was used to generate a time-series of images revealing their spatial distribution. A study of spatial-temporal variability of these blooms using satellite data expressed a cyclic pattern of their spread over a period of 13 years. An average distribution of the blooms for January-March period revealed a peak in 2015 and minimum in 2013. Subsequently, a time-series of phytoplankton species images were generated for these 2 years to study their inter-annual variability and the associated factors. Species images during active phase of the bloom (February) in 2015 indicated development of N. scintillans and diatom in the central Arabian Sea also, up to 12° N. This observation was substantiated with relevant oceanic parameters measured from the ship as well as satellite data and the same is highlight of the paper. While oxygen depletion and release of ammonia associated with N. scintillans are detrimental for waters on the western side; it is relatively less extreme and supports the entire food chain on the eastern side. In view of these contrasting eco-sensitive events, it is a matter of concern to identify biologically active persistent areas, hot spots, in order to study their ecology in detail. An ecological index, persistence of the bloom, was derived from the time-series of species images and it is another highlight of our study. PMID:26690080

  17. Effects of nutrient loading on Anabaena flos-aquae biofilm: biofilm growth and nutrient removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wei, Qun; Tu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yanfei; Guo, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Sun, Hongyun

    2016-01-01

    Effects of three different nutrient loadings (low nutrient loading, medium nutrient loading and high nutrient loading, denoted as LNS, MNS and HNS, respectively) on the structure and functions of algal biofilm using Anabaena flos-aquae were investigated using synthetic wastewater. Nutrients removal efficiencies, biofilm thickness, microalgae dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) productions were examined. Results showed that the changes of nutrient concentration were insignificant after 4 days of experiment for the case of HNS condition; 9 days for the case of MNS condition, and 6 days for the case of LNS condition, respectively. The biofilm thickness, nutrient removal efficiencies, algae DHA and EPS productions increased with the increase of nutrient loadings in synthetic wastewater. For the case of HNS condition, the microalgal biofilm exhibited the best performance in terms of C, N and P removal efficiencies, reaching the removal rates of 68.45, 3.56 and 1.61 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) for C, N, P, respectively. This was likely because, fact with the high nutrient loading, the high biological activity could be achieved, thus resulting in high nutrient removals. The thickness of the biofilm in HNS condition was 75 μm, which was closely related to EPS production. DHA and EPS concentrations were 7.24 and 1.8 × 10(-2) mg·mm(-2), respectively. It was also shown that apart from the nutrient loading, the structure and functions of microalgal biofilm were also influenced by other factors, such as illumination and temperature. PMID:27438243

  18. AquaCrop模型对旱区冬小麦抗旱灌溉的模拟研究%Winter Wheat Irrigation Simulation in Arid Area Based on AquaCrop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕晓伟; 董燕生; 沈家晓; 孟鲁闽; 冯海宽

    2015-01-01

    Objective] It is important to take an irrigation measure in time according to the drought situation in resisting drought and improving water use efficiency. In view of practical field application, this study explores the applicability in arid area and irrigation simulation in drought year with AquaCrop model. It will provide a guideline in resisting drought and protecting the yield.[Method] Field surveys and experiments were conducted at Rougu test area and Wugong test area, Shaanxi Province during the typical wheat growing seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014.The model parameters were adjusted with the data of Rougu test area acquired in 2013-2014, and the model was validated with the data acquired in Rougu test area in 2012-2013 and Wugong test area in 2013-2014. The model parameters mainly include canopy growth and canopy senescence coefficient, maximum canopy cover, water productivity and reference harvest coefficient. According to the surveys of the factual irrigation situation in 2012-2013, four irrigation situations were developed to simulate their influence on biomass and yield. Consequently, the optimal irrigation strategy was obtained. Finally, the water use efficiency was calculated.[Result]The R2and RMSE between the simulated and the measured canopy cover were 0.464 and 8.0%, respectively. The R2 and RMSE of simulated and measured biomass were 0.889 and 1.662 t·ha-1, respectively. The RMSE of simulated yield and measured yield was 0.377 t·ha-1.Underthetwo scenarios that the wheat was irrigated at the 77th day and the 172th day after planting, the largest biomass could be obtained. The highest yield approaching 6.451 t·ha-1 could be obtained under thetreatment that the wheat was irrigated on the 77th day, the 172th day and the 200th day after planting. The water use efficiencies of Rougu test area (from 2012 to 2013), Rougu test area (from 2013 to 2014) and Wugong test area (from 2013 to 2014) were 1.84, 1.69 and 1.82 kg·m-3, respectively

  19. Effect of MODIS Terra radiometric calibration improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue aerosol products: Validation and Terra/Aqua consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by ˜0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and ˜0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by ˜10% and ˜5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset radiometric calibration efforts and that the C6 MODIS Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  20. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  1. Ways of introduction of aqua aerobics in lessons on swimming of students of unathletic institutes of higher

    OpenAIRE

    Болтєнкова / Boltenkova O., О. М.

    2012-01-01

    The questions of including of elements of aqua aerobics are examined in lessons on swimming of students of І and ІІ courses. A role and place of exercises open up on a aerobics on water in the structure of teaching of students to swimming, basic rich in content descriptions over of lessons are brought. The stages over of introduction of elements of aerobics on water are brought in lessons on swimming. Facilities of forming of basic motive internalss are specified during realization of employm...

  2. On-orbit performance and calibration improvements for the reflective solar bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-05-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 μm to 2.2 μm, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of +/-55° off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper also discusses in

  3. Evaluación de la calidad en uso de sitios web asistida por software: sw aqua

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO S., MARIO R.; GONZÁLEZ C., GABRIEL U.; ECHARTEA C., DIANA C.

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se describe el desarrollo de una herramienta para la evaluación de la calidad en uso de sitios web basada en el estándar ISO/IEC 91264. La herramienta permite obtener al evaluador las métricas de la calidad en uso descritas en el estándar. Los resultados de la evaluación están basados en cuatro características: efectividad, productividad, seguridad y satisfacción. La herramienta de SW-AQUA fue desarrollada siguiendo la metodología del proceso unificado de desarrollo de sof...

  4. AquaResp® - free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 Morten Bo S. Svendsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Peter V. Skov (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark), Peter G .Bushnell (Indiana University South Bend, Indiana) and John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Aqua......Resp" is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up to four input ports...

  5. 罗甸小米核桃幼苗对光照强度变化的生理响应%Eco-physiological Responses of Juglans regia Seedling to Different Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘济明; 闫国华; 徐国瑞; 王敏; 张东凯; 廖小锋

    2012-01-01

    为了探明罗甸小米核桃幼苗与光生境的关系,为罗甸小米核桃栽培管理提供科学依据,以罗甸小米核桃(Juglans regia L.f.ludianense Liu et Xu)一年生幼苗为试验材料,研究了不同光照强度对盆栽罗甸小米核桃生理生态的影响.结果表明:①随着光照强度的减少,地径增粗减少,全光照下的地径净增量最大,而中度遮阴环境下,罗甸小米核桃幼苗苗高净增量高于其他处理,且幼苗获得最大的苗高生长能力;②随着光照强度的减小,逐渐加大对复叶的资源投入,降低茎干方面的投入,根冠比增大,中度遮阴可使幼苗获得最大产量;③随着光照强度的减小,气孔导度和净光合速率呈现先升后降的趋势,并在轻度和中度遮阴环境下达到较高水平;④遮光条件下,罗甸小米核桃一年生幼苗的chla、chlb和chl(a+b)相对于全光照(CK)的差异显著,chl a/b在重度遮阴下显著降低.说明,适度的遮阴可能有利于罗甸小米核桃幼苗的生长.%To reveal the relationship between light environments and 1-year J. regia seedling, the investigation on eco-physiological responses of 1 -year J. regia seedling to different light intensity was done. The result showed that: (i) The stem diameter decreased, and the net increment of stem diameter reached the maximum under full sunlight. Moreover, J. regia got maximum height growth ability under moderate shading ; (ii) In biomasa, with the degree of shading reduction the plant gradually increased investment of resources on fronds and decreased investment of resources on stems, the root biomass/shoot biomass ratio increased at the same time. The biomass per plant reached the maximum under moderate shading; (iii) With the degree of shading reduction, the net photosynthetic rate( Pn) and stomatal conductance (cond) first increased and then decreased, besides, the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) and stomatal conductance (cond) leaves increased to maximal levels

  6. One of the Possible Causes for Diatom Appearance in Ariake Bay Area in Japan In the Winter from 2010 to 2015 (Clarified with AQUA/MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible causes for diatom appearance in Ariake bay area I Japan in the winter seasons from 2010 to 2015 is clarified with AQUA/MODIS of remote sensing satellite. Two months (January and February AQUA/MODIS derived chlorophyll-a concentration are used for analysis of diatom appearance. Match-up data of AQUA/MODIS with the evidence of the diatom appearance is extracted from the MODIS database. Through experiments, it is found that diatom appears after a long period time of relatively small size of red tide appearance. Also, it depends on the weather conditions and tidal effect as well as water current in the bay area in particular.

  7. Light-mediated K(leaf) induction and contribution of both the PIP1s and PIP2s aquaporins in five tree species: walnut (Juglans regia) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaziz, Khaoula Ben; Lopez, David; Rabot, Amelie; Combes, Didier; Gousset, Aurelie; Bouzid, Sadok; Cochard, Herve; Sakr, Soulaiman; Venisse, Jean-Stephane

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the response of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) to light is a challenge in elucidating plant-water relationships. Recent data have shown that the effect of light on K(leaf) is not systematically related to aquaporin regulation, leading to conflicting conclusions. Here we investigated the relationship between light, K(leaf), and aquaporin transcript levels in five tree species (Juglans regia L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus robur L., Salix alba L. and Populus tremula L.) grown in the same environmental conditions, but differing in their K(leaf) responses to light. Moreover, the K(leaf) was measured by two independent methods (high-pressure flow metre (HPFM) and evaporative flux method (EFM)) in the most (J. regia) and least (S. alba) responsive species and the transcript levels of aquaporins were analyzed in perfused and unperfused leaves. Here, we found that the light-induced K(leaf) value was closely related to stronger expression of both the PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin genes in walnut (J. regia), but to stimulation of PIP1 aquaporins alone in F. sylvatica and Q. robur. In walnut, all newly identified aquaporins were found to be upregulated in the light and downregulated in the dark, further supporting the relationship between the light-mediated induction of K(leaf) and aquaporin expression in walnut. We also demonstrated that the K(leaf) response to light was quality-dependent, K(leaf) being 60% lower in the absence of blue light. This decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with strong downregulation of three PIP2 aquaporins and of all the PIP1 aquaporins tested. These data support a relationship between light-mediated K(leaf) regulation and the abundance of aquaporin transcripts in the walnut tree.

  8. 不同层积处理对核桃种子发芽的影响%Effects of Different Stratification on Seed Germination of Juglans regia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹丽萍

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of stratification germination time on germination rate of Juglans regia , Juglans regia‘Yunxin 14#’were analyzed as the research object .Result shows that :the seeds were soaked by GA3150 mg L-1 for 8 d and then were stratified for 35 d ,the rate of protocorm forming from seed are the highest , being 82% ;germination of seeds which were soaked by GA3150 mg L-1 for 35 d is the optimal ,germination rate be-ing 94% ,rotten seed rate being 6% ,good seed rate is 0 .The appropriate seed stratification time of walnut in produc-tion is 35 d .%为了明确层积催芽时间对核桃发芽率的影响,以云新14#为研究对象进行了分析。结果表明,经过G A 3150 mg 灋L -1浸种8 d后并进行层积35 d种子萌动率最高,达到了82%;GA3150 mg .L -1浸种催芽35 d发芽情况最好,发芽率达到了94%,烂种率为6%,好种率为0。在生产中建议核桃层积催芽时间35 d为宜。

  9. Deep RNA-Seq profile reveals biodiversity, plant-microbe interactions and a large family of NBS-LRR resistance genes in walnut (Juglans regia) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Britton, Monica; Martínez-García, P J; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-03-01

    Deep RNA-Seq profiling, a revolutionary method used for quantifying transcriptional levels, often includes non-specific transcripts from other co-existing organisms in spite of stringent protocols. Using the recently published walnut genome sequence as a filter, we present a broad analysis of the RNA-Seq derived transcriptome profiles obtained from twenty different tissues to extract the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in the walnut ecosystem in California. Since the residual nature of the transcripts being analyzed does not provide sufficient information to identify the exact strain, inferences made are constrained to the genus level. The presence of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora was detected in the root through the presence of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cryptococcus, the causal agent of cryptococcosis, was found in the catkins and vegetative buds, corroborating previous work indicating that the plant surface supported the sexual cycle of this human pathogen. The RNA-Seq profile revealed several species of the endophytic nitrogen fixing Actinobacteria. Another bacterial species implicated in aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (Methylibium petroleiphilum) is also found in the root. RNA encoding proteins from the pea aphid were found in the leaves and vegetative buds, while a serine protease from mosquito with significant homology to a female reproductive tract protease from Drosophila mojavensis in the vegetative bud suggests egg-laying activities. The comprehensive analysis of RNA-seq data present also unraveled detailed, tissue-specific information of ~400 transcripts encoded by the largest family of resistance (R) genes (NBS-LRR), which possibly rationalizes the resistance of the specific walnut plant to the pathogens detected. Thus, we elucidate the biodiversity and possible plant-microbe interactions in several walnut (Juglans regia) tissues in California using deep RNA-Seq profiling.

  10. Influence of an extract of Juglans regia on the growth of Escherichia coli, on the electrophoretic profile of plasmid DNA and on the radiolabeling of blood constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Diniz, Claudia Leite; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: santos-filho@uer.br

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of a walnut (Juglans regia) extract on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) AB1157, on the plasmid DNA topology and on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc). An E. coli AB1157 culture, in stationary phase, was incubated with walnut and the growth of the culture was evaluated by optical density at 600 nm for 7 hours. Plasmid DNA samples were incubated with SnCl{sub 2} in presence or absence of walnut for 40 minutes, 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis was performed, the gel was stained and the plasmid topological forms were visualized. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with walnut extract and an assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) was performed. Blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. The results presented an inhibitory action of the growth of the E. coli AB1157 culture, no protective action of the walnut extract in plasmid DNA treated with SnCl{sub 2}. Moreover, walnut was also not capable to induce modifications in the DNA mobility in agarose gel but walnut was capable to decrease the distribution of {sup 99}'mTc on the blood cell compartment. In conclusion, our experimental data suggest that in the walnut extract has substances with an effect on the growth of E. coli culture, a potential action to increase the SnCl{sub 2} effect on plasmid DNA and also is capable to alter the distribution of {sup 99m}Tc on the blood cell compartment probably due to redoxi properties. (author)

  11. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Attributes and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Leaves, Flowers and Bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser M. Khan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW, respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05 higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW, total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%, DPPH scavenging capacity (IC50 value 8.89 μg/mL and reducing power (1.87. Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.

  12. The Aqua-planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David L.; Blackburn, Michael; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ohfuchi, Wataru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki O.; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Mcgregor, John L.; Borth, Hartmut; Wirth, Volkmar; Frank, Helmut; Bechtold, Peter; Wedi, Nils P.; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Zhao, Ming; Held, Isaac M.; Suarez, Max J.; Lee, Myong-In; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Liu, Yimin; Wang, Zaizhi; Molod, Andrew; RajenDran, Kavirajan; Kitoh, Akio; Stratton, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sensitivity of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) simulations to changes in the meridional distribution of sea surface temperature (SST). The simulations are for an aqua-planet, a water covered Earth with no land, orography or sea- ice and with specified zonally symmetric SST. Simulations from 14 AGCMs developed for Numerical Weather Prediction and climate applications are compared. Four experiments are performed to study the sensitivity to the meridional SST profile. These profiles range from one in which the SST gradient continues to the equator to one which is flat approaching the equator, all with the same maximum SST at the equator. The zonal mean circulation of all models shows strong sensitivity to latitudinal distribution of SST. The Hadley circulation weakens and shifts poleward as the SST profile flattens in the tropics. One question of interest is the formation of a double versus a single ITCZ. There is a large variation between models of the strength of the ITCZ and where in the SST experiment sequence they transition from a single to double ITCZ. The SST profiles are defined such that as the equatorial SST gradient flattens, the maximum gradient increases and moves poleward. This leads to a weakening of the mid-latitude jet accompanied by a poleward shift of the jet core. Also considered are tropical wave activity and tropical precipitation frequency distributions. The details of each vary greatly between models, both with a given SST and in the response to the change in SST. One additional experiment is included to examine the sensitivity to an off-equatorial SST maximum. The upward branch of the Hadley circulation follows the SST maximum off the equator. The models that form a single precipitation maximum when the maximum SST is on the equator shift the precipitation maximum off equator and keep it centered over the SST maximum. Those that form a double with minimum on the equatorial maximum SST shift the double

  13. AquaUsers: Improving access to remotely sensed data for non-specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Oliver; Walker, Peter; Calton, Ben; Miller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years more and more complex remotely sensed data have been made available to the public by national and international agencies. These data are also reprocessed by different organisations to produce secondary products that are of specific need to a community. For instance the production of chlorophyll concentration maps from ocean colour data provided by NASA for the marine community. Providing access to such data has normally been focused on simply making the data available with appropriate metadata so that domain specialists can make use of it. One area that has seen significant investment, both of time and money, has been in the production of web based data portals. Primarily these have focused on spatial data. By providing a web map visualisation users are able to quickly assess both spatial coverage and data values. Data portal improvements have been possible thanks to advancements in back end data servers such as Thredds and ncWMS as well as improvements in front-end libraries for data visualisation including OpenLayers and D3. Data portals that make use of these technological advancements have aimed at improving the access and use of data by trained scientific domain specialists. There is now a push to improve access to these systems by non-scientific domain specialists through several European Commission funded projects, including OPEC and AquaUsers. These projects have improved upon an open source web GIS portal created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory [https://github.com/pmlrsg/GISportal]. We will present the latest version of our GIS portal, discuss the designs steps taken to achieve the latest build and share user stories as to how non-domain specialists are now able to utilise the system and get benefits from remotely sensed data. A first version was produced and disseminated to end users for feedback. At this stage the end users included government advisors, fish farmers and scientific groups with no specific GIS training or knowledge. This

  14. Small vs. Large Convective Cloud Objects from CERES Aqua Observations: Where are the Intraseasonal Variation Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2016-01-01

    During inactive phases of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), there are plenty of deep but small convective systems and far fewer deep and large ones. During active phases of MJO, a manifestation of an increase in the occurrence of large and deep cloud clusters results from an amplification of large-scale motions by stronger convective heating. This study is designed to quantitatively examine the roles of small and large cloud clusters during the MJO life cycle. We analyze the cloud object data from Aqua CERES observations for tropical deep convective (DC) and cirrostratus (CS) cloud object types according to the real-time multivariate MJO index. The cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. The size distributions, defined as the footprint numbers as a function of cloud object diameters, for particular MJO phases depart greatly from the combined (8-phase) distribution at large cloud-object diameters due to the reduced/increased numbers of cloud objects related to changes in the large-scale environments. The medium diameter corresponding to the combined distribution is determined and used to partition all cloud objects into "small" and "large" groups of a particular phase. The two groups corresponding to the combined distribution have nearly equal numbers of footprints. The medium diameters are 502 km for DC and 310 km for cirrostratus. The range of the variation between two extreme phases (typically, the most active and depressed phases) for the small group is 6-11% in terms of the numbers of cloud objects and the total footprint numbers. The corresponding range for the large group is 19-44%. In terms of the probability density functions of radiative and cloud physical properties, there are virtually no differences between the MJO phases for the small group, but there are significant differences for the large groups for both DC and CS types. These results suggest that the intreseasonal variation signals reside at the

  15. Calibration and Validation of AquaCrop Model in Spring Wheat Region of Songnen Plain%AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的校正和验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付驰; 李双双; 李晶; 王泳超; 芦玉双; 许为政; 魏湜

    2012-01-01

    In this study,the measured soil moisture,spring wheat growth and yield data,combined with meteorological data obtained AquaCrop soil moisture and spring wheat growth simulation model parameters,and previous years' data for the crop model validation.The results showed that the simulated values and measured values of spring wheat's yield and biomass MAE were 0.058 and 0.109,RMSE were 0.06 and 0.11 t/hm2,EF were 0.795 and 0.822,CRM were-0.006 96 and 0.005 87,IoA were 0.959 and 0.966;for 10 cm and 20 cm in depth soil volumetric water content of the simulated values and measured values,MAE were 5.23 and 2.53,RMSE were 6.47% and 7.95%,EF were-0.277 and-0.069,CRM were 0.097 and 0.212,IoA were 0.585 and 0.741.AquaCrop model of biomass and yield of spring wheat growth stages and soil volumetric water content of the simulation results is fine,the production of spring wheat Songnen Plain has some reference value.%为了研究AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的适用性,利用实测的土壤水分、春小麦生长和产量数据,结合气象数据,获得AquaCrop模拟土壤水分和春小麦生长的模型参数,并用往年的作物生长数据对模型进行验证。结果表明,春小麦的产量和生物量的实测值与模拟值的绝对平均误差(MAE)为0.058和0.109、均方根误差(RMSE)为0.06和0.11t/hm2、模拟性能指数(EF)为0.795和0.822、残差聚集系数(CRM)为-0.006 96和0.005 87、一致性系数(IoA)为0.959和0.966;对10cm和20cm土壤体积含水率的实测值与模拟值的MAE为5.23和2.53、RMSE为6.47%和7.95%、EF为-0.277和-0.069、CRM为0.097和0.212、IoA为0.585和0.741。说明AquaCrop模型对春小麦的生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水率的模拟结果总体较好,对松嫩平原春麦生产有一定的参考意义。

  16. Evaluación genotóxica del D-004, extracto del fruto de Roystonea regia, mediante el ensayo de la morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratas Sprague Dawley

    OpenAIRE

    DF Arencibia Arrebola; Gámez Menéndez, R.; Gutiérrez Martínez, A.; Pardo Acosta, B.; Curveco Sánchez, D.; H García Cambián; E. Goicochea Carrero

    2009-01-01

    El tratamiento oral con D-004, extracto lipídico del frutode la palma real (Roystonea regia), ha mostrado prevenir la hiperplasia prostática (HP) inducida por testosterona y por fenilefrina en ratas, efectos relacionados con su capacidad de inhibir la actividad de la 5 -reductasa prostática y de antagonizar los adrenoreceptores 1. Este estudio, como parte de los estudios de genotoxicidad del D-004, tuvo como objetivo determinar si el mismo aumenta la frecuencia de aparición de formas anómalas...

  17. Efectos del D-004, extracto lipídico de los frutos de la Palma Real (Roystonea regia), sobre el granuloma inducido por algodón en ratas y sobre la lipoxigenasa presente en leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMNs)

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez, Roberto; Carvajal, Daysi; Mas, Rosa; Pérez, Yohanis; Molina, Vivian; Arruzazabala, María de Lourdes; González, Rosa María

    2006-01-01

    El D-004 es un extracto lipídico del fruto de la palma real (Roystonea regia, Arecaceae), en el cual los ácidos oleico, laurico y palmítico son los principales componentes. La administración oral inhibe significativamente la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona en roedores. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en investigar los efectos anti-inflamatorios inducidos por el tratamiento oral con D-004 en el modelo de granuloma por algodón y sus efectos in vitro sobre la activida...

  18. Diferentes estados de maduración de los frutos de Roystonea regia afectan su efecto sobre el aumento del tamaño de la próstata inducido por testosterona en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Arruzazabala, María de Lourdes; Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Más, Rosa; González Canavaciolo, Víctor L.; Rodríguez, Eduardo J.; Marrero Delange, David

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se han comparado los efectos de extractos lipídicos obtenidos de los frutos de Roystonea regia de diferentes estados de maduración sobre la hiperplasia prostática inducida por testosterona en ratas. Frutos maduros, pintones y verdes fueron colectados y procesados para la obtención de extractos lipídicos, cuyo contenido de ácidos grasos fue analizado por cromatografía gaseosa. A medida que los frutos maduran la concentración de ácido láurico aumenta y el oleico disminuye, mient...

  19. La transición ontológica del sujeto ritual: una aproximación a la figura regia de Hatshepsut (c. 1473–1458 a. C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Laporta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizaremos la transición de Hatshepsut (c. 1473 – 1458 a. C., al convertirse de reina en el rey dual (nsw bjtj egipcio. Para lograrlo, consideraremos la forma de pensamiento de los egipcios centrada en lo sagrado y expresada a partir de mitos y ritos. En particular, nos detendremos en los ritos de pasaje y su vínculo con las relaciones entre el rey y Amón-Ra, los roles intercambiables de Hatshepsut así como la transición post-mortem de su figura regia.

  20. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua)cobaloxime with pyridines - Isolation characterization and DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kotha Laxma Reddy; K Ashwini Kumar; N Ravi Kumar Reddy; Penumaka Nagababu; A Panasa Reddy; S Satyanarayana

    2009-11-01

    The kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of pyridine and substituted pyridines to bromomethyl(aqua)cobaloxime have been measured spectrophotometrically in aqueous solutions of ionic strength 1.0 M (KC1) at 25°C as a function of H. The binding constants and rate of formation increase in the order 4-NH2Py 4-EtPy > 4-MePy > Py > 2-NH2Py > 2-EtPy. The data have been interpreted based on the basicity of the ligand, -back bonding from Co(III) → L and hard and soft interactions. The rate of substitution of H2O varies with the pKa of the incoming ligand, thus establishing the existence of nucleophilic participation of the ligand in the transition state. We have investigated the DNA binding of bromomethyl(aqua)cobaloxime with DNA. Bromomethyl(ligand)cobaloximes were isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR (1H, 13C) spectra.

  1. Evaluation of model simulated and MODIS-Aqua retrieved sea surface chlorophyll in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kunal; Gupta, Anubhav; Lotliker, Aneesh A.; Tilstone, Gavin

    2016-11-01

    In this study we assess the accuracy of sea surface Chlorophyll-a (Chla) retrieved from satellite (MODIS-Aqua), using standard OC3M algorithm, and from a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) biophysical model against in situ data, measured in surface waters of the eastern Arabian Sea, from April 2009 to December 2012. MODIS-Aqua OC3M Chla concentrations showed a high correlation with the in situ data with slope close to unity and low root mean square error. In comparison, the ROMS model underestimated Chla, though the correlation was significant indicating that the model is capable of reproducing the trend in in situ Chla. Time Series trends in Chla were examined against wind driven Upwelling Indices (UIW) from April 2009 to December 2012 in north-eastern (Gujarat) and south-eastern (Kochi) coastal waters of the Arabian Sea. The annual peak in Chla along the Kochi coast during the summer monsoon was adequately captured by the model. It is well known that the peak in surface Chla along the Kochi and Gujarat coasts during the summer monsoon is the result of coastal upwelling, which the ROMS model was able to reproduce accurately. The maximum surface Chla along the Gujarat coast during the winter monsoon is due to convective mixing, which was also significantly captured by ROMS biophysical model. There was a lag of approximately one week between the maximum surface Chla and the peak in the Upwelling Index.

  2. Application of AquaCrop model for maize under water and nitrogen managements in a humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Amiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is well debated fact that the water productivity in agriculture needs to be raised in order to meet the increasing demand for the feed and food production, which will double by 2050. Simulation models have been developed for predicting the effects of soil, water and nutrients on growth and water productivity of different crops. In this study, AquaCrop model was calibrated for grain maize (Single Cross 260 using drip irrigation system under varying irrigation and nitrogen levels. The intervals of irrigation were 6 days (F1, 12 days (F2 and 18 days (F3 which combined with different nitrogen levels of 0 (N1, 120 (N2, 180 (N3 and 240 kg ha-1. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, normalized Root Mean Square Error (RMSEn, Mean Absolute Error (MAE, Prediction error (Pe and coefficient of determination (R2 were used to test the model performance. The model was calibrated for simulating maize grain and biomass yield for all treatment levels with the prediction error 0.37AquaCrop model simulated aboveground biomass and grain yield in normal conditions more accurately than moderate and severe water stress conditions.

  3. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Mission Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: Science and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomnson, Vincent V.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. The EOS Aqua mission was launched successfully May 4,2002 with another MODIS on it and "first light" observations occurred on June 24,2002. The Terra MODIS is in a sun-synchronous orbit going north to south in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at about 1030 hours local time. The Aqua spacecraft operates in a sun-synchronous orbit going south to north in the daylight portion of the orbit crossing the equator at approximately 1330 hours local time. The spacecraft, instrument, and data systems for both MODIS instruments are performing well and are producing a wide variety of data products useful for scientific and applications studies in relatively consistent fashion extending from November 2000 to the present. Within the approximately 40 MODIS data products, several are new and represent powerful and exciting capabilities such the ability to provide observations over the globe of fire occurrences, microphysical properties of clouds and sun-stimulated fluorescence from phytoplankton in the surface waters of the ocean. The remainder of the MODIS products exceeds or, at a minimum, matches the capabilities of products from heritage sensors such as, for example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's) or through Direct Broadcast (DB) stations.

  4. Aqua Regia Dissolved-Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method for Determination of Trace Phosphorus in Iron Ore%王水溶解-电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定铁矿石中的微量磷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠琴; 张志喜; 蒋春林; 刘长河

    2012-01-01

    样品经王水分解后,在电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪上测定了样品溶液中磷的含量.通过实验确定了基体元素的干扰、酸度、样品提升量、雾化气流速、功率、观测高度、分析谱线等分析条件.通过铁的干扰实验结果表明,样品中的基体元素铁不影响磷含量的测定.在用P178.222 nm分析线测定时,方法的检出限为P0.0006%(相对于0.1g样品,定容至100 mL),相对标准偏差在3.14% ~6.04%(n=11),样品加标回收率在92%~110%.方法测定样品中磷含量的结果同光度法测定结果对比数据相符.

  5. 氢氟酸-王水溶样法快速测定陶瓷原料中钾、钠、铁%RAPID DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM, SODIUM AND IRON IN CERAMIC RAW MATERIALS USING THE HYDROFLUORIC ACID AND AQUA REGIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厦; 罗广生; 莫远波; 冯贤

    2010-01-01

    高岭土、钾长石、钠长石等陶瓷原材料中钾、钠、铁是生产工艺配方分析的重要项目,分析速度的快慢直接影响生产过程,本方法是采用氢氟酸-王水溶样法进行快速溶样,同时在王水介质中又能将2价铁氧化成3价铁,然后再用硼酸络合氟.其特点是试剂加入简单方便,操作也较为简单,利用火焰光度计同时测定钾、钠;利用磺基水杨酸作为3价铁的显色剂,在碱性条件下显色快速、稳定,特别是铁的测定,是目前铁的光度法测定中显色最快的方法.本法用于实践,其准确度和精密度都符合生产的要求,是一个值得推广应用的方法.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Cu,Pb,Zn,Fe,Mn ,Mo and S in Soil Samples by ICP-AES With Aqua Regia Digesting%王水溶样ICP-AES同时测定土壤样品中的铜、铅、锌、铁、锰、钼和硫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玖芬; 刘晓煌; 赵正鹏; 刘淑亮

    2013-01-01

    采用王水溶样ICP-AES同时测定土壤样品中的铜、铅、锌、铁、锰、钼、硫元素.对样品溶解方法、溶解时间、谱线选择、干扰及背景扣除进行了讨论,用国家一级标准物质进行准确度、精密度实验.精密度(RSD,n=8)小于9.99%,准确度(△lgC)钼元素小于0.18(小于3倍检出限)、其他元素小于0.08.运用该方法对江苏省南京江宁区莺子山地区的资源评价项目土壤样品进行了测试,测试数据与传统方法进行了比对,结果吻合.

  7. Comparative Study on Two Aqua Regia Digestion Methods for Measuring the Heavy Metal Contents in Offshore Sediments%两种王水消化方法对测定近海沉积物中重金属含量的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔永民; 林潮平; 黄长江

    2004-01-01

    采自粤东柘林湾3个站位的表层沉积物样品,分别在115 ℃的条件下,用王水消化24 h(A法),和经双氧水处理后,在150 ℃的条件下用王水消化,将消化液蒸至近干两次(B法), ICP-AES相同条件下同时测定Fe、Mn、Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr、Ni、Co、Cd.统计结果表明:A法消化所测得的Cr、Pb、Zn、Fe显著高于B法,Cd、Co、Mn、Ni两法测得结果无显著差异.A法所用试剂量少,空白值低,消化条件稳定,对近海沉积物中各重金属元素的提取率高,是一种较为可靠的近海沉积物常规消化方法.

  8. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSRE Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Peterson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing? [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 83 (42): 469 & 474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E s 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I s comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with nearglobal coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC

  9. Aerosol optical depth over central north Asia based on MODIS-Aqua data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousta Foutsi, Athina; Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). The central Asia region (mainly the Caspian and Aral sea basins), the arid and semi-arid regions of Western China as well as Siberia are of great interest due to the significant natural sources of mineral aerosols originating from local deserts and biomass burning from wildfires in boreal forests. What is of particular interest in the region is the phenomenal shrinking and desertification of the Aral Sea that drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions with important implications in regional air quality. Anthropogenic particles are also observed due to fossil-fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Here we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD at 550 nm over central Asia, Siberia and western China, in the region located between 35° N - 65° N and 45° E - 110° E. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest collection (006), available in a 1°×1° resolution (ca. 100 km × 100 km) over the period 2002-2014. Our results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The highest AODs are observed over the Aral Sea year-round, with extreme values reaching 2.1 during July. In the rest of our study region a clear seasonal cycle with highest AOD values (up to 1.2 over the Taklamakan Desert) during spring and summer is observed. The arid parts of central north Asia are characterized by larger aerosol loads during spring, lower but still high AOD in summer and much lower values in autumn and spring

  10. Fractional Snowcover Estimates from Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua missions has shown considerable capability for mapping snowcover. The typical approach that has used, along with other criteria, the Normalized Snow Difference Index (NDSI) that takes the difference between 500 meter observations at 1.64 micrometers (MODIS band 6) and 0.555 micrometers (MODIS band 4) over the sum of these observations to determine whether MODIS pixels are snowcovered or not in mapping the extent of snowcover. For many hydrological and climate studies using remote sensing of snowcover, it is desirable to assess if the MODIS snowcover observations could not be enhanced by providing the fraction of snowcover in each MODIS observation (pixel). Pursuant to this objective studies have been conducted to assess whether there is sufficient "signal%o in the NDSI parameter to provide useful estimates of fractional snowcover in each MODIS 500 meter pixel. To accomplish this objective high spatial resolution (30 meter) Landsat snowcover observations were used and co-registered with MODIS 500 meter pixels. The NDSI approach was used to assess whether a Landsat pixel was or was not snowcovered. Then the number of snowcovered Landsat pixels within a MODIS pixel was used to determine the fraction of snowcover within each MODIS pixel. The e results were then used to develop statistical relationships between the NDSI value for each 500 meter MODIS pixel and the fraction of snowcover in the MODIS pixel. Such studies were conducted for three widely different areas covered by Landsat scenes in Alaska, Russia, and the Quebec Province in Canada. The statistical relationships indicate that a 10 percent accuracy can be attained. The variability in the statistical relationship for the three areas was found to be remarkably similar (-0.02 for mean error and less than 0.01 for mean absolute error and standard deviation). Independent tests of the relationships were

  11. Surface circulation patterns in the Gulf of California derived from MODIS Aqua 250 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, G.; Salinas-González, F.; Gutiérrez de Velasco-Sanromán, G.; Godínez-Orta, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) is a marginal elongated and semi-enclosed sea located at northwest of Mexico, between the Peninsula of Baja California and the mainland Mexico. The considered area average 150 km in width and 1500 km in length, from the mouth of the Colorado River to Cabo Corrientes, Jalisco. It has a maximum depth of 3600 m at the southern inlet and the northern region average 200 m in deep. The study of superficial circulation patterns in the GC is of interest because its relevance to the mechanisms of transport for distribution of a variety of materials -plankton, contaminants, microalgae, etc.- and its association with areas of sedimentary deposits, zones where there is a higher probability for fishing or related to the presence of certain species of marine life. Recent studies explain the circulation of the GC as a result of the Pacific Ocean's forcing, wind, heat fluxes on the sea surface and the interaction between the flow produced by these agents and bathymetry. The objective of this work was to obtain evidence of the patterns of surface circulation using a spatial resolution of 250 m over a period of two to seven days (depending on cloud cover), which offered images from the MODIS Level 1B. This essay is an attempt to contribute with more information to the understanding of the regional dynamics of the GC and its local influence on the zones bordering the coast. Thus, MODIS Aqua 250 m data was used, to which algorithms were applied in order to enhance the contrast of reflectance levels of these bands (0.620-0.670 and 0.841-0.876 µm) within the marine environment. The results are associated with suspended particulate matter (SPM), which we used as tracers of the surface circulation, using a sequence of images from January 2004 to December 2008. Algorithms for dust and cloud detection were used and incorporated with thermal band images, in which zones of terrigenous contribution by eolian transport were identified. Furthermore, pluvial

  12. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-liang; Feng, Hai-kuan; Zhu, Xin-kai; Li, Zhen-hai; Song, Sen-nan; Song, Xiao-yu; Yang, Gui-Jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Guo, Wen-shan

    2014-01-01

    Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP), China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC), biomass yield (BY) and grain yield (GY) were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T), (R(2) = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively) was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  13. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 12.5 km Tb, Sea Ice Conc., & Snow Depth Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level 3 12.5 km daily sea ice product includes 18.7 - 89.0 GHz TBs, sea ice concentration averages (asc & desc), and 5-day snow depth over sea...

  14. Influences on the Use of the "Fishing: Get in the Habitat! MinnAqua Leader's Guide" and Implications for Curriculum Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athman Ernst, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The "Fishing: Get in the Habitat! MinnAqua Leader's Guide" is a curriculum created by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources for educators working primarily with children in grades three through five in formal and nonformal education settings. Like many agency-developed supplemental educational resources, the Leader's Guide is available…

  15. De novo quence analysis and intact mass measurements for characterization of phycocyanin subunit isoforms from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Roepstorff, Peter; Zolla, Lello

    2009-01-01

    In this work, partial characterization of the primary structure of phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) was achieved by mass spectrometry de novo sequencing with the aid of chemical derivatization. Combining N-terminal sulfonation of tryptic peptides by 4-sulfophenyl...

  16. Assessment of the AquaCrop model for use in simulation of irrigated winter wheat canopy cover, biomass, and grain yield in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-liang Jin

    Full Text Available Improving winter wheat water use efficiency in the North China Plain (NCP, China is essential in light of current irrigation water shortages. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to calibrate, and validate winter wheat crop performance under various planting dates and irrigation application rates. All experiments were conducted at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during seasons of 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. This model was first calibrated using data from 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, and subsequently validated using data from 2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The results showed that the simulated canopy cover (CC, biomass yield (BY and grain yield (GY were consistent with the measured CC, BY and GY, with corresponding coefficients of determination (R(2 of 0.93, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. In addition, relationships between BY, GY and transpiration (T, (R(2 = 0.57 and 0.71, respectively was observed. These results suggest that frequent irrigation with a small amount of water significantly improved BY and GY. Collectively, these results indicate that the AquaCrop model can be used in the evaluation of various winter wheat irrigation strategies. The AquaCrop model predicted winter wheat CC, BY and GY with acceptable accuracy. Therefore, we concluded that AquaCrop is a useful decision-making tool for use in efforts to optimize wheat winter planting dates, and irrigation strategies.

  17. Mobility, turnover and storage of pollutants in soils, sediments and waters: Achievements and results of the EU project AquaTerra. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, J.A.C.; Grathwohl, P.; Fowler, H.J.; Bellin, A.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Lair, G.J.; Barceló, D.; Petrovic, M.; Navarro, A.; Négrel, P.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Darmendrail, D.; Rijnaarts, H.; Langenhoff, A.; Weert, J. de; Slob, A.; Zaan, B.M. van der; Gerritse, J.; Frank, E.; Gutierrez, A.; Kretzschmar, R.; Gocht, T.; Steidle, D.; Garrido, F.; Jones, K.C.; Meijer, S.; Moeckel, C.; Marsman, A.; Klaver, G.; Vogel, T.; Bürger, C.; Kolditz, O.; Broers, H.P.; Baran, N.; Joziasse, J.; Tümpling, W. von; Gaans, P. van; Merly, C.; Chapman, A.; Brouyère, S.; Batlle Aguilar, J.; Orban, Ph.; Tas, N.; Smidt, H.

    2009-01-01

    AquaTerra is one of the first environmental projects within the 6th Framework program by the European Commission. It began in June 2004 with a multidisciplinary team of 45 partner organizations from 13 EU countries, Switzerland, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro. Results from sampling and modeling in 4

  18. Crystal structure of poly[[di-μ2-aqua-aqua­sodium] 4-amino-3,5,6-tri­chloro­pyridine-2-carboxyl­ate trihydrate], the sodium salt of the herbicide picloram

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex, {[Na(H2O)3](C6H2Cl3N2O2)·3H2O} n , the sodium salt of the herbicide picloram, the cation adopts a polymeric chain structure, based on μ2-aqua-bridged NaO5 trigonal–bipyramidal complex units which have, in addition, a singly bonded water mol­ecule. Each of the bridges within the chain, which extends parallel to the a axis, is centrosymmetric, with Na⋯Na separations of 3.4807 (16) and 3.5109 (16) Å. In the crystal, there are three water mol­ecules of solva...

  19. Assessment of two aerosol optical thickness retrieval algorithms applied to MODIS Aqua and Terra measurements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Glantz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to validate AOT (aerosol optical thickness and Ångström exponent (α, obtained from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval algorithm and with MODIS Collection 5 (c005 standard product retrievals (10 km horizontal resolution, against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork sun photometer observations over land surfaces in Europe. An inter-comparison of AOT at 0.469 nm obtained with the two algorithms has also been performed. The time periods investigated were chosen to enable a validation of the findings of the two algorithms for a maximal possible variation in sun elevation. The satellite retrievals were also performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry, since Aqua and Terra passed the investigation area twice a day for several of the cases analyzed. The validation with AERONET shows that the AOT at 0.469 and 0.555 nm obtained with MODIS c005 is within the expected uncertainty of one standard deviation of the MODIS c005 retrievals (ΔAOT = ± 0.05 ± 0.15 · AOT. The AOT at 0.443 nm retrieved with SAER, but with a much finer spatial resolution, also agreed reasonably well with AERONET measurements. The majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS c005 expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger average absolute deviation occurs compared to the results obtained with the MODIS c005 algorithm. The discrepancy between AOT from SAER and AERONET is, however, substantially larger for the wavelength 488 nm. This means that the values are, to a larger extent, outside of the expected MODIS uncertainty range. In addition, both satellite retrieval algorithms are unable to estimate α accurately, although the MODIS c005 algorithm performs better. Based on the inter-comparison of the SAER and MODIS c005 algorithms, it was found that SAER on the whole is

  20. 冬小麦生物量和产量的AquaCrop模型预测%Yield and Biomass Prediction Testing of AquaCrop Model for Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文勇; 何雄奎; Shamaila Z; 胡振方; 曾爱军; Muller J

    2011-01-01

    Using the winter wheat in North China as research object, AquaCrop model was applied in different technology of irrigation, included drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and furrow irrigation. The main parameters like soil and crop characteristics and so on, were adjusted. In addition, the effective simulation method for crop yield and biomass was researched. The study showed that some simulated values like yield and biomass of soil were significative. The relative error (RE) was low. Simulated data was a little higher than the observed one. All of the modeling efficiency ( EF) was more than 0. 95. The modeling was better for yield than that for biomass. The modeling was also the most efficient for drip irrigation in the three kind of irrigation technology.%以华北地区冬小麦为研究对象,将AquaCrop作物生长模型应用到滴灌、喷灌、漫灌中,对模型主要参数如气象、土壤、作物特性等进行调整,并对作物产量和生物量模拟的有效方法进行了研究.模拟结果表明,产量和收获时地上部分生物量的模拟值与实测值较为接近且略高于实测值,模型性能指数均高于0.95.产量模拟效果优于生物量,滴灌模拟效果最好.

  1. [Effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on the biological characteristics of walnut (Juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Chun; Xing, Shang-Jun; Ma, Hai-Lin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Bing-Yao

    2014-05-01

    Effects of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) , namely Pseudomonas sp. YT3, Bacillus subtilis DZ1, B. cereus L90 and B. fusiformis L13 on the biological characteristics of walnut (Juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought stress were investigated. Results showed that drought stress had little effect on available nutrients of walnut rhizosphere soil, but significantly decreased the activity of organic carbon by 18.4% and increased the pH from 7.34 to 7.79. Under drought stress condition, the inoculation of Bacillus cereus L90 significantly increased high-labile organic carbon in walnut rhizosphere by 14.5% relative to the un-inoculated control, and decreased the pH to 7.41. Compared with the irrigated control, the total microbial populations, root exudates, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen in walnut rhizosphere soil were significantly decreased by 36.0%, 20.7%, 33.5% and 30.7%, respectively, because of drought stress. However, L90 inoculation decreased these deficits to 14.1%, 10.3%, 12.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Some terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) disappeared under the drought condition and PGPR inoculation had great influence on T-RFs according to Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism profiles. The Margalef index and the Shannon index of walnut rhizosphere soil significantly decreased, but the Simpson index increased relative to the irrigated control. Compared with the un-inoculated control, the Margalef index significantly increased from 0.42 to 0.99, as well as the Shannon index increased from 0.52 to 0.98. However, the Simpson index de- creased from 0.60 to 0.39. Inoculating YT3, DZ1 and L13 had weaker effects on the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil compared to inoculating L90, suggesting L90 inoculation could interfere with the suppression of drought stress to the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil.

  2. Fecundity studies of the African catifshClarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fed Coppens feed and Unical aqua feed in circular concrete tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor Oscar Eyo; Albert Philip Ekanem; Vincent Ajom Ajom

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine and compare the fecundity ofClarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fed with Unical aqua feed and Coppens feeds in concrete tanks, including the nature of relationship that exist between fecundity and morphometric indices of fish such as total length and total weight. Methods:An experiment was conducted for 6 months in the fish farm of University of Calabar with two triplicate groups of 50C. gariepinus post-fingerlings. The experimental fish weighing (0.50 ± 0.02) kg were stocked in concrete tanks (circular) of 16.63 m2area. The tanks were labelled A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. Fish in tank A1, A2 and A3 were fed with Coppens feed and fish in tanks B1, B2 and B3 were fed with Unical aqua feed. Feeding was done twice daily (9:00 and 16:00) at 3% of their body weight. Results: Mean fecundity ofC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (68 366.67 ± 15 966. 29) eggs varied significantly (P 0.05) thanC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (50.37% ± 1.29 %). Water quality parameters including ammonia (mg/L), pH, water temperature (°C) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) fell within the recommended range for the culture of fresh water fish. Conclusions: Fecundity ofC. gariepinus reared in concrete tank was significantly influenced by the experimental feed. Therefore, on the bases of affordability and availability to farmers, Unical aqua feed is more economical and is recommended as a cost-effective cultivation of femaleC. gariepinus broodstock.

  3. Displacement of aqua ligands from the hydroxopentaaquarhodium(III) ion by 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt): A kinetic and mechanistic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab K Bera; Arup Mandal; Biswarup Maity; Sumon Ray; Parnajyoti Karmakar; Subala Mondal; Subhasis Mallick; Alak K Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    The kinetics of the reaction of HOBt with [Rh(H2O)5(OH)]2+ has been studied spectrophotometrically in aqueous medium as a function of [Rh(H2O)5OH2+], [HOBt], pH and temperature. At pH 4.3, the reaction proceeds via a rapid outer sphere association complex formation step followed by two consecutive steps. The first of these involves ligand-assisted anation, while the second involves chelation as the second aqua ligand is displaced. The association equilibrium constant for the outer sphere complex formation has been evaluated together with the rate constants for the two subsequent steps. The activation parameters for both steps have been evaluated using Eyrings equation. Thermodynamic parameters calculated from the temperature dependence of the outer sphere association equilibrium constants are also consistent with an associative mode of activation. The product of the reaction has been characterized by IR and ESI-mass spectroscopic analysis.

  4. The Improvement Two Cases Coughing and Sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Homins Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Eun-Gon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Coughing and sputum are symptoms of sequela of Pneumonia. Oriental medicine call it Hae su. Hae su is common sign of lung disease. Hominis Placenta is the dried placenta of a healthy women. The nature of Hominis Placenta is warm and its taste sweet-salty. It has correspondence to the meridians of lung and kindey. Hominis Placenta acupuncture therapy has effect on invigoration of vital energy nourishing blood and tonifying the essence. It can be applied to the disease as Asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, degenerative change and cerebrovascular disease. We treated two cases coughing and sputum sign Sequela of Pneumonia by Hominis Placenta Aqua-Acupuncture. The symptoms was improved and the patients satisfied

  5. Aqua-eroticum: an unusual autoerotic fatality in a lake involving a home-made diving apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Anny; Racette, Stéphanie

    2006-01-01

    The term Aqua-eroticum was first introduced in 1984 by Sivaloganathan to describe the unusual autoerotic death of a man using submersion as an asphyxia method. This was the first case of that kind, and since then, no other case of autoerotic submersion has been reported, nor other autoerotic fatality in open water. Here we report the case of a 25-year-old man, nude under a home-made plastic body suit, overdressed for the season with winter clothes and restrained by complex bondage. He was submersed, tied underwater to a boat and was using a home-made diving apparatus for air supply. Death was ruled as accidental autoerotic asphyxia from rebreathing, caused by the faulty air-supply device. PMID:16423240

  6. DINUCLEAR NICKEL(II PIVALATE WITH µ-AQUA AND DI-µ-PIVALATO BRIDGES SHOWING A FERROMAGNETIC INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Mikuriya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear nickel(II complex, [Ni2{O2CC(CH33}4(OH2{HO2CC(CH33}4] (1, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, and temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities (4.5—300 K. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography revealed a dinuclear core with µ-aqua and di-µ-pivalato bridges having monodentate pivalato and monodentate pivalic acid molecules. Magnetic data analysis showed a ferromagnetic interactions between the two nickel atoms with g = 2.251, J = 2.78 cm−1, D = 3.75 cm–1, and tip = 184 x 10–6 cm3 mol–1; g = 2.253, J = 2.73 cm−1, D = –3.26 cm–1, and tip = 176 x 10–6 cm3 mol–1.

  7. Characterization of turbidity in Florida's Lake Okeechobee and Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries using MODIS-Aqua measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Nim, Carl J; Son, Seunghyun; Shi, Wei

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes the use of ocean color remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to characterize turbidity in Lake Okeechobee and its primary drainage basins, the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries from 2002 to 2010. Drainage modification and agricultural development in southern Florida transport sediments and nutrients from watershed agricultural areas to Lake Okeechobee. As a result of development around Lake Okeechobee and the estuaries that are connected to Lake Okeechobee, estuarine conditions have also been adversely impacted, resulting in salinity and nutrient fluctuations. The measurement of water turbidity in lacustrine and estuarine ecosystems allows researchers to understand important factors such as light limitation and the potential release of nutrients from re-suspended sediments. Based on a strong correlation between water turbidity and normalized water-leaving radiance at the near-infrared (NIR) band (nL(w)(869)), a new satellite water turbidity algorithm has been developed for Lake Okeechobee. This study has shown important applications with satellite-measured nL(w)(869) data for water quality monitoring and measurements for turbid inland lakes. MODIS-Aqua-measured water property data are derived using the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm in order to remotely obtain synoptic turbidity data in Lake Okeechobee and normalized water-leaving radiance using the red band (nL(w)(645)) in the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries. We found varied, but distinct seasonal, spatial, and event driven turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuary regions. Wind waves and hurricanes have the largest influence on turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee, while tides, currents, wind waves, and hurricanes influence the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuarine areas.

  8. Calibration and Validation of Aqua AIRS and AMSU Measurements using COSMIC Global Positioning System Radio Occultation Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S. P.; Peng, L.

    2015-12-01

    On board NASA Aqua satellite, the hyper-spectral infrared sounding from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is the first of a new generation of operational remote sensors for upwelling atmospheric emission that provide excellent temperature and water vapor retrievals at middle atmosphere, which has significant impacts on short-term numerical weather forecasts. Also on board NASA Aqua satellite, Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) measurements provide the all weather temperature and water vapor profiles which are used as the first guess for AIRS inversion algorithm. However, due to lack of absolute on orbit calibration, both AIRS and AMSU also exhibit biases in retrieving atmospheric temperatures and moistures when compared with in situ measurements. These retrieval biases have diverse and complex dependencies on the temperature/moisture being measured, the season and geographical location, surface conditions, and sensor temperature, which is difficult to quantify. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) data to serve as a climate calibration observatory in orbit to calibrate and validate AIRS and AMSU measurements. In this study, we use COSMIC RO data to simulate AMSU and AIRS brightness temperatures for the lower stratosphere (TLS) and compare them to AMSU TLS and those of AIRS brightness temperatures at the same height. Our analysis shows that because RO data do not contain mission-dependent biases and orbit drift errors, and are not affected by on-orbit heating and cooling of the satellite component, they are very useful to identify the AMSU time/location dependent biases for different NOAA missions and possible long term drift of the AIRS retrieved temperatures.

  9. Influence of an extract of Juglans regia on the growth of Escherichia coli, on the electrophoretic profile of plasmid DNA and on the radiolabeling of blood constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of a walnut (Juglans regia extract on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli AB1157, on the plasmid DNA topology and on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. An E. coli AB1157 culture, in stationary phase, was incubated with walnut and the growth of the culture was evaluated by optical density at 600 nm for 7 hours. Plasmid DNA samples were incubated with SnCl2 in presence or absence of walnut for 40 minutes, 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis was performed, the gel was stained and the plasmid topological forms were visualized. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with walnut extract and an assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc was performed. Blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI was determined. The results presented an inhibitory action of the growth of the E. coli AB1157 culture, no protective action of the walnut extract in plasmid DNA treated with SnCl2. Moreover, walnut was also not capable to induce modifications in the DNA mobility in agarose gel but walnut was capable to decrease the distribution of 99mTc on the blood cell compartment. In conclusion, our experimental data suggest that in the walnut extract has substances with an effect on the growth of E. coli culture, a potential action to increase the SnCl2 effect on plasmid DNA and also is capable to alter the distribution of 99mTc on the blood cell compartment probably due to redoxi properties.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a influência de um extrato de nogueira (Juglans regia no crescimento de Escherichia coli (E. coli AB1157, na topologia do DNA plasmidial e na marcação de constituintes sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Uma cultura de E. coli AB1157, em fase estacionária, foi incubada com nogueira e o crescimento da cultura foi avaliado por densidade óptica a

  10. Rhizogenic Induction in Adult Juglans regia L. cv. Serr Tissue Induced by Indole Butyric Acid and Agrobacterium rhizogenes Inducción Rizogénica en Tejido Adulto de Juglans regia L. cv. Serr Mediada por Ácido Indol Butírico y Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sánchez-Olate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro introduction of adult walnut (Juglans regia L. tissue represents an opportunity to clone elite genotypes whose selection occurs in advanced ontogenic states. With the purpose of developing a protocol to allow mass propagation of valuable genotypes from adult material, a comparison was made between two root induction systems of walnut microshoots of the fourth subculture of adult walnut tissue of an in vitro introduction program previously reinvigorated through traditional grafting. Rhizogenic induction by indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and Agrobacterium rhizogenes was used. The rhizogenic process was analyzed in two phases for both auxinic (T1: 3 mg L-1 IBA; T2: 5 mg L-1 IBA and A. rhizogenes inductions (T3: A-477; T4: A-478. The first phase of root induction was during 3 days in the dark while the second phase, root manifestation, was 27 days. Rooting percentage was evaluated and the induced root systems characterized (number, length, diameter, and root insertion zone in all the procedures. The best rooting results were obtained in T2, although the response obtained with A. rhizogenes didn’t differ from the T1 response. This appears to be an increasingly interesting methodology for adventitious rhizogenesis in this species.La introducción in vitro de tejido adulto de nogal (Juglans regia L. representa una oportunidad de clonación de genotipos elite, cuya selección ocurre en estados ontogénicos avanzados. Así, con el objeto de desarrollar un protocolo que permita la propagación masiva de genotipos valiosos a partir de material adulto, se compararon dos sistemas de inducción rizogénica de microtallos de nogal provenientes del cuarto subcultivo de un programa de introducción in vitro de tejido adulto de nogal, previamente revigorizado mediante injerto tradicional. Se utilizó la inducción rizogénica por ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB y Agrobacterium rhizogenes. El proceso rizogénico se analizó tanto para inducción aux

  11. Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Brearley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: What is the body temperature response of healthy pregnant women exercising at moderate intensity in an aqua-aerobics class where the water temperature is in the range of 28 to 33 degrees Celsius, as typically found in community swimming pools? Design: An observational study. Participants: One hundred and nine women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who were enrolled in a standardised aqua-aerobics class. Outcome measures: Tympanic temperature was measured at rest pre-immersion (T1, after 35 minutes of moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise (T2, after a further 10 minutes of light exercise while still in the water (T3 and finally on departure from the facility (T4. The range of water temperatures in seven indoor community pools was 28.8 to 33.4 degrees Celsius. Results: Body temperature increased by a mean of 0.16 degrees Celsius (SD 0.35, p < 0.001 at T2, was maintained at this level at T3 and had returned to pre-immersion resting values at T4. Regression analysis demonstrated that the temperature response was not related to the water temperature (T2 r = –0.01, p = 0.9; T3 r = –0.02, p = 0.9; T4 r = 0.03, p = 0.8. Analysis of variance demonstrated no difference in body temperature response between participants when grouped in the cooler, medium and warmer water temperatures (T2 F = 0.94, p = 0.40; T3 F = 0.93, p = 0.40; T4 F = 0.70, p = 0.50. Conclusions: Healthy pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic exercise conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius. The study provides evidence to inform guidelines for safe water temperatures for aqua-aerobic exercise during pregnancy. [Brearley AL, Sherburn M, Galea MP, Clarke SJ, (2015 Pregnant women maintain body temperatures within safe limits during moderate-intensity aqua-aerobic classes conducted in pools heated up to 33 degrees Celsius: an observational study. Journal of

  12. Application of AquaCrop Model for Simulting the Summer Maize Water Use in North China Plain%AquaCrop 模型在华北平原夏玉米水分研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴冉; 沈彦俊

    2014-01-01

    为将 AquaCrop 模型应用于华北平原夏玉米水分研究中,于2011-2012年在中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站进行了夏玉米水分处理试验,在参数率定与模型验证的基础上对华北平原水量平衡及水分利用效率的现状进行了分析。结果表明, AquaCrop 模型能够较好地模拟夏玉米的产量、生物量、冠层发育过程以及表层土壤水储量的动态变化。从生物量角度来看,夏玉米的水分利用效率在8月中旬达到最大,可达10 kg/m3左右,其整个生长季水分利用效率为4.9-5.8 kg/m3;从产量角度来看,水分利用效率为2.3-3.0 kg/m3,且在整个生长季土壤水储量呈增加趋势。研究阐明了 AquaCrop 模型在华北平原地区有较好的适用性,可以应用于夏玉米耗水与水分利用效率方面的研究。%To evaluate the applicability ofthe A quaC rop m odelforthe w aterconsum ption ofsum m erm aize in the N orth C hina Plain (NCP),a field experim entw asconducted in 2011-2012 in Luancheng A griculturalEcosystem Experim ental Station of the C hinese A cadem y of Sciences.A fter the param eter calibration and the m odelvalidation,the m odelw as then applied to analyze the w ater balance and w ater use efficiency of the sum m er m aize cropping system in NCP.O ur sim ulation results show thatthe A quaC rop m odelw as capable ofsim ulating the yield,biom ass,canopy developm entand surface soilw atercontentofsuch a cropping system .The biom ass-scaled w ateruse efficiency w as estim ated as 4.9-5.8 kg/m 3 during the grow ing season, and reached a peak of 10 kg/m 3 in m id-A ugust, w hile the yield-scaled w ater use efficiency ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 kg/m 3. B esides, the soil w ater content increased during the w hole grow ing season. O verall,the A quaC rop m odelperform ed w ellto sim ulate the developm entofa sum m erm aize cropping system ,and can be applied to evaluate the w aterconsum ption and w ateruse efficiency in

  13. 利用AquaCrop模型模拟旱作覆膜春玉米耗水和产量%Simulating Water Use and Yield of Film Mulched Maize with AquaCrop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦; 龚道枝; 郝卫平; 王罕博; 高翔; 梅旭荣

    2015-01-01

    为检验AquaCrop模型在晋中地区作物生产力模拟效果,于2011-2013年在农业部寿阳旱作农业与环境野外科学观测试验站进行了覆膜和露地春玉米种植对比试验.首先,利用2013年大田数据对模型进行参数校正和率定,使产量、地上生物量模拟值与实测值的相对误差均在5%以内;然后,利用2011 2012年大田数据验证模型;最后,对模型参数进行敏感性分析.结果表明,AquaCrop模型能较好地模拟0~120 cm土壤含水率、农田蒸散和冠层覆盖度(CC)的动态变化,其模拟值和实测值间相关的决定系数(R2)分别高于0.86、0.86和0.96,均方根误差值(RMSE)分别小于0.92%、0.88 mm/d和9.78%,模型性能指数(EF)分别在0.51~0.86、0.43~0.76和0.92~0.99之间.不同处理的最终生物量和经济产量模拟值与实测值的相对误差分别为2.83%~4.42%和3.13%~9.58%.模型敏感分析显示,达到最大冠层覆盖度CCx时间、冠层衰老时间、开花日期、凋萎系数、田间持水率和土壤初始含水率为敏感参数,相对敏感度在0.13~0.58之间变化.该模型能较好地模拟寿阳地区旱作覆膜春玉米的耗水、生长和产量形成过程.

  14. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Gridded Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua satellite for the Atlantic Ocean (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan...

  17. The introduction observation and seedling production technologies of Juglans hindsii xJ.regia.%奇异核桃引种观察及苗木培育技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉良; 祝钰; 崔莹

    2004-01-01

    奇异核桃(Juglans hindsii×J.regia)系美国北加州黑核桃与核桃的杂交种。我们于2001年3月在济宁市高新区柳行办事处引进试栽,通过观察,认为该树种为落叶硬阔乔木,杂种优势明显,速生性状强。适生范围广,是城镇绿化和农田林网化的优良材料,它的推广将极大提高林业产业的经济效益。

  18. 核桃叶腐解液对小麦幼苗生理指标的影响%Effect of Decomposition Liquids from the Leaves of Juglans regia on Physiological Indexes of Seedlings of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世荣; 王东; 张博

    2013-01-01

      In order to explore the allelopathy effect of decomposition liquids from the leaves of Juglans regia on wheat ,the effects of the decomposition liquids on germination rate ,amylase activity ,Pro content ,α‐NA content and MDA content of seedlings of four wheat varieties (lines)were studied .The results showed that the decom‐position liquids from the leaves of Juglans regia could significantly reduce or decrease the germination rate , amylase activity and α‐NA content ,significantly increase the Pro and MDA content ,and its effects increased with the increasing of extract concentration .The results also showed that four wheat varieties (lines)seeds had different tolerability .%  为揭示核桃叶腐解液对小麦的化感效应,选用4个小麦品种(系)的种子为受体,研究了不同浓度核桃叶腐解液对小麦种子萌发率、幼苗淀粉酶活力、脯氨酸含量、α‐NA含量和MDA含量的影响。结果表明:核桃叶腐解液可显著降低4个小麦品种(系)种子的萌发率、淀粉酶活性和a‐NA含量,显著提高Pro含量和MDA含量,且这些变化均具有明显的浓度依赖性。结果还表明4个小麦品种(系)对核桃叶腐解液表现出不同程度的耐受性。

  19. GestAqua.AdaPT - Mediterranean river basin modeling and reservoir operation strategies for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Marco, Machado; Aal, Carlo; Carmona Rodrigues, António; Beça, Pedro; Casanova Lino, Rafael; Rocha, João; Carvalho Santos, Cláudia

    2016-04-01

    Climate change (CC) scenarios for the Mediterranean region include an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as drought periods. higher average temperatures and evapotranspiration, combined with the decrease of annual precipitation may strongly affect the sustainability of water resources. In face of these risks, improving water management actions? by anticipating necessary operational measures is required to insure water quantity and quality according to the needs of the populations and irrigation in agriculture. This is clearly the case of the Alentejo region, southern Portugal, where present climatic conditions already pose significant challenges to water resources stakeholders, mainly from the agricultural and the urban supply sectors. With this in mind, the GestAqua.AdaPT project is underway during 2015 and 2016, aiming at analyzing CC impacts until 2100 and develop operational procedures to ensure water needs are adequately satisfied in the Monte Novo and Vigia reservoirs, which supply water for the city of Évora and nearby irrigation systems. Specific project objectives include: a) defining management and operational adaptation strategies aiming to ensure resource sustainability, both quantitatively and qualitatively; b) evaluate future potential costs and available alternatives to the regional water transfer infrastructure linked with the large Alqueva reservoir implemented in 2011; c) defining CC adaptation strategies to reduce irrigation water needs and d) identification of CC adaptation strategies which can be suitable also to other similar water supply systems. The methodology is centered on the implementation of a cascade of modeling tools, allowing the integrated simulation of the multiple variables under analysis. The project is based on CC scenarios resulting from the CORDEX project for 10 combinations of Global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs). The study follows by using two of these combinations

  20. 东北春小麦区AquaCrop模型模拟验证及春小麦生产力初步估测%The Simulation for Northeast Spring Wheat Productivity Based on the AquaCrop Model and Modeling Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 付驰; 李双双; 张铁楠; 顾万荣; 乔天长; 许为政; 芦玉双; 魏湜

    2014-01-01

    基于实测资料验证AquaCrop作物模型,并应用AquaCrop作物模型初步估测气候变化下春小麦生产力.结果表明,地上生物量模拟值与实测值之间决定系数R2在0.957~0.997之间,地上生物量模拟效果良好;灌浆初期,籽粒产量模拟值与实测值吻合度较高.AquaCrop模型对水分的敏感度大于对温度的敏感度;春小麦的生产力随着大气CO2质量浓度的增加而增长.在东北春小麦区用AquaCrop模型模拟与预估春小麦生产力是可行的.

  1. The design and optimisation of a bubble pump for an aqua-ammonia diffusion absorption heat pump / Stefan van der Walt.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Walt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Energy shortages around the world necessitated research into alternative energy sources especially for domestic applications to reduce the load on conventional energy sources. This resulted in research done on the possibility of integrating solar energy with an aqua-ammonia diffusion absorption cycle specifically for domestic applications. The bubble pump can be seen as the heart of the diffusion absorption cycle, since it is responsible, in the absence of a mechanical pump, to circulate ...

  2. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  3. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    ALUNNO-BRUSCIA, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  4. Data Assimilation of the High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Obtained from the Aqua-Terra Satellites (MODIS-SST) Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Waseda; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Xinyu Guo; Hiroshi Murakami; Toru Miyama; Sourav Sil; Yasumasa Miyazawa

    2013-01-01

    We develop an assimilation method of high horizontal resolution sea surface temperature data, provided from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-SST) sensors boarded on the Aqua and Terra satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), focusing on the reproducibility of the Kuroshio front variations south of Japan in February 2010. Major concerns associated with the development are (1) negative temperature bias due to the cloud effects, and (2)...

  5. Drought Monitoring and Category of Vegetation Temperature Condition Index Using Aqua-MODIS Data%基于Aqua-MODIS数据的条件植被温度指数干旱等级监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林巧; 王鹏新; 张树誉; 刘峻明; 李俐

    2014-01-01

    以陕西关中平原为研究区域,选取2003年~2012年每年3月~5月的Aqua-MODIS数据,计算MODIS-VTCI干旱监测结果,通过气象数据对结果进行验证,对比MODIS和AVHRR数据多年同一旬的VTCI干旱监测及等级划分结果,发现两种监测结果反映出的旱情分布规律相同.MODIS-VTCI干旱监测结果表明,2003年、2004年、2005年和2009年关中地区春旱严重,其中3月中旬至4月下旬旱情发生频率较高.2009年MODIS-VTCI干旱等级监测结果表明,关中地区2009年3月中旬、4月上旬和中旬干旱程度严重,且关中东部地区旱情比西部严重.

  6. Synthesis, FT–IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato-κ4Nmanganese(III trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Harhouri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4(H2O](CF3SO3 or [MnIII(TPP(H2O](CF3SO3 (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin, the MnIII cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn—N(pyrrole bond length is 1.998 (9 Å and the Mn—O(aqua bond length is 2.1057 (15 Å. The central MnIII ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5 Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [MnIII(TPP(H2O]+ cation and the trifluoromethanesulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C—H...O and C—H...F interactions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C—H...π interactions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties.

  7. Effectiveness of indoor ultra-low volume application of Aqua Reslin® Super during an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez González, José Genaro; Thirion, Jaime; García Orozco, Abel; Rodríguez, Américo D

    2011-06-01

    Indoor ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Aqua Reslin Super (Permethrin + s-bioallethrin) were carried out using portable Solo Port 423 sprayers in an urban area of Reforma, Chiapas, Mexico. Sprayers were calibrated to discharge a flow rate of 110 ml/min with a dose range of approximately 0.55 to 0.792 mg Al/m3 space. Entomological evaluation, based on 3 cages per house, each containing 15 sugar-fed, 2-4-day-old Aedes aegypti females and placed in hidden locations in 4 randomly selected houses for 15 min, showed 98.8% to 100% mortality. After the spraying, ovitrap data showed no mosquito adults present 4 days after the applications, and only 1 ovitrap out of 60 positive 8 days after the intervention. This evaluation suggests that indoor ULV application can be useful during emergencies after disasters, during dengue outbreaks, or to prevent mosquito population outbreaks before rainy seasons and, therefore, the onset of dengue transmission in Mexican dengue transmission risk areas.

  8. Removal of the arsenic from contaminated groundwater with use of the new generation of MicroDrop Aqua system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2012-01-01

    The results from a new pilot scale plant of the MicroDrop Aqua arsenic removal technology are introduced. The technology is based on the employing of electrochemical iron dissolution and efficient aeration prior to sand filtration. The pilot treatment was used to study effectiveness of iron release...... in an electro-dissolution process that is taking place in an iron generator. It was found that there is a need of some extra time to reach a state of steady iron release and that could not be achieved within a short period of 10-20 minutes. The pilot plant proved to be able to remove arsenic to value below 5μg....../L and it has been shown that the process efficiency depends on the applied current. Moreover, it was found that iron accumulation in the sand filter had a positive effect on the arsenic removal activity and it shall be considered in future tests. The presented method enables efficiently, without chemical...

  9. A saúde do trabalhador na região de fronteira do RS: a experiência do diagnóstico situacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Maria Rosa Mendes

    2016-01-01

    development of strategies and surveillance activities in workers’ health that address regional characteristics; in this case, the peculiarities of the border region. ResumoEste artigo apresenta os resultados da parceria entre o NEST e o Ministério da Saúde, no projeto do COLSAT, no Contexto do MERCOSUL. O trabalho teve o objetivo de realizar um diagnóstico situacional dos sistemas de vigilância na saúde do tra- balhador nas fronteiras do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, foram mapeados 05 centros de referência e a rede de atenção à saúde do trabalhador, totalizando 27 municípios fronteiriços. O diagnóstico realizado demonstrou que as práticas de vigilância em saúde pouco têm incorporado à demanda da saúde dos trabalhadores. Sendo assim, o foco de atuação de maior predominância é a vigilância sanitária e epidemiológica, fruto de alguns protocolos binacionais, em sua maioria, informais, sem um direcio- namento voltado ao impacto e aos agravos do trabalho na saúde dos trabalhadores. Espera-se que os dados possam contribuir para o desenvolvimento de estratégias e ações de vigilância em saúde do trabalhador que contemplem características regionais; no caso, as peculiaridades da região fronteiriça. Palavras chave: Saúde do Trabalhador, Vigilância sanitária, o MERCOSUL.Palabra clave: Salud del Trabajador, Vigilancia en salud, MERCOSUR.Key words: Workers’ health, Health surveillance, MERCOSUL.

  10. Relationships between biomass of the Juglans regia trees in different stand ages and soil nutrients in karst peak-cluster depression%峰丛洼地不同林龄核桃生物量与土壤养分的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秋锦; 覃振师; 黄锡云; 张浩; 陈海生; 曾馥平; 王文林

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the change process and the relationships between biomass and soil nutrients for different-aged J uglans regia plantation in karst peak-cluster depression in the north-west of Guangxi Province.Based on a combination of field investigation and laboratory analysis,this study analyzed the change in biomass and soil nutriens and the influence of soil nutrients on the biomass of the J uglans regia trees in different stand ages.It also discussed the biomass of the J uglans regia trees and asso-ciated soil nutrients;and established relationship between soil nutrients and environmental factors (e.g. slope aspect,gradient and position and bare rock rate).The biomass of the J uglans regia trees increases a-long with the stand age,of which the trunk and root accounted for more than 60% of the total biomass.Ex-cept for the available potassium,the soil nutrients have such a trend as rich fruiting period (33 years)>seedling stage (2 years)> early fruiting (10 years).The result of correlation analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between soil nutrient,slope position and bare rock rate.However,there was neg-atively significant correlation between soil nutrient,slope,and vegetation coverage.The biomass of the J uglans regia trees is a result of the combined influence of various factors and their growth at different sta-ges is affected by different factors.For example,in seedling period the biomass of the J uglans regia trees is controlled by total phosphorus;but that is controlled by available phosphorus in early fruiting and by availa-ble nitrogen in rich fruiting.Based on these findings,soil nutrient should be considered as one of key factors in the J uglans regia plantation cultivation in karst regions.%文章以喀斯特峰丛洼地的核桃(J uglans regia )人工林为研究对象,采用野外与室内相结合的方法,分析了不同林龄核桃生物量与土壤养分的变化规律,比较了土壤养分

  11. Applicable evaluation of crop model AquaCrop for summer maize production in Loess Plateau Region%AquaCrop作物模型在黄土塬区夏玉米生产中的适用性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪玲; 冯浩; 任小川; 郝志鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate its applicability of crop model AquaCrop in Loess Plateau Region,the model parame-ters were revised and validated based on the summer maize parameters recommended by Hsiao et al .The biomass in the maize growing season,the change procedure of evapotranspiration,harvest yield and aboveground biomass in 2003, 2004,2005,2007,2008 and 2010 in Changwu Region of the Shaanxi Province have been simulated,and carried out the comparison and analysis for the simulated with measured data .The results were showed that:In the six years,the adjust-ed determination coefficient Adj .R2 for simulated yield data and measured yield data was 0 .9270,the relative error was between -2 .479 to 1 1 .182 .The Adj .R2 for simulated and measured aboveground biomass was 0 .7842 .In this model, the effect of simulating yield was better than the aboveground biomass .In 2005 and 2008,the Adj .R2 for simulated and measured evapotranspiration were 0 .6229 and 0 .7973,respectively .Therefore,this model has a good simulation effect and important significance for the next optimal water management of summer maize in Loess Plateau Region .%为评价AquaCrop作物模型在黄土塬区的适用性,基于Hsiao等人推荐的玉米参数对模型参数进行调试及验证。在陕西长武地区模拟2003、2004、2005、2007、2008、2010年玉米生育期内生物量、蒸发蒸腾量的变化过程及收获时产量、地上部生物量,将模拟值与收集到的实测值进行对比、分析。结果表明,这6年模拟产量与实测产量间的校正决定系数(Adj)R2为0.9270,相对误差在-2.479至11.182之间;模拟地上部生物量与实测地上部生物量间的Adj .R2为0.7842,模型对产量的模拟效果优于对生物量的模拟;2005年和2008年模拟蒸散量与实测蒸散量间的Adj .R2分别为0.6229和0.7973。模拟效果较好,对黄土塬区夏玉米水分优化管理模拟有重要意义。

  12. AquaPedia: Building Intellectual Capacity Through Shared Learning and Open Access Platform to Resolve Water Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S.; Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Lin, C.; Gao, Y.

    2009-04-01

    consider the impact of natural factors (E, P, and Q) and coupling among them. We recognize that uncertainties and incomplete information about interconnections, feedbacks, and complexities within and between societal and natural systems will continue to pose high barriers in finding an effective solution and reaching an agreement for a given water conflict. Sharing of knowledge across river basins can catalyze this learning process. Yet, each water problem or conflict is usually highly contextual and local with different patterns of interconnections and complexities within and between societal and natural system. A management intervention that works in one basin may not be applicable to another due to differences in social-economic context and natural settings. Consequently, we need a conceptual framework that can integrate knowledge as well as compare and contrast outcomes across different scales, boundaries, and river basins. Such a framework will allow us to share knowledge and speed up the learning process across scales and boundaries. Our proposed web-based, wiki-style, self-learning repository of interactive and searchable water case studies, AquaPedia, is a step in that direction. This repository of water information and collective wisdom will bring together various stakeholders across the globe on a common platform to discuss and craft possible solution(s) for a conflict through joint fact finding and interactive learning. An open access collaborative model is adopted in AquaPedia so that stakeholders can participate in the creation, collaboration, discussion, and modification of the content in a meaningful way. The goal is to encourage and combine multiple perspectives and explore negotiated solutions to water conflicts.

  13. The comparison of MODIS-Aqua (C5 and CALIOP (V2 & V3 aerosol optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Redemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We assess the consistency between instantaneously collocated level-2 aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from MODIS-Aqua (C5 and CALIOP (Version 2 & 3, comparing the standard MODIS AOD (MYD04_L2 data to the AOD calculated from CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for both the previous release (V2 and the latest release (V3 of CALIOP data. Based on data collected in January 2007, we investigate the most useful criteria for screening the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals to achieve the best agreement between the two data sets. Applying these criteria to eight months of data (Jan, Apr, Jul, Oct 2007 and 2009, we find an order of magnitude increase for the CALIOP V3 data density (by comparison to V2, that is generally accompanied by equal or better agreement with MODIS AOD. Differences in global, monthly mean, over-ocean AOD (532 nm between CALIOP and MODIS range between 0.03 and 0.04 for CALIOP V3, with CALIOP generally biased low, when all available data from both sensors are considered. Root-mean-squares (RMS differences in instantaneously collocated AOD retrievals by the two instruments are reduced from values ranging between 0.14 and 0.19 using the unscreened V3 data to values ranging from 0.09 to 0.1 for the screened data. A restriction to scenes with cloud fractions less than 1% (as defined in the MODIS aerosol retrievals generally results in improved correlation (R2>0.5, except for the month of July when correlations remain relatively lower. Regional assessments show hot spots in disagreement between the two sensors in Asian outflow during April and off the coast of South Africa in July.

  14. 可见分光光度法测定水华鱼腥藻%The Measurement of Anabaena flos-aquae with Visible Spectrophotography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡先文; 董元彦; 张新萍; 叶发兵

    2002-01-01

    采用可见分光光度法测定水华鱼腥藻(Anabaena flos-aquae)藻液的吸光度A.这种方法与细胞计数法、叶绿素a含量测定法和荧光分光光度法相比较,既简便又准确,且可获得十分理想的线性相关性,其测得的A值可以作为水华鱼腥藻现存量的指标.

  15. Five new early bearing fruit Juglans varieties developed by crossing Juglans sigillata L. and Juglans regia Dode%种间杂交培育的5个核桃早实新品系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范志远; 习学良

    2002-01-01

    通过在国内外首次选用我国南方著名的晚实良种“漾濞泡核桃”“三台核桃”(Juglans sigillata L.)与新疆早实核桃优株“云林A7号”(Juglans regia Dode)进行种间杂交,培育出我国南方核桃产区首批5个早实杂交核桃新品系,即云新7914、云新7926、云新8034、云新8064、云新85227。5个新品系综合了双亲优势性状,具有早实、早熟、丰产、优质、树体矮化、适应性广等优良性状,增产潜力巨大,推广前景广阔。

  16. Hemoglobin levels and quality of life in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia: the eAQUA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouysset, Jean-Loup; Freier, Beata; van den Bosch, Joan; Levaché, Charles Briac; Bols, Alain; Tessen, Hans Werner; Belton, Laura; Bohac, G Chet; Terwey, Jan-Henrik; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess hemoglobin (Hb) outcomes and fatigue-related quality-of-life (QoL) (electronic assessment) in patients with solid tumors and symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa (DA) or another erythropoiesis-stimulating agent according to European indication. Methods eAQUA was a Phase IV prospective observational study. The primary outcome (assessed in the primary analysis set [PAS]: patients receiving one or more DA dose who had baseline and week 9 assessments for Hb and QoL) was the proportion of patients receiving DA having both Hb increases ≥1 g/dL and improved QoL between baseline and week 9. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F) subscale scores were anchored to fatigue visual analog scale scores to determine the minimally important difference for improved QoL. Overall data/data over time are reported for the full analysis set (patients receiving one or more erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose, n=1,158); week 9 data (ie, data relating to the primary and secondary outcomes) are reported for the PAS (n=510). Baseline and safety data are included for both the full analysis set and PAS. Results In the PAS, 69% of patients had stage IV disease and 96% were fatigued. The minimally important difference in FACT-F change score for QoL improvement was 3.5. From baseline to week 9, 32% (95% confidence interval: 28%–36%) of patients had both improved QoL and an Hb increase ≥1 g/dL; proportions were similar across the most common tumor types. At week 9, 49% and 58% of patients had improved QoL or Hb increases ≥1 g/dL, respectively; 70% and 76% had QoL or Hb improvements between baseline and study end, respectively. In the PAS, 16% of patients required transfusions and 32% required iron supplementation. Few patients (<1%) reported adverse drug reactions. Conclusion In this study, patients with solid tumors receiving DA per European indication for symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia

  17. Comparison of Reflected Solar Radiance Using Aqua Modis and Airborne Remote Sensing (case : Deep Convective Clouds and Cirrus Clouds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisna, T. C.; Ehrlich, A.; Werner, F.; Wendisch, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) have key role in the tropical region. Despite they only have small spatial coverage, but they account most of the total precipitation in these region which often make flooding. There are such of aviation accidents caused by strong vertical wind, hailing, icing and lightning inside the clouds. Pollutions caused by biomass burning and land degradation can change the aerosol properties as well as cloud properties, therefore will influence the radiation and formation of the DCCs. Those are the major reasons that better understanding of DCCs formation and life cycle are necessary. Between Sept. 01 - Oct. 14, ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Concevtive Clouds Systems) campaign was conducted over Amazonia. It is suitable area to be the site-study due to has strong contrast environtment (pristine and polluted), regular convection activities and stable meteorological condition. In this study we focus on the 2 satellite validation missions designed to fly collocated but in different altitude with A-TRAIN constellation. In order to study DCCs-solar radiation interaction, we use SMART (Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurements System) installed on HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) which measures spectral Irradiance (F) and Radiance (I) at the wavelength between 300-2200 nm corresponding to satellite. Due to the limitation in spatial and temporal, airborne measurements only give snapshots of atmosphere condition and DCCs formation, therefore we use multi-satellite data as DCCs have high vertical and horizontal distance, long temporal development and complex form. The comparison of AQUA MODIS and SMART Radiance at 645 nm (non-absorbing) in the clear-sky condition gives strong agreement, but in the multilayer-cloud condition gives worse and results in high underestimation (-86%) in SMART data especially at lower altitude. The bias is caused by interference from clouds

  18. Evaluation of the AquaCrop model for simulating biomass for Chinese green onion and soil water storage%AquaCrop模型在大葱生物量和土壤贮水量模拟中的应用和验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子忠; 徐洋; 卢宪菊; 胡克林; 江丽华; 徐钰

    2011-01-01

    为评估AquaCrop模型在华北平原模拟大葱生长和农田水分的适用性,本研究利用实测的农民施肥方式的一个小区和增施氮肥处理的土壤水分、作物生长和产量数据,结合气象资料,获得了AquaCrop模型模拟大葱生长和土壤水分的模型参数,并利用实测的农民施肥方式的另外一个小区、减施氮肥、优化施氮和秸秆还田处理的土壤贮水量和生物量数据进行了模型验证。结果表明:在无水分胁迫条件下AquaCrop模型对大葱土壤贮水量及生物量的模拟结果是可以接受的。对土壤贮水量实测值与模拟值的RMSE为19.4~24.9 mm之间,相对误差%The objective of this study was to evaluate the AquaCrop model for Chinese green onion for simulating the growth and soil water storage in North China Plain.AquaCrop model for Chinese green onion was parameterized using soil water data,crop growth and yield data from one plot of Farmer Practice and Heavy Nitrogen Application treatments and the weather data,and tested using data from another plot of Farmer Practice,reduced nitrogen application,optimized nitrogen application and straw returning treatments in 2009.The results showed that AquaCrop model simulated accurately the soil water storage and biomass without water stress condition.The RMSE between the simulated soil water storage values and measurements was 19.4-24.9 mm,the relative error 3.9%-12.4%.The RMSE between the simulated biomass values and measurements was 0.31-0.73 t/hm2,the relative error 5.8%-12.8%.

  19. Prediksi Zona Tangkapan Ikan Menggunakan Citra Klorofil-a Dan Citra Suhu Permukaan Laut Satelit Aqua MODIS Di Perairan Pulo Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyidin Mursyidin

    2015-12-01

    prediction of fishing zone can be done by detecting chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature distribution of Aqua MODIS Imagery. The aim of this study is to predict fishing zone on the waters of Pulo Aceh based on the chlorophyll distribution and sea surface temperature by utilizing the data of Aqua MODIS Satellite Imagery level 3. The stages of this study included collecting imagery, cutting the image according to the desired area, giving lands mark to display a more informative image, extracting information of chlorophyll-a and the distribution of sea surface temperature, and interpolating by using Kriging method. The highest distribution of chlorophyll-a happened in June and August, the spread moved from the the North Pulo Aceh to the South. The distribution of sea surface temperature that suitable for fishing was detected in August around the North Ujung Pulo Breuh and around pulau Keureusik. The potential zone of fishing on the waters of Pulo Aceh was only detected in August in the eastern of pulau Keureusik to Ujong Keumuroh. Pulo Aceh waters is suitable for fishing destination in August.

  20. Experiment on Development of 30% Glyphosate Ammonium Salt Water Aqua%30%草甘膦铵盐水剂研制试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余洋

    2012-01-01

    30%草甘膦铵盐水剂研制试验结果表明,低含量草甘膦母液通过除甲醛、浓缩制得30%草甘膦铵盐水剂,经测定,研制的样品质量稳定,甲醛含量〈10 g/kg,热贮(54℃±2℃)14 d分解率〈5%,符合国家规定的30%草甘膦铵盐水剂标准。%The experiment on development of 30% glyphosate ammonium salt water aqua results showed that by removing the low content of glyphosate mother liquor of formaldehyde and concentration, 30% ammonium salt glyphosate water aqua was acquired. Storage stability tests showed that the decomposition rate of the active ingredient was less than 5% at (54±2)℃ for 14 days and formaldehyde content was less than 10 g/kg.The physical and chemical properties of the formulated product confirmed to the requirements of EW formulation.

  1. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass.

  2. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass. PMID:26586082

  3. Evaluation of the AquaCrop model for simulating yield response of winter wheat to water on the southern Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanhong; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu; Chen, Jie; Han, Xiaoyang

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the FAO-AquaCrop model in winter wheat in the southern Loess Plateau of China. Multi-year field experimental data from 2004 and 2011 were used to calibrate and validate the model for simulating biomass, canopy cover (CC), soil water content, and grain yield under rainfed conditions. The model performance was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE) and Willmott index of agreement (d) as criteria. The RMSE ranged from 0.16 to 0.38 t/ha for simulating aboveground biomass, 1.87 to 4.15% for CC, 0.50 to 1.44 t/ha for grain yield, and 5.70 to 22.56 mm for soil water content. The d ranged from 0.22 to 0.89, 0.25 to 0.43, 0.36 to 0.62 and 0.95 to 0.98 for aboveground biomass, CC, soil water content and grain yield, respectively. Generally, the model performed better for simulating CC and yield than biomass and soil water content. The results further indicated that AquaCrop is capable of simulating winter wheat yield under rainfed conditions. Further improvement may be needed to capture the variation of different management practices such as fertility and irrigation levels in this region.

  4. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  5. Simulation of water use process by film mulched cultivated maize based on improved AquaCrop model and its verification%基于改进AquaCrop模型的覆膜栽培玉米水分利用过程模拟与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 孙占祥; 张立桢; 郑家明; 冯良山; 李开宇; 张哲; 冯晨

    2015-01-01

    为应用 AquaCrop 模型模拟覆膜玉米水分利用与产量形成过程,该文根据玉米发育阶段生长度日恒定原理,利用地积温对气积温的补偿效应,改进AquaCrop模型对覆膜玉米的气温计算方法,并根据2011年的生育期、耗水量和产量实测数据对改进模型参数进行校正,依据2012年与2013年的冠层覆盖度、土体贮水量、产量与水分利用效率试验数据对改进模型验证。结果表明,玉米地膜覆盖地积温对气积温的量化补偿系数(Cm):播种-出苗为1.356,出苗-抽雄前为0.635;校正改进的AquaCrop模型能够较好地模拟覆膜与裸地玉米生育天数、作物耗水量、籽粒产量,相对误差(Pe)、模型效率(CE)、残差系数(CRM)变幅分别为:-4%0.88, CE>0.87,0.090.8), the raised soil temperature in the mulched maize field was remarkable before tasseling stage. The compensatory coefficient (Cmaize) of mulching plastic film maize and air increment of cumulative soil temperature to cumulative air temperature can be generated continuously by transparent algorithms, which Cmaize was 1.356 from sowing to emergence, 0.635 from emergence to tasseling stage, and 0 after flowing. Furthermore, mean daily air temperature with the addition of air increment formed a new file (*.tmp) and input to AquaCrop’s climate module which can modify by function could be applied to mulching plastic film maize growing. Model coefficient of efficiency (CE), coefficient of determination (R2), the relative root mean square error (RRMSE), prediction error (Pe) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM) were used to test the model performance. The developed AquaCrop model was calibrated for simulating maize growing days, water consumption and grain yield for mulched and no-mulched maize with the prediction error statistics-4%0.88, 0.090.87. Upon validation, the Pe in simulation of water consumption and grain yield under mulched and no

  6. On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy experiments were made on the Gd(III) aqua and chloro complexes in low pH aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500????C and at pressures up to 480??MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Analysis of fluorescence Gd L3-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra measured from a 0.006m Gd/0.16m HNO3 aqueous solution at temperatures up to 500????C and at pressures up to 260??MPa shows that the Gd-O distance of the Gd3+ aqua ion decreases steadily at a rate of ??? 0.007??A??/100????C whereas the number of coordinated H2O molecules decreases from 9.0 ?? 0.5 to 7.0 ?? 0.4. The loss of water molecules in the Gd3+ aqua ion inner hydration shell over this temperature range (a 22% reduction) is smaller than exhibited by the Yb3+ aqua ion (42% reduction) indicating that the former is significantly more stable than the later. We conjecture that the anomalous enrichment of Gd reported from measurement of REE concentrations in ocean waters may be attributed to the enhanced stability of the Gd3+ aqua ion relative to other REEs. Gd L3-edge XAFS measurements of 0.006m and 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solutions at temperatures up to 500????C and pressures up to 480??MPa reveal that the onset of significant Gd3+-Cl- association occurs around 300????C. Partially-hydrated stepwise inner-sphere complexes most likely of the type Gd(H2O)??-nCln+3-n occur in the chloride solutions at higher temperatures, where ?? ??? 8 at 300????C decreasing slightly to an intermediate value between 7 and 8 upon approaching 500????C. This is the first direct evidence for the occurrence of partially-hydrated REE Gd (this study) and Yb [Mayanovic, R.A., Jayanetti, S., Anderson, A.J., Bassett, W.A., Chou, I-M., 2002a. The structure of Yb3+ aquo ion and chloro complexes in aqueous solutions at up to 500 ??C and 270 MPa. J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6591-6599.] chloro complexes in hydrothermal solutions. The number of chlorides (n) of the partially-hydrated Gd

  7. Hemoglobin levels and quality of life in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia: the eAQUA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouysset JL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Loup Mouysset,1 Beata Freier,2 Joan van den Bosch,3 Charles Briac Levaché,4 Alain Bols,5 Hans Werner Tessen,6 Laura Belton,7 G Chet Bohac,8 Jan-Henrik Terwey,9 Giuseppe Tonini101Department of Medical Oncology, Clinique Rambot Provencale, Aix en Provence, France; 2Clinical Oncology, Wojewodzki Szpital Specjalistyczny, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Internal Medicine/Oncology, Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis locatie Dordwijk, Dordrecht, the Netherlands; 4Radiotherapy Service, Medical Oncology, Polyclinique Francheville, Périgueux, France; 5Central Pharmacy, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, Brugge, Belgium; 6Private Oncology Practice. Goslar, Germany; 7LB Biostatistics, London, UK; 8Clinical Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 9Medical Development – Oncology, Amgen (Europe GmbH, Zug, Switzerland; 10Department of Medical Oncology, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Roma, ItalyPurpose: To assess hemoglobin (Hb outcomes and fatigue-related quality-of-life (QoL (electronic assessment in patients with solid tumors and symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa (DA or another erythropoiesis-stimulating agent according to European indication.Methods: eAQUA was a Phase IV prospective observational study. The primary outcome (assessed in the primary analysis set [PAS]: patients receiving one or more DA dose who had baseline and week 9 assessments for Hb and QoL was the proportion of patients receiving DA having both Hb increases ≥1 g/dL and improved QoL between baseline and week 9. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F subscale scores were anchored to fatigue visual analog scale scores to determine the minimally important difference for improved QoL. Overall data/data over time are reported for the full analysis set (patients receiving one or more erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose, n=1,158; week 9 data (ie, data relating to the primary and secondary outcomes are reported

  8. Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea Mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakudya, I.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Under low and poorly distributed rainfall higher food production can be achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE) through optimum soil fertility management and selection of deep-rooting cultivars, appropriate plant density and planting dates. We explored AquaCrop's applicability in sele

  9. In vivo effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins on gas exchange and ion equilibrium in the zebrafish gill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delu; Liu, Siyi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jian Kong; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Yongding

    2016-08-01

    Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The major ingredients were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin, which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were administered A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins at 5.3 or 7.61μg saxitoxin equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) by intraperitoneal injection. The activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), carbonic anhydrase (CA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) were investigated in the gills during the first 24h after exposure. Aphantoxins significantly increased the level of ROS and decreased the T-AOC in zebrafish gills from 3 to 12h post-exposure, suggesting an induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Reduced activities of NKA and CA demonstrated abnormal ion transport and gas exchange in the gills of aphantoxin-treated fish. Toxin administration also resulted in increased LDH activity and ultrastructural alterations in chloride and epithelial cells, suggesting a disruption of function and structure in zebrafish gills. The observed abnormalities in zebrafish gills occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that aphantoxins or PSPs may inhibit ion transport and gas exchange, increase LDH activity, and result in ultrastructural damage to the gills through elevations in oxidative stress and reduced

  10. Morphological alterations and acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition in liver of zebrafish exposed to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Gao Hong; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxins induced zebrafish hepatic physiological and morphological changes. • AChE and MAO inhibition reflected abnormality of neurotransmitter inactivation. • ROS advance and T-AOC reduction suggested oxidative stress. • ALT, AST, histological and ultrastructural alterations indicated hepatic damage. - Abstract: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a cyanobacterium that produces neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) called aphantoxins, which present threats to environmental safety and human health via eutrophication of water bodies worldwide. Although the molecular mechanisms of this neurotoxin have been studied, many questions remain unsolved, including those relating to in vivo hepatic neurotransmitter inactivation, physiological detoxification and histological and ultrastructural alterations. Aphantoxins extracted from the natural strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The main components were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1, GTX5) and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04%, 21.28%, and 12.77% respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed intraperitoneally to 5.3 or 7.61 μg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Morphological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter conduction functions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in zebrafish liver were detected at different time points 1–24 h post-exposure. Aphantoxin significantly enhanced hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and histological and ultrastructural damage in zebrafish liver at 3–12 h post-exposure. Toxin exposure increased the reactive oxygen species content and reduced total antioxidative capacity in zebrafish liver, suggesting oxidative stress. AChE and MAO activities were significantly inhibited, suggesting neurotransmitter inactivation/conduction function abnormalities in zebrafish

  11. Spin-State Energetics of Fe(III) and Ru(III) Aqua Complexes: Accurate ab Initio Calculations and Evidence for Huge Solvation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Mariusz; Gąssowska, Katarzyna; Szklarzewicz, Janusz; Broclawik, Ewa

    2016-04-12

    Aqua complexes of transition metals are useful models for understanding the electronic structure of metal-oxide species relevant in photocatalytic water splitting. Moreover, spin-forbidden d-d transitions of aqua complexes provide valuable experimental data of spin-state energetics, which can be used for benchmarking of computational methods. Here, low-energy spin states of Fe(III) and Ru(III) aqua complexes are studied with an array of DFT and high-level wave function methods (CASPT2, RASPT2, NEVPT2, CCSD(T)-F12, and other coupled cluster methods up to full CCSDT). The results from single-reference and multireference methods are cross-checked, and the amount of multireference character for both considered spin states of [Fe(H2O)6](3+) is carefully analyzed. In addition to small [M(H2O)6](3+) clusters (M = Fe, Ru), we also employ larger models [M(H2O)6·(H2O)12](3+), with explicit water molecules in the second coordination sphere, to describe the situation in aqueous solution. By comparing the results for both types of models, our calculations evidence large and systematic solvation effects on the spin-state energetics. It is found that, due to the interaction with hydrogen-bonded water molecules in the second coordination sphere, the first coordination sphere undergoes a noticeable contraction and deformation. In consequence, the presence of solvation shell affects the relative energies of spin states by as much as 3-4 × 10(3) cm(-1) (∼10 kcal/mol). Once this solvation effect is accounted for, the spin-state energetics from CCSD(T) and NEVPT2 calculations turn out to be in an excellent agreement with the experimental estimates, which was not the case for isolated [M(H2O)6](3+) species is gas phase. We thus postulate that significant discrepancies between theory and experimental data for [Fe(H2O)6](3+) that were previously reported in the literature may be plausibly resolved and attributed to the neglect of explicit solvation effects and also, to some extent, to

  12. Evaluación genotóxica del D-004, extracto del fruto de Roystonea regia, mediante el ensayo de la morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratas Sprague Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Arencibia Arrebola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento oral con D-004, extracto lipídico del frutode la palma real (Roystonea regia, ha mostrado prevenir la hiperplasia prostática (HP inducida por testosterona y por fenilefrina en ratas, efectos relacionados con su capacidad de inhibir la actividad de la 5 -reductasa prostática y de antagonizar los adrenoreceptores 1. Este estudio, como parte de los estudios de genotoxicidad del D-004, tuvo como objetivo determinar si el mismo aumenta la frecuencia de aparición de formas anómalas de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratas. Para ello se utilizaron ratas Sprague Dawley machos incluidas en un estudio de toxicidad crónica, distribuidas aleatoriamente en 5grupos (8 ratas/grupo: 1 control negativo tratado con el vehículo, 3 grupos tratados con D-004 (800, 1500 y 2000 mg/kg, respectivamente, y 1 control positivo (Ciclofosfamida, 50mg/kg. Los tratamientos (vehículo o D-004 se administraron por vía oral durante 12 meses, la Ciclofosfamida se administró por vía intraperitoneal 5 días consecutivos. No ocurrieron muertes ni sedetectaron signos de toxicidad. Las concentraciones de espermatozoides, y las frecuencias de espermatozoides normales en los grupos tratados con D-004 fueron similares a los del control negativo, mientras que el grupo control positivo mostró menor concentración de espermatozoides y mayor frecuencia de espermatozoides anómalos que los controles negativos. En conclusión, el D-004 administrado durante varios períodos de espermatogénesis no presenta potencial genotóxico sobre las células germinales masculinas de ratas.

  13. El Arte Regia, Nebrija reformado por Juan Luis de la Cerda, Morfología y Sintaxis, Introducción, edición crítica, traducción y notas de Juan María Gómez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Arte Regia, Nebrija reformado por Juan Luis de la Cerda, Morfología y Sintaxis, Introducción, edición crítica, traducción y notas de Juan María Gómez Gómez, Grammatica Humanistica, serie textos, 6, Cáceres, Universidad de Extremadura‑Instituto de Estudios Humanísticos, 2013, XLI + 238 pp., ISSN: 1699‑6860, ISBN: 978‑84‑7723‑964‑2.http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2183-1718_66_23

  14. Alegoría, emblemática y doctrina cristiana en un convento de clausura aragonés del siglo XVII: un programa pictórico inspirado en la Regia Via Crucis de Benedictus van Haeften

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azanza López, José Javier

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the cloister of the convent of the Purísima Concepción y San Blas in Miedes (Zaragoza there are eight paintings dating from the last quarter of the seventeenth century, in all probability created by an Aragonese artist who was not unfamiliar with painting at Court. The importance of these works rests not only on their pictorial quality but on their unified iconography, in which doctrine imbued with baroque spirituality is directed to the nuns of the religious community. The source can be found in Benedictus Van Haeften's Regia Via Crucis, one of the most significant seventeenth-century doctrinal works. The eight prints chosen as models for the canvases constitute a perfect synthesis of the doctrine contained in the Regia Via Crucis, within the context of a female convent in which a cross given by the Virgin to the mother of sister Inés de Jesús y Franco was preserved as a precious relic and had effected miraculous healings.

    El convento de la Purísima Concepción y San Blas de Miedes (Zaragoza conserva en su claustro ocho lienzos del último cuarto del siglo XVII, ejecutados con casi toda probabilidad por un pintor de la estimable escuela aragonesa al que no resulta ajeno el conocimiento de la pintura de la Corte. Mas el interés de los lienzos no reside tan sólo en su calidad pictórica; el conjunto compone además un programa iconográfico unitario y desarrolla una interesante catcquesis muy propia de la espiritualidad barroca dirigida a las monjas de la comunidad religiosa. El punto de partida de todo ello se encuentra en una de las obras doctrinales más importantes del siglo XVII: la Regia Via Crucis, de Benedictus Van Haeften, cuyos grabados inspiran los lienzos del convento aragonés. Las ocho estampas escogidas para plasmar en lienzo constituyen una síntesis perfecta de la doctrina contenida en la Regia Via Crucis, en el marco de una clausura femenina que conservaba como preciada

  15. Application and validation of AquaCrop model in simulating biomass and yield of oil flax in Northwest China%AquaCrop模型在西北胡麻生物量及产量模拟中的应用和验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 牛俊义; 郭丽琢; 高珍妮; 孙小花

    2014-01-01

    为了预测水分和养分对胡麻籽粒产量、生物量与水分生产率的影响,使用FAO研发的水分驱动作物模型AquaCrop对胡麻在不同灌溉与氮磷水平下的生长情况进行模拟和验证.试验分别于2011年、2012年在甘肃省榆中县良种场进行,试验设置4个灌溉水平,3个氮水平,3个磷水平.模型性能的评价采用模型效率(E)、决定系数(R2)、均方根误差(RMSE)和平均绝对误差(MAE)等统计指标.分析结果表明:AquaCrop模型校正的籽粒产量和生物量在不同灌溉与氮磷水平处理下的预测误差统计值为:0.97<E<0.99,0.11 <RMSE<0.33,0.11 t·hm-2<MAE<0.42 t·hm-2,与2012年的试验观察数据(0.96<E<0.99,0.11 <RMSE<0.42,0.11 t·hm-2<MAE<0.39 t·hm-2)基本一致;同时,群体覆盖(CC)与生物量的模拟结果与测定值也非常拟合.AquaCrop模型在充分灌溉处理下预测胡麻产量,比非充分灌溉处理下具更高的准确性.因而,水分驱动模型AquaCrop在西北胡麻区不同的灌溉与田间管理措施下有较高的模拟精确性,具有广阔的应用前景和价值.

  16. Aqua{pentahydrogennitrilotris(methylenephosphonato)}lithium hydrate [Li(H2O){N(CH2PO3)3H5}] • H2O: Synthesis and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, N. V.; Chausov, F. F.; Zakirova, R. M.

    2016-05-01

    Aqua{pentahydrogennitrilotris(methylenephosphonato)}lithium hydrate is a linear coordination polymer. Its crystal structure is described in space group P -1, Z = 2; a = 5.5732(2), b = 7.0106(2), and c = 16.9010(5) Å; α = 97.515(2)°, β = 94.551(2)°, and γ = 95.123(2)°. The tetrahedral coordination of the Li atom includes two oxygen atoms of a phosphonate ligand, one oxygen atom of another phosphonate ligand, and a water molecule. Complex formation is accompanied by closing of the eight-membered Li-O-P-C-N-C-P-O chelate ring. Polymeric chains run along the [100] direction. The chains are connected by hydrogen bonds.

  17. 心际迷航深圳东部华侨城瀑布酒店%HEART INTER-TREK——THE AQUA BOUTIQUE HOTEL IN SHENZHEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宏涛

    2010-01-01

    @@ 位于深圳大梅沙的"东部华侨城",是以"让都市人回归自然"为宗旨,以文化旅游为特色的新型山地生态旅游度假区. ATENO天诺国际及其主创设计师孙建华设计的瀑布酒店(The Aqua Boutique Hotel)是华侨城主题酒店群中的一个,也是最令人期待的.酒店建筑藏身于宽300m、高70m的巨岩之中,外部更是有国内最高落差(42 m)的人造瀑布倾泻而下.

  18. Crystal structure of 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium cis-di-aqua-bis-(oxalato-κ(2) O,O')ferrate(III) hemihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomo, Edith Dimitri; Capet, Frédéric; Nenwa, Justin; Bélombé, Michel M; Foulon, Michel

    2015-08-01

    The Fe(III) ions in the hybrid title salt, (C7H11N2)[Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, show a distorted octa-hedral coordination environment, with four O atoms from two chelating oxalate dianions and two O atoms from two cis aqua ligands. The average Fe-O(oxalate) bond length [2.00 (2) Å] is shorter than the average Fe-O(water) bond length [2.027 (19) Å]. The ionic components are connected via inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. PMID:26396759

  19. Influence of the nature of the oxidizing agents on the mechanism of the oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of an aqua complex of palladium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the oxidation of CO in the presence of an aqua complex of Pd(II) by VO+2 and Fe(III) ions and by heteropolyacids (HPA) viz., H3PMo12O40,H4PMo11 VO40, and H4PW11VO40, was studied. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of the oxidation of CO by strong oxidizing agents - Cr2O72- and Ce(IV) ions - made it possible to conclude that rapid occurrence of the reaction requires an optimum potential of the oxidizing agent 0.7 < E < 1 V. This confirms the assumption that the intermediate carbonyl complexes of partially reduced palladium are the most active in this reaction

  20. Crystal structure of poly[[di-μ2-aqua-aquasodium] 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylate trihydrate], the sodium salt of the herbicide picloram

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex, {[Na(H2O)3](C6H2Cl3N2O2)·3H2O}n, the sodium salt of the herbicide picloram, the cation adopts a polymeric chain structure, based on μ2-aqua-bridged NaO5 trigonal–bipyramidal complex units which have, in addition, a singly bonded water molecule. Each of the bridges within the chain, which extends parallel to the a axis, is centrosymmetric, with Na...Na separations of 3.4807 (16) and 3.5109 (16) Å. In the crystal, there are three water molecules of solvati...

  1. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  2. Purification and characterization of a corrinoid-compound in an edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as a nutritional supplementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Emi; Tanioka, Yuri; Nakao, Tomoyuki; Barla, Florin; Inui, Hiroshi; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Fumio; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2006-12-13

    The vitamin B12 concentration of the dried cells of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was determined by both microbiological method with Lactobacillus delbrueckeii ATCC7830 and chemiluminescence method with intrinsic factor. The Aphanizomenon cells contained 616.3 +/- 30.3 micro g (n = 4) of vitamin B12 per 100 g of the dried cells by the microbiological method. The values determined with the chemiluminescence method, however, were only about 5.3% of the values determined by the microbiological method. A corrinoid-compound was purified from the dried cells and characterized. The purified corrinoid-compound was identified as pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid-compound for humans) by silica gel 60 TLC, C18 reversed-phase HPLC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results suggest that the Aphanizomenon cells are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially in vegans.

  3. [Use of the AquaDuc T® round drinker with Pekin ducks under field conditions--behaviour as one indicator of welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Firnkäs, Nina; Hirsch, Nicola; Damme, Klaus; Schmidt, Paul; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Pekin ducks have an innate affinity for water. They seek water from the first day of life and use it for a multitude of behaviors. Currently implemented requirements to husbandry and the design of an animal-friendly offer of drinking water in commercial fattening establishments exist neither at EU-level nor in Germany. Aim of the study was to examine the use of the AquaDuc T® (Big Dutchman, Vechta, Germany) and its practical suitability concerning the behavior during the fattening of Pekin ducks under commercial conditions. The examinations took place in three farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). On farm 1 and 3, 16 fattening periods were observed (switch-over design: alternately test and control trial) with each one visited between day 28-32 and 35-39. On farm 2, only ten fattening periods could be examined. The ducks were in general supplied with drinking water via nipple drinkers. For the test trials, the AquaDuc T® drinkers were additionally installed and were accessible for a limited time. To record the natural and undisturbed behavior of the ducks in their housing system, the video recordings were started after we finished the farm visits and in total more than 6300 hours of video material were analyzed. All findings show that Pekin ducks clearly favor the round bell drinkers over the nipple drinkers. They enable the birds to immerse their heads, to drink and strain in a species-specific manner, to take care of the plumage with water and to clean beak and eyes. In the test trials, the drinking activity rose significantly during the operating time of the round drinkers (p water supply. For economic and hygienic reasons, the daily access to the modified round drinkers should be limited.

  4. [Use of the AquaDuc T® round drinker with Pekin ducks under field conditions--behaviour as one indicator of welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Elke; Firnkäs, Nina; Hirsch, Nicola; Damme, Klaus; Schmidt, Paul; Erhard, Michael H; Bergmann, Shana

    2016-01-01

    Pekin ducks have an innate affinity for water. They seek water from the first day of life and use it for a multitude of behaviors. Currently implemented requirements to husbandry and the design of an animal-friendly offer of drinking water in commercial fattening establishments exist neither at EU-level nor in Germany. Aim of the study was to examine the use of the AquaDuc T® (Big Dutchman, Vechta, Germany) and its practical suitability concerning the behavior during the fattening of Pekin ducks under commercial conditions. The examinations took place in three farms (7140-13,515 fattening places). On farm 1 and 3, 16 fattening periods were observed (switch-over design: alternately test and control trial) with each one visited between day 28-32 and 35-39. On farm 2, only ten fattening periods could be examined. The ducks were in general supplied with drinking water via nipple drinkers. For the test trials, the AquaDuc T® drinkers were additionally installed and were accessible for a limited time. To record the natural and undisturbed behavior of the ducks in their housing system, the video recordings were started after we finished the farm visits and in total more than 6300 hours of video material were analyzed. All findings show that Pekin ducks clearly favor the round bell drinkers over the nipple drinkers. They enable the birds to immerse their heads, to drink and strain in a species-specific manner, to take care of the plumage with water and to clean beak and eyes. In the test trials, the drinking activity rose significantly during the operating time of the round drinkers (p < 0.001), whereas the nipple drinkers were used less frequently at the same time. Concerning ethology and health, the round drinkers offer the ducks very good conditions for an animal-friendly water supply. For economic and hygienic reasons, the daily access to the modified round drinkers should be limited. PMID:26904894

  5. Radiometric calibration and performance trends of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Mohan; Priestley, Kory; Smith, Nathaniel; Smith, Nitchie; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale

    2015-10-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments help to study the impact of clouds on the earth's radiation budget. There are currently five instruments- two each on board Aqua and Terra spacecraft and one on the Suomi NPP spacecraft to measure the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy, which represent two components of the earth's radiation energy budget. Flight Models (FM) 1 and 2 are on Terra, FM 3 and 4 are on Aqua, and FM5 is on Suomi NPP. The measurements are made by three sensors on each instrument: a shortwave sensor that measures the 0.3-5 microns wavelength band, a window sensor that measures the water vapor window between 8-12 microns, and a total sensor that measures all incident energy (0.3- >100 microns). The required accuracy of CERES measurements of 0.5% in the longwave and 1% in the shortwave is achieved through an extensive pre-launch ground calibration campaign as well as on-orbit calibration and validation activities. Onorbit calibration is carried out using the Internal Calibration Module (ICM) that consists of a tungsten lamp, blackbodies, and a solar diffuser known as the Mirror Attenuator Mosaic (MAM). The ICM calibration provides information about the stability of the sensors' broadband radiometric gains on-orbit. Several validation studies are conducted in order to monitor the behavior of the instruments in various spectral bands. The CERES Edition-4 data products for the FM1-FM4 instruments incorporate the latest calibration methodologies to improve on the Edition-3 data products. In this paper, we discuss the updated calibration methodology and present some validation studies to demonstrate the improvement in the trends using the CERES Edition-4 data products for all four instruments.

  6. Absolute Quantification of Prion Protein (90-231) Using Stable Isotope-Labeled Chymotryptic Peptide Standards in a LC-MRM AQUA Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert; Sheynkman, Gloria; Booth, Clarissa; Smith, Lloyd M.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-09-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that the disease-associated conformer of the prion protein (PrPTSE) constitutes the etiologic agent in prion diseases. These diseases affect multiple mammalian species. PrPTSE has the ability to convert the conformation of the normal prion protein (PrPC) into a β-sheet rich form resistant to proteinase K digestion. Common immunological techniques lack the sensitivity to detect PrPTSE at subfemtomole levels, whereas animal bioassays, cell culture, and in vitro conversion assays offer higher sensitivity but lack the high-throughput the immunological assays offer. Mass spectrometry is an attractive alternative to the above assays as it offers high-throughput, direct measurement of a protein's signature peptide, often with subfemtomole sensitivities. Although a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) method has been reported for PrPTSE, the chemical composition and lack of amino acid sequence conservation of the signature peptide may compromise its accuracy and make it difficult to apply to multiple species. Here, we demonstrate that an alternative protease (chymotrypsin) can produce signature peptides suitable for a LC-MRM absolute quantification (AQUA) experiment. The new method offers several advantages, including: (1) a chymotryptic signature peptide lacking chemically active residues (Cys, Met) that can confound assay accuracy; (2) low attomole limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ); and (3) a signature peptide retaining the same amino acid sequence across most mammals naturally susceptible to prion infection as well as important laboratory models. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a non-tryptic peptide in a LC-MRM AQUA workflow.

  7. 水华束丝藻对磷的生理响应研究%PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO PHOSPHOURS IN APHANIZOMENON FLOS-AQUAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施军琼; 吴忠兴; 马剑敏; 马帅

    2011-01-01

    factor at freshwater bodies, is always thought to be responsible to the bloom formation. However, there are relatively few data to study how to respond to the increase of phosphorus levels in Aphanizomenon at present. Therefore, in order to explain the responses to phosphorus in Aphanizomenon, the physiological and ecological functions of Aphanizomenon were selected to discuss in the present study. In this study, the physiological parameters, including the specific growth rate, photosynthesis evolution, maximum electron transfer rate (ETRmax) and alkaline phosphatase activities (APA), were investigated when Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a type strain of Aphanizomenon, was cultured at different phosphorus concentrations (0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L). The results showed that significant decreases were found in the specific growth rate (|x), the maximum photosynthesis rate (pm), saturation light irradiance, PS II photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and the maximum electron transfer rate (ETRmax), when A. Flos-aquae was inoculated into the Pi levels of less than 0.50 mg/L. On the contrary, significant increases were indicated in the respiration (Rd) of Aphanizomenon when cultured at lower Pi concentrations. It suggested that Pi stress was found in A. Flos-aquae when grown at less than 0.50 mg/L Pi concentration, and the stress might directly inhibit photosynthesis efficiency, which resulted in the increase of respiration and the decrease of growth. At the same time, A. Flos-aquae increased markedly its activity of alkaline phosphatase (APA) in order to response to the stress since alkaline phosphatase could translate organic phosphate into inorganic phosphate. When cultured at higher Pi concentration more than 0.50 mg/L, the physiological parameters did not markedly change, suggesting that A. Flos-aquae could keep a normal growth rate only when the Pi levels reached to 0.50 mg/L or higher. In conclusion, the data suggested that A. Flos-aquae could regulate its

  8. Study on the Simulation of the Canopy Growth of Spring Wheat in the Northeast Based on the AquaCrop Model%基于AquaCrop模型的东北春麦区小麦冠层生长模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 付驰; 张铁楠; 罗宁; 乔天长; 张丽芳; 魏湜

    2013-01-01

    AquaCrop作物模型数据库组建的基础上,应用该模型对东北春小麦冠层生长进行模拟.结果表明,除2010年呼玛地区模拟值低于实测值外,其余年份和地点的模拟值均高于实测值,IoA在0.726~0.995之间,模拟值与实测值的一致性较为理想;AquaCrop模型能较好反映正常年份下春麦生育活动,模型模拟情况与各地观测到的冠层发育情况较为一致.但对极端气候下的春麦冠层发育的模拟效果较为一般.在以后的研究中,需进一步对气象参数做出修正,以更好地应用于小麦的生产和预测.

  9. 利用高通量测序技术分析核桃基因组微卫星特征1)%Microsatellite Characters in Juglans regia L.Genome by High Throughput Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卓毅; 马秋月; 戴晓港; 张得芳; 李淑娴

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the partially genome of Juglans regia with a 454-high-throughput sequencer and analyzed the character-istics of microsatellites based on the obtained sequences.Totally, we sequenced 104.5 Mb genome sequences of J.regia and detected 9 787 microsatellites (SSRs) in the assembled genome sequence.Among these SSRs, the hexanucleotied re-peats are the most abundant (5 883), accounting for 60.11%of the repetition sequence.Monomers (1 289) and Tetranu-cleotide (889) are the second and third abundant.There are 768 dinucleotide, 549 trinucleotide and 409 pentanucleotide, accounted for 7.85%, 5.61%and 4.18% of repetitive sequences, respectively.For the composition of microsatellites, A/T repeats are the most frequent motifs in mononucleotide repeats, and AT/TA, AG/TC repeats are the richest in dinu-cleotide repeats, while AAN, AAAN and AAAAAN repeats are dominant in tri-, tetra-and hexanucleotide repeats.For pentanucleotide, AGATG and AAAAT are the main repeats.In the microsatellite sequence repeats of Juglans, nucleotide A/T has a large content, while the C/G content is relatively small.In Juglans genome, the second type of SSRs (length<20bp ) is predominant .%利用454高通量测序技术对核桃( Juglans regia)基因组进行了部分测序,并利用测得的序列进行核桃基因组微卫星特征分析。结果表明:研究共测得了104.5 Mb的核桃基因组序列,经序列组装得到了9787个微卫星重复序列。其中六碱基重复类型的重复数目最多,共5883个,占重复序列总数的60.11%;其次是单碱基重复类型(1289个)和四碱基重复类型(889个),分别占重复序列总数的13.17%和9.07%;另外二碱基重复768个,三碱基重复549个,五碱基409个,分别占重复序列总数的7.85%、5.61%和4.18%。在单碱基重复类型中,重复单元最多的为A/T;二碱基重复中,AT/TA和AG/CT为主要优势重复类型;三碱基、四碱基和六碱

  10. Inter-annual variability of aerosol optical depth over the tropical Atlantic Ocean based on MODIS-Aqua observations over the period 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    The tropical Atlantic Ocean is affected by dust and biomass burning aerosol loads transported from the western parts of the Saharan desert and the sub-Sahel regions, respectively. The spatial and temporal patterns of this transport are determined by the aerosol emission rates, their deposition (wet and dry), by the latitudinal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the prevailing wind fields. More specifically, in summer, Saharan dust aerosols are transported towards the Atlantic Ocean, even reaching the Gulf of Mexico, while in winter the Atlantic Ocean transport takes place in more southern latitudes, near the equator, sometimes reaching the northern parts of South America. In the later case, dust is mixed with biomass burning aerosols originating from agricultural activities in the sub-Sahel, associated with prevailing north-easterly airflow (Harmattan winds). Satellite observations are the appropriate tool for describing this African aerosol export, which is important to atmospheric, oceanic and climate processes, offering the advantage of complete spatial coverage. In the present study, we use satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth at 550nm (AOD550nm), on a daily and monthly basis, derived from MODIS-Aqua platform, at 1ox1o spatial resolution (Level 3), for the period 2002-2012. The primary objective is to determine the pixel-level and regional mean anomalies of AOD550nm over the entire study period. The regime of the anomalies of African export is interpreted in relation to the aerosol source areas, precipitation, wind patterns and temporal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI). In order to ensure availability of AOD over the Sahara desert, MODIS-Aqua Deep Blue products are also used. As for precipitation, Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data at 2.5ox2.5o are used. The wind fields are taken from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Apart from the regime of African aerosol export

  11. Climatology and trends of aerosol optical depth over the Mediterranean basin during the last 12years (2002-2014) based on Collection 006 MODIS-Aqua data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floutsi, A A; Korras-Carraca, M B; Matsoukas, C; Hatzianastassiou, N; Biskos, G

    2016-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a region of particular interest for studying atmospheric aerosols due to the large variety of air masses it receives, and its sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use the newest collection (C006) of aerosol optical depth from MODIS-Aqua, from which we also derived the fine-mode fraction and Ångström exponent over the last 12years (i.e., from 2002 to 2014), providing the longest analyzed dataset for this region. The long-term regional optical depth average is 0.20±0.05, with the indicated uncertainty reflecting the inter-annual variability. Overall, the aerosol optical depth exhibits a south-to-north decreasing gradient and an average decreasing trend of 0.0030 per year (19% total decrease over the study period). The correlation between the reported AOD observations with measurements from the ground AERONET stations is high (R=0.76-0.80 depending on the wavelength), with the MODIS-Aqua data being slightly overestimated. Both fine-fraction and Ångström exponent data highlight the dominance of anthropogenic aerosols over the northern, and of desert aerosols over the southern part of the region. Clear intrusions of desert dust over the Eastern Mediterranean are observed principally in spring, and in some cases in winter. Dust intrusions dominate the Western Mediterranean in the summer (and sometimes in autumn), whereas anthropogenic aerosols dominate the sub-region of the Black Sea in all seasons but especially during summer. Fine-mode optical depth is found to decrease over almost all areas of the study region during the 12-year period, marking the decreasing contribution of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions over the study area. Coarse-mode aerosol load also exhibits an overall decreasing trend. However, its decrease is smaller than that of fine aerosols and not as uniformly distributed, underlining that the overall decrease in the region arises mainly from reduced anthropogenic emissions. PMID:26878641

  12. Synthesis, FT-IR characterization and crystal structure of aqua-(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrinato-κ(4) N)manganese(III) tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhouri, Wafa; Mchiri, Chadlia; Najmudin, Shabir; Bonifácio, Cecilia; Nasri, Habib

    2016-05-01

    In the title salt, [Mn(C44H28N4)(H2O)](CF3SO3) or [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](CF3SO3) (where TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin), the Mn(III) cation is chelated by the four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrinate anion and additionally coordinated by an aqua ligand in an apical site, completing the distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The average Mn-N(pyrrole) bond length is 1.998 (9) Å and the Mn-O(aqua) bond length is 2.1057 (15) Å. The central Mn(III) ion is displaced by 0.1575 (5) Å from the N4C20 mean plane of the porphyrinate anion towards the apical aqua ligand. The porphyrinate macrocycle exhibits a moderate ruffling and strong saddle deformations. In the crystal lattice, the [Mn(III)(TPP)(H2O)](+) cation and the tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate counter-ions are arranged in alternating planes packed along [001]. The components are linked together through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and much weaker C-H⋯O and C-H⋯F inter-actions. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions involving the pyrrole and phenyl rings of the porphyrin moieties. PMID:27308027

  13. 基于遗传算法综合Terra/Aqua MODIS热红外数据反演地表组分温度%Genetic algorithm based surface component temperatures retrieval by integrating MODIS TIR DATA from Terra and Aqua satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珂; 陈圣波

    2012-01-01

    混合像元组分温度相对来说更有应用价值,而多角度热红外遥感的发展推动了混合像元组分温度反演基础和方法的发展.根据前期数值模拟得到Terra和Aqua卫星上的MODIS测量可以认为是同一卫星在两个不同观测时间和观测角度上的测量,综合利用Terra和Aqua卫星上的MODIS数据反演混合像元内土壤和植被组分温度.根据混合像元热红外辐射模型,利用遗传算法,分别模拟Terra卫星MODIS的32和33通道,以及Terra和Aqua卫星上MODIS的32通道辐射反演了河北怀来试验区范围内植被覆盖率、土壤组分温度和比辐射率、植被组分温度和比辐射率等表面参数.通过与实测数据进行比较,综合利用上午Terra和下午Aqua卫星32通道数据反演的上午植被组分温度与地面同步测量温度偏差在1℃内,而利用上午Terra卫星32和33通道数据反演的上午植被组分温度与地面同步测量值偏差在1.4℃内.尽管利用双星数据反演的组分温度精度相对较高,但针对同一个像元,两个方案反演的结果有一定偏差.%The component temperatures are key parameters in the environment problems. The multi-angle thermal infrared data are important for the retrieval of component temperature. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiom-eter) is one of the sensors onboard EOS-Terra and EOS-Aqua, two sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellites. The sensitivity analysis shows that the same MODIS bands of Terra and Aqua satellites measures in the same behavior under the same variations of atmospheric water vapor, solar and viewing geometries. These MODIS bands may be considered to be the observations of a satellite at two viewing angles and two viewing times. In the study, the foliage and soil component temperature were retrieved by integrating these MODIS data. Based on linear thermal infrared radiation model, the bands 32 and 33 in Terra-MODIS, or the band 32 in Tcrra-MODIS and Aqua

  14. Triethylammonium hexa-μ2-acetato-κ12O:O′-diacetato-κ2O-aqua-μ3-oxido-triferrate(III toluene monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Burgoyne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C6H16N[Fe3(CH3CO28O(H2O]·C7H8, was serendipitously crystallized from a reaction of disilanol with iron(II acetate. The trinuclear acetatoferrate(III anion has a triethylammonium cation as the counterion. The three Fe atoms lie on the vertices of a regular triangle and are octahedrally coordinated. The complete coordination of the anion includes shared ligands among the three metal ions: a central tribridging O atom and six bidentate bridging acetyl groups. The six-coordinations of two of the metal ions are completed by a monodentate acetate ligand, whereas that of the third metal ion is completed by a water molecule. The uncoordinated triethylammonium cation is involved in N—H...O hydrogen bonding to a singly coordinated acetyl group. The coordinated aqua molecule is involved in bifurcated O—H...O hydrogen bonding. C—H...O interactions are also observed. The toluene solvent molecule is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.609 (11:0.391 (11 ratio.

  15. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  16. Large Scale Variability of Mid-Tropospheric Carbon Dioxide as Observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA EOS Aqua Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Olsen, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 microns to 15.4 microns and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy, water vapor profiles (20%/2km), infrared cloud height and fraction, and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4 in the mid to upper troposphere. AIRS wide swath(cedilla) +/-49.5 deg , enables daily global daily coverage for over 95% of the Earth's surface. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, validating climate model distribution and processes, and observing long-range transport of greenhouse gases. In this study, we examine the large scale and regional horizontal variability in the AIRS Mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide product as a function of season and associate the observed variability with known atmospheric transport processes, and sources and sinks of CO2.

  17. Phosphorus fractionation in sediment cores collected in 2005 before and after onset of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in upper Klamath Lake, OR, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N.S.; Lynch, D.; Gallaher, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there would be measurable losses of phosphorus (P) from surficial sediments of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, if sediments were a source of P during an algal bloom. We compared concentrations of total and forms of P at various depths in cores collected before and after the onset of a large Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom. Concentrations of inorganic P were determined in extraction solutions of MgCl2 (1 M, pH 8), citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate, and 1 M HCl. Sediments below 2 cm were dominated by residual P which is defined as total P minus inorganic P. During the study period, data from the top 2-cm of sediment indicated (a) significant decrease in total P concentration, primarily associated with iron oxyhydroxides at one site, and (b) significant increase in total P concentration associated with residual P at a second site. Data from two other sites indicated no net changes in concentrations of total P. ?? 2009 US Government.

  18. Studies on Floral Organ Development Process of Precocious Walnut (Juglans regia) by Anatomia%早实核桃花器官发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永涛; 赵勇刚; 杨克强; 房瑶瑶; 侯立群

    2011-01-01

    Anatomic characteristics of the floral differentiation were compared between two walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars, precocious ‘Xiangling' and late maturing ‘Qinglin', during their first florescence. The results showed that female floral bud of‘Xiangling' started critical stage of differentiation in early/middle of May in Tai'an, Shandong Province. Sequent phases consisted of stage of female floral inflorescence differentiation, stage of stalk and female floral primordium differentiation, stage of differentiation of bract primordium, the female flower calyx, petal, pistil and ovule primordium. For 'Xiangling', female floral primordium was occasionally observed advancing toward petal primordium and pistil primordium, which would abort later although. However, this extraordinary progress did not occur in ‘Qinglin' . The results also revealed that male floral bud of ‘Xiangling' began the differentiation in early/middle of April and then progressed towards the inflorescence differentiation of male flowers,differentiation of calyx primordium, stamen and anthers primordium, formation of pollen sacs and pollen in time of occurrence.%通过形态解剖方法,观察早实核桃品种'香玲'第1次开花的雌花芽和雄花芽发育特点,结果发现:在山东泰安地区,早实核桃'香玲'雌花芽的分化从5月上旬-中旬进入形态分化临界期后,历经雌花花序分化期、花柄原基和雌花原基分化期、花被原基分化期、苞片原基分化期、花萼原基分化期、花瓣原基分化期、雌蕊原基分化期和胚珠分化期;个别雌花原基还能分化出花瓣原基和雄蕊原基,雌花花瓣原基和雄蕊原基在随后的发育过程中退化.在晚实核桃品种'青林'雌花发育过程中没有发现花瓣原基和雄蕊原基的分化.'香玲'核桃雄花芽的分化从4月上-中旬次第进入雄花序分化期、雄花原基分化期、花萼原基分化期、雄蕊原基分化期、花药分化期、花粉囊和花粉粒形成期.

  19. Research on wood properties among Juglans nigra, Juglans regia and Juglans mandshurica grown in China%美国黑核桃与核桃、核桃楸木材材性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新芳; 裴东; 徐虎智; 吕保聚

    2001-01-01

    American black walnut is one famous wood and nut fruit species which originally grows in U.S. and was introduced into China since 1989. In order to cultivate and develop the American black walnut as timber species in an appropriate way in China, the wood properties including wood structure, wood physico-mechanical and chemical properties of the American black walnut, English walnut and Manchurian walnut grown in China were evaluated. The results showed that wood structure of heartwood of American black walnut is not different from that of English walnut and Manchurian walnut, but the thickness, ratio of cell wall to cavity, ratio of cell diameter to cavity of wood fiber, proportion of wood ray, and proportion of wood fiber of sapwood among three walnut woods have significant differences ov very significant differences, whereas other structure parameters have no difference. The physico-mechanical properties except shrinkage of wood of American black walnut is better than that of not only the English walnut and Manchurian walnut, but also poplar and paulownia wood that are fast-growing species mainly produced in North China. Also the chemical properties of American black walnut wood satisfy the requirement for plywood and veneer production. It is suitable and practicable to spread the American black walnut as a best quality wood species in proper regions in China.%对引种美国黑核桃(Juglans nigra)与国产核桃(Juglans regia)、核桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)木材解剖构造和主要木材材性的测定表明,美国黑核桃的心材解剖特征与核桃、核桃楸相比没有区别,而边材的木纤维壁厚、木纤维腔径比和壁腔比、木纤维比量、木射线比量差异均显著或极显著,其它特征没有差异;美国黑核桃主要木材物理力学性质与国产核桃、核桃楸以及北方常见的速生树种杨树、泡桐相比,木材材质好,但木材干缩性略差;美国黑核桃木材化学性质能满足胶合

  20. Atividade de enzimas relacionadas com a mobilização de carboidratos durante a dormência da nogueira (Juglans Regia Walnut enzyme activity related with carbohydrate mobilization during dormancy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemir Citadin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A brotação da nogueira é dependente da mobilização de carboidratos do lenho para as gemas localizadas na porção superior dos ramos. O objetivo do trabalho foi contribuir para o entendimento do mecanismo de brotação acrótona da nogueira, em clima temperado, através da mensuração da atividade da ±-amilase (EC 3.2.1.1 e sacarose fosfato sintase (SPS - EC 2.4.1.14 relacionadas com a mobilização de carboidratos, durante o período de dormência. Para cada coleta, foram amostrados cinco ramos do ano, durante os meses de setembro a março. Em abril, próximo à retomada do crescimento ativo, foram feitas três amostragens. As partes apical, subapical e da base dos ramos foram separadas em casca, lenho (xilema e gemas. O tempo médio de brotação (TMB em condições controladas (25ºC, a umidade ponderal e a atividade das enzimas acima relacionadas foram determinadas. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a teoria de que o gradiente de brotação na nogueira se desenvolve durante a ecodormência e apresenta uma relação de dependência com a atividade da á-amilase; não está evidente a relação da atividade da SPS com a evolução do crescimento das gemas, durante a ecodormência.Juglans regia L. sprout depends on the carbohydrate mobilization from the parenchyma cells into the buds located in the upper portion of the twigs. The objective of this work was to contribute to the walnut tree sprout acrotony mechanism, in temperate climate, through the activity of alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, and Sucrose Phosphate Synthase (SPS - EC 2.4.1.14 mensuration, related to carbohydrate mobilization, during the dormancy period. From September to March, five one-year-old twigs were monthly sampled around. In April, close to budbreak, three samples were accomplished. The twigs were divided in apical, sub-apical, and base, and separated in bark, buds and wood (xylem. The average time of bud break in controlled conditions (25ºC, water content, and activity

  1. Consilium y fortalecimiento regio: consejeros y acción política regia en el reino de León en los siglos XI y XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Corral

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende ver la relación existente entre el acto de aconsejar y la realidad de la acción política regia en el reino leonés durante los siglos XI y XII. Como es sabido, el consejo formaba parte de los formulismos vasalláticos –consilium et auxilium– que definían la relación que se establecía entre la nobleza y la monarquía fundamentalmente a través de los juramentos de homenaje en los que la nobleza reconocía, al menos teóricamente, la superioridad del rey como su señor. El monarca, a su vez, por la fidelidad que los nobles le juraban controlaba sus movimientos aunque se veía obligado a recompensarles adecuadamente sus servicios para ganarse su apoyo. Pero a finales del siglo XII, estos formulismos vasalláticos de los que el consilium era un elemento importante se comenzaron a mostrar ineficaces para contrarrestar el poder político de la nobleza y sus movimientos cada vez más autónomos rompiendo su fidelitas con el rey. Paulatinamente la monarquía leonesa utilizó nuevas estrategias de control que, incorporando el Derecho Romano a sus formulaciones teóricas legales, la situó en una posición inmejorable para introducir elementos nuevos de organización y administración del territorio, como los tenentes y merinos regios. Éstas y otras actuaciones fueron determinantes en el fortalecimiento regio que experimentaron los monarcas leoneses durante el siglo XII.Ce travail porte sur le rapport entre l'acte de conseiller et la réalité de l'action politique royale dans le royaume de León au cours des XIe et XIIe siècles. Le conseil apparaît dans les formules qui, comme “consilium et auxilium”, définissent la relation entre la noblesse et la monarchie, essentiellement dans les serments accompagnant l'hommage vassalique et par lesquels la noblesse reconnaissait, du moins théoriquement, la supériorité du roi en tant que seigneur. Grâce à la fidélité que les nobles lui juraient, le monarque exer

  2. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses.

  3. The AQUA-FONTIS study: protocol of a multidisciplinary, cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal study for developing standardized diagnostics and classification of non-thyroidal illness syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Harald H

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS is a characteristic functional constellation of thyrotropic feedback control that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. Although this condition is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality, there is still controversy on whether NTIS is caused by artefacts, is a form of beneficial adaptation, or is a disorder requiring treatment. Trials investigating substitution therapy of NTIS revealed contradictory results. The comparison of heterogeneous patient cohorts may be the cause for those inconsistencies. Objectives Primary objective of this study is the identification and differentiation of different functional states of thyrotropic feedback control in order to define relevant evaluation criteria for the prognosis of affected patients. Furthermore, we intend to assess the significance of an innovative physiological index approach (SPINA in differential diagnosis between NTIS and latent (so-called "sub-clinical" thyrotoxicosis. Secondary objective is observation of variables that quantify distinct components of NTIS in the context of independent predictors of evolution, survival or pathophysiological condition and influencing or disturbing factors like medication. Design The approach to a quantitative follow-up of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (AQUA FONTIS study is designed as both a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal observation trial in critically ill patients. Patients are observed in at least two evaluation points with consecutive assessments of thyroid status, physiological and clinical data in additional weekly observations up to discharge. A second part of the study investigates the neuropsychological impact of NTIS and medium-term outcomes. The study design incorporates a two-module structure that covers a reduced protocol in form of an observation trial before patients give informed consent. Additional investigations are performed if and after

  4. Retrieval of tropospheric CO column from hyperspectral infrared sounders – application to four years of Aqua/AIRS and MetOp-A/IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Crépeau

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Four years of tropospheric integrated content of CO are retrieved from infrared hyperspectral observations of AIRS onboard Aqua and IASI onboard MetOp-A, for the period July 2007–June 2011. The retrieval method is based on a double differential approach that relies on the difference between brightness temperatures (BT observed by the sounder and BT simulated by the 4A radiative transfer model on collocated ECMWF reanalyses, for several couples of channels located in the 4.7 μm CO band. AIRS and IASI give access to similar integrated contents of CO with a maximum sensitivity near 450 hPa and half a maximum between 200 and 750 hPa depending on the thermal contrast (i.e. the difference between the surface temperature and the temperature of the first pressure level. However, differences in their spectral and radiometric characteristics yield differences in the retrieval characteristics with AIRS selected couples of channels being more sensitive to surface characteristics. Moreover, IASI covers the whole CO absorption band, with a 3 times greater spectral resolution, giving access to channels presenting a 3 times higher signal to noise ratio. This results in a better precision and lower standard deviation of the IASI retrievals. Conservatively, comparisons with CARIBIC aircraft measurements yield a relative difference of 3.42% for IASI and 4.92% for AIRS. On average, AIRS and IASI retrievals are in very good agreement, showing the same seasonality, seasonal amplitudes, interannual variability and spatial distribution. The analysis of the monthly evolution of CO particularly highlights the strong influence of biomass burning on the evolution of CO in several tropical regions. In particular, a sharp increase in CO in 2010 in the southern tropics, especially over South America and South Africa, is observed, and is shown to be related to El Niño and to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  5. Retrieval of tropospheric CO column from hyperspectral infrared sounders – application to four years of Aqua/AIRS and MetOp-A/IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Crépeau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four years of tropospheric integrated content of CO were retrieved from infrared hyperspectral observations of AIRS onboard Aqua and IASI onboard MetOp-A, for the period July 2007–June 2011. The retrieval method is based on a double differential approach that relies on the difference between brightness temperatures observed by the sounder and BT simulated by the Automatised Atmospheric Absorption Atlas (4A radiative transfer model on colocated ECMWF reanalyses, for several couples of channels located in the 4.67 μm CO band. AIRS and IASI give access to similar integrated contents of CO with a maximum sensitivity near 450 hPa and a half-height width of the weighting function between 200 and 750 hPa depending on the thermal contrast (i.e., the difference between the surface temperature and the temperature of the first pressure level. However, differences in their spectral and radiometric characteristics yield differences in the retrieval characteristics with AIRS selected couples of channels being more sensitive to surface characteristics. Moreover, IASI covers the whole CO absorption band, with a 3 times better spectral resolution, giving access to channels presenting a 3 times higher signal to noise ratio. This results in a better precision and lower standard deviation of the IASI retrievals. Conservatively, comparisons with CARIBIC aircraft measurements yield an averaged relative difference of 3.4% for IASI and 4.9% for AIRS. On average, AIRS and IASI retrievals are in very good agreement, showing the same seasonality, seasonal amplitudes, interannual variability and spatial distribution. The analysis of the monthly evolution of CO particularly highlights the expected strong influence of biomass burning on the evolution of CO in several tropical regions. In particular, a sharp increase in CO in 2010 in the southern tropics, especially over South America and South Africa, is observed, and is shown to be related to El Niño and to the Atlantic

  6. AIRS Pixel Cloud Detection Based on MODIS Cloud Products on Aqua Satellite%EOS卫星上基于MODIS云产品的AIRS像素云检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹凤; 张记龙; 王志斌; 陈媛媛; 陈友华

    2012-01-01

    联合使用搭载在地球观测系统(EOS) Aqua卫星上的中分辨力成像光谱仪MODIS和大气红外探测器AIRS,能够提高对全球云量分布情况的检测.利用几何扫描特性的空间匹配算法,MODIS云分类掩膜和云相态掩膜产品,结合业务上的云检测算法,实现了用空间匹配的MODIS数据对AIRS像素云特性的检测.结果表明,用MODIS 1 km分辨力产品可以鉴别出AIRS像素中不同的云类型、云层信息(低云、中云或者高云)和云相态信息(水云、冰云或者混合相态信息).%The combined systems of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS's) Aqua satellite enable improve global monitoring of the distribution of clouds. Using the space collocation algorithms based on the scanning geometry, MODIS cloud phase mask, MODIS classification mask, also combing with the operational algorithm of MODIS cloud retrieval, the function of testing AIRS Subpixel Cloud Characterization based on space collocationed of MODIS data is realized. The results show that MODIS 1 km-spatial-resolution data is applied to identify various cloud types. Cloud-layer information(lower, midlevel, or high clouds) and phase information (water,ice,or mixed-phase clouds)within an AIRS footprint.

  7. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses. PMID:26187862

  8. Application of AquaCrop model for yield and irrigation requirement estimation of sugar beet under climate change conditions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stričević Ružica J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact on field production may play a great role in strategic planning on soil and water resources management. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find out the impact of climate change on sugar beet yield, irrigation depth variation and water saving practices. AquaCrop model v.4.0 was used for yield and irrigation requirement estimation. Input data for future climatic parameters were obtained from EBU-POM for four scenarios A1B, A2, A1B* and A* (*>CO2, and periods of observation were first (2010-2039; second (2040-2069, and third (2070-2099. Undoubtedly, yield will not be reduced in the first period by any scenario, on the contrary, it might be increased. In the second period, yield reduction was observed in A1B and A2 scenarios, hence without the increment of CO2 in the Vojvodina region, whereas in Central Serbia, yield reduction might be expected even in scenarios of A1B and A2*. Irrigation could ensure yield increment in both regions, provided that an increase is more considerable in Central Serbia, due to lower soil water capacity. Application of optimal irrigation depth yield could be increased by up to 57-97% in Vojvodina and 77-285% in Central Serbia. Lower values are obtained in the first period and the highest in the third period. Applying deficit irrigation, water saving would reduce yield in scenario A2, otherwise to obtain high yield, irrigation depth of 300-500 mm should be ensured in Central Serbia. In the same scenario, 300-420 mm of water for irrigation is needed in Vojvodina, but its water savings could be 80-120 mm, or 20%. In scenario A1B, to obtain high yield, 80 mm could be saved in both regions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37005

  9. Quantitative analysis of yield and soil water balance for summer maize on the piedmont of the North China Plain using AquaCrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing WANG,Feng HUANG,Baoguo LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is a major grain production area in China, but the current winter wheat-summer maize system has resulted in a large water deficit. This water-shortage necessitates the improvement of crop water productivity in the NCP. A crop water model, AquaCrop, was adopted to investigate yield and water productivity (WP for rain-fed summer maize on the piedmont of the NCP. The data sets to calibrate and validate the model were obtained from a 3-year (2011—2013 field experiment conducted on the Yanshan piedmont of the NCP. The range of root mean square error (RMSE between the simulated and measured biomass was 0.67—1.25 t·hm-2, and that of relative error (RE was 9.4%—15.4%, the coefficient of determination (R2 ranged from 0.992 to 0.994. The RMSE between the simulated and measured soil water storage at depth of 0—100 cm ranged from 4.09 to 4.39 mm; and RE and R2 in the range of 1.07%—1.20% and 0.880—0.997, respectively. The WP as measured by crop yield per unit evapotranspiration was 2.50—2.66 kg·m-3. The simulated impact of long-term climate (i.e., 1980—2010 and groundwater depth on crop yield and WP revealed that the higher yield and WP could be obtained in dry years in areas with capillary recharge from groundwater, and much lower values elsewhere. The simulation also suggested that supplementary irrigation in areas without capillary groundwater would not result in groundwater over-tapping since the precipitation can meet the water required by both maize and ecosystem, thus a beneficial outcome for both food and ecosystem security can be assured.

  10. Long-term trend of aerosol optical depth derived from MODIS Aqua using linear regression and ensemble empirical mode decomposition over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol has played an important role in air quality for short term and climate change for long term. Especially, it is important to understand how aerosol optical depth (AOD) has changed to date for the prognosis of future atmospheric state and radiation budget which are related to human life. In this study, the trend of AOD at 550 nm from MODIS Aqua (MYD08) was estimated for 10 years from 2004 to 2014 using linear regression method and ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD). Search region was selected to East Asia [18.5°N-51.5°N, 85.5°E-150.5°E] which is considered to be of great interest in emission source. The result of linear regression shows remarkably increasing trend in North and East China including Sanjiang, Hailun, Beijing, Beijing forest and Jinozhou Bay, than rather downward trend in other neighboring regions. Actually, however, AOD has seasonality itself and its trend is also affected by external source consistently, so non-linear trend analysis was conducted to analyze the changing tendency of AOD trends. Consequently, secular trends of AOD defined by EEMD showed almost similar values over the entire region, but their shapes over time are quite different with those of linear regression. Here, AOD linear trend in Beijing has monotonically increased [0.03% yr-1] since 2004, but its non-linear trend shows that initial increasing trend has alleviated and even turned into downward trend from about 2010. Lastly, the validation of MODIS AOD with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) was conducted additionally which showed fairly good agreement with those of AERONET (R=0.901, RMSE=0.226, MAE=0.031, MBE=-0.001).

  11. Detection of frequently-burn locations using multi-temporal Terra/Aqua MODIS fire product (MOD14) in Oudomxay province, Laos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildfire is natural and man-made disaster that relates to global warming and climate change. Wildfire is prominent disaster that destroys natural resources, and causes enormous danger to human life and property. The study on the spatial and temporal distribution of wildfire is significant to understand wildfire occurrence and behavior. In the past, people usually study on the pattern of wildfire and open-space burning according to the daily number of active fire detected by MODIS sensor onboard of Terra and Aqua satellites for a particular area at the time of satellite over pass. However, there is no study that focused on the active fire that frequently occurred at the same location for a given period of time. Therefore, in this paper, the authors has focused on the study of frequently-burn locations in Oudomxay province of Laos, which has the 3rd highest active fire number in burning season of year 2007-2009 using spatial and statistical analysis of the active fire distribution and occurrence by time and space. The results of the study show that the highest number of burning frequency is 6 and 7 times within the study period and these numbers are located at 3 districts. One is Xai district which has the highest frequently-burn location for 7 times during the study period at the coordinate of N20.72° and E101.88°. The second districts are Beng and Nga districts which has the 2nd highest frequently-burn location for 6 times during the study period at the coordinate of N 20.28°, E101.68°, and N20.17°, E102.02°, respectively. The obtained information on frequently-burn locations in the province would be useful to identify the repeat burning activity by the local people occurred in the same location and allows the forestry and agricultural officers understand the wildfire distribution pattern

  12. Evaluation of vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture applied to soil fertilization in sugar cane areas harvested lacking sugar cane trash without prior burning: losses of NH3 by volatilization and 15 N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aimed to evaluate the losses of NH3 by volatization, from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture and urea solution applied to the soil. The N dose applied for both sources was 80 Kg ha-1, with the volume of vinasse and urea solution applied to the surface being 200 and 100 m3, respectively. The nitrogen sources were applied to soil covered or not by sugarcane trash. A semi-opened static collector device was used to evaluate the ammonia volatization. The isotopic technique with 15 N was used to quantify the N recovered in the soil from the nitrogen sources applied in microplots. These microplots consisted of 96 mm-diameter PVC cylinders which were buried in the soil at 200 mm. The results show that the volatization of ammonia from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture, applied to the soil covered or not by sugarcane trash, ranged from 5 to 7% of the N applied. These results were similar to those observed in the treatment where urea solution was applied to the soil lacking sugarcane trash, but lower when compared to the urea applied to the soil covered with trash confirmed the volatization results, with the least 15 N recovery (57%) being obtained in this treatment. In the other treatments, i.e. urea applied to soil lacking sugarcane trash; aqua annonia/vinasse mixture applied to soil covered or not with sugarcane trash, the mean recovery of 15 N were 60.2; 70.6 and 74.2 % respectively. These results support the recommendation of the use of a fluid mixture for nitrogen fertilization in ratoon cane areas after the mechanized sugarcane harvest without prior burning. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Influência de métodos de digestão e massa de amostra na recuperação de nutrientes em resíduos orgânicos Influence of digestion method and sample mass on the recovery of nutrients in organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitric-perchloric, aqua regia, dry ashing and microwave digestion methods, in combination with 100 and 200 mg of sample, on the characterization and recovery of nutrients in samples of sludge sewage, poultry, swine, quail and bovine manures, organic compost, organic substrate and humic material were studied. Nitric-perchloric digestion with 200 mg samples recovered the higher nutrient contents. The nitric-perchloric method recovered also low levels of K. Dry ashing caused S volatilization and microwave digestion produced dark color extracts and this impaired S determination. Aqua regia recovered the lowest contents of nutrients in the organic residues evaluated.

  14. Winter wheat leaf area index retrieval with multi-angle and multi-spectral Terra/Aqua MODIS data%联合Terra/Aqua MODIS多角度多光谱数据反演冬小麦叶面积指数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维; 杨华

    2013-01-01

      Terra 与 Aqua 双星搭载的 MODIS 传感器可实现每日上下午分别对同一地点观测一次,并且由于卫星轨道漂移形成累积连续多天的多角度观测特点,加上多通道的光谱响应,极大地丰富了地表目标的观测信息,为 LAI等地表参数的实时准确反演提供了可能。该文利用 MODIS 双星高质量的连续多天的多波段地表反射率数据,结合 PROSAIL(PROSPECT+SAIL,properties spectra + scattering by arbitrarily inclined leaves)模型和查找表方法反演冬小麦 LAI,并与 MODIS LAI 产品及野外采样点实测 LAI 对比,结果表明,联合双星高质量的多角度多波段数据能够较准确反演冬小麦 LAI,其反演结果无论从空间分布还是时序变化特征来讲,较 MODIS LAI 产品更符合实际情况,也更接近地面实测值。该文的研究为充分利用 MODIS 数据的角度和光谱信息反演小麦等农作物的 LAI提供了一定的借鉴。%MODIS sensors, carried onboard Terra and Aqua satellites, scan the same location daily at a fixed time. Because of the sequential multidirectional information contributed by satellite orbit drift along with multi-channel spectral responses, MODIS data greatly enriches the observations of land surface targets, which makes it possible to estimate the land surface parameters accurately and timely, such as leaf area index (LAI). Many researchers have focused on LAI estimation using MODIS data, among whom most used the multispectral data of a single satellite in one day or eight days, while few comprehensively utilized the multispectral and multidirectional information obtained by the both MODIS sensors in some sequence of days. MODIS LAI products have developed a series of generations, the fifth version (MODIS V005) has integrated data from both Terra and Aqua. It is proven that this version is improved with single satellite data, however, it only utilizes red and near-infrared band observations. It has been suggested

  15. The triclinic form of di-μ-aqua-bis[diaquabis(thiocyanato-κNiron(II]–1,4-bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylbenzene (1/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe2(NCS4(H2O6]·3C10H8N6, the centrosymmetric dinuclear complex contains two FeII ions bridged by two aqua ligand O atoms, forming a four-membered ring. The slightly distorted octahedral coordination environment of the two FeII ions is completed by two monodentate aqua ligands and two thiocyanate ligands. One of the 1,4-bis(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylbenzene molecules lies across an inversion center. In the crystal, O—H...N hydrogen bonds connect the components, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (011. In addition, π–π stacking interactions involving the benzene and triazole rings, with centroid–centroid distances in the range 3.502 (5—3.787 (6 Å, connect the two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network into a three-dimensional network.

  16. The impact of latent heating on the location, strength and structure of the Tropical Easterly Jet in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.1: Aqua-planet simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Samrat

    2015-01-01

    The Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) is a prominent atmospheric circulation feature observed during the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM). The simulation of TEJ by the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.1 (CAM-3.1) has been discussed in detail. Although the simulated TEJ replicates many observed features of the jet, the jet maximum is located too far to the west when compared to observation. Orography has minimal impact on the simulated TEJ hence indicating that latent heating is the crucial parameter. A series of aqua-planet experiments with increasing complexity was undertaken to understand the reasons for the extreme westward shift of the TEJ. The aqua-planet simulations show that a single heat source in the deep tropics is inadequate to explain the structure of the observed TEJ. Equatorial heating is necessary to impart a baroclinic structure and a realistic meridional structure. Jet zonal wind speeds are directly related to the magnitude of deep tropical heating. The location of peak zonal wind is influenced by o...

  17. In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendling, M.; McDermott, L.N.; Mans, A.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I.; Pecharroman-Gallego, R.; Sonke, J.J.; Stroom, J.; Herk, M. van; Mijnheer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute--Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because t

  18. Poly[aqua(μ-vinylphosphonatocadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Byington Congiardo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cd(C2H3O3P(H2O]n, was obtained from vinylphosphonic acid and cadmium nitrate. The vinyl groups project into the interlamellar space and the structure is held together via van der Waals forces. The Cd2+ ion is six-coordinate and the geometry is best described as distorted octahedral, with O—Cd—O angles falling within the range 61.72 (13–101.82 (14°. Five of the coordinated oxygen atoms originate from the phosphonate group and the sixth from a bound water molecule. Cd—O distances lie between 2.220 (3 and 2.394 (2 Å. The water molecule is hydrogen bonded to a phosphonate oxygen atom.

  19. AquaResp v2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Free open-source software for automating aquatic intermittent flow respirometry. The software is made in the Python language, and is highly costumizable. The software and guides for build a respirometer setup can be found at aquaresp.com...

  20. AquaBase. FWS (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — The distribution and abundance of fishes in Alaska Arctic is poorly known, especially for resident species. Only a few arctic watersheds have been the subject of...

  1. Effects of Cerium on Physiological Characteristics and Microcystins Release of Anabaena flos-aquae%稀土铈对水华鱼腥藻生理特性及藻毒素释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕赟; 王应军; 冷雪; 滕龙

    2012-01-01

    Rare-earth and its compounds have been widely used in various fields resulting in potential environmental pollutions, especially in water body. Thus, many more attentions have been given in recent year on water pollutions from rare-earth applications. In this paper, the effects of different initial Ce3+ concentration (0~ 10.00 mg·L‐1) on Anaboena flos-aquae were investigated in the simulated solutions in lab. The growth curve of A nabaena flos -aquae was plotted, and the physiological characteristics including the contents of phycocyanin, carotenoids, soluble protein and the activity of peroxidase (POD ) were determined. Meanwhile, the concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and microcys-tic toxins(MC-LR) in culture medium also were measured. The results showed that, the survived quantity of Anabaena flos-aquae was significant comparing with other groups(P=0.008) when the concentration of Ce3+was 0.10 mg·L‐1, and the residual TP in culture medium reached the lowest value( 1.52 mg·L‐1) due to the utilization of P by Anabaenaflos- aquae. The mentioned four physiological indexes appeared a similar trend with the increasing of Ce3+ concentration, they all increased initially with a subsequent decrease. When the concentration of Ce3+ was 0.10 mg·L‐1, the contents of phycocyanin, soluble protein and the activity of POD reached highest. However, the contents of carotenoids could reach the highest value with the Ce3+ concentration of 0.50 mg·L‐1. The content of MC-LR was lower than the World Health Organization Standard( 1.00 μg·L‐1) in all culture medium. Thus, the effects of cerium on Anabaenaflos-aquae typically presented as the "Hormesis" effect.%随着稀土及其化合物的广泛应用,越来越多的稀土直接或间接进入水体,因而稀土对水生生态环境的影响备受关注.采用室内模拟试验,研究不同浓度(0~10.00 mg·L-1)的稀土元素铈(Ce3+)对水华鱼腥藻的影响,绘制了水华鱼腥藻的生长曲线,测定

  2. Análise da dinâmica sazonal e separabilidade espectral de algumas fitofisionomias do cerrado com índices de vegetação dos sensores MODIS/TERRA e AQUA Analysis of the seasonal dynamics and spectral separability of some savanna physiognomies with vegetation indices derived from MODIS/TERRA AND AQUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraldo Liesenberg

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Composições de 16 dias de índices de vegetação do sensor MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, com resolução espacial de 1km, a bordo dos satélites TERRA e AQUA, foram usadas para caracterizar a dinâmica sazonal em 2004 de cinco fitofisionomias de Cerrado e analisar a sua separabilidade espectral. Os índices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, calculados a partir dos dados dos sensores de ambas as plataformas e de uma base comum de pixels, foram comparados entre si. Os resultados indicaram que: (a dentre as fitofisionomias estudadas, a Floresta Estacional decídua apresentou uma dinâmica sazonal muito marcante em função da perda de folhas da estação chuvosa para a seca (substancial redução nos índices e do rápido verdejamento com o início da precipitação no final de outubro (rápido incremento de NDVI e EVI; (b o NDVI mostrou maior variabilidade entre as classes de vegetação do que o EVI apenas na estação seca; (c a discriminação entre as fitofisionomias melhorou da estação chuvosa para a seca; (d o NDVI foi mais eficiente do que o EVI para discriminar as classes de vegetação na estação seca, ocorrendo o contrário na estação chuvosa; e (e na maioria das datas selecionadas para estudo, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os índices de vegetação gerados de ambas as plataformas, apesar das variações na qualidade dos pixels selecionados para as composições de 16 dias e na geometria de iluminação e de visada.MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS 16-day vegetation index composites with 1 km of spatial resolution from TERRA and AQUA satellites were used to characterize the seasonal dynamics of five Brazilian savanna physiognomies and to analyze their spectral separability in 2004. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, using data from both platforms and from a

  3. 中国风云二号SVISSR传感器热红外波段与AIRS/Aqua的交叉辐射定标%Intercalibration of SVISRR/FY-2 Thermal Infrared Channels with AIRS/Aqua Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋耿明; 金亚秋

    2012-01-01

    对高光谱卷积法进行了改进,实现了卫星影像之间的亚像素匹配和粗差的剔除,对搭载在中国“风云二号”(FY-)C、D和E星上的伸展的可见光和红外自旋转扫描辐射计(SVISSR)的两个热红外波段IRl(~10.9/am)和IR2(~11.9μm)与搭栽在Aqua卫星上的大气红外探空仪(AIRS)高光谱波段进行交叉辐射定标。基于SVISSR/FY-2和AIRS/Aqua对地观测的几何特性,选取研究区域覆盖41.5°~149.5°E、10°S--10°N的范围,利用该研究区域2006年12月、2007年9月和12月、2009年9月和2010年5月的SVISSR/FY2标称数据和AIRS/Aqua红外1B数据,在同地点、同一天太阳天顶角之差的绝对值小于2°、观测天顶角之差的绝对值小于3°和相对方位角之差的绝对值小于6°的匹配条件下,提取匹配的观测点对,然后对匹配观测点对进行回归分析,得到交叉辐射定标系数。结果表明:SVISSR/FY-2波段观测值与卷积得到的AIRS/Aqua观测值之间高度线性相关,且SVISSR/FY-2的两个热红外波段相对于AIRS/Aqua波段存在定标偏差。并给出了交叉辐射定标系数。%Intercalibration of the thermal infrared window channels 1 (-10.9 μm) and 2 (-11.9 μm) of the Stretched Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer on FengYun 2 (SVISSR/FY-2) satellites C, D and E with the hyper-spectral channels of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder on board Aqua (AIRS/Aqua) was developed using the High Spectral Convolution (HSC) method, which was improved in two aspects,sub-pixel spatial matching and automatic removal of the measurement pairs with coarse errors. According to the view geometries of SVISSR/FY-2 and AIRS/Aqua, with the study area longitude from 41.5°E to 149.5°E and the latitude from 10°S to 10°N was selected. To transfer the calibration coefficients from AIRS/Aqua channels to SVISSR/FY-2 channels,the SVISSR/FY-2 Nor- malized

  4. Crystal structure of 4-(di­methyl­amino)­pyridinium cis-di­aqua­bis­(oxalato-κ2 O,O′)ferrate(III) hemihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomo, Edith Dimitri; Capet, Frédéric; Nenwa, Justin; Bélombé, Michel M.; Foulon, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The FeIII ions in the hybrid title salt, (C7H11N2)[Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, show a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment, with four O atoms from two chelating oxalate dianions and two O atoms from two cis aqua ligands. The average Fe—O(oxalate) bond length [2.00 (2) Å] is shorter than the average Fe—O(water) bond length [2.027 (19) Å]. The ionic components are connected via inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. PMID:26396759

  5. Crystal structure of 4-(di­methyl­amino)­pyridinium cis-di­aqua­bis­(oxalato-κ2 O,O′)ferrate(III) hemihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Dimitri Djomo; Frédéric Capet; Justin Nenwa; Bélombé, Michel M.; Michel Foulon

    2015-01-01

    The FeIII ions in the hybrid title salt, (C7H11N2)[Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, show a distorted octahedral coordination environment, with four O atoms from two chelating oxalate dianions and two O atoms from two cis aqua ligands. The average Fe—O(oxalate) bond length [2.00 (2) Å] is shorter than the average Fe—O(water) bond length [2.027 (19) Å]. The ionic components are connected via intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  6. 3种长链脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻的生长影响%Effects of Three Long Chain Fatty Acids on the Growth of Anabaena Flos-aquae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗万芬; 曾仁权

    2011-01-01

    Effects of three long chain fatty acids on the growth of Anabaena glos-aquae in the cell density of 2. 575 × 106 cells/mL afe studied by dodecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 9, 12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, the results show that three long chain fatty acid on the inhibition of anabaena f los-aquae are different. The inhibiting shows more inhibitory effect in high concentration. In the some time,the inhibition is as follows: dodecanoic acid > octadecatrienoic acid>octadecadienoic acid.%研究了十二酸(月桂酸)、9,12-十八碳二烯酸、9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸3种长链脂肪酸对密度为2.575×106个/mL水华鱼腥藻的生长影响.结果表明,这3种长链脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻都有不同程度的抑制作用,其浓度越大效果越明显.在同一时间内,这3种脂肪酸对水华鱼腥藻的抑藻作用大小顺序为:十二酸>十八碳三烯酸>十八碳二烯酸,十二酸对水华鱼腥藻的生长有很强的抑制作用.

  7. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioac

  8. Size-Selective Oxidation of Aldehydes with Zeolite Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane; Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies...

  9. Selenium speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand selenium (Se) speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils. Top soil samples were taken from 42 grassland fields and 41 arable land fields in the Netherlands. Total Se contents measured in aqua regia were between 0.12 and 1.97mgkg-1(on average

  10. Gold Cleaning Methods for Electrochemical Detection Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Tenje, Maria; Heiskanen, Arto;

    2009-01-01

    ; hydrochloric acid potential cycling; dimethylamine borane reducing agent solutions at 25 and 65 degrees C; and a dilute form of Aqua Regia. Peak-current potential-differences obtained from cyclic voltammetry and charge transfer resistance obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as X...

  11. 溶藻细菌L7对水华鱼腥藻氮代谢的影响%Effects of the algicidal bacterial strain L7 on nitrogen metabolism of Anabaena flos-aquae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涵之; 潘伟斌; 陈宝华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]进一步探明藻菌关系,研究溶藻细菌对藻类氮代谢的影响及其作用机制.[方法]将水华鱼腥藻和溶藻细菌L7按两种比例接种入BG11培养液中,在室内进行共培养(藻细胞初始密度为1.21×108 cells/L;溶藻细菌L7初始密度分别为1.75×107、1.75×108 CFU/mL).连续7d测定藻细胞数、异形胞频率和藻细胞内的硝酸还原酶(NR)活性、谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)活性、谷氨酸合成酶(GOGAT)活性、蛋白质含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量.[结果]低密度溶藻细菌L7能够促进藻生长(第7天藻细胞密度是对照组的1.58倍),增加异形胞频率(第7天高于对照组66.67%);高密度则会抑制藻生长(第7天藻细胞密度相比对照组下降98.84%),降低异形胞频率(第7天为0).在藻细胞内氮代谢关键酶活性方面,接种后2-5 d,两处理组中藻细胞内NR和GOGAT活性均极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);接种后0-5 d,高密度处理组的GS活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01),而低密度处理组的则在大部分时间内极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).在整个实验期内,低密度处理组中藻细胞内蛋白质含量一直极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);而在高密度处理组中,除第5天外,细胞内蛋白质含量则全部极显著低于对照组(P<0.01).接种后2-4 d,高密度处理组中藻细胞内MDA含量呈现上升趋势,并极显著高于其余两组(P<0.01).[结论]低密度溶藻细菌L7能够提高水华鱼腥藻对氮源的需求,加速蛋白质合成,促进氮代谢;而高密度溶藻细菌L7会对藻细胞产生过氧化伤害,阻碍蛋白质合成和氮代谢过程.%[Objective] The influence mechanism of the algicidal bacterial strain L7 on nitrogen metabolism of Anabaena flos-aquae were investigated to understand the interaction of cyanobacteria-bacteria.[Methods] The algicidal bacterial strain L7 and Anabaena flos-aquae with different ratio were inoculated into BG11 liquid medium.The initial

  12. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter measurements by acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to determine seasonal, subseasonal (days to weeks), and diel variation in suspended solids in a freshwater lake where massive cyanobacterial blooms occur annually. During the growing season, the suspended material in the lake is dominated by the buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Measured variables (water velocity, relative backscatter [RB], wind speed, and air and water temperatures) were averaged over the deployment season at each sample time of day to determine average diel cycles. Phase shifts between diel cycles in RB and diel cycles in wind speed, vertical water temperature differences (delta T(degree)), and horizontal current speeds were found by determining the lead or lag that maximized the linear correlation between the respective diel cycles. Diel cycles in RB were more in phase with delta T(degree) cycles, and, to a lesser extent, wind cycles, than to water current cycles but were out of phase with the cycle that would be expected if the vertical movement of buoyant cyanobacteria colonies was controlled primarily by light. Clear evidence of a diel cycle in vertical velocity was found only at the two deepest sites in the lake. Cycles of vertical velocity, where present, were out of phase with expected vertical motion of cyanobacterial colonies based on the theoretical cycle for light-driven vertical movement. This suggests that water column stability and turbulence were more important factors in controlling vertical distribution of colonies than light. Variations at subseasonal time scales were determined by filtering data to pass periods between 1.2 and 15 days. At subseasonal time scales, correlations between RB and currents or air temperature were consistent with increased concentration of cyanobacterial colonies near the surface when water column stability increased (higher air temperatures or weaker currents) and

  13. (2-Aminopyrimidine-κN(1))aqua(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato-κ(3)O(2),N,O(6))copper(II): X-ray and DFT calculated structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zakieh; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Salimi, Alireza; Soleimannejad, Janet

    2015-05-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C7H3N2O4)(C4H5N2)(H2O)], (I), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate (pydc(2-)), 2-aminopyrimidine and aqua ligands coordinate the Cu(II) centre through two N atoms, two carboxylate O atoms and one water O atom, respectively, to give a nominally distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry, a common arrangement for copper complexes containing the pydc(2-) ligand. Because of the presence of Cu...Xbridged contacts (X = N or O) between adjacent molecules in the crystal structures of (I) and three analogous previously reported compounds, and the corresponding uncertainty about the effective coordination number of the Cu(II) centre, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to elucidate the degree of covalency in these contacts. The calculated Wiberg and Mayer bond-order indices reveal that the Cu...O contact can be considered as a coordination bond, whereas the amine group forming a Cu...N contact is not an effective participant in the coordination environment. PMID:25940895

  14. Comparison of chlorophyll products derived from MODIS-Aqua and modification of operational algorithms in the South China Sea%南海海域MODIS-Aqua叶绿素浓度产品的精度对比和区域性算法修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文静; 曹文熙; 王桂芬; 胡水波; 林俊芳; 许占堂

    2014-01-01

    利用2004~2012年在南海获得的9个航次的实测Chl-a数据,采用NASA标准业务化算法OC3和针对低Chl-a水体所发展的最新算法OCI反演获得了相应的MODIS-Aqua Chl-a产品.通过建立实测与遥感产品的时空匹配数据对,开展了Chl-a产品的适用性评估,并对比分析了上述两种算法的性能.在此基础上,利用南海实测遥感反射率(Rrs(λ))和MODIS-AquaRrs(λ)产品以及相应实测Chl-a的匹配数据集,分别对算法OC3和OCI进行了区域性修正.结果显示:基于算法OC3和OCI反演所得的MODIS-Aqua Chl-a产品值均高估了实测值,平均绝对误差(APD)的精度分别为56.30%和42.58%,且算法OCI可明显改善低Chl-a水体(<0.25 mg· m-3)的反演精度;采用南海MODIS-AquaRrs(λ)产品与实测Chl-a匹配数据集(N=82)修正后的区域性算法NOC3和NOCI的精度均有不同程度提高,APD精度分别为37.85%和36.74%;采用现场实测Rrs(λ)与Chl-a匹配数据集(N=123)进行区域性修正后的算法INOC3和INOCI的APD精度分别为36.61%和37.79%,上述两种方案精度较为接近.因此,对于南海海域而言,算法的区域性修正对于改善MODIS-Aqua Chl-a产品精度非常重要.

  15. An end-users oriented methodology for enhancing the integration of knowledge on soil-water-sediment systems in River Basin Management: an illustration from the AquaTerra project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merly, Corinne; Chapman, Antony; Mouvet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Research results in environmental and socio-economic sciences are often under-used by stakeholders involved in the management of natural resources. To minimise this gap, the FP6 EU interdisciplinary project AquaTerra (AT) developed an end-users' integration methodology in order to ensure that the data, knowledge and tools related to the soil-water-sediment system that were generated by the project were delivered in a meaningful way for end-users, thus improving their uptake. The methodology and examples of its application are presented in this paper. From the 408 project deliverables, 96 key findings were identified, 53 related to data and knowledge, and 43 describing advanced tools. River Basin Management (RBM) stakeholders workshops identified 8 main RBM issues and 25 specific stakeholders' questions related to RBM which were classified into seven groups of cross-cutting issues, namely scale, climate change, non-climatic change, the need for systemic approaches, communication and participation, international and inter-basin coordination and collaboration, and the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. The integration methodology enabled an assessment of how AT key findings meet stakeholders' demands, and for each main RBM issue and for each specific question, described the added-value of the AT project in terms of knowledge and tools generated, key parameters to consider, and recommendations that can be made to stakeholders and the wider scientific community. Added value and limitations of the integration methodology and its outcomes are discussed and recommendations are provided to further improve integration methodology and bridge the gaps between scientific research data and their potential uptake by end-users.

  16. Walnuts (Juglans regia) Chemical Composition and Research in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Angove, Michael J; Tucci, Joe; Dennis, Christina

    2016-06-10

    Walnuts are among the most widely consumed commercially grown tree nuts in the world. Many health benefits have been claimed for the consumption of these, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type II diabetes treatment, and prevention and treatment of certain cancers, and the lessening of symptoms attributed to age-related and other neurological disorders. The health-promoting benefits of walnut consumption are ascribed to its fatty acid profile, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with a particularly high ω3:ω6 ratio-the highest among all the tree nuts. The content of polyphenols and other phytochemicals in walnuts, with their claimed cytotoxic properties, also make them an attractive candidate for research for the prevention of free radical-induced nucleic acid damage. Research of walnut consumption in humans and animals employing a range of data sets and statistical methods suggest that walnuts may be considered a safe potential nutraceutical or possibly pharmaceutical substance. Nevertheless, few reviews of scientific research on the proposed benefits of these nuts exist, in spite of the numerous claims attributed to them in the lay media. This brief review article attempts to disseminate much of the information surrounding walnut consumption, and human health benefits, to other scientists and the interested general reader. PMID:25747270

  17. Identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts (Juglans regia) using EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghraby, A.; Salama, E.; Sami, A.; Mansour, A.; El-Sayed, M.

    2012-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an easy, fast, and reliable tool for identification of irradiated food. Untreated nuts may encounter hazards of carrying several pathogens or microbial contamination; walnuts are of specific importance due to their nutritional and medicinal values, and hence walnut processing via gamma irradiation is a necessary step. EPR was employed for the identification and dosimetry of Cs-137 gamma-irradiated walnuts (shells and kernels). Several important parameters were studied, such as spectral features, microwave power dependence of signal intensities, and short- and long-term time dependences. Responses of walnut shells and kernels to different radiation doses in the range 0-10 kGy were investigated. Results confirmed that EPR is a suitable tool for the identification and dosimetry of irradiated walnuts using either their shells or only kernels.

  18. Walnuts (Juglans regia) Chemical Composition and Research in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Angove, Michael J; Tucci, Joe; Dennis, Christina

    2016-06-10

    Walnuts are among the most widely consumed commercially grown tree nuts in the world. Many health benefits have been claimed for the consumption of these, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type II diabetes treatment, and prevention and treatment of certain cancers, and the lessening of symptoms attributed to age-related and other neurological disorders. The health-promoting benefits of walnut consumption are ascribed to its fatty acid profile, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with a particularly high ω3:ω6 ratio-the highest among all the tree nuts. The content of polyphenols and other phytochemicals in walnuts, with their claimed cytotoxic properties, also make them an attractive candidate for research for the prevention of free radical-induced nucleic acid damage. Research of walnut consumption in humans and animals employing a range of data sets and statistical methods suggest that walnuts may be considered a safe potential nutraceutical or possibly pharmaceutical substance. Nevertheless, few reviews of scientific research on the proposed benefits of these nuts exist, in spite of the numerous claims attributed to them in the lay media. This brief review article attempts to disseminate much of the information surrounding walnut consumption, and human health benefits, to other scientists and the interested general reader.

  19. Two different zinc(II)-aqua complexes held up by a metal-oxide based support: Synthesis, crystal structure and catalytic activity of [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (HMTAH = protonated hexamethylenetetramine)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arumuganathan; A Srinivasarao; T Vijay Kumar; Samar K Das

    2008-01-01

    An inorganic−organic hybrid material, [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (1) (where HMTAH = protonated hxamethylenetetramine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compound 1 crystallizes in a monoclinic space group 2/. The crystal data of 1: = 43.12(3), = 12.399(10), = 16.285(13), = 111.131(11), = 8. Its crystal structure shows that two different Zn(II)-aqua complexes, [Zn(H2O)5]2+ and [Zn(H2O)4]2+ are covalently coordinated to a heptamolybdateanion [Mo7O24]6- resulting in an anionic species of polyoxometalate supported zinc-aqua complexes, [{Zn(H2O)}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}]2-, that is stabilized with two protonated hexamethylenetetramine cations in the title compound 1. In the crystal structure, both lattice water molecules are found to interact with the heptamolybdate cluster anion and the protonated hexamethylenetetramine cation resulting in an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Interestingly, compound 1 exhibits catalytic activity towards oxidation of some primary alcohols.

  20. Poly[[di-aqua-[μ-1,4-bis(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)piperazine-κ(2) N:N']{μ-2,2'-[(1,4-phenyl-ene)bis(-oxy)]di-acetato-κ(2) O:O'}cobalt(II)] penta-hydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Alexander D; LaDuca, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    In the title compound, {[Co(C10H8O6)(C16H20N4)(H2O)2]·5H2O} n , octa-hedrally coordinated Co(II) ions on crystallographic inversion centres are bound by trans O atoms belonging to two hydro-quinone-O,O'-di-acetate (hqda) anions {systematic name: 2,2'-[(1,4-phenyl-ene)bis-(-oxy)]di-acetate}, two trans-pyridine N-donor atoms from two bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)piperazine (4-bpmp) ligands, and two trans aqua ligands. The exobidentate hqda and 4-bpmp ligands form [Co(hqda)(4-bpmp)(H2O)2] n coordination polymer layers parallel to (110) that are anchored into the full crystal structure by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between aqua ligands and ligated hqda O atoms. Disordered water mol-ecules of crystallization occupy incipient channels along [100]. However, these could not modeled reliably and so they were treated with SQUEEZE in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the crystal data take the presence of these mol-ecules into account. The crystal under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry, the twin fraction of the components being 53.3% and 46.7%. Only data from the major twin component were used in the refinement. PMID:24940193

  1. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  2. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the multiple archive centers for the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard...

  3. Unresolved safety issues summary: aqua book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unresolved safety issues summary is designed to provide the management of the nuclear regulatory commission with a quarterly overview of the progress and plans for completion of generic tasks addressing unresolved safety issues reported to congress pursuant to section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 as amended. The schedules in this book include a milestone at the end of each action plan which represents the initiation of the implementation process both with respect to incorporation of the technical resolution in the NRC official guidance or requirements and also the application of changes to individual operating plants. The schedule for implementation will not normally be included in the task action plan(s) for the resolution of a USI since the nature and extent of the activities necessary to accomplish the implementation cannot normally be reasonably determined prior to the determination of a technical resolution. The progress and status for implementation of unresolved safety issues for which a technical resolution has been completed are reported specifically in a separate table provided in this summary

  4. Unresolved safety issues summary: aqua book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unresolved safety issues summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a quarterly overview of the progress and plans for completion of generic tasks addressing unresolved safety issues reported to Congress pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 as amended. This summary utilizes data collected from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and the National Laboratories and is prepared by the Office of Resource Management. The schedules in this book include a milestone at the end of each action plan which represents the initiation of the implementation process both with respect to incorporation of the technical resolution in the NRC official guidance or requirements and also the application of changes to individual operating plants. The schedule for implementation will not normally be included in the task action plan(s) for the resolution of a USI since the nature and extent of the activities necessary to accomplish the implementation cannot normally be reasonably determined prior to the determination of a technical resolution. The progress and status for implementation of unresolved safety issues for which a technical resolution has been completed are reported specifically in a separate table provided in this summary

  5. Unresolved safety issues summary: aqua book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unresolved safety issues summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a quarterly overview of the progress and plans for completion of generic tasks addressing unresolved safety issues reported to Congress pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 as amended. This summary utilizes data collected from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and the National Laboratories and is prepared by the Office of Resource Management. The schedules in this book include a milestone at the end of each action plan which represents the initiation of the implementation process both with respect to incorporation of the technical resolution in the NRC official guidance or requirements and also the application of changes to individual operating plants. The progress and status for implementation of unresolved safety issues for which a technical resolution has been completed are reported specifically in a separate table provided in this summary

  6. Processamento de placas de circuito impresso de equipamentos eletroeletrônicos de pequeno porte Processing of printed circuit boards of small electrical and electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Souza Henrique Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrometallurgical process applicable to printed circuit boards of small electrical and electronic devices was developed. This involved three leaching steps (60 ºC, 2 h: 6 mol L-1 NaOH, 6 mol L-1 HCl and aqua regia. NaOH removed the resin and flame retardant that covered the circuit boards. HCl dissolved the most electropositive metals and a small amount of copper (~0.3 wt%. Aqua regia dissolved the noble metals. Silver precipitated as AgCl. Gold and platinum were quantitatively extracted with pure methyl-isobutylketone and Alamine 336 (10 % vol. in kerosene, respectively. Slow evaporation of the raffinate crystallized CuCl2.4H2O (89% yield.

  7. Determination of Arsenic in Soil Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Different Digestion Methods%不同消解方法对电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定土壤中砷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Used the nitric acid and hydrochloric acid reflux digestion and the aqua regia digestion method to digest environmental standard materials of soils before determining of arsenic by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and compared the results. The results showed that the aqua regia digestion method was superior to the nitric acid and hydrochloric acid reflux digestion method.%  采用硝酸-盐酸回流消解法和王水消解法同时前处理环境土壤标准物质,用电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)测定其中砷的含量,对两种方法的消解效果进行对比。结果表明,王水消解法要优于硝酸-盐酸回流消解法。

  8. Processamento de placas de circuito impresso de equipamentos eletroeletrônicos de pequeno porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Souza Henrique Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrometallurgical process applicable to printed circuit boards of small electrical and electronic devices was developed. This involved three leaching steps (60 ºC, 2 h: 6 mol L-1 NaOH, 6 mol L-1 HCl and aqua regia. NaOH removed the resin and flame retardant that covered the circuit boards. HCl dissolved the most electropositive metals and a small amount of copper (~0.3 wt%. Aqua regia dissolved the noble metals. Silver precipitated as AgCl. Gold and platinum were quantitatively extracted with pure methyl-isobutylketone and Alamine 336 (10 % vol. in kerosene, respectively. Slow evaporation of the raffinate crystallized CuCl2.4H2O (89% yield.

  9. Intercomparison of MODIS-Aqua C051 and C006 Level 3 Deep Blue AOD and Ångström exponent retrievals over the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during the period 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkikas, Antonis; Basart, Sara; Korras-Carraca, Marios; Papadimas, Christos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, Christina; Baldasano, Jose Maria

    2015-04-01

    Dust loads emitted from the arid regions of Northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula account for the major portion of the global dust aerosol burden. Depending on prevailing atmospheric circulation they can be transported far away from their source areas. Considering the key role of dust aerosols to weather and climate a better description of their spatial and temporal variability it is an issue of great importance. The main target of the present study is to describe aerosols' regime over Northern Africa and Arabian Peninsula using Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD550nm) and Ångström exponent (α412-470nm) measurements. Given the applied changes to the retrieval algorithm, emphasis is also given to the inter-comparison between the data from Collections 051 and 006. The analysis is performed using MODIS-Aqua daily Level 3 data at 1°x1° spatial resolution over the period 2002-2014. The study region extends from 20°W to 60°E and from 0° to 40°N. The obtained long-term geographical distributions reveal many similarities between C051 and C006 AOD retrievals. They both indicate a zone of high AODs along the parallel of 15°N, extending from the western coasts of Africa to Chad where the maximum values (~1.3) are recorded. In the Arabian Peninsula, the maximum AODs (up to 0.6) are found in Iraq. On the contrary, more apparent differences between the two collections are found for α412-470nm. It is evident a reduction of C006 retrievals, which is more pronounced across the Sahara desert. In C006, the α412-470nm values over the deserts of Northern Africa and Middle East mostly vary from 0 to 0.6 while higher values (up to 1.5) are observed in sub-sahel regions, west coasts of Saudi Arabia and Iran. During the study period, in both collections, AOD has decreased by up to 93% in N. Africa (northern parts of Algeria) while it has increased by up to 70% in the Middle East (northern parts of Iraq). Reversed tendencies are found for the α412-470nm retrievals. For

  10. Determination of element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Fröling, Annika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the element composition in CoffeeBricks before and after incineration. The difference between element composition in CoffeeBricks (barbecue briquettes made out of spent coffee grounds) and regular barbecue briquettes was also evaluated in this study. Aqua regia digests from the ash residues of CoffeeBricks and the ash residues of regular barbecue briquettes were analyzed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). H2SO4/H...

  11. Heavy Metals Content in Playground Topsoil of Some Public Primary Schools in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O.E. Popoola; O. Bamgbose; O.J. Okonkwo; T.A. Arowolo; Odukoya; A. O. Popoola

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in playground topsoil from public primary schools in metropolitan Lagos, is imperative in order to evaluate the potential risks to the children in the schools. The study was conducted in order to determine if the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil is high enough to constitute a risk to children. Samples were collected from 20 schools in the Lagos metropolis and were subjected to microwave aqua regia digestion. Subsequentl...

  12. THE INDIRECT ANALYSIS OF MANGANESE FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES OF MINES AND RIVERS

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 勝夫; MLOMBO, Moses

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on an indirect analysis of manganese from environmental samples of an old copper mine and its neighboring river. Sediment and surface water were analyzed for the presence of manganese. Manganese was extracted, in the case of sediment, using aqua regia, followed by oxidation to the violet permanganate complex (MnO_4^-) with potassium periodate, in a hot acid solution. Analysis of the permanganate complex, by colorimetric and spectrophotometric analytical methods, shows that ...

  13. Evaluation of the Accumulation of Trace Metals (as, U, CR, CU, PB, Zn) on Iron-Manganese Coatings on in Situ Stream Pebbles and Emplaced Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, M. M.; Blake, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Ali, A.; Hansson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to trace metals (As, U, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) has potential negative health effects on human populations and wildlife. Geothermal waters often have elevated concentrations of trace elements and understanding the geochemical cycling of these elements can be challenging. Previous studies have utilized in situ stream pebbles and glass or ceramic substrates with iron-manganese oxide coatings to understand contamination and or chemical cycling. This project's main focus is to develop an ideal tracing method using adsorption onto substrate surfaces and to define key parameters that are necessary for the phenomenon of adsorption between trace metals and these surface coatings to occur. Sampling locations include the Jemez River and Rio San Antonio in the Jemez mountains, northern New Mexico. Both streams have significant geothermal inputs. Pebbles and cobbles were gathered from the active stream channel and 6mm glass beads and 2 X1 in. ceramic plates were placed in streams for three weeks to allow for coating accumulation. Factors such as leachate type, water pH, substrate type, coating accumulation period and leach time were all considered in this experiment. It was found that of the three leachates (aqua regia, 10% aqua regia and hydroxylamine), hydroxylamine was the most effective at leaching coatings without dissolving substrates. Samples leached with aqua regia and 10% aqua regia were found to lose weight and mass over the following 5, 7, and 10 day measurements. Glass beads were determined to be more effective than in stream pebbles as an accumulation substrate: coatings were more easily controlled and monitored. Samples leached with hydroxylamine for 5 hours and 72 hours showed little difference in their leachate concentrations, suggesting that leach time has little impact on the concentration of leachate samples. This research aims to find the best method for trace metal accumulation in streams to aid in understanding geochemical cycling.

  14. Potential for leaching of heavy metals in open-burning bottom ash and soil from a non-engineered solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Gora, Dorcas; Chaukura, Nhamo; Tauro, Tonny

    2016-03-01

    Bottom ash from open-burning of municipal waste practised in developing countries poses a risk of heavy metal leaching into groundwater. Compared to incineration ash, there is limited information on heavy metal leaching from open-burning ash and soil from non-engineered landfills. Batch and column experiments were conducted to address three specific objectives; (1) to determine aqua regia extractable concentrations of heavy metals in fresh ash, old ash and soil from beneath the landfill, (2) to determine the relationship between heavy metal leaching, initial and final pH of leaching solution, and aqua regia extractable concentrations, and (3) to determine the breakthrough curves of heavy metals in ashes and soil. Aqua regia extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb were significantly higher (p heavy metals were not correlated with aqua regia extractable concentrations. Final pH of leachate rebounded to close to original pH of the material, suggesting a putative high buffering capacity for all materials. Both batch and column leaching showed that concentrations of leached heavy metals were disproportionately lower (heavy metals was further evidenced by sigmoidal breakthrough curves. Heavy metal retention was attributed to precipitation, pH-dependent adsorption and formation of insoluble organo-metallic complexes at near-neutral to alkaline pH. Overall, the risk of heavy metal leaching from ash and soil from the waste dump into groundwater was low. The high pH and the presence of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu make ash an ideal low-cost liming material and source of micronutrients particularly on acidic soils prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Multielemental analysis of mineral nutrients in Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn, Zn, Cu, Na, K, Fe and P have been determined in the Nagpur Santra (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves by thermal neutron activation analysis. The irradiated sample was dissolved in aqua regia in the presence of carriers. The β and/or γ activities of the purified elements were measured after radiochemical separations involving solvent extraction and precipitation. The values obtained for the elements are comparable to those reported in literature for Indian citrus leaves. (author)

  16. Comparison of different extractions of the soil samples OL-FEH914254, OL-FEH917258 and OL-FIP10, Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seven different extractions are used to evaluate and compare the element concentrations and solubility both dried/sieved and fresh mineral soil samples OLFEH914254, OL-FEH917258, OL-FIP10 and OL-FIP10 and humus sample OL-FIP10 taken from the Olkiluoto Island in 2010. The study focuses on the key elements assigned top priority in the biosphere assessments: Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr. The priority grouping of radionuclides is based on their expected relevance for long-term safety using a simple screening evaluation applied on the calculations cases analysed in the biosphere analyses in the safety case studies and the cases to be analysed from the radionuclide transport model. The extractions included: total, aqua regia, NH4Ac (pH 4.5) and water leach extractions. The sequential extractions consisted of: exchangeable, acid-soluble/bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual fractions, in addition, separate aqua regia extraction was included. Molybdenum, niobium and selenium concentrations were higher in aqua regia extraction than in the total extraction. Aqua regia extractions were analysed by using different methods in two different laboratories, and thus the results are not completely comparable for the most of the elements. In addition, dry and organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity and grain size distribution were measured. The pH values measured in the deionised water were on average 0.5 units higher than pH values extracted by 0.01 M CaCl2. The CEC was significantly higher in the humus sample than in the mineral soil samples. In modelling migration of elements in ecosystems, especially radionuclides, it is used distribution coefficients (Kd values) and concentration ratios (CR), both including a component of concentration in the solids. Solubility of different solid elements varies widely depending the used methods and extracts. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of different extractions of the soil samples OL-FEH914254, OL-FEH917258 and OL-FIP10, Olkiluoto, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The seven different extractions are used to evaluate and compare the element concentrations and solubility both dried/sieved and fresh mineral soil samples OLFEH914254, OL-FEH917258, OL-FIP10 and OL-FIP10 and humus sample OL-FIP10 taken from the Olkiluoto Island in 2010. The study focuses on the key elements assigned top priority in the biosphere assessments: Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr. The priority grouping of radionuclides is based on their expected relevance for long-term safety using a simple screening evaluation applied on the calculations cases analysed in the biosphere analyses in the safety case studies and the cases to be analysed from the radionuclide transport model. The extractions included: total, aqua regia, NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5) and water leach extractions. The sequential extractions consisted of: exchangeable, acid-soluble/bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and residual fractions, in addition, separate aqua regia extraction was included. Molybdenum, niobium and selenium concentrations were higher in aqua regia extraction than in the total extraction. Aqua regia extractions were analysed by using different methods in two different laboratories, and thus the results are not completely comparable for the most of the elements. In addition, dry and organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity and grain size distribution were measured. The pH values measured in the deionised water were on average 0.5 units higher than pH values extracted by 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}. The CEC was significantly higher in the humus sample than in the mineral soil samples. In modelling migration of elements in ecosystems, especially radionuclides, it is used distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) and concentration ratios (CR), both including a component of concentration in the solids. Solubility of different solid elements varies widely depending the used methods and extracts. (orig.)

  18. Heavy metals in soils and crops in Southeast Asia. 2. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcinas, Bernhard A; Pongsakul, Pichit; McLaughlin, Mike J; Cozens, Gill

    2004-12-01

    A reconnaissance soil geochemical and concomitant plant survey based on 318 soil (0-15 cm) and 122 plant samples was used for the assessment of heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils and crops of Thailand. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soils using aqua regia digestion, and in plants using nitric acid digestion. Organic carbon (C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and available phosphorus (P) were determined on the soil samples using appropriate procedures. Results indicated that concentrations of heavy metals varied widely among the different regions of Thailand. Regression analysis between the concentrations of metals in soil (aqua regia extractable) and edible plant parts indicated a small but positive relationship for Cd in all the plants sampled in the survey (R2 = 0.081, p contamination of soils by these elements through agricultural activities is not strong. On the other hand, Cd and Zn were strongly correlated with organic matter and concentrations of available and aqua regia extractable P. This is attributed to input of contaminants in agricultural fertilisers and soil amendments (e.g. manures, composts).

  19. Use of sequential extraction to assess metal partitioning in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of heavy metal pollution and the mobility of Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Zn were studied in three texturally different agricultural soil profiles near a Cu-Ni smelter in Harjavalta, Finland. The pseudo-total concentrations were determined by an aqua regia procedure. Metals were also determined after division into four fractions by sequential extraction with (1) acetic acid (exchangeable and specifically adsorbed metals), (2) a reducing agent (bound to Fe/Mn hydroxides), (3) an oxidizing agent (bound to soil organic matter) and (4) aqua regia (bound to mineral structures). Fallout from the smelter has increased the concentrations of Cd, Cu and Ni in the topsoil, where 75-90% of Cd, 49-72% of Cu and 22-52% of Ni occurred in the first two fractions. Slight Pb and Zn pollution was evident as well. High proportions of mobile Cd, Cu and Ni also deeper in the sandy soil, closest to the smelter, indicated some downward movement of metals. The hydroxide-bound fraction of Pb dominated in almost all soils and horizons, while Ni, Cr and Zn mostly occurred in mineral structures. Aqua regia extraction is usefully supplemented with sequential extraction, particularly in less polluted soils and in soils that exhibit substantial textural differences within the profiles. - Sequential extraction is most useful with soils with low metal pollutant levels

  20. Comparative study of optimised BCR sequential extraction scheme and acid leaching of elements in the certified reference material NIST 2711

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimised BCR sequential extraction procedure and a 4 h 1 mol L-1 HCl partial extraction have been performed on the NIST 2711 reference material for a suite of 12 elements (Cd, Sb, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As) using magnetic sector ICP-MS. A pseudo-total aqua regia digest of NIST 2711 has also been undertaken for quality assurance purposes, and comparison of the sum of the four BCR fractions, which included an aqua regia digest on the residue, with the pseudo-total aqua regia digest has been used to assess the accuracy of the BCR partitioning approach. As a result of this work, discrepancies between previous studies about BCR partitioning of elements in NIST 2711 have been discussed and an increase in confidence about the use of BCR partitioning scheme on seven elements (Cd, Pb, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) in this standard material has been obtained. On the other hand, BCR partitioning for Sb, Cr, Co, Ni and As has been provided for the first time. Partial extraction results are also reported for the same 12 elements analysed by the optimised BCR procedure, with the partial extraction results exhibiting a strong correlation with the sum of the three labile steps of the BCR procedure

  1. Molecular and ionic-scale chemical mechanisms behind the role of nitrocyl group in the electrochemical removal of heavy metals from sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. W.; Ahmed, I.; Housani, A. A.; Giwa, A.

    2016-08-01

    The chemical basis for improved removal rates of toxic heavy metals such as Zn and Cu from wastewater secondary sludge has been demonstrated in this study. Instead of using excess corrosive chemicals as the source of free nitrous acid (FNA) for improved solubility of heavy metals in the sludge (in order to enhance electrokinetics), an optimized use of aqua regia has been proposed as an alternative. Fragments of nitrocyl group originated from aqua regia are responsible for the disruption of biogenic mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and this disruption resulted in enhanced removal of exposed and oxidized metal ions. A diversity of nitric oxide (NO), peroxy nitrous acid, and peroxy nitroso group are expected to be introduced in the mixed liquor by the aqua regia for enhanced electrochemical treatment. The effects of pectin as a post treatment on the Zn removal from sludge were also presented for the first time. Results revealed 63.6% Cu and 93.7% Zn removal efficiencies, as compared to 49% Cu and 74% Zn removal efficiencies reported in a recent study. Also, 93.3% reduction of time-to-filter (TTF), and 95 mL/g of sludge volume index (SVI) were reported. The total operating cost obtained was USD 1.972/wet ton.

  2. Molecular and ionic-scale chemical mechanisms behind the role of nitrocyl group in the electrochemical removal of heavy metals from sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S W; Ahmed, I; Housani, A A; Giwa, A

    2016-01-01

    The chemical basis for improved removal rates of toxic heavy metals such as Zn and Cu from wastewater secondary sludge has been demonstrated in this study. Instead of using excess corrosive chemicals as the source of free nitrous acid (FNA) for improved solubility of heavy metals in the sludge (in order to enhance electrokinetics), an optimized use of aqua regia has been proposed as an alternative. Fragments of nitrocyl group originated from aqua regia are responsible for the disruption of biogenic mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and this disruption resulted in enhanced removal of exposed and oxidized metal ions. A diversity of nitric oxide (NO), peroxy nitrous acid, and peroxy nitroso group are expected to be introduced in the mixed liquor by the aqua regia for enhanced electrochemical treatment. The effects of pectin as a post treatment on the Zn removal from sludge were also presented for the first time. Results revealed 63.6% Cu and 93.7% Zn removal efficiencies, as compared to 49% Cu and 74% Zn removal efficiencies reported in a recent study. Also, 93.3% reduction of time-to-filter (TTF), and 95 mL/g of sludge volume index (SVI) were reported. The total operating cost obtained was USD 1.972/wet ton. PMID:27550724

  3. Evaluation of various techniques for the pretreatment of sewage sludges prior to trace metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six techniques were evaluated for their suitability for the pretreatment of dried sewage sludge prior to trace metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The evaluation comprised analysis of two prepared samples of dried sludge for aluminium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc, after the following pretreatment: dry ashing at 500 degrees Celsius followed by extraction with dilute hydrochloric acid; dry ashing at 500 degrees Celsius followed by extraction with aqua regia; nitric acid digestion followed by extraction with hydrochloric acid; extraction with aqua regia; ashing with magnesium nitrate solution at 550 degrees Celsius followed by digestion with hydrochloric acid and extraction with nitric acid; extraction with nitric acid. Procedures involving the use of perchloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide were not considered for reasons of safety. Except in the case of aluminium the direct mineral acid digestion and/or extraction methods generally gave higher recoveries than the procedures incorporating an ashing step. Direct extraction of the sample with aqua regia was recommended as a rapid and simple general method of sample pretreatment prior to analysis for all the metals investigated except aluminium. For this metal, more drastic sample pretreatment will be required, for example fusion or hydrofluoric acid digestion

  4. Fast Method of Multi-Elemental Analysis of Stream Sediment Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) with prior Single-Step Microwave-Assisted Digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-step microwave-assisted digestion procedures were investigated with the scope to obtain fast method for multi-elemental analysis of stream sediment samples by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). As a model, certified reference material stream sediment (NCS DC 73309), produced by China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel was used. The reagents whose extraction abilities have been examined were: HNO3, mixture HNO3/HCl (9:1 v/v), mixture HCl/HNO3 (3:1 v/v i.e., aqua regia), and mixture HNO3/HCl/HF (8:1:1 v/v/v). The list of the selected elements is: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn. Most of them could be analyzed when only HNO3 for digestion was employed. For the determination of Sb, the use of aqua regia for digestion of stream sediment samples is required. Be, K, Na, Ti, and Tl can be easily and satisfactorily made available for environmental screening when digestion was performed using aqua regia, although the recoveries for these elements were better when the mixture HNO3/HCl/HF (v/v/v 8:1:1) was applied. (author)

  5. 基于MODIS/Aqua的胶州湾及青岛近海叶绿素a浓度年变化特征分析%Analysis on the Annual Change Characteristics of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao Coastal Area Based on MODIS/Aqua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 杨倩; 周燕

    2015-01-01

    利用2002-2013年MODIS/Aqua的Level 1B数据,经标准大气校正算法和叶绿素a浓度[chl-a]波段比经验算法(OC2M-HI),获得近12 a的胶州湾及青岛近海海域晴空的MOIDS/Aqua叶绿素a浓度.根据GOCI/COMS和MODIS/Aqua叶绿素a浓度产品在胶州湾及青岛近海交叉比较的结果[1],对2002-2013年的MODIS/Aqua [chl-a]进行了修正.基于修正后的MODIS/Aqua[chl-a]分析了胶州湾及青岛近海的叶绿素a浓度年变化特征.该海域的叶绿素a浓度大致呈现北高南低,湾内高于近海的特点,且每年空间分布趋势基本一致;近12a的[chl-a]呈小的上升趋势,胶州湾的上升趋势大于青岛近海.胶州湾跨海大桥建设前,其附近区域叶绿素a浓度以0.47 μg/L/year的趋势上升,基值为2.62μg/L;大桥开建及通车后,其附近叶绿素a浓度年变化趋势不明显,但基值明显增大(4.00 μg/L).

  6. Poly[μ3-aqua-aqua-μ5-(4-nitro­benzoato)-caesium

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Smith

    2013-01-01

    In the structure of the title complex, [Cs(C7H4NO2)(H2O)2]n, the caesium salt of 4-nitrobenzoic acid, the irregular CsO9 coordination sphere comprises three bridging nitro O-atom donors, a bidentate carboxylate O,O′-chelate interaction, a triple-bridging water molecule and a monodentate water molecule. A three-dimensional framework polymer is generated, within which there are water–carboxylate O—H...O and water–water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  7. Study on efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate aqua compound disinfec-tion tablets in killing microorganisms in water and its toxicity%二水二氯异氰尿酸钠消毒片对水中微生物杀灭效果及毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉杰; 韩艳淑; 左派欣; 孙克勤; 王茜; 张灵敏; 孙印旗

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know the efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate aqua compound disinfection tablets in killing microorganisms in water ,and the influencing factors of germicidal efficacy and its toxicity .Methods Suspension quantitative germicidal test in laboratory ,the influencing factors of germicidal efficacy test ,the manual swimming pool water disinfection test and animal toxicity test were used out to study the germicidal efficacy of sodium dichloroisocyanurate di -hydrate aqua compound disinfection tablets and its toxicity .Results The living colons number of Escherichia coli in water suspension decreased to 0 cfu/100ml exposed to the sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate aqua compound disinfection tab -lets water solution containing available chlorine 1.5 mg/L for 0.5 min or containing available chlorine 0.15 mg/L for 2 min,which were in accordance with Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate disinfectant .The water temperature within 5℃~31℃,pH value within 6.5~8.5 and degree of color of organic substance 5 000 mg/kg· bw and the average skin irritation score was 0,the mice marrow eosinophils polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test was negative .Conclusion The disinfection tablet has good efficacy in killing microorganisms in water and It's using concentra-tion is actually non-toxic and non-irritative to skin and non -mutagenic .So it can be used for disinfection of swimming pool water .%目的:了解二水二氯异氰尿酸钠消毒片溶液对水中微生物的杀灭效果、杀菌影响因素及其毒性,并与二氯异氰尿酸钠水消毒效果进行比较。方法应用定量杀菌试验、水消毒现场试验及动物毒性试验对二水二氯异氰尿酸钠消毒片水中微生物的杀灭效果及毒性进行研究。结果二水二氯异氰尿酸钠消毒片溶液在有效氯含量0.15 mg/L时,作用2 min,有效氯含量1.5 mg/L时,作用0.5 min,可使水中大肠杆菌降至0 cfu/100 ml,与二氯异氰尿酸钠杀

  8. 丹参水溶性部位抑制血管内皮细胞凋亡的作用及机制研究%Studies on the effect and the underlying mechnism of aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.inhibits apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启韬; 郭庆梅; 邬元红; 王鹏; 孟冰雪

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To find out the role of aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. in the protection of vascular endothelial cells (VEC) and its possible mechanism in vitro. Methods: Added a series of this ingredient to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Apoptotic morphological changes of cells were observed under inverted phase contrast microscope. Nuclear fragmentation of cells were observed under laser scanning confocal microcopy after being stained with acridinorange. Cell cycle distribution was detected by the flow-cytometric after being stained with PI. The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and glu-tathione peroxidase(GPH-PX) as well as maleic dialdehyde(MDA) level in cells were measured by spectrophotomet-ric methods as described in the assay kits. Results: Apoptotic morphological changes and the decrease of cell viability of these cells were obviously inhibited by aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miUiorrhiza Bge. in a dose-dependent way. Furthermore, the abnormal cell cycle distribution, the decrease of GSH-Px activity and the increase of MDA level induced by LPS were markedly reversed. Conclution: The aqua-soluble extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. produces protective action on VEC induced by LPS via an antioxidative mechanism.%目的:探明丹参水溶性部位对脂多糖(LPS)处理的血管内皮细胞(VEC)凋亡的保护作用及机制.方法:内毒素处理培养的人脐静脉内皮细胞造成细胞凋亡.培养液中添加系列浓度的丹参水溶性成分培养细胞,倒置相差显微镜观测细胞形态变化.吖啶橙染色,共聚焦显微镜观测凋亡细胞核片段化状况;PI染核,流式细胞仪检测细胞周期分布.生化试剂盒检测细胞内丙二醛(MDA)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)活性.结果:脂多糖处理使VEC形成大量凋亡小体,细胞核片段化严重,明显降低了细胞存活率,改变了细胞周期的

  9. Crystal structure of aqua-1κO-{μ-2-[(2-hydroxyethylmethylamino]ethanolato-2:1κ4O1,N,O2:O1}[μ-2,2′-(methyliminodiethanolato-1:2κ4O,N,O′:O]dithiocyanato-1κN,2κN-chromium(IIIcopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Rusanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [CrCu(C5H11NO2(C5H12NO2(NCS2(H2O] or [Cr(μ-mdeaCu(μ-Hmdea(NCS2H2O], (where mdeaH2 is N-methylethanolamine, C5H13NO2 is formed as a neutral heterometal CuII/CrIII complex. The molecular structure of the complex is based on a binuclear {CuCr(μ-O2} core. The coordination environment of each metal atom involves the N,O,O atoms of the tridentate ligand, one bridging O atom of the ligand and the N atom of the thiocyanato ligands. The CuII ion adopts a distorted square-pyramidal coordination while the CrIII ion has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry completed by the aqua ligand. In the crystal, the binuclear complexes are linked via two pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers, which are arranged in columns parallel to the a axis. In the μ-mdea ligand two –CH2 groups and the methyl group were refined as disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies. The structure was refined as a two-component twin with a twin scale factor of 0.242 (1.

  10. Pollution assessments on heavy metals in sediment in inter-tidal aqua-farm area based on GIS and geostatistics%基于GIS和地统计学的滩涂增养殖区沉积物重金属污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 郑青松; 赵耕毛; 刘兆普

    2011-01-01

    采用地理信息系统(GIS)、地统计方法和潜在生态危害指数法相结合的方法,对江苏省如东滩涂增养殖区沉积物中的Cu、Zn、Cd、Pb进行了综合定量化污染评价研究.结果生成了沉积物重金属综合生态危害风险指数空间分布图,发现整个调查区域部属轻微生态危害,且靠近排污口的区域生态危害程度较重,与实际情况相符.说明使用GIS和地统计学方法可正确、直观地反映沉积物重金属的污染状况,为其在滩涂增养殖区污染评价中的实际运用提供了思路.%The comprehensive quantitative pollution assessments were carried out by the geographic information system (GIS) ,geo-statistics and potential ecological risk index methods on copper, zinc,cadmium and lead in sediments in Rudong intertidal aqua-farm area of Jiangsu Province. The results showed a spatial distribution of comprehensive ecological risk index for heavy metals in sediments. It was found that the whole survey area belonged to the light ecological risk and the ecological risk level of the region near the sewage ontfall was heavier in the map,which consistent with the actual situation. It proved that the use of GIS and geo-statistics methods could refiect the situation of the heavy metals pollution in sediments correcfiy and intuitively. Thus, it provided a guideline for the practical applieation of the heavy metal pollution assessments.

  11. Heavy metals in soils and crops in Southeast Asia. 2. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcinas, Bernhard A; Pongsakul, Pichit; McLaughlin, Mike J; Cozens, Gill

    2004-12-01

    A reconnaissance soil geochemical and concomitant plant survey based on 318 soil (0-15 cm) and 122 plant samples was used for the assessment of heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils and crops of Thailand. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soils using aqua regia digestion, and in plants using nitric acid digestion. Organic carbon (C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and available phosphorus (P) were determined on the soil samples using appropriate procedures. Results indicated that concentrations of heavy metals varied widely among the different regions of Thailand. Regression analysis between the concentrations of metals in soil (aqua regia extractable) and edible plant parts indicated a small but positive relationship for Cd in all the plants sampled in the survey (R2 = 0.081, p soil and plant Cd concentrations in rice (R2 = 0.242, p rice (R2 = 0.385, p rice. Principal component analysis of the soil data suggested that concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb were strongly correlated with concentrations of Al and Fe, which is suggestive of evidence of background variations due to changes in soil mineralogy. Thus, the evidence for widespread contamination of soils by these elements through agricultural activities is not strong. On the other hand, Cd and Zn were strongly correlated with organic matter and concentrations of available and aqua regia extractable P. This is attributed to input of contaminants in agricultural fertilisers and soil amendments (e.g. manures, composts). PMID:15719159

  12. Extraction X-ray fluorescence determination of gold in natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of gold and other elements impeding its X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determination, namely, of zinc, lead, and arsenic, has been studied during their extraction by TBP from hydrochloric, nitric, and aqua regia solutions using solid extractant (SE(TBP)). Gold extraction from pulps after aqua regia leaching, with the gold distribution coefficient (D) being equal to about 104, was observed as the most favourable one for the quantitative and selective recovery of gold. For extraction from hydrochloric solutions the DAu value does not depend on the gold content of initial solutions (10-8 - 10-4 M), but it decreases substantially with increasing extraction temperature (from 5x105 at 20 deg C to 9x103 at 70 deg C). An anomalously high distribution coefficient of lead (DPb=103) was observed during extraction from hydrochloric solutions in the presence of chlorine. This fact could be explained by the formation of the chlorocomplexes of lead (IV). The XRF method of gold determination in natural samples has been developed, which includes the aqua regia decomposition of the samples, recovery of gold from the pulp after its leaching by SE(TBP) and back - extraction using a 0.025 M hot thiourea solution providing a thin sample film for secondary XRF spectrometry. For 25 g of the sample material the limit of determination is set at 0.01 g per ton (10-6%). The accuracy of the technique has been checked on different reference materials. The results agree within 10%. 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Study of precious metal-bearing rocks by inductively coupled plasma spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. This topic involves the determination of Pt and Pd content of precious metal-bearing rocks (from the Sudbury magmatic complex) by inductively coupled plasma spectrometric methods. Altogether 9 samples were available for the comparison of recoveries by lead fire assay and decomposition by aqua regia. The standard analytical method for the determination of platinum group elements in the Laboratory of GIH is ICP-OES and ICP-MS analysis after aqua regia decomposition. The matrix was very heavy, up to 35% in Cu; 30% in Fe and 3% in Ni. A JY ULTIMA 2C ICP-OES instrument was used for the determination of Pt and Pd content from the aqua regia solution. Although this instrument has a very good spectral resolution (5 pm), the straight analysis is not easy in a complicated, line-rich matrix. The background positions were changing at most of the samples, therefore graphical evaluation was the best for subtracting the proper background values. Several analytical lines were used for the determination of Pt and Pd. The Pt and Pd contents were also analysed by ICP-MS (Perkin-Elmer ELAN DRC II) on different isotopes. The different Pd isotopes supplied different concentrations indicating that spectral overlaps made the strait analysis very difficult and uncertain. There was a possibility within a bilateral scientific cooperation with the South Vietnam Geological Mapping Division of Analysis and Experiment (Ho Chi Minh City) to complete lead fire assay procedures from these samples. After dissolving the silver prill at the end of the procedure the ICP-OES and the ICP-MS analysis were performed again from the relatively matrix-free solutions. The results of the 2 decompositions were compared.

  14. Retrieved sea surface temperature analysis of MODIS and AMSR-E aboard AQUA satellite for the northern Indian Ocean%AQUA卫星的MODIS和AMSR-E反演的印度洋北部海域海表温度特征对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍文娟; 韩震

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the northern Indian Ocean served as the study area. Characteristics of sea surface temperature retrieved from MODIS and AMSR-E sensor aboard AQUA satellite were analyzed from three aspects, namely, the location,the temperature curve and the inversion accuracy. The main characteristics showed that the difference of MODIS SST and the AMSR-E SST changed with the latitude obviously; AMSR-E SST failed to offer accurate sea surface temperature in the coastal region; the diversity of MODIS SST and AMSR-E SST changed with the temperature differences. In this paper, the retrieval accuracy of AMSR-E SST was often better than that of MODIS SST. The result of this study had important reference to the sea surface temperature quantitative inversion using the thermal infrared and passive microwave remote sensing technology.%以印度洋北部海域为研究区域,分别从地理位置、温度曲线和反演精度3个方面对AQUA卫星上的MODIS和AMSR-E反演的海表温度特征进行了对比分析。其主要特征表现为MODIS SST与AMSR-E SST之间的差异随纬度变化较为明显;在近岸区域,AMSR-E SST无法获得准确的海表面温度;MODIS SST与AMSR-E SST之间的差异随温度而不同;在本次研究中,AMSR-E SST反演精度总体优于MODIS SST。本次研究结果对利用热红外遥感和被动微波遥感进行海洋表面温度的定量反演具有重要的参考价值。

  15. The use of selective volatization in the separation of {sup 68}Ge from irradiated Ga targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, N.P. van der, E-mail: nick@tlabs.ac.z [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Dolley, S.G.; Steyn, G.F. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Walt, T.N. van der [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Raubenheimer, H.G. [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    Cyclotron-produced {sup 68}Ge can be separated from its Ga target material by dissolving the target in aqua regia and collecting the volatile {sup 68}Ge in a solution containing 1.0 M NaOH and 2% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The solution is then acidified with HF before being loaded onto a column containing AG MP-1 anion exchange resin. The column is rinsed with dilute HF to remove any remaining impurities, before eluting the desired product with 0.1 M HCl. A radiochemically pure product is obtained.

  16. ToF-SIMS Investigation of the Effectiveness of Acid-Cleaning procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Humanyun, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images of Genesis sample surfaces contain an incredible amount of important information, but they also show that the crash-derived surface contamination has many components, presenting a challenge to cleaning. Within the variability, we have shown that there are some samples which appear to be clean to begin with, e.g. 60471, and some are more contaminated. Samples 60493 and 60500 are a part of a focused study of the effectiveness of aqua regia and/or sulfuric acid cleaning of small flight Si implanted with Li-6 using ToF-SIMS.

  17. Preparation of samples taken from the Alshar mine for x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of samples which contain a large amount of arsenic, antimony and thallium sulphides, by fusion with sodium or lithium tetraborate, for x-ray spectrochemical analysis, could not be applied directly, due to the volatility of the compounds which are of analytical interest and the destruction of Pt-crucibles. To prevent the evaporation of thallium, arsenic and antimony compounds during fusion, two different methods are described: fusion of the sample and the flux with the addition of oxidizing agents; and fusion of the dry residue which remains after dissolving the sample in nitric acid or in 'aqua regia' and evaporation of the excess of acids. (author). 3 refs., 7 tabs

  18. 197Au Moessbauer study of the deactivation and reactivation of a carbon-supported AuCl4- hydrochlorination catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylene hydrochlorination catalysts consisting of activated carbon impregnated with a solution of HAuCl4.xH2O in aqua regia have been studied by 197Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The relative amounts of AuCl4-, of Au(0), and of an Au(I) species formed under certain process conditions were determined quantitatively. Deactivation of the catalyst at low and high temperatures was shown to be due to different mechanisms, and the reactivation of the catalyst by Cl2 gas was studied. (orig.)

  19. 酸洗去除冶金硅中的典型杂质%Removal of representative impurities from metallurgical grade silicon by acid leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成义; 赵立新; 王志; 郭占成; 王永刚

    2011-01-01

    以王水和氢氟酸为酸洗介质,研究酸洗对冶金硅中典型杂质元素的脱除效果.结果表明:王水和氢氟酸对金属类杂质均有明显的去除作用,但对非金属B和P去除效率差.Al杂质经王水和氢氟酸酸洗后去除率分别为80%和86.3%,Fe杂质的去除率分别为78.6%和89.4%.氢氟酸对总杂质去除率比王水提高12%,但其对Cu的去除率仅为4.8%.Cu的相态分析表明:Cu在冶金硅中主要是以Al-Si-Cu合金相存在,抗氢氟酸腐蚀性强.与氢氟酸不同,王水通过化学破碎作用使硅粉粒度变小,利于杂质相暴露.两种酸对硅粉的损失率均小于3.5%.%The removals of representative impurities by acid-leaching were studied using aqua regia and HF as the leaching acids. The results show that the two acids have obvious removal efficiency to metal impurities, but have little removal effect to B and P. After leaching, the removal rates of Al are 80% and 86.3% by aqua regia and HF, meanwhile, the removal rates of Fe are 78.6% and 89.4%, respectively. The total impurities removal rates after HF increase by 12% than that after aqua regia, but the removal efficiency of Cu by HF is very poor, with the removal rate reaches 4.8%. The structural phase analysis results show that Al-Si-Cu is the main existence form of Cu in metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si), which is strong acid-resistance to HF. Unlike HF, the chemical stripping-off effect of the particle size of silicon powder made by aqua regia decreases obviously and the impurity phases easily expose at the grain boundaries. The loss rates of Si powder after two acids are less than 3.5%.

  20. Analysis of residual tritium in an LP 50 product container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wermer, J.R.

    1996-06-04

    The analysis was done by sampling coupons cut from the side of the vessel. Tests were performed to analyze the amount of residual tritium in the container wall, as well as the amount of tritium removed through exposure to moist air. Based on this data, the PC contained 62 curies of residual tritium. Air exposure and leaching of the coupons in aqua regia accounted for 27 curies. Recommendations are given for final processing of these containers in order to reduce the final tritium content.