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Sample records for aps ion source

  1. Investigation and optimization of parameters affecting the multiply charged ion yield in AP-MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryumin, Pavel; Brown, Jeffery; Morris, Michael; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-07-15

    Liquid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) allows the generation of predominantly multiply charged ions in atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI ion sources for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The charge state distribution of the generated ions and the efficiency of the ion source in generating such ions crucially depend on the desolvation regime of the MALDI plume after desorption in the AP-to-vacuum inlet. Both high temperature and a flow regime with increased residence time of the desorbed plume in the desolvation region promote the generation of multiply charged ions. Without such measures the application of an electric ion extraction field significantly increases the ion signal intensity of singly charged species while the detection of multiply charged species is less dependent on the extraction field. In general, optimization of high temperature application facilitates the predominant formation and detection of multiply charged compared to singly charged ion species. In this study an experimental set-up and optimization strategy is described for liquid AP-MALDI MS which improves the ionization efficiency of selected ion species up to 14 times. In combination with ion mobility separation, the method allows the detection of multiply charged peptide and protein ions for analyte solution concentrations as low as 2fmol/μL (0.5μL, i.e. 1fmol, deposited on the target) with very low sample consumption in the low nL-range. PMID:26827934

  2. Highly Charged Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a study is made for the factors affecting the production and extraction of highly charged ion beams. Discussion is made for the production of highly charged ions from: the conventional vacuum are ion sources (Pinning PIG and Duoplasmatron DP) and the recent trends type which are (Electron Beam Ion Sources EBIS, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources ECRIS and Laser Ion source LIS). The highly charged ions with charge state +7 , O+8 ,Ne+10 , Ar+18 have been extracted from the ECRIS while fully stripped Xe+54 has been extracted from EBIS. Improving the capabilities of the conventional RF ion source to produce multiply charged ions is achieved through the use of electron injection into the plasma or with the use of RF driven ion source. The later is based on coupling the RF power to the discharge through an internal antenna in vacuum are ion source. The argon ion species extracted from these upgraded RF ion sources could reach Ar+5

  3. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, I.

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the sourc...

  4. Plasma Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of ion source types has been developed. Ion sources can provide beams of hundreds of amperes for fusion applications, nano-amperes for microprobe trace analysis and broad beams for ion implantation, space thrusters, industrial polymerisation and food sterilisation. Also it can be used in medical, military and accelerators applications. In this paper, three different types of plasma ion sources with different means for producing the discharge current and the ions extracting current from the plasma are studied. The various plasma described include, d.c glow discharge plasma, arc discharge plasma and radio frequency discharge plasma

  5. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  6. Nanophotonic Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Jessica A.; Walker, Bennett N.; Chen, Yong; Vertes, Akos

    2010-10-01

    Interactions between laser radiation and photonic structures at elevated laser intensities give rise to the production of positive and negative ions from adsorbates. These new types of ion sources exhibit properties that are significantly different from conventional laser desorption ionization sources. In this contribution comparisons are made between matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) of biomolecules with ion production from laser-induced silicon microcolumn arrays (LISMA) and nanopost arrays (NAPA). The sharp increase of ion yields from the nanophotonic ion sources follow a power law behavior with an exponent of up to n≈7, whereas in the case of MALDI n≈5. The strong field enhancement in the vicinity of the columns and posts scales with their aspect ratio. Slender high aspect ratio posts show reduced laser fluence threshold for ionization. Posts with diameters at or below the thermal diffusion length demonstrate high surface temperatures due to the radial confinement of the deposited energy. As a consequence enhanced fragmentation, i.e., lower survival yield of the molecular ions is observed. The origin of protons in the ionization of adsorbates was identified as the entrapped residues of the solvent.

  7. Ion dynamics in helicon sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L. (John L.); Balkey, M. M. (Matthew M.); Keiter, P. A. (Paul A.); Scime, Earl E.; Keesee, Anne M.; Sun, X.; Harding R.; Compton, C.; Boivin, R. F.; Zintl, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ion dominated phenomena, such as the lower hybrid resonance, can play an important role in helicon source operation. In this work, we review recent ion heating measurements and the role of the slow wave in heating ions at the edge of helicon. sources. We also discuss the relationship between parametrically driven waves and ion heating near the rf antenna in helicon sources. Recent measurements of parallel and rotational ion flows in helicon sources have important implications for particle confinement, instability growth, and helicon source operation. In this work we present new measurements of ion flows and summarize the important features of the flows.

  8. Compact ion accelerator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  9. A Cold Strontium Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Blaser, Kelvin; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-03-01

    We present a cold ion source for strontium 87. The source is based off of a standard Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) for strontium using permanent magnets in place of anti-Helmholtz coils. Atoms from the LVIS are then ionized in a two photon process as they pass a 20kV anode plate. The result is a mono-energetic beam of ions whose velocity is tunable. Applications for the ions include spectroscopy and ion interferometry.

  10. Review of Polarized Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H‑ ion (proton), D‑ (D+) and 3He++ ion beams will be discussed. A novel polarization technique was successfully implemented for the upgrade of the RHIC polarized H‑ ion source to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from an external source) in the He-gas ionizer cell. Polarized electron capture from the optically-pumped Rb vapor further produces proton polarization (Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source technique). The upgraded source reliably delivered beam for the 2013 polarized run in RHIC at S = 510 GeV. This was a major factor contributing to RHIC polarization increase to over 60 % for colliding beams. Feasibility studies of a new polarization technique for polarized 3He++ source based on BNL Electron Beam Ion Source is also discussed.

  11. Operation of ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, ECR ion source was operated for HIRFL about 5138 hours and 8 species of ion beams, such as ~(12)C~(4+), ~(12)C~(5+), ~(36)Ar~(11+),~(13)C~(4+),~(40)Ca~(11+),~(40)Ar~(11+),~(56)Fe~(10+) and ~(18)O~(6+) were provided. Among these ions,~(56)Fe~(10+)is a new ion beam. In this period, 14 experiments of heavy ion physics application and nuclear research were finished.

  12. Recent progress in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to survey recent developments in ion sources, particularly work reported at the ''Symposium on Ion Sources and the Formation of Ion Beams'' held in Berkeley in October 1974. The approach here will be to subdivide this topic into three main areas; briefly list and discuss notable progress in each; and finally add some additional detail through a few specific, selected examples. The major items of progress discussed include development of large-area plasma surfaces for multiple- aperture ion sources, a significant increase in available negative-ion current densities, and improved general agreement between extraction electrode design and performance. (U.S.)

  13. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  14. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  15. THE CUSP ECR ION SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Sudlitz, K.

    1989-01-01

    A Cusp ECR ion source is being developed in Warsaw University to be used on U-200 heavy ion cyclotron. The main goal of the work is the test of the idea of an ECR source constructed without permanent magnets and by means of an inexpensive 2.45GHz generator.

  16. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  17. Gas and metal ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oaks, E. [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)]|[State Academy of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G. [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The positive ion sources are now of interest owing to both their conventional use, e.g., as injectors in charged-particle accelerators and the promising capabilities of intense ion beams in the processes related to the action of ions on various solid surfaces. For industrial use, the sources of intense ion beams and their power supplies should meet the specific requirements as follows: They should be simple, technologically effective, reliable, and relatively low-cost. Since the scanning of an intense ion beam is a complicated problem, broad ion beams hold the greatest promise. For the best use of such beams it is desirable that the ion current density be uniformly distributed over the beam cross section. The ion beam current density should be high enough for the treatment process be accomplished for an acceptable time. Thus, the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation should provide for gaining an exposure dose of {approximately} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2} in some tens of minutes. So the average ion current density at the surface under treatment should be over 10{sup {minus}5} A/cm{sup 2}. The upper limit of the current density depends on the admissible heating of the surface under treatment. The accelerating voltage of an ion source is dictated by its specific use; it seems to lie in the range from {approximately}1 kV (for the ion source used for surface sputtering) to {approximately}100 kV and over (for the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation).

  18. Jet laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External laser injector of multicharged ions (MCI) is developed in which wide-aperture aberration-free wire gauze spherical shape electrodes are applied for effective MCI extraction from laser plasma and beam focusing. Axial plasma compression by solenoid magnetic field is used to reduce ion losses due to transverse movement of the scattering laser plasma. Transverse magnetic field created by another solenoid facilitates the effective laser plasma braking and consequently, leads to the narrowing of energy spectrum of plasma ions and its shift towards lower energies. 2 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  20. Synthetic plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved crossed-beam charge-exchange ion gun in which a synthetic plasma is formed by injecting an electron beam into a collimated molecular beam just before the molecules are ionized by charge exchange with a crossed primary ion beam, thereby forming a secondary ion beam from the ionized but space-charge-neutralized and substantially undeflected molecular beam. The plasma thus formed extends to an aperture stop in an aperture tube which extends upstream from an anode downstream of which anode a cathode is placed. A field is formed within the cathode/anode space and within the aperture tube into which the plasma extends. The sheath edge of the plasma within the tube is curved by the field to form a meniscus, and the aperture, being smaller in area than the secondary ion beam upstream of the aperture, both collimates the secondary ion beam and acts as a lens stop for the subsequent immersion lens formed by the meniscus and the field region

  1. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  2. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  3. The DCU laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I∼108-1011 W cm-2) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm-2) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration ∼35 ns, λ=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In ''basic operating mode,'' laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I∼600 μA for Cu+ to Cu3+ ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu2+). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a ''continuous einzel array'' were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at ''high pressure.'' In ''enhanced operating mode,'' peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu2+) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu4+-Cu6+) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  4. Characterization of ISOLDE ion source and ion source chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Barbeau, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements made with the ISOLDE OFF-LINE mass separator [1]. The first part shows measurements of the ionization characteristics of noble gases in a VADIS ion source. The goal of the measurements was to determine the dependency of the extractable current of first and second noble gases ions with the electron energy. In the second part, investigation on in-target chemistry are presented. Here, the effect of injected sulfur hexafluoride ($SF_6$) on the release of oxygen from aluminium oxide ($Al_2 O_3$) was studied.

  5. Recent progress in ion sources and preaccelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in ion sources is reviewed. The types of sources discussed include positive and negative proton and deuteron sources developed for conventional preaccelerators and for neutral beam applications. Positive heavy ion sources for conventional linacs and for induction linacs are included. Negative heavy ion sources are used for tandem electrostatic accelerators. Positive and negative polarized ion sources for protons and deuterons inject cyclotrons, tandems, and linacs. Some recent preaccelerator designs are summarized

  6. Improvement of penning ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyukov, A A; Kashaba, A Y; Sereda, K N

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the loss of a longitudinal symmetry of magnetic field distribution in respect to the centre of the Penning discharge system causes change of electrostatic potential distribution in the discharge gap leads to appearance of asymmetry of current magnitude to the cathodes of the Penning cell,change of magnitude of current density and energy distribution of the ion beam extracted in a longitudinal direction.The use of an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is longitudinally asymmetrical concerning electrodes of the system allows to increase current efficiency of Penning ion sources from 0,2 to 0,55.

  7. Linac4 H⁻ ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Alessi, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Briefi, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; David, N; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Fantz, U; Fink, D A; Garlasche, M; Grudiev, A; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Haase, M; Hatayama, A; Jones, A; Koszar, I; Lallement, J-B; Lombardi, A M; Machado, C; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Voulgarakis, G

    2016-02-01

    CERN's 160 MeV H(-) linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H(-) source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H(-) source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described. PMID:26932021

  8. Triplemafios: a multicharged heavy ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle and the characteristics of the ion source 'Triplemafios' are described. We also furnish the upto date performances concerning the ion charge states, ion currents and globale emittances of the beam

  9. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  10. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, M. J., E-mail: mattiti@gmail.com [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joloit-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    An assembly for a commercial Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga{sup +} ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga{sup +} and Au{sup +} ion beams will be reported as well.

  11. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  12. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is {sup 96}Ru + {sup 96}Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  13. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T.; Kumaki, M.; Ikeda, S.; Okamura, M.

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is 96Ru + 96Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  14. Development of a high brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightness and emittance of an ion beam can depend on the ion temperature, aberrations and scattering, as well as other factors. However, it is the ion temperature which determines the irreducible minimum value of the emittance and hence brightness, as the other components can be eliminated by careful design. An ion source design is presented which has attained this minimum value for the emittance; the dependence of the ion temperature on the plasma source parameters is discussed

  15. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  16. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator

  17. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  18. Development of ion sources for implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation for modification of surface properties of large areas requires ion sources of a particular type. The sources must be capable of producing rather high currents within somewhat poor vacuum conditions. Two types of source are typically used, the glow discharge and the vacuum arc. This paper describes both types. The glow discharge source has a low discharge voltage to minimize beam contamination from metal ions sputtered from the source chamber. To maintain the discharge, electrons are injected from outside the source chamber. The glow discharge source will generate up to 20 mA beam currents. The vacuum arc sources have the advantage of producing high currents of metal ions using a penning discharge. Metal ion currents up to 70 mA are mentioned

  19. High-charge-state ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed

  20. A Plasma Ion Source for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Thomas Guldager

    2016-01-01

    In this report, my work testing the new Penning ion source as a summer student at ISOLTRAP is described. The project was composed of three stages: (1) Setting up a test laboratory in building 275, (2) characterizing the ion source, and (3) implementing and testing the source in the ISOLTRAP setup. After setting up the test laboratory, the ion source was tested in a constant pressure environment with produced ion currents in the range of nA . An extensive scan of the source ion current versus operating parameters (pressure, voltage) was performed. A setup with pulsed gas flow was also tested, allowing a reduction of the gas load on the vacuum system. The behavior of the ion source together with the ISOLTRAP setup was also investigated, allowing to understand current limitations and future directions of improvement.

  1. Ion beam measurements at the superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, Jan; Rossbach, Jon; Lang, Ralf; Maimone, Fabio; Spaedtke, Peter; Tinschert, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Sun, Liangting; Cao, Yun; Zhao, Hongwei [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, GS (China)

    2009-08-15

    Measurement of the charge-state distribution, the beam profile, the beam emittance of the named ion source are presented. Furthermore computer simulations of the magnetic flux-density distribution in this source are described. (HSI)

  2. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O7+ and 1.15 emA of O6+, more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar13+, Ca13+, Fe13+, Co14+ and Kr18+, and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr26+, Xe28+, Au35+, Bi34+ and U34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe36+, Au46+, Bi47+ and U48+. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  3. 11. international conference on ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production

  4. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  5. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  6. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  7. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  8. Arc-Discharge Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature multiple beamlet approach to an injector system was recently proposed in order to reduce the size, cost, and power requirements of the injector. The beamlets of very high current density are needed to meet the brightness requirement. Besides vacuum arc ion sources, cold-cathode gas ion sources are candidates for this application. Vacuum-arc metal ion sources and vacuum-arc-like gas ion sources are discussed. Experiments are presented that focus on the short-pulse plasma composition and ion charge state distribution. Mg and Sr have been identified as the most promising metals leading to mono-species beams when 20 μs arc pulses are used. It is shown that the efficient production of gas ions requires the presence of a magnetic field

  9. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  11. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe26+ approximately 4x1010 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 1012 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 1010 from the 5x10mm2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached

  12. Enablers of Open Source Software adoption: A case study of APS organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Gurusamy; John Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Despite a considerable body of literature investigating factors involved in the Open Source Software (OSS) adoption process, there is little research into adoption of OSS by public sector organisations. So it was important to reassess the factors enabling OSS adoption in order to enhance OSS utilization within public sector organisations. This study explored various factors that may enable OSS adoption within Australian Public Sector (APS) organisations by interviewing those involved in softw...

  13. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: fuwa@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Yamazaki, Atsushi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  14. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  15. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Laser Ion Source Project at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Moore, I. D., E-mail: iain.moore@php.jyu.fi [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Geppert, Ch. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Kessler, T. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Marsh, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Tordoff, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Wendt, K. D. A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    The application of laser ionisation is being developed for the IGISOL mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The conceived laser ion source will have two independent pulsed laser systems based on all solid-state lasers and dye lasers for maximal coverage of ionisation schemes throughout the periodic table. A laser ion source trap, LIST, method will be pursued for optimal selectivity.

  17. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [People`s Friendship Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  19. Ion sources for systematic gas cell studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FRS Ion Catcher, a test facility for the low energy branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS, has been commissioned and successfully tested. The current setup consists of a gas filled cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) to thermalise exotic nuclei, a diagnostic unit to monitor and transport the stopped and extracted ion beam into the multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS), where they are identified by precision mass measurements. The MR-TOF-MS can also be used to provide isobarically clean beams for experiments further downstream. To investigate ion transport and extraction processes of the CSC three different ion sources are in use inside the CSC. A movable radioactive ion source is mounted to test the ion transport depending on the initial ion position. A multiple target laser ablation ion source is mounted to test the mass and time dependency of the ion transport and extraction. It also provides calibration ions for the MR-TOF-MS. For investigating intensity limitations due to space charge and plasma effects and the cleanliness of the CSC an electrical discharge ion source is installed.

  20. Characteristics of MINI ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A very compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (MINI ECR) was manufactured to extend available energy ranges of ion beams by applying multiply charged ions to electrostatic accelerators. The magnetic field to confine a plasma is formed only by small permanent magnets and the microwave power up to 15 W is generated by a compact transistor amplifier in order to install the ion source at a narrow high-voltage terminal where the electrical power feed is restricted. The magnet assembly is 12 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter, and forms a mirror field with the maximum strength of 0.55 T. The total power consumption of the source is below 160 W. The performance of the source was tested in a bench stand. The results of Ar, Xe, O, and N ion generation are reported in this paper. (author)

  1. Microwave ion source for low charge state ion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, J.; Eardley, M.; Gough, R.; Leung, K.; Thomae, R.

    2003-10-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at LBNL have developed a microwave ion source. The source consists of a stainless-steel plasma chamber, a permanent-magnet dipole structure and a coaxial microwave feed. Measurements were carried out to characterize the plasma and the ion beam produced in the ion source. These measurements included current density, charge state distribution, gas efficiency and accelerated beam emittance measurements. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system a new method of determining the saturation ion current was developed. Current density of 3-6 mA/cm 2 was measured with the source operating in the over dense mode. The highest measured charge-states were Ar 5+, O 3+ and Xe 7+. Gas efficiency was measured using a calibrated argon leak. Depending on the source pressure and discharge power, more than 20% total gas efficiency was achieved. The emittance of the ion beam was measured by using a pepper-pot device. Certain spread was noticed in the beam emittance in the perpendicular direction to the source dipole field. For the parallel direction to the magnetic field, the normalized rr' emittance of 0.032 π-mm-mrad at 13 kV of acceleration voltage and beam exit aperture of 3-mm-in-diameter was measured. This compares relatively well with the simulated value of 4 rms, normalized emittance value of 0.024 π-mm-mrad.

  2. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C+ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr2+ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed

  3. MALT accelerator facility; characteristic of ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Chuichiro; Kobayashi, Koichi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Sunohara, Yoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    A tandem accelerator has been operated since 1995 with a continual effort to increase the accuracy and reliability of the measurement. In the present paper, after a brief discussion on a cesium sputter ion source incorporated in the MALT accelerator, basic characteristics such as temperature of cesium reservoir, and ioniser plate cathode potential. Production of negative ions in the ion source proceed in two step. The first step is generation of positive ions due to the surface ionization on a hot Ta plate, and the second step, electron detachment on a cathode. (M. Tanaka)

  4. Ion sources for RFQ accelerators and for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion sources used in conjunction with low energy accelerators, either RF quadrupole linacs or small cyclotrons, are reviewed. The topics covered include low energy accelerators used as injectors to larger accelerators, ion sources for low and medium currents of heavy ions, high-current heavy ion sources, ion sources for pulsed high currents of light ions, and new developments in ion sources such as beams of radioactive ions

  5. Review of polarized ion sources (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H(-) ion (proton), D(-) (D(+)), and (3)He(++) ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL and other laboratories. Polarized deuteron beams will be required for the polarization program at the Dubna Nuclotron and at the deuteron electric dipole moment experiment at BNL. Experiments with polarized (3)He(++) ion beams are a part of the experimental program at the future electron ion collider.

  6. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  7. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  8. State of the Art ECR Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source which produces highly-charged ions is used in heavy ion accelerators worldwide. Applications also found in atomic physics research and industry ion implantation. ECR ion source performance continues to improve, especially in the last few years with new techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating and better methods to provide extra cold electrons, combined with higher magnetic mirror fields. So far more than 1 emA of multiply-charged ions such as He2+ and O6+, and 30 eμA of Au32+, 1.1 eμA of 238U48+, and epA currents of very high charge states such as 86Kr35+ and 238U60+ have been produced

  9. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  10. H- ion source developments at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Luciano, Nicholas P [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with an rms emittance of 0.20-0.35 Pi mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on RF excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

  11. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H--sources each delivering a 70 mA H--beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs

  12. Ion sources on basis contracted discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of the works about the contracted discharge with thermocathode and with cold whole cathode research was held with the purpose of their application in plasma generation on the ion beams sources

  13. Overview of charged-particle beam diagnostics for the advanced photon source (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-07-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-,e+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  14. Charged-particle beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Decker, G.; Kahana, E.; Patterson, D.; Sellyey, W.; Wang, X.; Chung, Y.

    1992-08-01

    Plans, prototypes, and initial test results for the charged-particle beam (e-), e(+) diagnostic systems on the injector rings, their transport lines, and the storage ring for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are presented. The APS will be a synchrotron radiation user facility with one of the world's brightest x-ray sources in the 10-keV to 100-keV regime. Its 200-MeV electron linac, 450-MeV positron linac, positron accumulator ring, 7-GeV booster synchrotron, 7-GeV storage ring, and undulator test lines will also demand the development and demonstration of key particle-beam characterization techniques over a wide range of parameter space. Some of these parameter values overlap or approach those projected for fourth generation light sources (linac-driven FELs and high brightness storage rings) as described at a recent workshop. Initial results from the diagnostics prototypes on the linac test stand operating at 45-MeV include current monitor data, beam loss monitor data, and video digitization using VME architecture.

  15. A negative ion source test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M., E-mail: morgan@d-pace.com; Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Withington, S. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada); Philpott, C.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B. [Buckley Systems Ltd., 6 Bowden Road, Mount Wellington, Auckland 1060 (New Zealand)

    2016-02-15

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  16. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  17. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  18. Laser ion source for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sherwood, T R

    1995-01-01

    There is an interest in accelerating atomic nuclei to produce particle beams for medical therapy, atomic and nuclear physics, inertial confinement fusion and particle physics. Laser Ion Sources, in which ions are extracted from plasma created when a high power density laser beam pulse strikes a solid surface in a vacuum, are not in common use. However, some new developments in which heavy ions have been accelerated show that such sources have the potential to provide the beams required for high-energy accelerator systems.

  19. Dual chamber laser ion source at LISOL

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Cocolios, Thomas Elias; Gentens, Johnny; Huyse, Marc; Ivanov, Oleg; Pauwels, Dieter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Van den Bergh, Paul; Van Duppen, Piet

    2009-01-01

    A new type of gas cell for the resonance ionization laser ion source at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) has been developed and tested under off-line and on-line conditions. Two-step selective laser ionization is applied to produce purified beams of radioactive isotopes. The selectivity of the ion source has been increased by more than one order of magnitude by separation of the stopping and laser ionization regions. This allows the use of electrical fields for further ion purific...

  20. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  1. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline. PMID:22380298

  2. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  3. Status of CSNS H- ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengjin; Ouyang, Huafu; Zhao, Fuxiang; Xiao, Yongchuan; Lv, Yongjia; Cao, Xiuxia; Xue, Kangjia; Zhang, Junsong; Xu, Taoguang; Li, Fang; Lu, Yanhua; Li, Gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    A new H^- ion source has been installed successfully and will be used to serve the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). In this paper, we report various components of the ion source, including discharge chamber, temperature, cooling system, extraction electrodes, analyzing magnet, remote control system and so on. Compared to the previous experimental ion source, some improvements have been made to make the ion source more compact and convenient. In the present arrangement, the Penning field is generated by a pair of pole tip extensions on the analyzing magnet instead of by a separate circuit. For the remote control system, F3RP61-2L is applied to the accelerator online control system for the first time. In the running of the ion source, a stable pulse H- beam with a current of 50 mA at an energy of 50 keV is produced. The extraction frequency and pulse width is 25 Hz and 500microsecond, respectively. Furthermore, an emittance scanner has been installed and measurements are in progress.

  4. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com; Johnson, R. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Breitschopf, J. [TLU, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [UMD, College Park, Maryland 32611 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H{sup −} beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  5. Liquid metal ion source analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, P.

    1986-06-14

    An analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated, and preliminary on-axis energy distribution measurements of a gallium source operating between 0.26 and 30.0 ..mu..A have been made. These results closely agree with measurements reported by other workers, confirming the unusual FWHM behaviour of gallium sources below approx. 2 ..mu..A.

  6. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  7. Vacuum arc ion source development at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Wolf, B.H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Ion beams produced by the Mevva ion source are well suited for the injection into a synchrotron accelerator due to the low repetition rate (0.2 ... 5 Hz, the higher repetition rate is for the optimization of the linear accelerator only) and the short pulse length (up to 0.5ms). From the beginning of the authors experience with the Mevva ion source at GSI they tried to improve the reliability of pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and to minimize the noise on the extracted ion beam. For accelerator application this is highly necessary, otherwise the accelerator tuning and optimization becomes very difficult or even impossible. Already the beam transport becomes difficult for a noisy beam, because space charge compensation can be destroyed (at least partially). Furthermore a noisy dc-beam results in some rf-buckets which might be even empty.

  8. LINAC4 - The Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Haugaa, Olav

    2013-01-01

    My summer student project has been split in three parts. During the first 4-5 weeks I was involved in the design of the filtermagnets for the IS02 with the simulation tool Opera. After this, I have performed data analysis of the plasma light emission in the IS01 source with the software Matlab and I took part in the development of a Fortran code for plasma simulations. In all projects, understanding plasma physics has been essential and the learning outcome related to this field has been very high.

  9. Compact ion source neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali; Chang-Hasnain, Constance; Rangelow, Ivo; Kwan, Joe

    2015-10-13

    A neutron generator includes a conductive substrate comprising a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips and a source of an atomic species to introduce the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips. A target placed apart from the substrate is voltage biased relative to the substrate to ionize and accelerate the ionized atomic species toward the target. The target includes an element capable of a nuclear fusion reaction with the ionized atomic species to produce a one or more neutrons as a reaction by-product.

  10. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

  11. Recent negative ion source developments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to specifications written for the 25 MV ORNL tandem accelerator, the ion source used during acceptance testing must be capable of producing a negative ion beam of intensity greater than or equal to 7.5 μA within a phase space of less than or equal to 1 π cm-mrad (MeV)/sup 1/2/. The specifications were written prior to the development of an ion source with such capabilities but fortunately Andersen and Tykesson introduced a source in 1975 which could easily meet the specified requirements. The remarkable beam intensity and quality properties of this source has motivated the development of other sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma - some of which will be described in these proceedings. This report describes results of studies associated with the development of a modified Aarhus geometry and an axial geometry source which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma for the production of negative ion beams

  12. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  13. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Lili [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  14. Ion source design for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  15. Optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and future prospects for the optically pumped polarized H- ion source are discussed. At the present time H- ion currents of 60 μA and with a polarization of 65% have been produced. The ion current and polarization can be increased significantly if the optically pumped Na charge exchange target density and polarization can be increased. Studies of wall surfaces that permit many bounces before depolarizing the Na electron spin and studies of radiation trapping in optically pumped Na indicate that the Na target density and polarization can be increased substantially. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  17. The RHIC polarized H⁻ ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A; Atoian, G; Raparia, D; Ritter, J; Steski, D

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H(-) ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H(-) ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC. PMID:26932068

  18. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  19. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  1. Hollow cathode ion source without magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of the IBM-4 ion source a hollow cathode source operating in the continuous regime is developed. The gas discharge chamber diameter equals 100 mm, chamber height - 50 mm. A hollow cathode represents a molybdenum tube with an internal diameter 13 mm and wall thickness 0,7-0,8 mm. An emitter is manufactured from zirconium carbide and lanthanum hexaboride. The investigations of the source operation have shown both cathodes operated efficiency. Electron emission density consitutes 25 A/cm2. At the 50 A discharge current ion current density in a center of plasma emitter constitutes 120 mA/cm2. As a result of the investigations carried out the compatibility of the hollow cathode and the IBM-type source is shown

  2. Performance of the LBL ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LBL Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in test operation since January 1984 has produced a wide variety of high charge state ion beams suitable for injection into the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Two recent developments have dramatically improved the capability of the ECR source. The first development was the production of metallic ions. The intensities of aluminum ions produced were 36, 22, 10, and .065 eμA for charge states 6, 7, 8, and 11, respectively. Calcium ion intensities were 36, 31, 4.6, and 0.20 eμA for charge states 8, 9, 12, and 14, respectively. The second development was the replacement of the sextupole magnet used in of all other high charge state ECR sources with an octupole structure. This modification resulted in a dramatic improvement in the intensities of the high charge state beams and a significant upward shift in the charge state distribution (C.S.D.). The ECR-octupole or OCTIGUN has produced 89, 52, 9, and 2.5 eμA of Ar/sup 8,9,11,12+/ and 21, 10, and 0.34 eμA of Kr/sup 10,14,18+/, respectively. For the high charge states of argon and krypton the improvement gained by using the octupole is typically a factor of 5 to 10

  3. Influence of APS bias voltage on properties of HfO2 and SiO2 single layer deposited by plasma ion-assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiping Zhu; Kui Yi; Zhengxiu Fan; Jianda Shao

    2011-01-01

    @@ HfO2 and SiO2 single layer is deposited on glass substrate with plasma ion assistance provided by Leybold advanced plasma source (APS). The deposition is performed with a bias voltage in the range of 70-130 V for HfO2, and 70-170 V for SiO2. Optical, structural, mechanical properties, as well as absorption and laser induced damage threshold at 1064 nm of HfO2 and SiO2 single layer deposited with the plasma ion assistance are systematically investigated. With the increase of APS bias voltage, coatings with higher refractive index, reduced surface roughness, and higher laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are obtained, and no significant change of the absorption at 1064 nm is observed. For HfO2, a bias voltage can be identified to achieve coatings without any stress. However, too-high bias voltage can cause the increase of surface roughness and stress, and decrease the LIDT. The bias voltage can be properly identified to achieve coatings with desired properties.%HfO2 and SiO2 single layer is deposited on glass substrate with plasma ion assistance provided by Leybold advanced plasma source (APS). The deposition is performed with a bias voltage in the range of 70-130 V for HfO2, and 70-170 V for SiO2. Optical, structural, mechanical properties, as well as absorption and laser induced damage threshold at 1064 nm of HfO2 and SiO2 single layer deposited with the plasma ion assistance are systematically investigated. With the increase of APS bias voltage, coatings with higher refractive index, reduced surface roughness, and higher laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are obtained, and no significant change of the absorption at 1064 nm is observed. For HfO2, a bias voltage can be identified to achieve coatings without any stress. However, too-high bias voltage can cause the increase of surface roughness and stress, and decrease the LIDT. The bias voltage can be properly identified to achieve coatings with desired properties.

  4. Characterization techniques for the high-brightness particle beams of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) user facility in the hard x-ray regime (10--100 keV). The design objectives for the 7-GeV storage ring include a positron beam natural emittance of 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m-rad at an average current of 100 mA. Proposed methods for measuring the transverse and longitudinal profiles will be described. Additionally, a research and development effort using an rf gun as a low-emittance source of electrons for injection into the 200- to 650-MeV linac subsystem is underway. This latter system is projected to produce electron beams with a normalized, rms emittance of {approximately}2 {pi} mm-mrad at peak currents of near one hundred amps. This interesting characterization problem will also be briefly discussed. The combination of both source types within one laboratory facility will stimulate the development of diagnostic techniques in these parameter spaces.

  5. PuMa-ECR ion source operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PuMa (Pulsed Magnetic field)-ECR ion source uses a pulsed solenoid coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We got promising results from helium up to krypton. For xenon the enhancement of the analyzed current was only in the same order as the enhancement of the afterglow. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels in the pulsed coil the pulse height of the PuMa-pulse increases within the given pulse length of the coil. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. (author)

  6. Laser Ion Source Development at IGISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new laser ion source is under development at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. Two laser systems have been installed to provide access to as broad a range of elements as possible. One system uses well-known dye laser technology, the other uses solid state pump and titanium sapphire lasers. Several techniques are being pursued to improve both the isobaric purity and efficiency of exotic radioactive beams. One method uses pulsed lasers to ionize atoms after they have flowed out of the gas volume, within a radio-frequency sextupole (SPIG) guide. This is a variation of the so-called Laser Ion Source Trap (LIST) method and will be discussed in these proceedings

  7. Design of Magnetic Field System for Calutron Ion Source Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Xiu-yan; ZENG; Zi-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Calutron ion source is the most important equipment of EMIS,and the structure of the ion source is more complicated.Because the parameter of each part is interrelate,as experiment and test set,It is very convenient to adjust the parameter of ion source and make the ion source get a good quality.Magnetic field system is the leading and necessary auxiliary equipment of the Calutron ion source

  8. Ion sources for solids isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the dozen or so methods of producing ions from solid samples only the surface or thermal ionisation method has found general application for precise measurement of isotopic ratios. The author discusses the principal variables affecting the performance of the thermal source; sample preparation, loading onto the filament, sample pre-treatment, filament material. (Auth.)

  9. Preinjector for Linac 1, ion source

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    For a description of the Linac 1 preinjector, please see first 7403070X. Inside the drum-shaped container shown in 7403081X, is the ion source with its associated electronics. It sits at the HV end of the accelerating column seen also in 7403081.

  10. Development of the RF Ion Sources for Focused Ion Beam Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    V. Voznyi; Miroshnichenko, V.; S. Mordyk; D. Shulha; V. Storizhko; Tokman, V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of ion sources developed in the IAP of NAS of Ukraine for generation of high brightness ion beams with small energy spread. A series of RF ion sources operated at the frequency of 27.12 MHz were studied: the inductive RF ion source, the helicon ion source, the multi-cusp RF ion source, and the sputter type RF source of metal ions. A global model and transformer model were applied for calculation of RF source plasma parameters. Ion energy spread...

  11. The University of Washington polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A colliding-beams polarized ion source has been in operation for nuclear physics experiments at the University of Washington tandem-linac facility since late 1987. Thermal beams of polarized atomic hydrogen or deuterium are ionized by charge exchange in collisions with a collinear, fast, neutral cesium beam. Negative ions are extracted and the polarization symmetry axis is precessed to any desired direction in a crossed-field spin precessor. The design of the cesium beam system differs from previous sources in that magnetic deflection and focusing are used and beams of several milliamperes at energies of 40 keV are produced. The source is controlled by a microprocessor based system which is connected via fiber optic links to the main linac control and data acquisition computers. To date, currents of 1μA and polarizations in excess of 90% have been produced. 3 refs., 2 figs

  12. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  13. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  14. Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

  15. EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID METAL ION SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Arimoto, H.; Komuro, M.

    1989-01-01

    Energy distributions of Au-Si-Be, Au-Si, Pd-Ni-Si-Be-B, and Pt-Si liquid metal alloy ion sources were investigated, being focused on behaviors of Si++ and Si+. We found that the energy spreads of the Si++ and Si+ were kept constant at 6 to 7.5 eV, even at an extremely low emission current (50 nA). This saturation results in a decrease in the figure of merit, (dI/dΩ)/ (ƊE)2, for an ion probe forming. (dI/dΩ : angular current density, ƊE : energy spread) The energy distribution profiles suggest...

  16. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  17. Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported

  18. Note: Development of ESS Bilbao's proton ion source: Ion Source Hydrogen Positive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miracoli, R., E-mail: rmiracoli@essbilbao.org; Feuchtwanger, J.; Arredondo, I.; Belver, D.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Corres, J.; Djekic, S.; Echevarria, P.; Eguiraun, M.; Garmendia, N.; Muguira, L. [ESS-Bilbao, Leioa (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The Ion Source Hydrogen positive is a 2.7 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge ion source. It uses four coils to generate an axial magnetic field in the plasma chamber around 0.1 T that exceeds the ECR resonance field. A new magnetic system was designed as a combination of the four coils and soft iron in order to increase the reliability of the source. The description of the simulations of the magnetic field and the comparison with the magnetic measurements are presented. Moreover, results of the initial commissioning of the source for extraction voltage until 50 kV will be reported.

  19. Field Ion Source Development for Neutron Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Bargsten Johnson; P. R. Schwoebel; C. E. Holland; P. J. Resnick; K. L. Hertz; D. L. Chichester

    2012-01-01

    An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

  20. Field ion source development for neutron generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargsten Johnson, B. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Schwoebel, P.R., E-mail: schwoebel@chtm.unm.edu [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Holland, C.E. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Resnick, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Hertz, K.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chichester, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2012-01-21

    An ion source based on the principles of electrostatic field desorption is being developed to improve the performance of existing compact neutron generators. The ion source is an array of gated metal tips derived from field electron emitter array microfabrication technology. A comprehensive summary of development and experimental activities is presented. Many structural modifications to the arrays have been incorporated to achieve higher tip operating fields, while lowering fields at the gate electrode to prevent gate field electron emission which initiates electrical breakdown in the array. The latest focus of fabrication activities has been on rounding the gate electrode edge and surrounding the gate electrode with dielectric material. Array testing results have indicated a steady progression of increased array tip operating fields with each new design tested. The latest arrays have consistently achieved fields beyond those required for the onset of deuterium desorption ({approx}20 V/nm), and have demonstrated the desorption of deuterium at fields up to 36 V/nm. The number of ions desorbed from an array has been quantified, and field desorption of metal tip substrate material from array tips has been observed for the first time. Gas-phase field ionization studies with {approx}10,000 tip arrays have achieved deuterium ion currents of {approx}50 nA. Neutron production by field ionization has yielded {approx}10{sup 2} n/s from {approx}1 mm{sup 2} of array area using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction at 90 kV.

  1. CAS Accelerator Physics (Ion Sources) in Slovakia

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Slovak University of Technology jointly organised a specialised course on ion sources, held at the Hotel Senec, Senec, Slovakia, from 29 May to 8 June, 2012.   Following some background lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of atomic and plasma physics, the course covered a wide range of topics related to ion sources and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful, with 69 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures. The case studies were performed with great enthusiasm and produced some excellent results. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a guided tour of Bratislava and free time. A welcome event was held at the Hotel Senec, with s...

  2. Innovations in ion sources and injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends in the development of high-intensity positive-ion sources for linear accelerators are discussed with regard to particle production, ionization principle, and extraction system. A few sources are presented and their most recent beam data given. The performance of injection systems under the influence of strong space-charge action is demonstrated in an example. The design of a compounds system where the beam is extracted, focused, and accelerated to injection energy in a single structure with reduced aberration is explained in the following. In connection with this system the concept of beam emittance is critically examined and a new interpretation of fractional emittances derived

  3. Enablers of Open Source Software adoption: A case study of APS organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Gurusamy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a considerable body of literature investigating factors involved in the Open Source Software (OSS adoption process, there is little research into adoption of OSS by public sector organisations. So it was important to reassess the factors enabling OSS adoption in order to enhance OSS utilization within public sector organisations. This study explored various factors that may enable OSS adoption within Australian Public Sector (APS organisations by interviewing those involved in software procurement. The findings were analysed through the lenses of technology adoption theories (i.e, Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, and OSS adoption literature. Success of OSS in government agencies was found to be contingent on critical aspects such as availability of support and maintainability of OSS products, ability to meet organisational business needs in a cost effective manner, economic value associated with OSS such as maintenance and training costs, and attitude of staff toward OSS. The findings suggested that Rogers’ relative advantage and compatibility constructs are major enablers while organisational attributes, environmental attributes, and TAM’s attributes also had some influence on OSS adoption.

  4. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  5. Ion sources for high-power hadron accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources are a critical component of all particle accelerators. They create the initial beam that is accelerated by the rest of the machine. This paper will introduce the many methods of creating a beam for high-power hadron accelerators. A brief introduction to some of the relevant concepts of plasma physics and beam formation is given. The different types of ion source used in accelerators today are examined. Positive ion sources for producing H+ ions and multiply charged heavy ions are ...

  6. Development of a compact powdery sample negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Tanabe, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sasao, Mamiko; Kawano, Hiroyuki

    1997-02-01

    A gas-feed-free compact negative ion source can be realized by utilizing the process of electron stimulated desorption from powdery sample. A negative ion source of this type is designed to be attached to a standard 1.33 inch copper-gasket-flange. The ion source is operated stable with LiH powder for more than 10 hours with the mass-separated negative hydrogen ion current of 1 nA. The source causes minute gas emission, and particularly suitable for ion beam applications in which a good vacuum is required. The present status of the compact ion source development is briefly described. (author)

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  8. MIVOC method at the mVINIS ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Jovica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds (MIVOC method with the mVINIS ion source, we have produced multiply charged ion beams from solid substances. Highly in tense, stable multiply charged ion beams of several solid substances with high melting points were extracted by using this method. The spectrum of multiply charged ion beams obtained from the element hafnium is presented here. For the first time ever, hafnium ion beam spectra were recorded at an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Multiply charged ion beams from solid substances were used to irradiate the polymer, fullerene and glassy carbon samples at the channel for the modification of materials.

  9. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  10. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  11. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2003-01-01

    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nomi...

  12. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  13. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region∼1×10-5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  14. Progress of resonant ionization laser ion source development at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPIRAL2 (Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne) is a research facility under construction at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) for the production of radioactive ion beams by isotope separation on-line methods and low-energy in-flight techniques. A resonant ionization laser ion source will be one of the main techniques to produce the radioactive ion beams. GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is a test bench developed to study a fully operational laser ion source available for Day 1 operations at SPIRAL2 Phase 2. The aim of this project is to find the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results about the new ion source geometry will be presented

  15. Ion Source Development for Ultratrace Detection of Uranium and Thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuan [ORNL; Batchelder, Jon Charles [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A hot-cavity surface ionization source and a hot-cavity laser ion source are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The work is motivated by the need for more efficient ion sources for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials and sample sizes of 20 - 40 g of U or Th. For the surface source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. Three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms is studied and an ionization efficiency of 8.7% has been obtained with the laser ion source. The positive ion sources promise more than an order of magnitude more efficient than conventional Cs-sputter negative ion sources used for AMS. In addition, the laser ion source is highly selective and effective in suppressing interfering and ions. Work is in progress to improve the efficiencies of both positive ion sources.

  16. Advanced Photon Source experimental beamline Safety Assessment Document: Addendum to the Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Safety Assessment Document (APS-3.2.2.1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Assessment Document (SAD) addresses commissioning and operation of the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Purpose of this document is to identify and describe the hazards associated with commissioning and operation of these beamlines and to document the measures taken to minimize these hazards and mitigate the hazard consequences. The potential hazards associated with the commissioning and operation of the APS facility have been identified and analyzed. Physical and administrative controls mitigate identified hazards. No hazard exists in this facility that has not been previously encountered and successfully mitigated in other accelerator and synchrotron radiation research facilities. This document is an updated version of the APS Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). During the review of the PSAR in February 1990, the APS was determined to be a Low Hazard Facility. On June 14, 1993, the Acting Director of the Office of Energy Research endorsed the designation of the APS as a Low Hazard Facility, and this Safety Assessment Document supports that designation

  17. A singly charged ion source for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  18. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  19. A singly charged ion source for radioactive ¹¹C ion acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K; Noda, A; Nagatsu, K; Nakao, M; Hojo, S; Muramatsu, M; Suzuki, K; Wakui, T; Noda, K

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive (11)C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source. PMID:26932062

  20. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 μs of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  1. Pulsed diode source of polarized ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of polarized nuclei for fusion reactors have recently been described. We propose a pulsed source of polarized nuclei that consists of an ion diode with a polarized anode. With magnetic resonance techniques the nuclear spins of the protons of solid NH3 can be made about 90 to 95% polarized. This material would be used for the anode. The diode would be pulsed with a voltage of 1-200K-volts for 1-2 μ sec. Flashover of the anode produces a surface plasma from which the polarized protons would be extracted to form a beam. Depolarization could be detected by comparing reaction cross sections and/or distribution of reaction products with similar results for unpolarized beams

  2. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field. PMID:20192365

  3. Operational characteristics of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MEVVA ion source can produce high current pulsed beams of metallic ions using a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted. In this study, the operational characteristics of the MEVVA IV ion source are summarized. Results are presented of measurements of the ion beam current as a function of arc current over a range of extraction voltage. Ti, Ta and Pb were examined as the cathode materials. The arc current ranged from 50A to 250A and the extraction voltage from 10kV to 80kV. The ion beam current was measured at two different distances from the ion source using Faraday cups, so as to investigate the beam divergence. Additionally, the cathode erosion rates were measured. Optimum operating conditions of the MEVVA ion source were determined. 10 refs., 6 figs

  4. Photoionization of multiply charged ions at the advanced light source

    OpenAIRE

    Schlachter, A. S.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Emmons, E. D.; Scully., S. W. J.; Phaneuf, R A; Muller, A.; Schippers, S.; I. Alvarez; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2004-01-01

    Photoionization of multiply charged ions is studied using the merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. Absolute photoionization cross sections have been measured for a variety of ions along both isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences.

  5. Multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source, the European roadmap to third-generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Passarello, S.; Ando, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Seyfert, P.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, Sijtze; Vanrooyen, D.; Hill, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Roehrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.

    2006-01-01

    The major infrastructures of nuclear physics in Europe adopted the technology of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources for the production of heavy-ion beams. Most of them use 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), except at INFN-LNS, where an 18 GHz superconducting ECRIS

  6. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  7. Ion source for high-precision mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Peter J.; McKown, Henry S.; Smith, David H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method for increasing the precision of positive-ion relative abundance measurements conducted in a sector mass spectrometer having an ion source for directing a beam of positive ions onto a collimating slit. The method comprises incorporating in the source an electrostatic lens assembly for providing a positive-ion beam of circular cross section for collimation by the slit.

  8. Construction of the RCNP polarized heavy ion source, 'HISPANIOLA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the RCNP polarized heavy ion source is presented. Principle of the polarization production is based on charge and spin exchange collisions between highly stripped heavy ions and polarized Na vapor. A 2.45 GHz ECR ion source produces highly stripped heavy ions. A single mode ring dye- laser serves in producing Na polarization by means of an optical pumping. As a first step of our project, the production of polarized 3He is primarily scheduled. (author)

  9. Vacuum ARC ion sources - activities & developments at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The author describes work at LBL on the development and application of vacuum arc ion sources. Work has been done on vacuum spark sources - to produce very high charge states, studies of high charge states in magnetic field, hybrid ion source operation on metal/gas plasma, multipole operation, work on MEVVA V for implantation applications, development of broad beam sources, and removal of particles from the output of the source.

  10. Ion source development for ultratrace detection of uranium and thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Batchelder, J. C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Chu, R.; Fan, S.; Romero-Romero, E.; Stracener, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Efficient ion sources are needed for detecting ultratrace U and Th impurities in a copper matrix by mass spectrometry techniques such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Two positive ion sources, a hot-cavity surface ionization source and a resonant ionization laser ion source, are evaluated in terms of ionization efficiencies for generating ion beams of U and Th. The performances of the ion sources are characterized using uranyl nitrate and thorium nitrate sample materials with sample sizes between 20 and 40 μg of U or Th. For the surface ion source, the dominant ion beams observed are UO+ or ThO+ and ionization efficiencies of 2-4% have been obtained with W and Re cavities. With the laser ion source, three-step resonant photoionization of U atoms has been studied and only atomic U ions are observed. An ionization efficiency of about 9% has been demonstrated. The performances of both ion sources are expected to be further improved.

  11. The Power Supply System of Ion Source for NBI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhimin; Liu Xiaoning; Hu Chundong; Hu Liqun; Liu Sheng; Song Shihua; Li Jun; Han Xiaopu; Wang Yongjun

    2005-01-01

    The power supply system of ion source for the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak is based on a single injector with one ion source that can deliver 700 kW of neutral beam power. Experiments and a discharges test on the ion source were successfully performed. In this paper, the circuit structures and features of every power supply are described and the results of the discharges test are presented.

  12. Long range implantation by MEVVA metal ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source ion implantation is a new technology used for achieving long range ion impantation.It is very important for research and application of the ion beammodification of materials. The results showthat the implanted atom diffusion coefficient increases in Mo implanted Al with high ion flux andhigh dose. The implanted depth is 311.6 times greater than that ofthe corresponding ion range. The ionspecies, doses and ion fluxes play an important part in the long-range implantation. Especially,thermal atom chemistry have specific effect on the long-range implantation during high ion fluximplantation at transient high target temperature.

  13. Hydrogen Plasma Generation with 200 MHz RF Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Park, Kwangmook; Seo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The ion source for the system is required to be rugged with 2000 hours maintenance free operation time because it is installed in the vessel filled with SF6 gas at the pressure of 10 bar. A 200 MHz RF ion source is considered as an ion source. It is a simple construction and provides long life operation. The specifications of the ion source are 5 kV extraction voltage and 1 mA beam current referenced to the proton. RF ion source has been developed and undergone a performance test. Results of the test are presented. 200 MHz RF ion source is designated and manufactured. First of all test stand test of ion source are set up for a performance test of ion source. It includes a RF ion source, a 200-MHz RF system, beam extraction system, vacuum system, beam extraction system, and beam diagnostic system. At pressure of 1.2E-5 torr, hydrogen plasma is generated with net RF power 70 W. Pyrex tube surrounded by an inductive coil takes the role of vessel and discharge is enhanced with field of permanent magnets.

  14. Present status of FLNR (JINR) ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six ECR ion sources have been operated in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR). Two 14 GHz ECR ion sources (ECR4M and DECRIS-2) supply various ion species for the U400 and U400M cyclotrons correspondingly for experiments on the synthesis of heavy and exotic nuclei using ion beams of stable and radioactive isotopes. The 18 GHz DECRIS-SC ion source with superconducting magnet system produces ions from Ar up to W for solid state physics experiments and polymer membrane fabrication at the IC-100 cyclotron. The third 14 GHz ion source DECRIS-4 with 'flat' minimum of the axial magnetic field is used as a stand alone machine for test experiments and also for experiments on ion modification of materials. The other two compact ECR ion sources with all permanent magnet configuration have been developed for the production of single charged ions and are used at the DRIBs installation and at the MASHA mass-spectrometer. In this paper, present status of the ion sources, recent developments and plans for modernization are reported. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  15. Construction of thermionic alkali-ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul Haq, F.

    1986-04-01

    A simple technique is described by which singly charged alkali ions of K, Na, Li, Rb and Cs are produced by heating ultra-pure chemical salts of different alkali metals on tungsten filaments without employing a temperature measuring device. The character of alkali-ion currents at different heating powers and the remarkably constant ion emission current for prolonged periods are discussed.

  16. Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

  17. Calculation of ion beam species extracted from a hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion species from a hydrogen ion source are calculated as a function of the electron density on the assumption that the energy distribution of electrons in the source is Maxwellian with temperatures 8 to 12 eV. The beam fraction of ion species depends only on the electron density, and the proton ratio increases with electron density. (author)

  18. Negative ion source development for fusion application (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized.

  19. Ion Source Physics and Technology (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  20. Ion Source Physics and Technology (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  1. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Reheem, A M; Ahmed, M M; Abdelhamid, M M; Ashour, A H

    2016-08-01

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition. PMID:27587108

  2. MIVOC Method at the mVINIS Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the well-known metal-ions-from-volatile- compounds (MIVOC) method with the mVINIS Ion Source to produce multiply charged ion beams form solid substances. Using this method very intense stable multiply charged ion beams of several solid substances having high melting points were obtained. The yields and spectrum of the multiply charged ion beams obtained from Hf will be presented. A hafnium ion beam spectrum was recorded at an ECR ion source for the first time. We have utilized the multiply charged ion beams from solid substances to irradiate the polymer, fullerene and glassy carbon samples at the channel for modification of materials (L3A). (author)

  3. Development of a laser ion source at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, I D [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland); Nieminen, A [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Billowes, J [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Campbell, P [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geppert, Ch [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Jokinen, A [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland); Kessler, T [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland); Marsh, B [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Penttilae, H [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland); Tordoff, B [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wendt, K D A [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Aystoe, J [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 (Finland)

    2005-10-01

    FURIOS, the Fast Universal laser IOn Source, is under development at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. This new laser ion source will combine a state-of-the-art solid state laser system together with a dye laser system, for the selective and efficient production of exotic radioactive species without compromising the universality and fast release inherent in the IGISOL system. The motivation for, and development of, this ion source is discussed in relation to the programme of research ongoing at this mass separator facility.

  4. Emittance Measurements for Beams Extracted from LECR3 Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoYun; ZhaoHongwei; MaLei; ZhangZimin

    2003-01-01

    High quality ion beams are required by IMP cyclotron and atomic physics research, so it is important to research and measure beam emitt ance of ECR ion source. Intense beams extracted from ECR ion source usually have low energy, so it is suitable to use Electric-Sweep Scanner to measure the emittance. This kind of measurement is popularly used at ECR ion source, and it has some prominent merits such as high accuracy, very short time of data processing and easy expressing of the emittance pattern. So we designed and built this emittance scanner to measure emittance of the ion beams produced by LECR3 ion source. The structure of the ESS is shown in Fig.l, and the photo of the ESS is shown in Fig.2.

  5. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  6. Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil D. Pawar; V. Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ion...

  7. A trapped ion source with improved ionizing efficiency for the production of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrahigh vacuum 'trapped ion source' has been developed following closely Redhead's basic design. Positive ions have been trapped within the space charge of a magnetically confined electron beam with potential barriers at either end of the ionization region, resulting in the production of multiply charged ions. These highly stripped ions are formed by the successive collisions with low energy (0 mass spectrometer. The results obtained in the production of multiply charged ions of Au are presented. (auth.)

  8. GISELE: A resonant ionization laser ion source for the production of radioactive ions at GANIL

    CERN Document Server

    Lecesne, N; Wendt, K; Mattolat, C; Rothe, S; Pichard, A; Pacquet, J Y; Dubois, M; Coterreau, E; Franberg, H; Leroy, R; Gottwald, T; Alves-Conde, R; Flambard, J L; De Oliveira, F; Le Blanc, F; Jardin, P; Olivier, A; Lassen, J

    2010-01-01

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the past 10 yr SPIRAL1 at GANIL has been delivering accelerated radioactive ion beams of gases. Both facilities now need to extend the range of radioactive ion beams produced to condensable elements. For that purpose, a resonant ionization laser ion source, funded by the French Research National Agency, is under development at GANIL, in collaboration with IPN Orsay, University of Mainz (Germany) and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada). A description of this project called GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is presented.

  9. GISELE: A resonant ionization laser ion source for the production of radioactive ions at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecesne, N.; Alves-Conde, R.; De Oliveira, F.; Dubois, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Franberg, H.; Jardin, P.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pichard, A.; Saint-Laurent, M. G. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Coterreau, E.; Le Blanc, F.; Olivier, A. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France); Gottwald, T.; Mattolat, C.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Rothe, S. [Department of Engineering, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    SPIRAL2 is the new project under construction at GANIL to produce radioactive ion beams and in particular neutron rich ion beams. For the past 10 yr SPIRAL1 at GANIL has been delivering accelerated radioactive ion beams of gases. Both facilities now need to extend the range of radioactive ion beams produced to condensable elements. For that purpose, a resonant ionization laser ion source, funded by the French Research National Agency, is under development at GANIL, in collaboration with IPN Orsay, University of Mainz (Germany) and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada). A description of this project called GISELE (GANIL Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation) is presented.

  10. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (˜100 μA) with high charge (˜10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  11. Enhanced production of negative ions in a pulsed volume ion source

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Kevin Noel

    1993-01-01

    The need for high brightness neutral beams for neutral beam heating systems has lead to extensive research into low pressure, high power negative ion sources. Negative ion sources at present have low gas and power efficiencies and to realise the current densities for the future H'/D' based neutral injectors needed for the next generation of fusion tokamaks will necessitate continued efforts into improving the design of negative ion sources. In this thesis a new approach to the production ...

  12. Imaging of granular sources in high energy heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhi-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ning; Huo, Lei; Zhang, Jing-Bo

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the source imaging for a granular pion-emitting source model in high energy heavy ion collisions. The two-pion source functions of the granular sources exhibit a two-tiered structure. Using a parametrized formula of granular two-pion source function, we examine the two-tiered structure of the source functions for the imaging data of Au+Au collisions at Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). We find that the imaging technique introduce...

  13. Can a powerful source (APS) cast useful light on atomic hole state processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the workshop is officially on the subject of Atomic Physics, it has become customary to link Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics into one package. Since the issue under discussion is, What can be done with the APS? one can argue further that all experiments will use x-rays in one way or another and therefore could be categorized as X-Ray Optical Physics. A superficial case for unity can be made from the x-ray absorption spectrum of Cl adsorbed on a Cu(001) surface. In both cases similarly shaped spectra are observed, but in the second case the resonance is due to the collective scattering of the incident x-rays by the substrate crystal (i.e., a Cu Bragg reflection). The latter effect, known as the x-ray standing wave effect, is useful for surface structure determination. It is important to remember that atomic effects like in the upper figure may influence the optical effects such as in the lower figure. Continuing the argument for Optical Physics as a unifying endeavor, the author has listed a number of properties of x-rays (or photons) along with types of experiments where these properties play a central role

  14. Status of the ATLAS PIIECR ion source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS PIIECR ion source is a major component of a project which will result in the replacement of the ATLAS tandem electrostatic injector with a superconducting linac of extremely low velocity profile and an ECR ion source operating in the continuous mode. A compilation of the source parameters adopted is tabulated, and the various issues considered in the design process and decisions made regarding those issues are discussed

  15. Intense stationary H- ion source with a hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H- ion source with a cesium hollow cathode, operating in the stationary regime, is investigated for designing the thermonuclear device injector. The source is of an axial-symmetry geometry with the radial magnetic field. Ion extraction is being performed tranverse the magnetic field through the holes in the main anode. The movable magnetic analyzer has been used for controlling of the beam. The ion current of 109 mA and the energy of 5 keV is obtained in the stationary regime. The analysis of the ion source operation has shown: 1)the source preserves working capacity even without the magnetic field; 2)the largest H- current is in a small magnetic field (10-20 G) in the region of emission holes; 3)H- ion current increases at decreasing hydrogen consumption

  16. Development of negative helium ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ootsuka, Michio; Nakamura, Shin; Suzuki, Yozo; Amemiya, Kensuke; Tanaka, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Tokiguchi, Katsumi; Sato, Tadashi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    On the basis of the cooperation of industries and universities, the local government of Fukui established Wakasa Bay Energy Research Center. An emphasis is placed on the application of accelerators. Two accelerators are scheduled, a tandem electrostatic accelerator (5MeV) and synchrotron (200MeV). The tandem accelerator requires helium ion currents to exceed 10 {mu} A. The use of Lithium vapors for charge exchange (electron attachment) is adopted for negative ion production. (M. Tanaka)

  17. Oxygen ion source and RFQ for Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    As injector to the PS Booster, Linac 1 was replaced by Linac 2 in 1980. It continued to be used for the acceleration of oxygen and sulfur ions. In 1984, its Cockcroft-Walton preinjector was replaced by an RFQ. In the foreground at the right is the oxygen ion source. A 90 deg bending magnet selects O6+ ions which are preaccelerated in an RFQ and enter Linac 1, at the far left. In the background is the proton and negative hydrogen ion source, followed by the 520 keV RFQ-1 and a bending magnet towards the entrance of Linac 1.

  18. Applications of heavy-negative-ion sources for materials science (invited)

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    2000-01-01

    Applications of heavy negative ions produced by sputter-type negative-ion sources for materials science are reviewed. Submilliampere and milliampere heavy-negative-ion beams can be produced by a neutral- and ionized-alkaline–metal-bombardment-type heavy-negative-ion source and rf plasma sputter-type negative-ion sources, respectively. These negative-ion beams can be applied for materials processing such as ion implantation, ion beam etching, and ion beam deposition. In negative-ion implantati...

  19. Influence of ion species ratio on grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiu-Li; Zhang Gu-Ling; Liu Yuan-Fu; Wang You-Nian; Liu Chi-Zi; Yang Si-Ze

    2004-01-01

    @@ Grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) is a newly proposed technique to modify the inner-surface properties of a cylindrical bore. In this paper, a two-ion fluid model describing nitrogen molecular ions N2+ and atomic ions N+ is used to investigate the ion sheath dynamics between the grid electrode and the inner surface of a cylindrical bore during the GEPSII process, which is an extension of our previous calculations in which only N2+ was considered.Calculations are concentrated on the results of ion dose and impact energy on the target for different ion species ratios in the core plasma. The calculated results show that more atomic ions N+ in the core plasma can raise the ion impact energy and reduce the ion dose on the target.

  20. Ion heating in the HELIX helicon plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J.L.; Scime, E.E.; Keiter, P.A.; Balkey, M.M.; Boivin, R.F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Efficient ion heating in a steady-state helicon plasma source is observed with two external loop antennae just above the ion cyclotron frequency. The ion velocity space distribution is measured by laser induced fluorescence in an argon plasma. The measured bulk ion heating is highly anisotropic (the perpendicular temperature increase is ten times the parallel temperature increase) even though the plasma is moderately collisional. Measurements of the perturbed distribution function with laser induced fluorescence suggest that an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave is launched. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.} thinsp

  1. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, G. Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  2. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  3. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described

  4. Possible Source of Intermediate Ions over Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil D. Pawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of small, intermediate and large ions made onboard ORV Sagarkanya over the Arabian Sea in May-June 2003 during Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX are reported here. The daily averaged values of small-, intermediate-, and large-ion concentrations measured for 36 days during this cruise have been used for analysis. The analysis shows a weak positive correlation of 0.14 between intermediate- and large-ion concentrations, which indicates that the sources of these two types of ions are different over ocean surface. The negative correlation is observed between small- and intermediate-ion concentration for entire period of cruise. In addition, it is seen that the intermediate-ion concentration shows a very good (=0.58 and significant positive correlation with sea surface pressure. Based on good negative correlation between small- and intermediate-ion concentrations and good positive correlation between intermediate-ion concentration and sea surface pressure, it has been proposed that attachment of small ions to the ultrafine particles transported from upper troposphere to marine boundary layer is the main source of intermediate ions over ocean surface. This study supports the idea that the main source of ultrafine particles over marine boundary layer (MBL is entrainment of aerosol particles from the free troposphere.

  5. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources: Recent Developments and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian; Oks, Efim

    2005-05-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved over the past twenty years into a standard laboratory tool for the production of high current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. The primary application of this kind of source has evolved to be ion implantation for material surface modification. Another important use is for injection of high current beams of heavy metal ions into the front ends of particle accelerators, and much excellent work has been carried out in recent years in optimizing the source for reliable accelerator application. The source also provides a valuable tool for the investigation of the fundamental plasma physics of vacuum arc plasma discharges. As the use of the source has grown and diversified, at the same time the ion source performance and operational characteristics have been improved in a variety of different ways also. Here we review the growth and status of vacuum arc ion sources around the world, and summarize some of the applications for which the sources have been used.

  6. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  7. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Sebastian; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Teigelhöfer, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated. PMID:24689577

  8. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  9. Ion source diodes with magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device includes a grid anode, a first cathode set in front cf the anode, and a magnetic mirror behind the anode. It is a winding coaxial to the anode and the cathode. Anode and cathode have spherical cap shapes whose concavity is directed towards a target. Then the ion beam has some focusing. Electrons, emitted by cathode, are accelerated towards the anode and cross through it. These electrons are submitted to the winding magnetic field. Their trajectories curved around the field lines and lie on the diode axis. Then electrons go backwards through again the anode. Electrons oscillate thus a great number a time. At each passage, they give energy to the anode, that creates plasma round it. Ions are extracted from that plasma and accelerated by interelectrode field. As there is no electric field in the back of the anode, there is an ion beam emitted only foreward

  10. Simulation methods of ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiuli; ZHANG Guling; WANG Younian; LIU Yuanfu; LIU Chizi; YANG Size

    2004-01-01

    Progress of the theoretical studies on the ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is reviewed in this paper. Several models for simulating the ion sheath dynamics in PSII are provided. The main problem of nonuniform ion implantation on the target in PSII is discussed by analyzing some calculated results. In addition, based on the relative researches in our laboratory, some calculated results of the ion sheath dynamics in PSII for inner surface modification of a cylindrical bore are presented. Finally, new ideas and tendency for future researches on ion sheath dynamics in PSII are proposed.

  11. Caborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, D.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

    2010-02-01

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

  12. A New Technique for Diagnosing Multi-charged Ion Beams Produced by ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZimin; ZhaoHongwei; CaoYun; MaLei; MaBaohua; LiJinyu; WangHui; FengYucheng; DuJunfeng

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the transmission properties of multi-charged ion beams between the ECR ion source and the analyzing magnet, a new diagnostic system composed of three Wien-filters with three single-wires has been built and installed on the IMP ECR source test bcnch. The single-wire is used to measure the beam profile and the beam density distribution, and the Wien-filter is used to measure the charge state distribution of ion beam.

  13. Ionization efficiency estimations for the SPES surface ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Meneghetti, G.; Rossignoli, M.; Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sources play a crucial role in ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities determining, with the target production system, the ion beam types available for experiments. In the framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project, a preliminary study of the alkali metal isotopes ionization process was performed, by means of a surface ion source prototype. In particular, taking into consideration the specific SPES in-target isotope production, Cs and Rb ion beams were produced, using a dedicated test bench at LNL (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). In this work the ionization efficiency test results for the SPES Ta surface ion source prototype are presented and discussed.

  14. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV∕u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are

  15. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures

  16. A Hot Cavity Laser Ion Source at IGISOL

    OpenAIRE

    Reponen, M.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I D; Rothe, S.; Äystö, J.

    2008-01-01

    A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaskyla, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z 94Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via t...

  17. Investigation of multi-charged heavy ion production in an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of multi-charged heavy ions produced in an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) were carried out with a test model ion source 20 cm in length. This test model utilized an electron gun placed external to the bore of the focusing solenoid in order to achieve electrostatically focussed electron beams and isolation of the vacuum surrounding the electron gun from the vacuum in the ionization region within the solenoid bore. An ultrahigh vacuum system utilizing liquid nitrogen (770K) cryopumping was used to achieve the low pressures needed in the ionization region for the operation of this ion source. Several technical problems limited the operation of this test model and prevented a thorough investigation of the ionization processes in the ion source, but the experimental results have shown qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations for the operation of this type of ion source. Even with the problems of an insufficient vacuum and electron beam focussing field, measurable currents of C+5 and A+8 ions were produced. The present experimental results suggest that the approach taken in this work of using an external electron gun and cryopumping in the EBIS to achieve the large electron beam current density and low vacuum necessary for successful operation is a viable one. Such an ion source can be used to create highly-charged heavy ions for injection into a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator

  18. Investigation of multi-charged heavy ion production in an electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, R.W.

    1977-12-01

    Measurements of multi-charged heavy ions produced in an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) were carried out with a test model ion source 20 cm in length. This test model utilized an electron gun placed external to the bore of the focusing solenoid in order to achieve electrostatically focussed electron beams and isolation of the vacuum surrounding the electron gun from the vacuum in the ionization region within the solenoid bore. An ultrahigh vacuum system utilizing liquid nitrogen (77/sup 0/K) cryopumping was used to achieve the low pressures needed in the ionization region for the operation of this ion source. Several technical problems limited the operation of this test model and prevented a thorough investigation of the ionization processes in the ion source, but the experimental results have shown qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations for the operation of this type of ion source. Even with the problems of an insufficient vacuum and electron beam focussing field, measurable currents of C/sup +5/ and A/sup +8/ ions were produced. The present experimental results suggest that the approach taken in this work of using an external electron gun and cryopumping in the EBIS to achieve the large electron beam current density and low vacuum necessary for successful operation is a viable one. Such an ion source can be used to create highly-charged heavy ions for injection into a cyclotron or other type of particle accelerator.

  19. Sources of polarized ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation we discuss methods of producing large quantities of polarized atoms and ions (Stern-Gerlach separation, optical pumping, and spin-exchange) as well as experimental methods of measuring the degree of polarization of atomic systems. The usefulness of polarized atoms in probing the microscopic magnetic surface properties of materials will also be discussed. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H- ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I-/Ie becomes 1/20. H- ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  1. Design of small ECR ion source for neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles, structures and characteristics of small ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source used in the neutron generator are introduced. The processes of the design and key technique and innovations are described. (authors)

  2. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  3. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  4. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2011-05-01

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile Φ(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ɛ ≡λD/ℓ =0 (where λD is the Debye length and ℓ is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (ɛ =0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since "the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity" [Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and "water-bag" ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to "practical infinity." While within limits of "very low" and "relatively high" ion source temperatures

  5. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile Φ(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ε≡λD/l=0 (where λD is the Debye length and l is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (ε=0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since ''the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity''[Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and ''water-bag'' ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to ''practical infinity.'' While within limits of ''very low'' and ''relatively high'' ion source

  6. Arc Discharge Ion Source Development at CERN ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu; Stora, Thierry; Catherall, Richard; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    Within a Marie Curie Early Stage Training project at CERN, a detailed study (experimental, analytical and numerical) of the standard ISOLDE FEBIAD ion sources has been done. A new theoretical model global source behavior could be inferred, based on the acquired experimental data. The source model already served to the development of two FEBIAD prototypes which improved the I+ ionization efficiencies for the noble gases by 5 to 20 times (depending on element) This development can now serve to future ion source optimizations, for specific user or facility requirements around the world, especially for the production of high intensity radioactive beams.

  7. Pragmatic development of a laser ion source for intense highly-charged ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, applications of high-charge-state (including fully stripped) heavy-ion beams have been attracting interest in both physics and industry. To enhance their usefulness, more intense beams are required. Cancer therapy using carbon ions is a particularly promising heavy-ion beam application. Due to advances in laser technology, the laser ion source (LIS) has become one of the most popular sources for generating highly charged and intense heavy-ion beams. The project to develop a high-intensity LIS was started on June 2009. In our project, whose ultimate goal is to apply a heavy-ion accelerator for cancer therapy, we have almost completed designing the LIS, and manufacturing will commence soon. We intend to measure the source performance by performing plasma and beam tests up until the end of March 2011. We will report the outline and a progress of the project. (author)

  8. Recent developments of the LBL ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the LBL ECR has improved significantly since January 85 when the last ECR Ion Source Workshop was held in Berkeley. The 88-Inch Cyclotron began regular operation with the ECR source just prior to the workshop. Since then about 80% of the cyclotron operating schedule has been with the ECR source. The light-ion filament source is used only for runs two or more shifts in length using proton, 3He, or alpha beams. Occasionally the polarized ion source is used. The heavy-ion PIG sources are not longer used. The operating experience with the Cyclotron+ECR has been highly successful in terms of reliability, stability, production of high charge state currents, and in the range of ions which can be produced. For example, a 32.5 MeV/u 16O8+ beam was developed and successfully used for a nuclear structure experiment. The 60 nA beam available from the cyclotron was more intense than the experiment could use. A 1.08 GeV 36Ar18+ beam was used to test the response of various scintillator materials to intermediate energy heavy ions. Three aspects of the LBL ECR source development are discussed. First, the installation of a new first stage cavity has resulted in improved source performance. Second, a number of metal ion beams have been developed and are used regularly for nuclear science experiments with the cyclotron. Third, the source performance has been compared to charge state distribution (CSD) calculations using a computer code

  9. Slow wave ion heating in the HELIX helicon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J L; Scime, E E; Boivin, R F; Keesee, A M; Sun, X [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Ion temperature measurements have been made at multiple axial and radial locations in a helicon source for a range of magnetic field strengths and RF frequencies. The observed temperature gradient along the axis suggests limited thermal transport along the magnetic field. The radial profiles are flat near the axis and in some cases peak near the edge of the plasma. The ion temperature measurements combined with calculations of the perpendicular wave numbers for the slow wave or 'Trivelpiece-Gould' mode are consistent with ion heating due to ion Landau damping of the slow wave at the edge of the plasma.

  10. Operation of the CSNS Penning surface H~- ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The accelerator complex of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) consists of a H- linear accelerator (linac) and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The linac contains a Penning surface H- ion source. The designed energy and the beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of 0.2π mm mrad. The manufactures and tests of the discharge chamber are in great progress. The construction of H- ion source test stand has been completed, and the operation of the source is also in progress. Stable H- ion beams with energy of 50 keV and current up to 50 mA are attained. Emittance measurement for the H- beam is being prepared.

  11. Long-pulse operation of an intense negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the National Institute for Fusion Science, as the heating system for the Large Helical Device (LHD), the negative ion NBI system of 20 MW incident power has been planned, and the development of a large current, large size negative ion source has been advanced. Based on the results obtained so far, the design of the LHD-NBI system was reconsidered, and the specification of the actual negative ion source was decided as 180 KeV-40A. This time, the grounding electrode with heightened heat removal capacity was made, and the long pulse operation was attempted, therefore, its results are reported. The structure of the external magnetic filter type large negative ion source used for the long pulse experiment is explained. In order to form the negative ion beam of long pulses, it is necessary to form stable are discharge plasma for long time, and variable resistors were attached to the output side of arc power sources of respective filament systems. By adjusting the resistors, uniform are discharge was able to be caused for longer than 10 s stably. The results of the long pulse experiment are reported. The dependence of the characteristics of negative ion beam on plasma electrode temperature was small, and the change of the characteristics of negative ion beam due to beam pulse width was not observed. (K.I.)

  12. Hollow cathode ion source for application to an implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hollow cathode ion source has been studied in order to improve the life-time of an ion source for an ion implanter. Both volatile and refractory elements are shown to be ionized using two types of discharge state of the hollow cathode namely hot and cold cathode discharge. The life-time of LaB6 as the hot cathode is more than 150 h and the ion beam currents reach more than 10 mA cm-2 at the extraction voltage of 10 kV. For the cold cathode operation, stable currents of approx. 40 to 70 μA are extracted of refractory metal ions such as W and Mo. (author)

  13. A hot cavity laser ion source at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, M.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Rothe, S.; Äystö, J.

    2009-12-01

    A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyväskylä, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N = Z 94Ag . A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, 40Ca(58Ni, p3n)94Ag , are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable 107, 109Ag are presented.

  14. A hot cavity laser ion source at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reponen, M.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I.D.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rothe, S. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, AG Larissa/Quantum, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaeskylae, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z {sup 94}Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, {sup 40}Ca({sup 58}Ni, p3n){sup 94}Ag, are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable {sup 107,} {sup 109}Ag are presented. (orig.)

  15. A Hot Cavity Laser Ion Source at IGISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Reponen, M; Moore, I D; Rothe, S; Äystö, J

    2008-01-01

    A development program is underway at the IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line) facility, University of Jyvaskyla, to efficiently and selectively produce low-energy radioactive ion beams of silver isotopes and isomers, with a particular interest in N=Z 94Ag. A hot cavity ion source has been installed, based on the FEBIAD (Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge) technique, combined with a titanium:sapphire laser system for selective laser ionization. The silver recoils produced via the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reaction, 40Ca(58Ni, p3n)94Ag, are stopped in a graphite catcher, diffused, extracted and subsequently ionized using a three-step laser ionization scheme. The performance of the different components of the hot cavity laser ion source is discussed and initial results using stable 107,109Ag are presented.

  16. Vacuum system development status for the APS [Advanced Photon Source] storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the design and fabrication of a prototype sector of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 26.5-m-long prototype sector will be assembled within a full-scale magnet and tunnel mockup to study interspacial component relationships for maintenance, as well as the vacuum system operational performance. Each completed vacuum section is mounted as an integral part of the modular structure that contains the magnets and magnet power supplies on a common base. Unique automatic machine welding designs and techniques are employed in the fabrication of the aluminium vacuum chambers from extrusions. Special chamber bending procedures and measurements checks are used to maintain the required flatness of the insider chamber light gap surfaces. Photo-electron yields due to low-energy photons in the narrow channel gap of the vacuum chamber and their potential effects on the overall outgassing rate are found to be negligible. 9 refs., 5 figs

  17. A New ECR Ion Source for Atomic Physics Research at IMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source (LECR3-Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No.3) was constructed this year. The main purpose of this source is to provide highly charged ion beams for atomic physics and surface physics research. The design of this ion source is based on the IMP 14.5 GHz ECR ion source (LECR2-Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No.2) with double RF heating

  18. Performance of the upgraded LBNL AECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LBNL AECR ion source has been upgraded in July 1996 by increasing its magnetic fields to improve its plasma confinement and thereby enhance the source performance. After a few months of tailoring the magnetic field configuration to match the two-frequency plasma heating (14 and 10 GHz), the upgraded AECR ion source (AECR-U) with its higher magnetic fields and higher magnetic mirror ratios has demonstrated significantly enhanced performance. For heavy ions at intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge state was shifted from 42+ to 48+ for uranium and from 41+ to 46+ for bismuth. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. Hydrogen-like krypton ions at intensity of about 105 pps were extracted from the source and confirmed by measuring its characteristic x-ray with a SiLi crystal detector. High charge state heavy ion beams of xenon-136 and uranium-238 produced with the AECR-U ion source were accelerated by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Despite poor transmission for the highly charged heavy ions due to vacuum losses in the cyclotron, 11 MeV/nucleon 136Xe41+ at 1 x 107 pps, 13 MeV/nucleon 136Xe46+ at a few hundred pps, and 7 MeV/nucleon 238U55+ at 3 x 104 pps and 8 MeV/nucleon 238U60+ at a few pps were confirmed with a crystal energy detector after extraction from the cyclotron. The total energy of 1.935 GeV of the extracted 238U60+ ions is the highest energy ever produced by the 88-Inch Cyclotron. Detailed optimization of the AECR Upgrade will be presented in this paper

  19. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  20. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  1. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M., E-mail: okamura@bnl.gov [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Palm, K. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-2501 (United States); Stifler, C. [Engineering Physics Systems Department, Providence College, Providence, Rhode Island 02918 (United States); Steski, D.; Kanesue, T. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Kumaki, M. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  2. A study for the improvements of radio frequency ion source performance and ion beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work emphasis was given to improve ion beam obtained from the RF ion source. Thus, the objectives of this work are: a - Production of higher ion charge state which requires an intense plasma. This is achieved by the use of D.C magnetic field, the use of electron injection into the plasma, and the work run at optimum discharge pressure. b - Increasing the value of the extracted current. c - Improving ion beam quality by its interaction with electron beam. The production of multiply charged ions requires an intense plasma. This leads of the use of RF ion source with radial extraction, central constriction, and electron injection into plasma, together with magnetic field perpendicular to RF field. The plasma intensity could be increased from n e = 10 9 electrons/c m3 up to 10 12 electrons/cm 3. The ion beam was analyzed by a sector magnet and is found to contain a larger percentage of Ar +4 than that without electron injection. To improve ion source efficiency, this means increasing ion current for the same, or lower RF power and gas consumption. A new design of RF ion source of small size and having a magnetic mirror - like shape could yield a current up to 12 m. A at extracting voltage 3 K.V and pressure = 20 m.Torr. Electrons were injected into the ion beam from filaments around the beam . Such electrons decrease the space charge repulsive forces between the particles. Samples of the beam profiles are traced by ion beam scanner, with and without suppression to electrons . From these samples we could deduce a decrease of ion beam emittance due to the effect of beam neutralization, which agrees with the theoretical work made for the effect of neutralization on the beam emittance

  3. Development of ion beams for space effects testing using an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Janilee; Hodgkinson, Adrian; Johnson, Mike; Loew, Tim; Lyneis, Claude; Phair, Larry [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    At LBNL's 88-Inch Cyclotron and Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects (BASE) Facility, a range of ion beams at energies from 1 to 55 MeV/nucleon are used for radiation space effects testing. By bombarding a component with ion beams the radiation component of the space environment can be simulated and single event effects (SEEs) determined. The performance of electronic components used in space flight and high altitude aircraft can then be evaluated. The 88- Inch Cyclotron is coupled to the three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECR, AECR-U, VENUS). These ion sources provide a variety of ion species, ranging from protons to heavy ions such as bismuth, for these tests. In particular the ion sources have been developed to provide {sup c}ocktails{sup ,} a mixture of ions of similar mass-to-charge ratio, which can be simultaneously injected into the cyclotron, but selectively extracted from it. The ions differ in both their linear energy transfer (LET) deposited to the part and in their penetration depth into the tested part. The current heavy ion cocktails available are the 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV per nucleon.

  4. Reconstruction of the Proton Source in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Polleri, Alberto; Mattiello, Raffaele; Mishustin, Igor; Bondorf, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    We describe a direct method to reconstruct the transverse proton source formed in a relativistic heavy ion collision, making use of experimentally measured proton and deuteron spectra and assuming that deuterons are formed via two-nucleon coalescence. We show that an ambiguity with respect to the source temperature still persists and we indicate a possible solution to the problem.

  5. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez, J.Y.; Franzen, K.Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C.M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M.; Tarvainen, Olli

    2012-01-01

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development a...

  6. Multimodal Vacuum-Assisted Plasma Ion (VaPI) Source with Transmission Mode and Laser Ablation Sampling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelor, Joel D.; Farnsworth, Paul B.; Weber, Arthur L.; Abbott-Lyon, Heather; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a multimodal ion source design that can be configured on the fly for various analysis modes, designed for more efficient and reproducible sampling at the mass spectrometer atmospheric pressure (AP) interface in a number of different applications. This vacuum-assisted plasma ionization (VaPI) source features interchangeable transmission mode and laser ablation sampling geometries. Operating in both AC and DC power regimes with similar results, the ion source was optimized for parameters including helium flow rate and gas temperature using transmission mode to analyze volatile standards and drug tablets. Using laser ablation, matrix effects were studied, and the source was used to monitor the products of model prebiotic synthetic reactions.

  7. Ion Sources and Injectors for HIF Induction Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source and injector development is one of the major parts of the HIF program in the USA. Our challenge is to design a cost effective driver-scale injector and to build a multiple beam module within the next couple of years. In this paper, several current-voltage scaling laws are summarized for guiding the injector design. Following the traditional way of building injectors for HIF induction linac, we have produced a preliminary design for a multiple beam driver-scale injector. We also developed an alternate option for a high current density injector that is much smaller in size. One of the changes following this new option is the possibility of using other kinds of ion sources than the surface ionization sources. So far, we are still looking for an ideal ion source candidate that can readily meet all the essential requirements

  8. A New Type Ion Source And Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a design and construction of an ion source was done, in order to obtain a high intensity ion beam and to determine the efficiency of the modified ion source. Also, the improvement of plasma and the ion beam characteristics have been studied in details. Different distances between the two anode rods (6, 12, 18 mm) were examined and tested to measure the ion beam current in terms of the discharge current, and consequently, a high density plasma is determined. It was found that the optimum distance is 6 mm, where at this distance a maximum ion current is obtained. Also the diameter of cathode surface was taken to be (5, 8,15 mm) to clarify the influence of the mechanical confinement on the extracted ion beam. A discharge region of 5 mm was found to be the optimum value for this ion source. Different shapes (ring, disk, sphere, and pierce) of focusing electrodes with different exit hole diameters (5, 7, 9 and 11 mm) were used as focusing electrodes. The optimum diameter for the focusing electrode was found to be 9 mm where maximum ion beam current is obtained.It has been concluded that the ion beam current is increased by three times (from 100 μA to 312 μA) by applying a focusing voltage Vf of -3 kV on a sphere focusing electrode. At Vf = -3 kV, the focusing electrode current If = 2.5 μA is only a small fraction of the total ion beam current and an ion beam current of 312 μA is produced at discharge current Id = 0.6 mA, due to the increase of stability at this value. Finally, this ion source is used as a preparation tool of the surface of PET polymer substrate to be ready for coating or thin film deposition. Ar ion beam has been used for this purpose, where the Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) shows that, the best sample is the one which has been irradiated up to 30 minutes. In this case the sample is more homogenous and of higher roughness than other irradiated samples. Also the (UV-VIS) spectrum tells us that, there is small change in energy gap

  9. Singularity and Bohm criterion in hot positive ion species in the electronegative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaninejad, Morteza; Yasserian, Kiomars

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the discharge for a magnetized electronegative ion source with two species of positive ions is investigated. The thermal motion of hot positive ions and the singularities involved with it are taken into account. By analytical solution of the neutral region, the location of the singular point and also the values of the plasma parameter such as electric potential and ion density at the singular point are obtained. A generalized Bohm criterion is recovered and discussed. In addition, for the non-neutral solution, the numerical method is used. In contrast with cold ion plasma, qualitative changes are observed. The parameter space region within which oscillations in the density and potential can be observed has been scanned and discussed. The space charge behavior in the vicinity of edge of the ion sources has also been discussed in detail.

  10. Highly charged ion production in ECRH plasma sources for heavy-ion accelerators and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and status of three ECRH ion sources under development at NSCL are briefly discussed. The RT-ECR ion source, with two minimum B plasma stages and ECRH heating at 6.4 GHz, produces useable intensities of fully stripped light ions up to oxygen; for heavier species, charges such as Argon 14+, Krypton 20+, Iodine 25+ and Tantalum 29+ have been measured. The 6.4 GHz CP-ECR, just beginning operation, has a high temperature metal vapor oven replacing the first plasma stage, and will be used for metal ion production. Initial results for Lithium ions are presented. The SC-ECR, now in the design stage, has a superconducting magnet structure to allow first harmonic ECRH heating at 30--35 GHz. With a higher cutoff density, it is hoped that A≅200 ions with Q>50+ will be realized

  11. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  12. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  13. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4. PMID:26932119

  14. Impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, J.; Gotoh, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Takagi, T.

    We have developed an impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source whose tip is a sintered-porous structure made of a refractory metal such as tungsten. By this structure the ratio of the liquid metal surface area facing the vacuum to the volume is low, which decreases useless metal evaporation from the surface. The maximum vapour pressure of the metal in operation for this ion source is 10 -1-10 0 Torr, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that for the needle type. Therefore, useful metal ions such as Ga +, Au +, Ag +, In +, Si 2+, Ge 2+, and Sb 2+ can be extracted from single element metals or alloys. The porous structure of the tip has also an effect on the positive control of the liquid metal flow rate to the tip head. Thus, a stable operation with a high current of a few hundreds of μA can be obtained together with a low current high brightness ion beam. Therefore, this ion source is suitable not only for microfocusing but also for a general use as a metal ion source.

  15. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source Project at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassen, J., E-mail: lassen@triumf.ca; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Geppert, Ch.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Resonant laser excitation and ionisation is one of the most successful tools for the selective production of radioactive ion beams (RIB) at on-line mass separator facilities. TRIUMF plans to augment the current ion sources with a resonant ionisation laser ion source (RILIS), to use the high production yields from the target, as shown by the delivery of 3*10{sup 4}/s {sup 11}Li ions from a standard target ion source with surface ionisation. The development and installation of TRIUMF's RILIS (TRILIS) is necessary to provide beams of short lived isotopes that conventional ion sources could not produce in sufficient intensity and purity for nuclear-, and nuclear astrophysics- experiments. A laser system consisting of three tunable titanium-sapphire (TiSa) lasers with frequency doubling and tripling was employed to demonstrate first off-line resonance ionisation of Ga, and is being installed for first on-line test and a run on {sup 62}Ga in December 2004.

  16. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H.; Pillai, S.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29 GIDC, Sector-25, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382016 (India); Soni, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2016-02-15

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems.

  17. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H.; Pillai, S.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems.

  18. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm2) for H- and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm2) for D- are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed

  19. Informal workshop on intense polarized ion sources: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Informal Workshop on Intense Polarized Ion Sources was held on March 6, 1980, at the O'Hare Hilton Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. The purpose of the Workshop was to discuss problems in developing higher-intensity polarized proton sources, particularly the optically-pumped source recently proposed by L.W. Anderson of the University of Wisconsin. A summary of the discussions is reported

  20. Imaging of Sources in Heavy-Ion Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.; Brown, D A

    1997-01-01

    We discuss imaging sources from low relative-velocity correlations in heavy-ion reactions. When the correlation is dominated by interference, we can obtain the images by Fourier transforming the correlation function. In the general case, we may use the method of optimized discretization. This method stabilizes the inversion by adapting the resolution of the source to the experimental error and to the measured velocities. The imaged sources contain information on freeze-out density, phase-spac...

  1. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  2. Production and diagnosis of krypton ion beam using a freeman ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work investigates the processes and phenomena occur in a Freeman heavy ion source system using krypton gas. The ion source parameters are adjusted in order to obtain the desired beam current with highest efficiency. The relations between the discharge current Id and the ion beam current Ib are obtained at constant pressures and for various accelerating voltages. The curves indicate a linear dependence of ion current from plasma density. Optimization of the ion source required adjustment of the cathode current and gas pressure. The dependence of ion beam currents on the accelerating voltage is given at constant discharge current (la = 0.8 A) and for various pressures. The ion beam current reaches 3m A at 45 KV and at a pressure of 2 x 105 Torr, and a cathode current equal to 130 A. An analysis has been made for an implanted Krypton ion beam in a zinc specimen using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Photographs show the examined zinc specimen are presented. The depth profile shows that the highest concentration of Krypton ion under the surface of the zinc specimen is located at about 10 nm

  3. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, M., E-mail: m-mura@nirs.go.jp; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  4. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M.; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.

    2016-02-01

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  5. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the H− ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H− ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H− ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H− extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H− ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H− ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H− ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision

  6. An ion source based on the cathodic arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, D.M.; Falabella, S.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the duel purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  7. Electron beam ion sources for student education at universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, Erik [DREEBIT GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, Guenter [TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Ion beams have become essential tools used in many fields of fundamental research as well as industrial applications. Thus, it is important for todays physics students to understand the basics of ion beam creation, transportation as well as ion-surface interactions. We present results from laboratory training courses using table-top sized electron beam ion sources of the Dresden EBIT type which is able to produce a large spectrum of ions with low or high charge states. The initial ion beam is guided through several ion optical elements like Einzel lenses and deflectors, is separated by the charge-to-mass ratio of its components with a Wien-Filter or dipole analyzing magnet and is detected in a Faraday Cup. A specific assembly for laboratory training as used at the Technische Universitaet Dresden and the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland, is introduced. In typical experiments, students analyze the charge-to-mass ratio spectrum from a Dresden EBIT measured using a Wien Filter. The composition of the extracted ion beam can be manipulated by the gas pressure or the ionisation time. In a wider context, the atomic physics processes occurring especially during the production of highly charged ions also appear in nuclear fusion facilities as well as in many astrophysical phenomena, for example supernovas. Such aspects can be discussed in order to help students connect to modern research carried out at large international facilities.

  8. A resonant ionization laser ion source at ORNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-step resonance laser ionization has become an essential tool for the production of isobarically pure radioactive ion beams at the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities around the world. A resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) has been developed for the former Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RILIS employs a hot-cavity ion source and a laser system featuring three grating-tuned and individually pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers, especially designed for stable and simple operation. The RILIS has been installed at the second ISOL production platform of former HRIBF and has successfully provided beams of exotic neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies. This paper reports the features, advantages, limitations, and on-line and off-line performance of the RILIS.

  9. Scanning microbeam using a liquid metal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitani, T.; Tamura, H.; Todokoro, H.

    1982-01-01

    A scanning ion microprobe system using a liquid-Ga ion source and a voltage-asymmetric three-electrode lens is developed. It produces 2--20 keV Ga/sup +/ beams of 0.1--5 ..mu..m diameter with 20 pA--8 nA current. Beam sizes are directly measured by a combined sharp-edge and Faraday cup mehtod. This optical system is well suited for variable energy microprobe applications.

  10. CONSTRUCTION OF POLARIZED HEAVY ION SOURCE AT RCNP

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, M.; Ohshima, T.; Abe, K.; Katori, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Itahashi, T.; Ogata, H; Kondo, M.

    1990-01-01

    A recent progress in the construction of a polarized heavy ion source at RCNP, Osaka University is presented. A basic principle of the polarization is a spin and charge exchange collision between a highly stripped heavy ion and a polarized sodium atom. The first possible evidence for the 3He nuclear polarization generated through this method was experimentally demonstrated by means of the beam foil spectroscopy.

  11. Project of electro-cyclotron resonance ion source test-bench for material investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulevoy, T V; Chalykh, B B; Kuibeda, R P; Kropachev, G N; Ziiatdinova, A V

    2014-02-01

    Development of new materials for future energy facilities with higher operating efficiency is a challenging and crucial task. However, full-scale testing of radiation hardness for reactor materials is quite sophisticated and difficult as it requires long session of reactor irradiation; moreover, induced radioactivity considerably complicates further investigation. Ion beam irradiation does not have such a drawback; on the contrary, it has certain advantages. One of them is high speed of defect formation. Therefore, it provides a useful tool for modeling of different radiation damages. Improved understanding of material behavior under high dose irradiation will probably allow to simulate reactor irradiation close to real conditions and to make an adequate estimation of material radiation hardness. Since 2008 in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, the ion beam irradiation experiments are under development at the heavy ion radio frequency quadrupole linac and very important results are obtained already [T. V. Kulevoy et al., in Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators, IAEA Vienna, Austria, 2009, http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1433_CD/darasets/papers/ap_p5_07.pdf]. Nevertheless, the new test bench based on electro-cyclotron resonance ion source and high voltage platform is developed. The project of the test bench is presented and discussed. PMID:24593489

  12. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitzer, Seth A., E-mail: veitzer@txcorp.com; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan, E-mail: madhusnk@txcorp.com; Stoltz, Peter H., E-mail: phstoltz@txcorp.com; Beckwith, Kristian R. C., E-mail: beckwith@txcorp.com [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  13. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  14. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  15. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  16. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  17. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  18. Surface modeling for optical fabrication with linear ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lixiang; Shao, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. It is the first time that we have a surface descriptor for building a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on PSD analysis, which akin to Zernike polynomials used for mapping the relationship between surface errors and Seidel aberrations. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of surface errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that, in theory, optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approac...

  19. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  20. The RHIC polarized H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A., E-mail: zelenski@bnl.gov; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H{sup −} ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H{sup −} ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  1. Design and development of the CSNS ion source control system

    CERN Document Server

    Yan-Hua, Lu; Hua-Fu, Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    After the CSNS ion source test stand has been stably working for years, an online control system for CSNS ion source aiming to be more stable and reliable is now under development. F3RP61-2L, a new PLC CPU module under Linux system, is introduced to the system as an IOC, to function together with the I/O modules of FA-M3 PLC on the PLC-bus. The adoption of the new IOC not only simplifies the architecture of the control system, but also improves the data transmission speed. In this paper, the design and development of the supervisory and control system for CSNS ion source are described.

  2. Upwelling O(+) ion source characteristics. [in polar magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.; Lockwood, M.; Chandler, M. O.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Chappell, C. R.; Persoon, A.; Sugiura, M.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of an upwelling ion source are discussed. A typical upwelling event is analyzed using Dynamic Explorer 1 satellite retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) observations of the low-energy plasma, and energetic ion and local electromagnetic field observations. The RIMS spectrograms of the O(+) ion species, radial and axial head data for O(+), and spin plan O(+) distribution functions are examined. The features of the upwelling observed include: (1) transverse ion heating to temperature of 100,000 K, (2) large outward flows of O(+), (3) enhanced flow of H(+) and He (+), (4) moderately strong field-aligned current sheets, (5) an associated intense eastward convection channel, and (6) strong wave emissions in the range near and below the proton gyrofrequency. The association between the upwelling O(+) signature and auroral current is investigated. Plasma wave and electric field environments are studied and plasma flows and densities are derived. It is noted that the mechanism for ion heating which defines the source region for these polar ion outflows is related to field-aligned currents and an associated auroral convection channel or jet.

  3. Development of electron cyclotron resonance heavy ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam is a major scientific ingredient to explore many new fields of research over a wide energy range (from a few eV to a few TeV). The basic requirement is to have an ion source that will produce highly charged (Z) high intensity ion beam with low emittance over the entire mass range and will work stably over a long time and having 100% duty cycle. These are very useful requirements in accelerator applications in particular. Performance of present day Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has almost fulfilled all the above conditions. In ECRIS, high-Z ions are produced by subjecting low-Z ions in a plasma to successive impact of hot electrons, which are efficiently energized by rf power, the frequency of which equals the cyclotron frequency of the electrons in the magnetic field. The emphasis on ECRIS development has been to increase electron temperature Te and nτ factor, where n is electron density and τ is the ion confinement time, which in turn is related to plasma confinement and stability. In this paper the development on ECRIS and the experiences with the 6.4 GHz ECRIS indigenously built at the VEC centre will be briefly presented. (author). 32 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Development work with the JYFL ECR ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, H.; Heikkinen, P.; Ranttila, K.; ńrje, J.; Liukkonen, E.

    2001-12-01

    Two ECR ion sources are presently operational at the Accelerator Laboratory of the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä. The former JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS has worked reliably since its construction in 1989-90. It has been used approximately 4500 h/year for the production of heavy ion beams and more than 46 000 plasma-on hours have been achieved. Presently this source is also used for the experiments of material physics and it will be upgraded to better meet the ion beam requirements set by the new programs. The magnetic field calculations have shown that the known rules for the magnetic field configuration can be fulfilled by better iron and coil configuration. New power supplies for the coils are not needed. The new JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was completed in spring 2000. Since that, several ion beams have been developed-for example 45 μA of Ti11+ ion beam using the MIVOC method. The internal oven for the production of calcium ion beams has been developed. In the first test, 75 μA of Ca11+ ion beam was obtained with a microwave power of 500 W.

  5. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Logan, B. Grant

    2005-10-01

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.

  6. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ∼ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage (∼ 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K+ ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments

  7. Design and test of the ion mobility spectrometer with corona discharge ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we describe in detail the design and construction of a home built ion mobility spectrometer with corona discharge as an ionization source. The ion mobility spectra have been recorded using the corona discharge in two different modes: i) chemical ionization and ii) direct ionization in the corona discharge. The chemical ionization of the organic compounds resulted in less fragmented ion mobility spectra in comparison to the direct ionization of the compounds in the corona discharge. The measured positive ion mobility spectra of several organic compounds including acetone, methanol, ethanol and benzene are presented. (Authors)

  8. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  9. Optimization of negative ion sources for a heavy-ion-beam probe

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiura, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Kato, S.; Tsukada, K.; Nishizawa, A.; Hamada, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mendenilla, A.; Wada, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of plasma-sputter-type negative ion sources is underway for the heavy-ion-beam probe system as plasma diagnostic beams of the large helical device (LHD) for potential and fluctuation field measurements. Our purpose is to increase the doubly charged exchanged Au^+ beam intensity to enhance the detection signal after passing through the plasmas of the LHD. For this purpose, the characterization of the Au^– ion source and the beam optics has been carried out both experimentally a...

  10. The Leuven isotope separator on-line laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Y; Franchoo, S; Huyse, M; Gentens, J; Kruglov, K; Müller, W F; Prasad, N V S; Raabe, R; Reusen, I; Van den Bergh, P; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Vermeeren, L; Weissman, L

    2002-01-01

    An element-selective laser ion source has been used to produce beams of exotic radioactive nuclei and to study their decay properties. The operational principle of the ion source is based on selective resonant laser ionization of nuclear reaction products thermalized and neutralized in a noble gas at high pressure. The ion source has been installed at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL), which is coupled on-line to the cyclotron accelerator at Louvain-la-Neuve. sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Ni and sup 5 sup 4 sup , sup 5 sup 5 Co isotopes were produced in light-ion-induced fusion reactions. Exotic nickel, cobalt and copper nuclei were produced in proton-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U. The b decay of the sup 6 sup 8 sup - sup 7 sup 4 Ni, sup 6 sup 7 sup - sup 7 sup 0 Co, sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 7 sup 5 Cu and sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup - sup 1 sup 1 sup 4 Rh isotopes has been studied by means of beta-gamma and gamma-gamma spectroscopy. Recently, the laser ion source has been used to produce neutron-d...

  11. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  12. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  13. Analysis of Large Release Source Terms in AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant%AP1000核电厂大量放射性释放源项分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨

    2012-01-01

    AP1000核电厂的某些严重事故情景中,安全壳可能发生失效或旁通,导致大量放射性物质释放到环境中,造成严重的放射性污染.针对大量放射性释放频率贡献最大的3种释放类别(安全壳旁通、安全壳早期失效和安全壳隔离失效),分别选取典型的严重事故序列(蒸汽发生器传热管破裂、自动卸压系统阀门误开启和压力容器破裂),使用MAAP程序计算分析了释放到环境中的裂变产物源项.该分析结果为量化AP1000核电厂的放射性释放后果和厂外剂量分析提供了必要的输入.%In some severe accident scenarios of AP1000 nuclear power plant, a breach or bypass of the containment will lead to large release to environment, which causes severe radioactive pollution of environment. Three release categories (bypass, early containment failure and containment isolation failure) have the largest contribution to large release frequency. Three typical severe accidents (steam generator tube rupture, spuriously open of automatic depressurization system valves and reactor pressure vessel rupture) were selected as typical cases corresponding to the three release categories and the fission-product source terms released to environment were calculated using MAAP code. The analysis results are provided as essential input data for quantifying the release of AP1000 nuclear power plant and the offsite dose analysis.

  14. Inverted spherical ioniser sputter ion source (IS3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflected beam sputter ion source has been found to have an inherent need for frequent readjustment of several voltages during use. Its lack of cylindrical symmetry is reflected in the asymmetry of its beam, and the position and shape of the sputtering Cs+ beam have been shown to depend strongly on the Cs+ current because of space charge effects. There has been a tendency for ion source designs starting from a simple concept to be subjected to continual improvement a process which, while improving one feature, often complicates the originally simple concept, and makes operation more complex

  15. Recycling effect of germanium on ECR ion source

    OpenAIRE

    Leherissier, P.; Barué, C.; Canet, C; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lemagnen, F.; R. LEROY; Pacquet, J.Y.

    2003-01-01

    After running for three weeks with a 76Ge beam provided by the ECR-4 ion source at GANILwe have investigated the recycling effect of an SF6 plasma. The initial beam was produced bythe classical method, using germanium dioxide in our micro-oven and helium as support gas.The overall ionization efficiency was measured and found to be around 3%. Without theoven, and using SF6 instead of helium, the ECR-4 ion source has been able to produce a verystable beam during a two-week period. The intensity...

  16. Ion beams in SEM: An experiment towards a high brightness low energy spread electron impact gas ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jun, D.S.; Kutchoukov, V.G.; Kruit, P.

    2011-01-01

    A next generation ion source suitable for both high resolution focused ion beam milling and imaging applications is currently being developed. The new ion source relies on a method of which positively charged ions are extracted from a miniaturized gas chamber where neutral gas atoms become ionized b

  17. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  18. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H- ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y. W.; Fuja, R.; Goulding, R. H.; Hardek, T.; Lee, S.-W.; McCarthy, M. P.; Piller, M. C.; Shin, K.; Stockli, M. P.; Welton, R. F.

    2010-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering ˜38 mA H- beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier.

  19. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, J Y; Franzen, K Y; Hodgkinson, A; Loew, T; Lyneis, C M; Phair, L; Saba, J; Strohmeier, M; Tarvainen, O

    2012-02-01

    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development and testing of ovens and sputtering techniques cover a wide range of applications. Recent experiments on bismuth demonstrated stable operation at 300 eμA of Bi(31+), which is in the intensity range of interest for high performance heavy-ion drivers such as FRIB (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams). In addition, the space radiation effects testing program at the cyclotron relies on the production of a cocktail beam with many species produced simultaneously in the ion source and this can be done with a combination of gases, sputter probes, and an oven. These capabilities are being developed with VENUS by adding a low temperature oven, sputter probes, as well as studying the RF coupling into the source.

  20. Small cluster ions from source of negative ions by cesium sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X M; Shao, L; Liu, J R; Chu, W K

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the delivery of small cluster ions using a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering (SNICS). The negative cluster ions of B sub n , C sub n , Si sub n , Co sub n , Cu sub n , Ge sub n , Au sub n , GeB sub n and SiB sub n have been extracted by SNICS. Adequate beam current of some small clusters was obtained by changing several parameters for cluster ion yield. After a comprehensive study of the operation parameters, such as target material selection, target geometry, sputtering voltage and current, the small cluster ion current can be increased by several orders of magnitude, with little change on the monomer ion yield.

  1. Collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves as a possible source of energetic heavy ions in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providakes, Jason; Seyler, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism is proposed for the source of energetic heavy ions (NO/+/, O2/+/, and O/+/) found in the magnetosphere. Simulations using a multispecies particle simulation code for resistive current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron waves show transverse and parallel bulk heating of bottomside ionospheric heavy ion populations. The dominant mechanism for the transverse bulk heating is resonant ion heating by wave-particle ion trapping. Using a linear kinetic dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional, homogenous, and multiion plasma, it is found that collisional electrostatic ion cyclotron waves near the NO(+), O2(+), and O(+) gyrofrequencies are unstable to field-aligned currents of 50 microA/sq m for a typical bottomside ionosphere.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  3. A simple radionuclide-driven single-ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Díez, M Montero; Fairbank, W; Gratta, G; Barbeau, P S; Barry, K; DeVoe, R; Dolinski, M J; Green, M; LePort, F; Müller, A R; Neilson, R; O'Sullivan, K; Ackerman, N; Aharmin, B; Auger, M; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Burenkov, A; Cook, S; Daniels, T; Donato, K; Farine, J; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Hagemann, C; Hall, C; Hall, K; Hallman, D; Hargrove, C; Herrin, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K; Lacey, J; Leonard, D S; Mackay, D; MacLellan, R; Mong, B; Niner, E; Odian, A; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Pushkin, K; Rollin, E; Rowson, P C; Sinclair, D; Slutsky, S; Stekhanov, V; Vuilleumier, J -L; Wichoski, U; Wodin, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R

    2010-01-01

    We describe a source capable of producing single barium ions through nuclear recoils in radioactive decay. The source is fabricated by electroplating 148Gd onto a silicon {\\alpha}-particle detector and vapor depositing a layer of BaF2 over it. 144Sm recoils from the alpha decay of 148Gd are used to dislodge Ba+ ions from the BaF2 layer and emit them in the surrounding environment. The simultaneous detection of an {\\alpha} particle in the substrate detector allows for tagging of the nuclear decay and of the Ba+ emission. The source is simple, durable, and can be manipulated and used in different environments. We discuss the fabrication process, which can be easily adapted to emit most other chemical species, and the performance of the source.

  4. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion FusionApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter {approx} few mm), high current density (J {approx} several tens of mA/cm{sup 2}) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K{sup +} beam of {approx}90 mA/cm{sup 2} were observed in 2.3 {micro}s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times ({approx} 1 {micro}s), high current densities ({approx} 100 mA/cm{sup 2}) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured ({var_epsilon}{sub n} {le} 0.006 {pi} mm {center_dot} mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I {approx} 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  5. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ∼90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm2) and low operating pressures (epsilon)n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  6. Discrimination of ionic species from broad-beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a broad-beam, three-grid, ion extraction system incorporating radio frequency (RF) mass discrimination was investigated experimentally. This testing demonstrated that the system, based on a modified single-stage Bennett mass spectrometer, can discriminate between ionic species having about a 2-to-1 mass ratio while producing a broad-beam of ions with low kinetic energy (less than 15 eV). Testing was conducted using either argon and krypton ions or atomic and diatomic oxygen ions. A simple one-dimensional model, which ignores magnetic field and space-charge effects, was developed to predict the species separation capabilities as well as the kinetic energies of the extracted ions. The experimental results correlated well with the model predictions. This RF mass discrimination system can be used in applications where both atomic and diatomic ions are produced, but a beam of only one of the species is desired. An example of such an application is a 5 eV atomic oxygen source. This source would produce a beam of atomic oxygen with 5 eV kinetic energy, which would be directed onto a material specimen, to simulate the interaction between the surface of a satellite and the rarefied atmosphere encountered in low-Earth orbit

  7. Laser Cooled Strontium Source for an Ion Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Mary; Archibald, James; Erickson, Christopher; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-10-01

    We present a Strontium-87 magneto-optical trap (MOT) in a Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) as the source of cooled, collimated atoms for an ion interferometer. Laser cooling and trapping is accomplished with a 461 nm frequency doubled laser and a pair of permanent magnets. A beam of cooled atoms is produced by passing the atoms through a hole drilled in one of the retroreflecting optics. The atoms are then photo-ionized in a two photon process.

  8. Calculation of ion charge-state distribution in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the pioneering efforts of Y. Yongen (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium) a code has been developed to calculate the equilibrium ion charge-state distribution for electron-cyclotron resonance source (ECR) ion sources. Production of ions is caused by the impact ionization of the charge gas from ECR-heated electrons of a few keV. Loss of an ion of a given charge state is from charge exchange and radiative recombination. Ultimately, the ion flows out of the minimum-B containment region. The ion confinement times are calculated using an ion-trap-potential model which is based upon modeling calculations done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Tandem Mirror Machine. Using this model requires the self-consistent determination of the trap potential and thermal electron density in the plasma. Code inputs are gas natural density, hot-electron temperature and density, ion temperature, cold-electron temperature, mirror ratio, physical dimensions, and atomic-physics data. Other than that there are no adjustable parameters. Results of comparison of calculations with the limited available data are reasonable

  9. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  10. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O7+ and 1.15 emA of O6+, more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar13+, Ca13+, Fe13+, Co14+, and Kr18+, and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr26+, Xe28+, Au35+, Bi34+, and U34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe36+, Au46+, Bi47+, and U48+. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Beamlet interaction in multi-aperture negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hanada, Masaya; Kawai, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Kenji; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Beamlet interaction, which may deteriorate beam convergence, was studied in a high-current negative ion beam composed of multiple beamlets. Experimental results demonstrated that a deflection angle of beamlets at the edge of a beam was larger than that at the center of a beam, because of space charge effect. The deflection angle was independent of the beam energy ranging from 86 keV to 178 keV at the same perveance. Effect of electrons accompanying negative ions was confirmed to be negligible. It was shown that repulsive force due to space charge effect was inversely proportional to the square of distance. The maximum deflection angle of a large negative ion source for the JT-60 Negative ion-NBI system was estimated to be about 6.6 mrad based on the obtained results. Shaping of a grid was proposed to compensate the beamlet interaction. Beam orbit simulations indicated the effectiveness of the shaping. (author)

  12. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H., E-mail: bamboobbu@hotmail.com [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-106, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, K.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Dong, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Pan, H.; Wang, W.; Jiang, W.; Long, J.; Xia, L.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-106, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu{sup +} ions (∼10{sup 12} ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 π mm mrad.

  13. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. On the dynamics of liquid metal ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Ganetsos, Th. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Panepistimiopolis, Zographos, Athens (Greece); Aidinis, C.J. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Applied Physics, Panepistimiopolis, Zographos, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: caidinis@cc.uoa.gr; Bischoff, L. [Research Center Rossendorf Inc, Institute of Ion Beam and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2002-06-21

    The mechanisms governing the formation of the liquid metal cone that constitutes the basis of a liquid metal ion source (LMIS) are investigated. Cone formation times ranging from <20 ns up to several hundreds of ms have been reported in the literature. This paper attempts to explain these differences by devising a theoretical model that encompasses inertial and flow effects. (author)

  15. Analysis of Magnetic Field of the DNB Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yahong; HU Chundong; LIU Sheng; LIU Zhimin; WANG Shaohu

    2008-01-01

    A distribution of the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets in the DNB ion source is calculated and analyzed in order to understand the plasma confinement in a cusped magnetic field and optimize plasma discharge. A uniform plasma is obtained in the experiment.

  16. A LASER ION-SOURCE FOR ONLINE MASS SEPARATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDUPPEN, P; DENDOOVEN, P; HUYSE, M; VERMEEREN, L; QAMHIEH, ZN; SILVERANS, RE; VANDEWEERT, E

    1992-01-01

    A laser ion source based on resonance photo ionization in a gas cell is proposed. The gas cell, filled with helium, consists of a target chamber in which the recoil products are stopped and neutralized, and an ionization chamber where the atoms of interest are selectively ionized by the laser light.

  17. The Cathode Ramper: Application for the Duoplasmatron Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Conejo, J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Cathode Ramper Application is to heat the Linac 2 duoplasmatron ion source cathode up to a desired temperature selected by the user. The application has been developed in Java, making use of the Java Development Kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment.

  18. Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H+ ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D+ beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

  19. Estimation of Sputtering Damages on a Magnetron H- Ion Source Induced by Cs+ and H+ Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Alessi, J; Kalvas, t

    2013-01-01

    An H− ion source is being developed for CERN’s Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99% during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H− beams in the extraction region of BNL’s magnetron ion source. The respective contributions o...

  20. Separation of beam and electrons in the spallation neutron source H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) requires an ion source producing an H- beam with a peak current of 35 mA at a 6.2% duty factor. For the design of this ion source, extracted electrons must be transported and dumped without adversely affecting the H- beam optics. Two issues are considered: (1) electron containment transport and controlled removal; and (2) first-order H- beam steering. For electron containment, various magnetic, geometric and electrode biasing configurations are analyzed. A kinetic description for the negative ions and electrons is employed with self-consistent fields obtained from a steady-state solution to Poisson's equation. Guiding center electron trajectories are used when the gyroradius is sufficiently small. The magnetic fields used to control the transport of the electrons and the asymmetric sheath produced by the gyrating electrons steer the ion beam. Scenarios for correcting this steering by split acceleration and focusing electrodes will be considered in some detail

  1. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Seouk [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Wook, E-mail: Seunglee@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  2. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  3. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research

  4. H/sup -/ ion source research at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, P.; Smith, H.V. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Up to 160 mA of H/sup -/ ions has been extracted at 20 kV from a 10 by 0.5-mm/sup 2/ slit in a Penning surface-plasma source. Typically, 70% of the beam can be transported through a bending magnet to a Faraday cup or emittance scanner. Up to 90% transmission has been observed for some neutralizing gases. Average and pulsed cesium flows from the source were measured with a surface-ionization gauge. Operating parameters of the source and measurements of the emittance are reported.

  5. RF Plasma source for a Heavy Ion Fusion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing high-current ion sources for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) applications. Our proposed RF plasma source starts with an array of high current density mini-beamlets (of a few milliampere each at ∼100 mA/cm2) that are kept separated from each other within a set of acceleration grids. After they have gained sufficient kinetic energy (>1.2 MeV), the mini-beamlets are allowed to merge together to form a high current beam (about 0.5 A) with low emittance. Simulations have been done to maximize the beam brightness within the physical constraints of the source. We have performed a series of experiments on an RF plasma source. A 80-kV 20-μs source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar+ in a single beamlet and we measured the emittance of a beamlet, its energy spread, and the fraction of ions in higher charge states. We have also tested a 50-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array. Two upcoming experiments are being prepared: the first experiment will test full-gradient extraction and transport of 61 beamlets through the first four electrodes, and the second experiment will converge 119 beamlets into an ESQ channel at one-quarter scaled voltage of a 1.6 MV HIF injector

  6. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A., E-mail: sanin@inp.nsk.su; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  7. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  8. First experiments with gasdynamic ion source in CW mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga@ipfran.ru; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    A new type of ECR ion source—a gasdynamic ECR ion source—has been recently developed at the Institute of Applied Physics. The main advantages of such device are extremely high ion beam current with a current density up to 600–700 emA/cm{sup 2} in combination with low emittance, i.e., normalized RMS emittance below 0.1 π mm mrad. Previous investigations were carried out in pulsed operation with 37.5 or 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW at SMIS 37 experimental facility. The present work demonstrates the first experience of operating the gasdynamic ECR ion source in CW mode. A test bench of SMIS 24 facility has been developed at IAP RAS. 24 GHz radiation of CW gyrotron was used for plasma heating in a magnetic trap with simple mirror configuration. Initial studies of plasma parameters were performed. Ion beams with pulsed and CW high voltage were successfully extracted from the CW discharge. Obtained experimental results demonstrate that all advantages of the gasdynamic source can be realized also in CW operation.

  9. Design of 1+ Ion Source Coupling First Design of the Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source For the Multi-Mega Watt Target Station

    CERN Document Server

    A. Olivier, F. Le Blanc, C. Lau

    The realisation of next-generation ion sources suitable for the EURISOL multi-mega-watt (MMW) target station needs exhaustive studies and developments. An exhaustive review was carried out to evaluate the capability of the ion-sources to operate under the irradiation conditions of the MMW target station. In addition, selectivity must be taken into account to avoid the spread of unwanted radioactivity out of the target-ion-source system (TIS).These studies led to consider RILIS (Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source) as the reference ion source for this target station.

  10. Ion Current Density Calculation of the Inductive Radio Frequency Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Voznyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A radio-frequency (RF inductive ion source at 27.12 MHz is investigated. With a global model of the argon discharge, plasma density, electron temperature and ion current density of the ion source is calculated in relation to absorbed RF power and gas pressure as a discharge chamber size changes. It is found that ion beam current density grows as the discharge chamber size decreases. Calculations show that in the RF source with a discharge chamber 30 mm in diameter and 35 mm long the ion current density is 40 mA/cm2 at 100 W of absorbed RF power and 7 mTorr of pressure, and agrees well with experimentally measured value of 43 mA/cm2. With decreasing discharge chamber diameter to 15 mm ion current density can reach 85 mA/cm2 at absorbed RF power of 100 W.

  11. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  12. Gas feeding molecular phosphorous ion source for semiconductor implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.; Bugaev, A. S.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Hershcovitch, A.

    2014-02-01

    Phosphorus is a much used dopant in semiconductor technology. Its vapors represent a rather stable tetratomic molecular compound and are produced from one of the most thermodynamically stable allotropic forms of phosphorus—red phosphorus. At vacuum heating temperatures ranging from 325 °C, red phosphorus evaporates solely as P4 molecules (P4/P2 ˜ 2 × 105, P4/P ˜ 1021). It is for this reason that red phosphorus is best suited as a source of polyatomic molecular ion beams. The paper reports on experimental research in the generation of polyatomic phosphorus ion beams with an alternative P vapor source for which a gaseous compound of phosphorus with hydrogen - phosphine - is used. The ion source is equipped with a specially designed dissociator in which phosphine heated to temperatures close to 700 °C decomposes into molecular hydrogen and phosphorus (P4) and then the reaction products are delivered through a vapor line to the discharge chamber. Experimental data are presented reflecting the influence of the discharge parameters and temperature of the dissociator heater on the mass-charge state of the ion beam.

  13. Numerical modeling of the SNS H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.

    2015-04-01

    Ion source rf antennas that produce H- ions can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator is one of the top priorities of the SNS H- Source Program at ORNL. Numerical modeling of ion sources can provide techniques for optimizing design in order to reduce antenna failures. There are a number of difficulties in developing accurate models of rf inductive plasmas. First, a large range of spatial and temporal scales must be resolved in order to accurately capture the physics of plasma motion, including the Debye length, rf frequencies on the order of tens of MHz, simulation time scales of many hundreds of rf periods, large device sizes on tens of cm, and ion motions that are thousands of times slower than electrons. This results in large simulation domains with many computational cells for solving plasma and electromagnetic equations, short time steps, and long-duration simulations. In order to reduce the computational requirements, one can develop implicit models for both fields and particle motions (e.g. divergence-preserving ADI methods), various electrostatic models, or magnetohydrodynamic models. We have performed simulations using all three of these methods and have found that fluid models have the greatest potential for giving accurate solutions while still being fast enough to perform long timescale simulations in a reasonable amount of time. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS H- ion source. We found that a reduced, single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field generated increased bulk plasma velocities of > 200 m/s in the region of the antenna where ablation is often observed in the SNS source. We report

  14. Effects of a dielectric material in an ion source on the ion beam current density and ion beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y., E-mail: yutaka-fujiwara@aist.go.jp; Sakakita, H.; Nakamiya, A. [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand a strong focusing phenomenon that occurs in a low-energy hydrogen ion beam, the electron temperature, the electron density, and the space potential in an ion source with cusped magnetic fields are measured before and after the transition to the focusing state using an electrostatic probe. The experimental results show that no significant changes are observed before or after the transition. However, we found unique phenomena that are characterized by the position of the electrostatic probe in the ion source chamber. Specifically, the extracted ion beam current density and energy are obviously enhanced in the case where the electrostatic probe, which is covered by a dielectric material, is placed close to an acceleration electrode.

  15. Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source: II. The first investigations at 10 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsyannikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    The basic principles of design for the compact ion source of new generation are presented. The device uses the local ion trap created by the axial electron beam rippled in a thick magnetic lens. In accordance with this feature, the ion source is given the name main magnetic focus ion source. The experimental evidences for the production of Ir$^{59+}$, Xe$^{44+}$, and Ar$^{16+}$ ions are obtained. The control over depth of the local ion trap is shown to be feasible.

  16. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusche, C., E-mail: tusche@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He{sup +} ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He{sup 2+} operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*{sup +} (2s) ions.

  17. A Tubular Ionizer as an Efficient Negative Fluorine Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish the optimal conditions of F- ion production by the tubular ionizer extensive studies of SF6 ionization using the mass separator were performed. The SF6, SF5, SF4, SF3 and F negative ions were observed, and the F- yields as a function of the source temperature, gas pressure and an amount of alkaline metal vapors (K, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba) were measured. The efficiency of F- production of about 40 obtained for the optimal conditions. The delay time and adsorption enthalpy of fluorine on the tantalum surface has been measured for the first time. (author)

  18. Numerical simulation program of multicomponent ion beam transport from ECR ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lei; SONG Ming-Tao; CAO Yun; ZHAO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Zi-Min; LI Xue-Qian; LI Jia-Cai

    2004-01-01

    In order to research multi-component ion beam transport process and improve transport efficiency, a special simulating program for ECR beam is becoming more and more necessary. We have developed a program written by Visual Basic to be dedicated to numerical simulation of the highly charged ion beam and to optimization of beam dynamics in transport line. In the program the exchange of electrons between highly charged ions and low chargedions or neutral atoms (residual gas in transport line) is taken into account, adopting classical molecular over-barrier model and Monte Carlo method, so the code can easily give the change of charge state distribution along the transmission line. The main advantage of the code is the ability to simultaneously simulate a large quantity of ions with different masses and charge states, and particularly, to simulate the loss of highly charged ions and the increase of low charged ions due to electron exchange in the whole transport process. Some simulations have been done to study the transmission line of LECR3[1] which is an ECR ion source for highly charged ion beam at IMP. Compared with experimental results, the simulations are considered to be successful.

  19. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  20. Linac4 H{sup −} ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; David, N.; Chaudet, E.; Fink, D. A.; Garlasche, M.; Grudiev, A.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Haase, M.; Jones, A.; Koszar, I.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lombardi, A. M.; Machado, C. [CERN-ABP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-02-15

    CERN’s 160 MeV H{sup −} linear accelerator (Linac4) is a key constituent of the injector chain upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider that is being installed and commissioned. A cesiated surface ion source prototype is being tested and has delivered a beam intensity of 45 mA within an emittance of 0.3 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad. The optimum ratio of the co-extracted electron- to ion-current is below 1 and the best production efficiency, defined as the ratio of the beam current to the 2 MHz RF-power transmitted to the plasma, reached 1.1 mA/kW. The H{sup −} source prototype and the first tests of the new ion source optics, electron-dump, and front end developed to minimize the beam emittance are presented. A temperature regulated magnetron H{sup −} source developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory was built at CERN. The first tests of the magnetron operated at 0.8 Hz repetition rate are described.

  1. The Gridless Plasma Ion Source(GIS)for Plasma Ion Assisted Optical Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤大伟; 李晓谦; 王宇; 林永昌

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm(diameter), a high ion current density ~ 0.5mA/cm2, 20 eV ~ 200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of I kW ~ 7.5 kW, a current of 10 A ~ 70 A and an ion density of 200μA/cm2 ~ 500μA/cm2. Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500μA/cm2 in the medium power (~ 4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO2, SiO2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure.

  2. A review of vacuum ARC ion source research at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C. [ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    1996-08-01

    The authors talk briefly describes the history and current status of vacuum arc ion source research at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In addition, the author makes some mention of the important role of previous Vacuum Arc Ion Source Workshops in fostering the development of this research field internationally. During the period 1986 - 89, a type of plasma centrifuge known as a vacuum arc centrifuge was developed at ANSTO as part of a research project on stable isotope separation. In this device, a high current vacuum arc discharge was used to produce a metal plasma which was subsequently rotated in an axial magnetic field. The high rotational speeds (10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6} rad sec{sup {minus}1}) achievable with this method produce centrifugal separation of ions with different mass:charge ratios such as isotopic species. The first portent of things to come occurred in 1985 when Dr. Ian Brown visited ANSTO`s Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and presented a talk on the metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source which had only recently been invented by Brown and co-workers, J. Galvin and R. MacGill, at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. For those of us involved in vacuum arc centrifuge research, this was an exciting development primarily because the metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source was common to both devices. Thus, a type of arc, which had since the 1930`s been extensively investigated as a means of switching high current loads, had found wider application as a useful plasma source.

  3. Improved field geometries for SABRE extraction ion diode operation with passive ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SABRE Facility at Sandia National Laboratories is an integrated testbed for the study of high voltage ion beam production and transport in extraction geometry for inertial confinement fusion. Our major emphasis is on the development of active ion sources, but several techniques are under investigation to improve diode performance with passive hydrocarbon and LiF ion sources. The operation of passive sources is particularly sensitive to details of the magnetic and electric field geometries and can provide insight into divergence and parasitic load mechanisms which also affect high voltage diode performance with active sources. We demonstrate that an outer cathode lip extension can eliminate cathode feed electron participation in source turn-on and virtual cathode evolution. Experimental data and TWOQUICK PIC code simulations indicate that instability-induced cross-field diffusion of cathode tip electrons at small radius plays a dominant role in diode operation with a passive source. An improved diode geometry is presented with reduced feed electrode participation and better electron confinement at the anode emission area for lithium sources

  4. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ''ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A ampersand M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H- Source; The H+ ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research

  5. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  6. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS

  7. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  8. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Romanelli, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kumaki, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 1: Workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop reviewed the ion-source requirements for high-power accelerator-driven spallation neutron facilities, and the performance of existing ion sources. Proposals for new facilities in the 1- to 5-MW range call for a widely differing set of ion-source requirements. For example, the source peak current requirements vary from 40 mA to 150 mA, while the duty factor ranges from 1% to 9%. Much of the workshop discussion centered on the state-of-the-art of negative hydrogen ion source (H-) technology and the present experience with Penning and volume sources. In addition, other ion source technologies, for positive ions or CW applications were reviewed. Some of these sources have been operational at existing accelerator complexes and some are in the source-development stage on test stands

  10. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  11. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized 3He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem

  12. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  13. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  14. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  15. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Variale, V., E-mail: vincenzo.variale@ba.infn.it [INFN-BA, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN – LNL, viale dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D{sup −} beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D{sup −} and D{sup +}), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H{sup −} each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  16. Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of high charge state ions with the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (AECR) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been significantly improved by application of various new techniques. Heating the plasma simultaneously with microwaves of two frequencies (10 and 14 GHz) has increased the production of very high charge state heavy ions. The two-frequency technique provides extra electron cyclotron resonance heating zone as compared to the single-frequency heating and improves the heating of the plasma electrons. Aluminum oxide on the plasma chamber surface improves the production of cold electrons at the chamber surfaces and increases the performance of the AECR. Fully stripped argon ions, ≥5 enA, were produced and directly identified by the source charge state analyzing system. High charge state ion beams of bismuth and uranium, such as 209Bi51+ and 238U53+, were produced by the source and accelerated by the 88-in. cyclotron to energies above 6 MeV/nucleon for the first time. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. PMID:25601688

  18. Spectroscopic applications of the ISOLDE laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, V; Fedosseev, V; Georg, U; Huber, G; Jading, Y; Jonsson, O; Köster, U; Koizumi, M; Kratz, K L; Kugler, E; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Ravn, H L; Tamburella, C; Wöhr, A

    1998-01-01

    At the ISOLDE facility radioactive ion beams are produced via proton induced reactions in a target which is connected to a laser ion source. For beryllium a two step excitation scheme with laser light at wavelengths of lambda =235 nm and lambda =297 nm has been developed. Efficient laser ionization of beryllium was achieved with a new optical set-up using frequency tripling with two non-linear BBO crystals to generate laser light in the ultraviolet for the first excitation step. The second step was optimized to reach the 2p/sup 2 1/S/sub 0/ autoionizing state for high ionization efficiency. The isotope shift of /sup 7,9,10,11,12,14/Ba could be measured by tuning the wavelength of the first step. The laser ion source has also been used for the preparation of neutron-rich silver ion beams. Tuning the laser frequency of the first step it was possible to ionize selectively low- and high spin isomers of silver isotopes via the hyperfine structure. In both cases it was demonstrated that laser spectroscopy of exotic...

  19. Status report of the JYFL-ECR ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Ärje, J; Seppälä, R; Hyvönen, H; Liukkonen, E; Heikkinen, P; Nieminen, V; Ranttila, K; Hänninen, V; Lassila, A; Pakarinen, J; Koivisto, H; Xie, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    "Ion beam cocktails" are mixtures of ions with near-identical charge-to-mass ratios. In conjunction with the JYFL-ECRIS, the K130-cyclotron acts as a mass analyzer: the switch from one ion to another within the same cocktail is simple and fast. In the case of the first ion beam cocktail, the oxygen and argon gases were mixed into the gas feed line. At the same time the magnesium and iron ion beams were produced using the MIVOC method. Magnesocene and ferrocene compounds were both mixed into the MIVOC chamber. This capability is especially useful in the study of single event effects (SEE) in space electronics. All gaseous elements from H to Xe can be produced. The non-gaseous elements produced so far are C, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ge. A major technical modification since the construction (in 1990) of the JYFL-ECRIS was made in January 98: a negatively biased disc replaces now the first plasma stage. After a couple of months experience with the modified source the change was found to b...

  20. The microwave absorption of ceramic-cup microwave ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An experiment system of ceramic-cup microwave ion source has been built here. Its microwave absorption efficiency as a function of the magnetic field and the pressure is presented. When the microwave incident power is 300~500W the microwave absorption efficiencies are more than 90% if the system is optimized and the magnetic field at the microwave window is 0.095T.

  1. Beam optics optimization of a negative-ion sputter source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Osswald; R Rebmeister

    2002-11-01

    A negative-ion sputter source has been studied in order to increase the beam intensity delivered by the Vivitron tandem injector. The aim was to characterize the influence on the beam intensity of some factors related to the configuration of the source such as the shape of the target holder, the target surface topography and the anode/cathode voltage. The paper reports the results carried out by experimentation on a test facility and on the injector itself as well as the investigations performed with computer simulations.

  2. Blurring the boundaries between ion sources: The application of the RILIS inside a FEBIAD type ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Billowes, J.; Catherall, R.; Cocolios, T. E.; Crepieux, B.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Gaffney, L. P.; Giles, T.; Gottberg, A.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Mendonça, T. M.; Ramos, J. P.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Sels, S.; Sotty, C.; Stora, T.; Van Beveren, C.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-06-01

    For the first time, the laser resonance photo-ionization technique has been applied inside a FEBIAD-type ion source at an ISOL facility. This was achieved by combining the ISOLDE RILIS with the ISOLDE variant of the FEBIAD ion source (the VADIS) in a series of off-line and on-line tests at CERN. The immediate applications of these developments include the coupling of the RILIS with molten targets at ISOLDE and the introduction of two new modes of FEBIAD operation: an element selective RILIS mode and a RILIS + VADIS mode for increased efficiency compared to VADIS mode operation alone. This functionality has been demonstrated off-line for gallium and barium and on-line for mercury and cadmium. Following this work, the RILIS mode of operation was successfully applied on-line for the study of nuclear ground state and isomer properties of mercury isotopes by in-source resonance ionization laser spectroscopy. The results from the first studies of the new operational modes, of what has been termed the Versatile Arc Discharge and Laser Ion Source (VADLIS), are presented and possible directions for future developments are outlined.

  3. High voltage breakdown in an inductively coupled ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inductively coupled plasma source, designed for ion beam applications, is allowed to float up to several kilovolt positive. If one side of the radio frequency (rf) antenna is grounded and the dielectric source tube and the surrounding air are allowed to reach a threshold temperature corona breakdown at the rf antenna occurs. The experiments presented here show that a dc corona can be ignited with the presence of a dielectric barrier, which normally precludes dc breakdown. The formation of a negative barrier corona initiates a transition to a continuous arc from the rf antenna to the source tube. It is suggested that the onset of the first filaments heat the dielectric locally, such that the dielectric strength drops. DC current channels are then formed in the source tube, allowing a resistive corona with continuous arcs to exist

  4. Effect of Coulomb collision on the negative ion extraction mechanism in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I., E-mail: goto@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Nishioka, S.; Abe, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    To improve the H{sup −} ion beam optics, it is necessary to understand the energy relaxation process of surface produced H{sup −} ions in the extraction region of Cs seeded H{sup −} ion sources. Coulomb collisions of charged particles have been introduced to the 2D3V-PIC (two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle-in-cell) model for the H{sup −} extraction by using the binary collision model. Due to Coulomb collision, the lower energy part of the ion energy distribution function of H{sup −} ions has been greatly increased. The mean kinetic energy of the surface produced H{sup −} ions has been reduced to 0.65 eV from 1.5 eV. It has been suggested that the beam optics of the extracted H{sup −} ion beam is strongly affected by the energy relaxation process due to Coulomb collision.

  5. First experiments with the negative ion source NIO1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M., E-mail: cavenago@lnl.infn.it; Fagotti, E.; Minarello, A.; Poggi, M.; Sattin, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro PD (Italy); Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Bigi, M.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Laterza, B.; Maniero, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Ravarotto, D.; Recchia, M.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-02-15

    Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs), which need to be strongly optimized in the perspective of DEMO reactor, request a thorough understanding of the negative ion source used and of the multi-beamlet optics. A relatively compact radio frequency (rf) ion source, named NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1), with 9 beam apertures for a total H{sup −} current of 130 mA, 60 kV acceleration voltage, was installed at Consorzio RFX, including a high voltage deck and an X-ray shield, to provide a test bench for source optimizations for activities in support to the ITER NBI test facility. NIO1 status and plasma experiments both with air and with hydrogen as filling gas are described. Transition from a weak plasma to an inductively coupled plasma is clearly evident for the former gas and may be triggered by rising the rf power (over 0.5 kW) at low pressure (equal or below 2 Pa). Transition in hydrogen plasma requires more rf power (over 1.5 kW)

  6. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  7. Improvements to the internal and external antenna H(-) ion sources at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, R F; Dudnikov, V G; Han, B X; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Pillar, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M P; Turvey, M W

    2014-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), a large scale neutron production facility, routinely operates with 30-40 mA peak current in the linac. Recent measurements have shown that our RF-driven internal antenna, Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp ion sources injects ∼55 mA of H(-) beam current (∼1 ms, 60 Hz) at 65-kV into a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator through a closely coupled electrostatic Low-Energy Beam Transport system. Over the last several years a decrease in RFQ transmission and issues with internal antennas has stimulated source development at the SNS both for the internal and external antenna ion sources. This report discusses progress in improving internal antenna reliability, H(-) yield improvements which resulted from modifications to the outlet aperture assembly (applicable to both internal and external antenna sources) and studies made of the long standing problem of beam persistence with the external antenna source. The current status of the external antenna ion source will also be presented.

  8. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 1014 m−3 to 7 × 1015 m−3 is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production in a helicon plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoso, J., E-mail: Jesse.Santoso@anu.edu.au; Corr, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Manoharan, R.; O' Byrne, S. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales Canberra, Northcott Drive, Campbell, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    In order to develop very high energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for applications, such as plasma heating in fusion devices, it is necessary first to develop high throughput negative ion sources. For the ITER reference source, this will be realised using caesiated inductively coupled plasma devices, containing either hydrogen or deuterium discharges, operated with high rf input powers (up to 90 kW per driver). It has been suggested that due to their high power coupling efficiency, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially obviate the need for caesiation due to the high plasma densities achievable. Here, we present measurements of negative ion densities in a hydrogen discharge produced by a helicon device, with externally applied DC magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 8.5 mT at 5 and 10 mTorr fill pressures. These measurements were taken in the magnetised plasma interaction experiment at the Australian National University and were performed using the probe-based laser photodetachment technique, modified for the use in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. A peak in the electron density is observed at ∼3 mT and is correlated with changes in the rf power transfer efficiency. With increasing magnetic field, an increase in the negative ion fraction from 0.04 to 0.10 and negative ion densities from 8 × 10{sup 14 }m{sup −3} to 7 × 10{sup 15 }m{sup −3} is observed. It is also shown that the negative ion densities can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of an external DC magnetic field.

  10. APS Science 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M.; Fenner, R. B.; Long, G.; Borland, M.; Decker, G.

    2007-05-24

    In my five years as the Director of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), I have been fortunate to see major growth in the scientific impact from the APS. This year I am particularly enthusiastic about prospects for our longer-term future. Every scientific instrument must remain at the cutting edge to flourish. Our plans for the next generation of APS--an APS upgrade--got seriously in gear this year with strong encouragement from our users and sponsors. The most promising avenue that has emerged is the energy-recovery linac (ERL) (see article on page xx), for which we are beginning serious R&D. The ERL{at}APS would offer revolutionary performance, especially for x-ray imaging and ultrafast science, while not seriously disrupting the existing user base. I am very proud of our accelerator physics and engineering staff, who not only keep the current APS at the forefront, but were able to greatly impress our international Machine Advisory Committee with the quality of their work on the possible upgrade option (see page xx). As we prepare for long-term major upgrades, our plans to develop and optimize all the sectors at APS in the near future are advancing. Several new beamlines saw first light this year, including a dedicated powder diffraction beamline (11-BM), two instruments for inelastic x-ray scattering at sector 30, and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) Nanoprobe beamline at sector 26. Our partnership in the first x-ray free-electron laser (LCLS) to be built at Stanford contributes to revolutionary growth in ultrafast science (see page xx), and we are developing a pulse chirping scheme to get ps pulses at sector 7 of the APS within a year or so. In this report, you will find selected highlights of scientific research at the APS from calendar year 2006. The highlighted work covers diverse disciplines, from fundamental to applied science. In the article on page xx you can see the direct impact of APS research on technology. Several new products have emerged from

  11. Characteristics of a High Current Helicon Ion Source With High Monatomic Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of neutron need compact and high yield neutron sources as well as very intense neutron sources from giant devices such as accelerators. Ion source based neutron sources using nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He)n, D(t, 4He)n can meet the requirements. This type of neutron generators can be simply composed of an ion source and a target. High-performance neutron generators with high yield require ion sources with high beam current, high monatomic fraction and long lifetime. Helicon ion source can meet these requirements. To make high current ion source, characteristics of helicon plasma such as high plasma density can be utilized. Moreover, efficient plasma heating with RF power lead high fraction of monatomic ion beam. Here, Characteristics of helicon plasma sources are described. Design and its performances of a helicon ion source are presented

  12. Characteristics of a High Current Helicon Ion Source With High Monatomic Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hwa-Dong; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Yong-Seok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Applications of neutron need compact and high yield neutron sources as well as very intense neutron sources from giant devices such as accelerators. Ion source based neutron sources using nuclear fusion reactions such as D(d, 3He)n, D(t, 4He)n can meet the requirements. This type of neutron generators can be simply composed of an ion source and a target. High-performance neutron generators with high yield require ion sources with high beam current, high monatomic fraction and long lifetime. Helicon ion source can meet these requirements. To make high current ion source, characteristics of helicon plasma such as high plasma density can be utilized. Moreover, efficient plasma heating with RF power lead high fraction of monatomic ion beam. Here, Characteristics of helicon plasma sources are described. Design and its performances of a helicon ion source are presented.

  13. Ion source memory in {sup 36}Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Arnold, Maurice; Aumaitre, Georges; Bourles, Didier; Martschini, Martin [ASTER, Aix-en-Provence (France); Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Steier, Peter [VERA, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Since the DREAMS (Dresden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) facility went operational in 2011, constant effort was put into enabling routine measurements of long-lived radionuclides as {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca. For precise AMS-measurements of the volatile element Cl the key issue is the minimization of the long term memory effect. For this purpose one of the two original HVE sources was mechanically modified, allowing the usage of bigger cathodes with individual target apertures. Additionally a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, a small inter-laboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect in the Cs sputter ion sources of the AMS facilities VERA, ASTER and DREAMS had been investigated by running samples of natural {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl-ratio and samples containing highly enriched {sup 35}Cl({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl > 500). Primary goals of the research are the time constants of the recovery from the contaminated sample ratio to the initial ratio of the sample and the level of the long-term memory effect in the sources.

  14. The TRIUMF compact DC H-/D- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact dc H-/D- ion source using multicusp magnetic plasma confinement, has been experimentally studied and optimized on the TRIUMF ion source test stand. The plasma parameters have been obtained with rapid computer controlled Langmuir probe scans. The extraction electrode configuration, originally tailored to the TR30 cyclotron requirements, has been further developed. With a 12 mm diameter extraction hole this source now provides 9 mA within a normalized emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad and can be easily modified for lower currents of smaller emittance (1 mA H- current with normalized emittance 0.12π.mm-mrad or 7 mA H- current with normalized emittance 0.34π.mm-mrad). The source has proven to have low maintenance, high reliability and long filament lifetime. This paper emphasizes basic plasma parameters which determine the efficiency of H-/D-production. Some experimental results obtained from several versions of the extraction system are also described. (Author) 6 refs., 8 figs

  15. Noble-gas ionization in the ion source with Penning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By additional use of that the ion source efficiency can be increased the Penning ionization. The results of estimates of certain coefficients for the processes taking place in the plasma ion sources are presented

  16. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  17. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  18. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Pt 3. New possibilities in the heavy ion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) type ion source (ECRIS) has been installed at the Nuclear Research Institute (ATOMKI), Debrecen, Hungary, for its use in heavy ion physics research. An introduction on ECRIS operational principles and ECRIS parameters is presented, followed by an international overview on existing ECRIS facilities and their applications (including atomic physics, nuclear physics and applied science research). In the third part a report on the 11th International ECRIS workshop (Groningen, 6-7 May 1993) is given. (R.P.)

  20. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  1. IBIS: A hollow-cathode multipole boundary ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma production and containment system for a high-power continuously operating magnetic multipole ion source has been designed and constructed. Preliminary tests on this system prior to high voltage extraction of large beams indicate advantageous performance for neutral-beam injection applications. The source has produced 80 A to the extractor region at 0.33 A/cm2 with a discharge of 330 A at 80 V. Density uniformity is better than 1% over a 16-cm diameter, dropping to -4% at 18 cm, with plasma noise of less than 3%. Gas utilizaion efficiency and atomic (H+) species output are anticipated to be high due to a source length of 40 cm. This quiet efficient performance is attributed to the use of a hollow-tube LaB6 cathode and an improved magnetic multipole confinement system

  2. 6.4 GHz ECR ion source at VECC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Taki; D K Chakraborty; R K Bhandari

    2002-11-01

    The 6.4 GHz ECR ion source that was indigenously developed a few years ago has been operating continuously for injecting oxygen and neon beams to the cyclotron since 1997. VEC-ECR is a single stage high magnetic field ion source provided with a negatively biased electron repeller placed on the axis, near the injection mirror point. The supply of cold electrons and use of low mass mixing gas improve the stability of ECR plasma. Very recently, the effect of aluminum oxide coating on the copper plasma chamber wall has been studied. The plasma chamber wall was coated with aluminum by vacuum evaporation method and then exposed to oxygen gas to form aluminum oxide. It was noticed that the process substantially shifts the charge state distribution to the higher charge state with an enhancement of ion current by an order of magnitude. With the aluminized plasma chamber, the VEC-ECR can now produce 12 A of O7+, 6.5 A of Ar12+, 1.5 A of Kr20+ and 1.0 A of Xe31+.

  3. A large-area RF source for negative hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, P.; Feist, J. H.; Kraus, W.; Speth, E.; Heinemann, B.; Probst, F.; Trainham, R.; Jacquot, C.

    1998-08-01

    In a collaboration with CEA Cadarache, IPP is presently developing an rf source, in which the production of negative ions (H-/D-) is being investigated. It utilizes PINI-size rf sources with an external antenna and for the first step a small size extraction system with 48 cm2 net extraction area. First results from BATMAN (Ba¯varian T_est Ma¯chine for N_egative Ions) show (without Cs) a linear dependence of the negative ion yield with rf power, without any sign of saturation. At elevated pressure (1.6 Pa) a current density of 4.5 mA/cm2 H- (without Cs) has been found so far. At medium pressure (0.6 Pa) the current density is lower by approx. a factor of 5, but preliminary results with Cesium injection show a relative increase by almost the same factor in this pressure range. Langmuir probe measurements indicate an electron temperature Te>2 eV close to the plasma grid with a moderate magnetic filter (700 Gcm). Attempts to improve the performance by using different magnetic configurations and different wall materials are under way.

  4. APS Science 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report), the challenge

  5. APS Science 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. M; Mills, D. M.; Gerig, R.

    2010-05-01

    It is my pleasure to introduce the 2009 annual report of the Advanced Photon Source. This was a very good year for us. We operated with high reliability and availability, despite growing problems with obsolete systems, and our users produced a record output of publications. The number of user experiments increased by 14% from 2008 to more than 3600. We congratulate the recipients of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry-Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research), Thomas Steitz (Yale University), and Ada Yonath (Weizmann Institute) - who did a substantial amount of this work at APS beamlines. Thanks to the efforts of our users and staff, and the ongoing counsel of the APS Scientific Advisory Committee, we made major progress in advancing our planning for the upgrade of the APS (APS-U), producing a proposal that was positively reviewed. We hope to get formal approval in 2010 to begin the upgrade. With advocacy from our users and the support of our sponsor, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, our operating budgets have grown to the level needed to more adequately staff our beamlines. We were also extremely fortunate to have received $7.9 M in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('stimulus') funding to acquire new detectors and improve several of our beamlines. The success of the new Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the world's first x-ray free-electron laser, made us particularly proud since the undulators were designed and built by the APS. Among other highlights, we note that more than one-quarter of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers, funded competitively across the U.S. in 2009 by the DOE, included the Advanced Photon Source in their proposed work, which shows that synchrotron radiation, and the APS in particular, are central to energy research. While APS research covers everything from fundamental to applied science (reflected by the highlights in this report

  6. Optimization of a hot-cavity type resonant ionization laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henares, J. L., E-mail: henares@ganil.fr; Lecesne, N.; Hijazi, L.; Bastin, B.; Leroy, R.; Osmond, B.; Vignet, J. L. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Kron, T.; Naubereit, P.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lassen, J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Le Blanc, F. [IPN Orsay, BP 1-91406 Orsay (France)

    2016-02-15

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented.

  7. Optimization of a hot-cavity type resonant ionization laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented

  8. Dual arc penning ion source gas flow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Mallory, M.L.; Antaya, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Support gas, when added directly to an arc or admitted to an auxiliary chamber of a two-arc chamber ion source, increases the beam intensity for multicharged ions such as /sup 16/O/sup 5 +/. To clarify the mechanism of this intensity increase, gas flow rates from the auxiliary chamber to the main chamber have been measured by using the ORIC cyclotron as a mass spectrometer. The results show that only about three percent of the gas admitted to the auxiliary chamber reaches the main chamber. One can then infer that the improved operation probably results from the stabilizing effect of heating the common cathodes with the auxiliary arc and/or the more favorable distribution of the support gas to the part of the main arc close to the cathodes.

  9. Ionization cross sections and ionic yield in an ion source with confined electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ion source for fully stripped ion production and polarized particles storage is studied. Ionization cross sections are simulated by the semi-empirical Loetz formula revised by Donets. The ionic yield of the ion source is calculated per pulse and second in the case of this source being used for a synchrocyclotron, a linear accelerator or a cyclotron

  10. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga@ipfran.ru; Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller’s ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  11. Development of ECR ion source and LEBT technology for RIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude M.; Abbott, Steven R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Silver, Charles S.; Taylor, Clyde E.

    2004-08-10

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Linac driver requires a great variety of high charge state ion beams with up to a magnitude higher intensity than currently achievable for the heaviest masses. The goal of the RIA injector R&D program for VENUS is the reliable production of intense medium charge state ion beams, e.g., 8 puA (particle mu A) of U29+. Therefore, the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS has been designed from the beginning for optimum operation at 28 GHz at high power (10 kW). In addition, a high intensity Low Energy Beam Transport, LEBT, that was developed to analyze and transport these multiply-charged, space charge dominated beams. During the last year VENUS was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation continued. Tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W of 18 GHz RF power. Promising performance has been measured in those preliminary beam tests. For example, 180 p mu A of O6+, 15 p mu A of Ar12+, 7.5 puA of X e20+ and 4puA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. In FY04 a 10 kW 28 gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner developed with earlier RIA R&D funds.

  12. Cavity Ringdown Technique for negative-hydrogen-ion measurement in ion source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cavity Ringdown Technique (CRD) is applied for negative hydrogen ion (H−) density measurement in H− source for the neutral beam injector. The CRD is one of the laser absorption techniques. Nd:YAG pulse laser was utilized for negative-hydrogen-ion photodetachment. The H− density related to extracted H− beam was successfully observed by a fixed position CRD. A two-dimensional movable CRD has been developed to measure the H− density profile. Measured profiles were consistent with expected profiles from the H− production area in pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. By applying absorption saturation in the optical cavity, negative hydrogen ion temperature was evaluated and was confirmed as being a similar value measured with other diagnostics

  13. Next Generation H- Ion Sources for the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Tarvainen, Olli A [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H{sup -} ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifically the design and first beam measurements of an RF-driven, external antenna H{sup -} ion source based on an AlN ceramic plasma chamber, elemental and chromate Cs-systems, and plasma ignition gun. Unanalyzed beam currents of up to {approx}100 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been observed and sustained currents >60 mA (60Hz, 1ms) have been demonstrated on the test stand. Accelerated beam currents of {approx}40 mA have also been demonstrated into the SNS front end. Data are also presented describing the first H{sup -} beam extraction experiments from a helicon plasma generator based on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) engine design.

  14. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H- ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as σ. Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion.

  15. Computer simulations for rf design of a Spallation Neutron Source external antenna H ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling of the multicusp external antenna H ion source for the Spallation Neutron Source SNS has been performed in order to optimize high-power performance. During development of the SNS external antenna ion source, antenna failures due to high voltage and multicusp magnet holder rf heating concerns under stressful operating conditions led to rf characteristics analysis. In rf simulations, the plasma was modeled as an equivalent lossy metal by defining conductivity as . Insulation designs along with material selections such as ferrite and Teflon could be included in the computer simulations to compare antenna gap potentials, surface power dissipations, and input impedance at the operating frequencies, 2 and 13.56 MHz. Further modeling and design improvements are outlined in the conclusion.

  16. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  17. Polarized H- ion source development for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarized H- ion source that Argonne National Laboratory and Yale University are building for the AGS polarized beam facility is based on the crossed-beam concept in which a polarized atomic-hydrogen beam, H0, is ionized to H- by a fast neutral cesium beam, Cs0. We describe our studies which will aid in achieving a high intensity polarized H- beam. In particular, we describe time-of-flight studies on the atomic beam and the effect of dissociation nozzle cooling on the velocity distribution. The cesium gun design is described, and a brief discussion of the H0-Cs0 interaction region is given

  18. Development and preliminary results of radio frequency ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, Chundong; Jiang, Caichao; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Yumin; Su, Renxue; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Zhimin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A radio frequency (RF) ion source was designed and developed for neutral beam injector. A RF driver test bed was used with a RF generator with maximum power of 25 kW with 1 MHz frequency and a matching box. In order to study the characteristic of RF plasma generation, the capacitance in the matching box was adjusted with different cases. The results show that lower capacitance will better the stability of the plasma with higher RF power. In the future, new RF coils and matching box will be developed for plasma generators with higher RF power of 50 kW.

  19. Conceptional Design of the Laser Ion Source based Hadrontherapy Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xiucui; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    Laser ion source (LIS), which can provide carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. A LIS based hadrontherapy facility is proposed with the advantage of short linac length, simple injection scheme and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL project that had conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be present with special dedication to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.

  20. Conceptional design of the laser ion source based hadrontherapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Cui; Song, Ming-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Hu

    2014-04-01

    A laser ion source (LIS), which can provide a carbon beam with highly stripped state (C6+) and high intensity (several tens mA), would significantly change the overall design of the hadrontherapy facility. The proposed LIS based hadrontherapy facility has the advantages of short linac length, simple injection scheme, and small synchrotron size. With the experience from the DPIS and HITFiL projects that have been conducted in IMP, a conceptional design of the LIS based hadrontherapy facility will be presented, with special attention given to APF type IH DTL design and simulation.

  1. Optimization of an RF driven H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radio-frequency driven multicusp source has recently been developed to generate volume-produced H- ion beams with extracted current density higher than 200 mA/cm2. We have improved the output power of the rf generator and the insulation coating of the antenna coil. We have also optimized the antenna positions and geometry and the filter magnetic field for high power pulsed operation. A total H- current of 30 mA can be obtained with a 5.4-mm-diam extraction aperture and with an rf input power of 50 kW. 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumori, K., E-mail: tsumori@nifs.ac.jp; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Geng, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S. [Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P. [Plasma Engineering Group, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wimmer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Bereich ITER-Technologie und -Diagnostik/N-NBI Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup −}) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H{sup −} density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H{sub 2} plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  3. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Geng, S.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Goto, M.; Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P.; Wimmer, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-02-01

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H-) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H- density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H2 plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  4. Ion Beam Plasma Interactions in the ASTRAL Helicon Plasma Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, R. F.; Kesterson, A.; Kamar, O.; Lin, Y.; Munoz, J.; Wang, X.

    2008-11-01

    A 100 KeV NEC duoplasmatron is used to produce an energetic ion beam (10 KeV ASTRAL helicon plasma source. The beam current and beam size are measured by a device combining Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) and Faraday Cup (FC) features. ASTRAL produces bright intense He/Ne/Ar plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 1E11 -- 1E13 cm-3 and Te = 2 - 10 eV, B-field < 1.3 kGauss, rf power <= 2 kWatt. RF compensated Langmuir probes are used to measure Te and ne. Depending on the ion beam energy and the ratio of beam density over plasma density different wave instabilities will be generated within the plasmas. A real-time spectrum analyzer will be used to identify the wave instabilities and their evolution in the plasma. We will present early experimental results together with some preliminary theoretical simulation using 2D and 3D hybrid simulation codes. In these codes, ions are treated as fully kinetic particles while electrons are treated as a fluid. Both species are moving in a self-consistent electromagnetic field.

  5. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  6. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (Hº, 30–55 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 2–3 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120–300 A), acceleration voltage (16–40 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H+:H2+:H3+) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source

  7. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ˜1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ˜4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (˜1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (˜0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ˜15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV).

  8. Angular resolved energy analysis of /sup 69/Ga/sup +/ions from a gallium liquid metal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, P.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis system has been designed and built to characterise liquid metal ion source beams. Both mass and angular resolved energy distribution measurements can be made, from which both FWHM energy spreads and energy deficits can be obtained. This paper briefly describes the system and presents and discusses the first off-axis results taken with a gallium liquid metal ion source.

  9. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Jin, Q Y; Liu, W; Wang, G C; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10(13) W cm(-2) in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  10. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, W.; Wang, G. C. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 10{sup 13} W cm{sup −2} in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  11. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Jin, Q. Y.; Liu, W.; Wang, G. C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm-2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications.

  12. New development of laser ion source for highly charged ion beam production at Institute of Modern Physics (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ion source based on Nd:YAG laser has been being studied at the Institute of Modern Physics for the production of high intensity high charge state heavy ion beams in the past ten years, for possible applications both in a future accelerator complex and in heavy ion cancer therapy facilities. Based on the previous results for the production of multiple-charged ions from a wide range of heavy elements with a 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser [Zhao et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02B910 (2014)], higher laser energy and intensity in the focal spot are necessary for the production of highly charged ions from the elements heavier than aluminum. Therefore, the laser ion source was upgraded with a new Nd:YAG laser, the maximum energy of which is 8 J and the pulse duration can be adjusted from 8 to 18 ns. Since then, the charge state distributions of ions from various elements generated by the 8 J Nd:YAG laser were investigated for different experimental conditions, such as laser energy, pulse duration, power density in the focal spot, and incidence angle. It was shown that the incidence angle is one of the most important parameters for the production of highly charged ions. The capability of producing highly charged ions from the elements lighter than silver was demonstrated with the incidence angle of 10° and laser power density of 8 × 1013 W cm−2 in the focal spot, which makes a laser ion source complementary to the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the future accelerator complex especially in terms of the ion beam production from some refractory elements. Nevertheless, great efforts with regard to the extraction of intense ion beams, modification of the ion beam pulse duration, and reliability of the ion source still need to be made for practical applications

  13. AP-42 REVISION: COKE OVENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document "Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors" (AP-42) has been published by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 1972. Supplements to AP-42 have been routinely published to add new emission source categories and to update existing emission factor...

  14. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  15. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantz, U., E-mail: ursel.fantz@ipp.mpg.de; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H{sup −}, D{sup −}) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  16. Microprocessor-controlled electron impact ion source operated at constant discharge current and voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron impact ion source using a solid charge was interfaced with A/D and D/A units which are connected to a microprocessor control unit. A PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) control algorithm was implemented to control the ion source. The power fed to the ion source filament and furnace filament are controlled so as to keep both the discharge voltage and current constant. With this controlled ion source, the result shows a steady ion current. For example, with Pb+ ions, an initial ion current of 13 μA stayed within +- 1.5 μA for 60 min; with no control, the ion current fell steadily and had to be manually reset three times every 20 min over a 60-min run. Similar results have been obtained with Mg+, Al+, Zn+, and Sn+ ions

  17. RF broad-beam low-energy ion source with electron compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zykov A. V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of single-grid RF ion source with 250 mm beam diameter and 1A beam current have been studied. Energy distribution functions of electrons and ions emitted by the source have been measured. It is shown that the emitted electron current is sufficient for full ion beam current compensation. The technique of ion to electron current ratio control allowing to change this ratio in wide range is proposed. Using the ICP in the source allows to rich high current density in the low ion energy range with the possibility of independent control of ion energy and current density.

  18. Axial magnetic field extraction type microwave ion source with a permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of microwave ion source in which a permanent magnet generates an axially directed magnetic field needed for the electron cyclotron resonance was developed. The electron cyclotron resonance produces a high density plasma in the ion source. A mA-order ion beam can be extracted. Compared with usual microwave ion sources, this source has a distinguished feature in that the axially directed magnetic field is formed by use of a permanent magnet. Shape of magnetic force lines near the ion extraction aperture was carefully investigated. The extracted ion current as a function of the ion extraction voltage was measured. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical line. The ion source can be heated up to 500 deg C, and extraction of the alkaline metal ions is possible. The extracted ion current for various elements are shown in the table. The current density normalized by the proton was 350-650 mA/cm2 which was nearly equal to the upper limit of the extractable positive ion current density. The plasma density was estimated and was 2 - 3 x 1012 cm-3. The mass spectrum of a Cesium ion beam was obtained. A negligible amount of impurities was observed. The emittance diagram of the extracted ion beam was measured. The result shows that a low emittance and high brightness ion source is constructed. (Kato, T.)

  19. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  20. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, T.; Shang, Y.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6T at injection, 2.2T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5kW by two 18GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810eμA of O7+, 505eμA of Xe20+, 306eμA of Xe27+, and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  1. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  2. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] ion source beams for accelerator applications: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable, easily operated ion sources are always in demand for accelerator applications. This paper reports on a systematic study of ion-beam characterisrtics and optimization of beam quality for production of light ion beams in an ECR ion source. Of particular interest is the optimization of beam brightness (defined as ion current divided by the square of the emittance), which is typically used as a figure-of-merit for accelerator-quality beams. Other areas to be discussed include the measurement of beam emittance values, the effects of various source parameters on emittances, and scaling effects from operating the same ECR source at different frequencies. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  4. Automatisation d'une source d'ions de type sire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Ph.; Aubert, J.; Gilles, J. P.; Lejeune, C.

    1990-03-01

    A microcomputer-based system has been designed and built to monitor and control an ion beam system, from the increase of the filament current of the ion source at the beginning of the process to its decrease at the end. It also creates the discharge and searches for optimum source control parameters according to the filament state, the control option chosen, and ion beam characteristics wanted. The controlled ion source uses a hot cathode discharge with electron electrostatic containment (Electrostatic Reflex Ions Source). This design allows one to achieve small sized sources, as well as stable and reproducible beam performances, that makes it very attractive for microelectronics applications. In this paper, we describe principles and technical characteristics of this ion source and of the automation, and we present a controlled beam example. In this example, an initial ion beam current of 50 μA stayed within ±1.2 μA for 4 h with Ar +.

  5. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate school of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  6. A simple alkali-metal and noble gas ion source for SIMS equipments with mass separation of the primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkali-metal ion source working without a store of alkali-metals is described. The alkali-metal ions are produced by evaporation of alkali salts and ionization in a low-voltage arc discharge stabilized with a noble gas plasma or in the case of small alkali-metal ion currents on the base of the well known thermic ionization at a hot tungsten wire. The source is very simple in construction and produces a stable ion current of 0.3 μA for more than 100 h. It is possible to change the ion species in a short time. This source is applicable to all SIMS equipments using mass separation for primary ions. (author)

  7. Preliminary Tests Of The Decris-sc Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Bechterev, V; Bogomolov, S L; Bondarenko, P G; Datskov, V I; Dmitriev, S; Drobin, V; Lebedev, A; Leporis, M; Malinowski, H; Nikiforov, A; Paschenko, S V; Seleznev, V; Shishov, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu; Tsvineva, G; Yakovlev, B; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    2004-01-01

    A new "liquid He-free" superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source DECRIS-SC, to be used as injector for the IC-100 small cyclotron, has been designed by FLNR and LHE JINR. The main feature is that a compact refrigerator of Gifford-McMahon type is used to cool the solenoid coils. For the reason of very small cooling power at 4.2 K (about 1 W) our efforts were to optimize the magnetic structure and minimize an external heating of the coils. The maximum magnetic field strength is 3 T and 2 T in injection and extraction region respectively. For the radial plasma confinement a hexapole made of NdFeB permanent magnet is used. The source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using different frequencies (14 GHz or 18 GHz). To be able to deliver usable intensities of solids, the design is also allow axial access for evaporation oven and metal samples using the plasma sputtering technique. Very preliminary results of the source test are presented.

  8. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  9. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Biri, S.; Rácz, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  10. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Kato, Y.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  11. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, R

    2003-01-01

    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity ...

  12. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  13. Enhanced confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power loss by plasma-wall interactions may become a limitation for the performance of ECR and fusion plasma devices. Based on our research to optimize the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) devices by the use of metal-dielectric (MD) structures, the development of the method presented here, allows to significantly improve the confinement of plasma electrons and hence to reduce losses. Dedicated measurements were performed at the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS using argon and helium as working gas and high temperature resistive material for the MD structures. The analyzed charge state distributions and bremsstrahlung radiation spectra (corrected for background) also clearly verify the anticipated increase in the plasma-electron density and hence demonstrate the advantage by the MD-method.

  14. Switching regulator emission control circuit for ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, F. P., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An electron emission control circuit of the switching regulator type operating at 100 kHz has been developed which maintains a constant emission current within 0.1% for a cathode power demand variation of approximately 100%. The power output stage has an efficiency of 67%, and the overall efficiency is 45% when driving a thoria-coated iridium cathode having a nominal resistance at operating temperature of 2.5 ohms. Under optimum conditions, the bus power demand is 1.75 W. The circuit is useful in controlling the electron emission current of ion sources in applications which involve a substantial variation of the cathode work function, such as oxygen partial pressure measurements over a large dynamic range.

  15. Anion formation in sputter ion sources by neutral resonant ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. S., E-mail: johnsvogel@yahoo.com [University of California, 8300 Feliz Creek Dr., Ukiah, California 95482 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Focused Cs{sup +} beams in sputter ion sources create mm-diameter pits supporting small plasmas that control anionization efficiencies. Sputtering produces overwhelmingly neutral products that the plasma can ionize as in a charge-change vapor. Electron capture between neutral atoms rises as the inverse square of the difference between the ionization potential of the Cs state and the electron affinity of the sputtered atom, allowing resonant ionization at very low energies. A plasma collision-radiation model followed electronic excitation up to Cs(7d). High modeled Cs(7d) in a 0.5 mm recess explains the 80 μA/mm{sup 2} C{sup −} current density compared to the 20 μA/mm{sup 2} from a 1 mm recess.

  16. Anion formation in sputter ion sources by neutral resonant ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focused Cs+ beams in sputter ion sources create mm-diameter pits supporting small plasmas that control anionization efficiencies. Sputtering produces overwhelmingly neutral products that the plasma can ionize as in a charge-change vapor. Electron capture between neutral atoms rises as the inverse square of the difference between the ionization potential of the Cs state and the electron affinity of the sputtered atom, allowing resonant ionization at very low energies. A plasma collision-radiation model followed electronic excitation up to Cs(7d). High modeled Cs(7d) in a 0.5 mm recess explains the 80 μA/mm2 C− current density compared to the 20 μA/mm2 from a 1 mm recess

  17. On the physics of high charge state ion production in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a previous research we have demonstrated that metal-dielectric (MD) structures have high capabilities of to enhance the high-charge-state ion production in ECR Ion Sources. In order to explain this effect, dedicated experiments have been performed, in which changes of main plasma parameters in the presence of a MD structure have been observed and an explanation for the mechanism of 'MD-effect' was given. In this contribution we present a new experiment, where we have concentrated on the question whether the effect of the high-charge-state enhancement by the MD structures is due to the presence of just a dielectric layer in the plasma chamber (e.g. working simply as a breaking of the non ambipolar wall currents) or whether details of the structure of the MD-layer play an essential role. By comparing ion charge state distributions (CSD) and Bremsstrahlung spectra for two MD cylinders, of drastically different layer thicknesses, the importance of the MD effect, and hence of the detailed structure of this type of layer for the production of very highly charged ions is demonstrated. The effect of the two different MD cylinders on the charge state distributions (CSD) of extracted argon ion is presented. It is obvious that both cylinders influence the CSD in a totally different manner. Whereas the thin MD-liner serves to strongly enhance the currents of ions with charge states higher than 9+, the thick MD-liner acted in the opposite way, i.e. enhancing the lower charge states. The experiments reported here demonstrate the role of the MD physics for obtaining an enhanced high charge state ion production in ECRIS. Following established scaling laws, the observed shift of the mean charge state in this experiment is equivalent to a frequency upgrade of an ECRIS from e.g. 14 GHZ to 18 GHz. It has also been demonstrated that than the simple fact of restoring ambipolarity by breaking the Simon short circuits cannot explain this effect. Therefore, the method may

  18. Pulsed Ion Sheath Dynamics in a Cylindrical Bore for Inner Surface Grid-Enhanced Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久丽; 张谷令; 范松华; 杨武保; 杨思泽

    2002-01-01

    Based on our recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for innersurface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, we present the corresponding theoretical studiesof the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindricalbore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energydistribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionlessions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can furtherverify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique.

  19. Kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H− negative ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H− negative ion source plasmas and their comparisons with experiments are reviewed, and discussed with some new results. Main focus is placed on the following two topics, which are important for the research and development of large negative ion sources and high power H− ion beams: (i) Effects of non-equilibrium features of EEDF (electron energy distribution function) on H− production, and (ii) extraction physics of H− ions and beam optics

  20. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  1. An ion species model for positive ion sources - part I description of the model

    CERN Document Server

    Surrey, E

    2014-01-01

    A one dimensional model of the magnetic multipole volume plasma source has been developed for use in intense ion/neutral atom beam injectors. The model uses plasma transport coefficients for particle and energy flow to create a detailed description of the plasma parameters along an axis parallel to that of the extracted beam. Primarily constructed for applications to neutral beam injection systems on fusion devices, the model concentrates on the hydrogenic isotopes but can be extended to any gas by substitution of the relevant masses, cross sections and rate coefficients. The model considers the flow of fast ionizing electrons that create the ratios of the three hydrogenic isotope ion species, H+, H2 +, H3 + (and similarly for deuterium and tritium) as they flow towards the beam extraction electrode, together with the production of negative hydrogenic ions through volume processes. The use of detailed energy balance in the discharge allows the determination of the fraction of the gas density that is in an ato...

  2. Development of an ion source for volatile elements at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    After successful measurements of {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca at DREAMS (DResden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), extensive test measurements of {sup 36}Cl started. Besides the challenge of separating the stable isobar {sup 36}S, which at DREAMS is accomplished by post-stripping and a split-anode-ionization-chamber, the problem of ion source memory must be solved. To characterize this effect we use {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl samples of natural composition and {sup 35}Cl-enriched samples with a {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl-ratio >100. Similar measurements at the French AMS facility ASTER showed differences of 2-4% in the {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl ratios of the highly enriched samples after 24 h of sputtering samples with natural isotopic ratios. To minimize the long-term-memory effect, two modified designs of the original source (HVEE) were constructed at DREAMS. A more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level, and parts of the target loading system were modified to allow the exchange of the individual cathode aperture with each target.

  3. Sources and transport systems for low energy extreme of ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.I.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Johnson, B.M.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Masunov, E.S.; Oks, E.M.; Pershin, V.I.; Polozov, S.M.; Poole, H.J.; Seleznev, D.N.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Vizir, A.; Svarovski, A.Ya.; Yakushin, P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

    2010-06-06

    For the past seven years a joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal being to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. However, since the last Fortier is low energy ion implantation, focus of the endeavor has shifted to low energy ion implantation. For boron cluster source development, we started with molecular ions of decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}), and presently our focus is on carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ions developing methods for mitigating graphite deposition. Simultaneously, we are developing a pure boron ion source (without a working gas) that can form the basis for a novel, more efficient, plasma immersion source. Our Calutron-Berna ion source was converted into a universal source capable of switching between generating molecular phosphorous P{sub 4}{sup +}, high charge state ions, as well as other types of ions. Additionally, we have developed transport systems capable of transporting a very large variety of ion species, and simulations of a novel gasless/plasmaless ion beam deceleration method were also performed.

  4. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source for the HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR, ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the advantages of using an ECR heavy-ion source in the terminal of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) 25-MV tandem accelerator is discussed. A possible ECR system for installation in the HHIRF tandem terminal is described.

  5. A high-current four-beam xenon ion source for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions has elicited from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory a proposal to use a multi-channel radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure for the initial stage of the heavy-ion accelerator. The RFQ would have 4 channels in each module and each channel would accelerate 25 mA of Xe+1. Based on experiments with xenon beam production with a high current duoPlGatron source at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, a 245 keV 4-beam xenon injector has been designed for this 4-channel RFQ. The injector is of modular design with 4 small independent plasma sources mounted in a 10 cm square array on a common combined extraction and acceleration column. The electrodes have 4 separate sets of apertures and each channel produces a 29 mA beam for injection into its corresponding RFQ channel. This paper presents a conceptual design for the injector, code calculations for the column electrode design and results of a preliminary test carried out to verify the feasibility of the concept. (author)

  6. An inversion-asymmetric source function for HBT analysis in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lianshou, Liu; Shusu, Shi; Jiaxin, Du

    2006-01-01

    The inversion-asymmetry of the emission source in relativistic heavy ion collision under the Bertsch-Pratt convention is discussed and explicitly exhibited by a Monte Carlo model. The Gaussian source function popularly used in the HBT analysis of relativistic heavy ion collisions is invalid in this case. An inversion-asymmetric source function is suggested. A method for extracting the inversion-asymmetry degree of the source together with the source size from experimental data is proposed.

  7. High temperature electron beam ion source for the production of single charge ions of most elements of the Periodic Table

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Orlov, S Y; Seliverstov, D M; Stroe, L; Tecchio, L B; Volkov, Y M

    2003-01-01

    A new type of a high temperature electron beam ion source (HTEBIS) with a working temperature up to 2500 deg. C was developed for production of single charge ions of practically all elements. Off-line tests and on-line experiments making use of the developed ion source coupled with uranium carbide targets of different density, have been carried out. The ionization efficiency measured for stable atoms of many elements varied in the interval of 1-6%. Using the HTEBIS, the yields and on-line production efficiency of neutron rich isotopes of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn and isotopes of heavy elements Pb, Bi, Po and some others have been determined. The revealed confinement effect of the ions produced in the narrow electron beam inside a hot ion source cavity has been discussed.

  8. Characterization of an ion beam produced by extraction and acceleration of ions from a wire plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we first model a DC low pressure wire plasma source and then characterize the properties of an ion gun derived from the plasma source. In order to study the properties of the derived ion gun, we develop a particle-in-cell code fitted to the modelling of the wire plasma source operation, and validate it by confrontation with the results of an experimental study. In light of the simulation results, an analysis of the wire discharge in terms of a collisional Child-Langmuir ion flow in cylindrical geometry is proposed. We interpret the mode transition as a natural reorganization of the discharge when the current is increased above a threshold value which is a function of the discharge voltage, the pressure and the inter-electrodes distance. In addition, the analysis of the energy distribution function of ions impacting the cathode demonstrates the ability to extract an ion beam of low energy spread around the discharge voltage assuming that the discharge is operated in its high pressure mode. An ion source prototype allowing the extraction and acceleration of ions from the wire source is then proposed. The experimental study of such a device confirms that, apart from a shift corresponding to the accelerating voltage, the acceleration scheme does not spread the ion velocity distribution function along the axis of the beam. It is therefore possible to produce tunable energy (0 - 5 keV) ion beams of various ionic species presenting limited energy dispersion ( 10 eV). The typical beam currents are about a few tens of micro-amperes, and the divergence of such a beam is on the order of one degree. A numerical modelling of the ion source is eventually conducted in order to identify potential optimizations of the concept. (author)

  9. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  10. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well. PMID:18315101

  11. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ˜5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  12. Source Term Analysis of DORAST Code Used in AP1000 Primary and Secondary Coolant System%DORAST 程序在 AP1000一回路和二回路系统中的源项分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兆欢; 陈义学; 李璐; 袁龙军; 马续波; 孙业帅

    2013-01-01

    核电厂源项分析不仅可为核电厂的辐射屏蔽计算提供源强数据,且在指导核设施的退役方面也具有重要意义。本工作对压水堆核电厂一回路、二回路系统内放射性核素的来源、迁移、吸附、滞留和衰变规律进行了研究,开发了适用于传统二代核电厂和以 A P1000为代表的三代核电厂源项计算程序DORAST 。该程序数据库中核素的基本信息来源于ENDF/B-Ⅶ.1数据库。该程序可计算核电厂主要系统、辅助系统及部分设备内放射性核素的β及γ比活度。程序的验证表明,计算结果与源项软件BE-TA-GAMMA计算数据吻合较好,满足工程设计计算精度要求。%Source term analysis w hich provides the fundamental data for calculation of the environmental impact of radioactive releases has a guiding significance in radiation shielding , waste disposal and nuclear facility decommission . In this work , the transformation law of radionuclides , w hich consists of the retention , migration , adsorption and decay , was studied in the primary and secondary coolant system of PWR .The source term calculation program DORAST which applies to the reactor systems or equipment of generation Ⅱ and generation Ⅲ was developed . The basic information of nuclides was extracted from the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-Ⅶ .1 .The function of DORAST is to calculate the β and γ specific activity of systems and some equipments . With the reference of AP1000 design control documents , a benchmark was designed and the calculation results were verified .The results agree well with the benchmark and it indicates that DORAST meets the computation precision of engineering design .

  13. Design of a 2.45 GHz ECR Ion Source for Production of Medium Charge States Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we are constructing an ECR ion source test facility for nuclear science experiments. For this purpose a single-stage 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been designed and fabricated. It features an axial magnetic field with a mirror ratio of up to 5.5 and a hexapole field produced by a novel Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet assembly. In order to enhance the ion confinement time the source plasma volume has been enlarged as much as possible while still maintaining a high mirror ratio. This paper describes the design of the source. Ion optics simulation of the extraction system currently under design will also be presented

  14. Production of intense highly charged ion beams by IMP 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source has been constructed over the last two years. The source was designed and tested by making use of the latest results from ECR ion source development, such as high mirror magnetic field, large plasma volume, and biased probe. 140μA of O7+, 185μA of Ar11+ and 50 μA of Xe26+ could be produced with a RF power of 800 W. The intense beams of highly charged metallic ions are produced by means of the method of a metal evaporation oven and volatile compound through axial access. The test results are 130μA of Ca11+, 70μA of Ca12+ and 65μA of Fe10+. The ion source has been put into operation for the cyclotron at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

  15. Síntese da zeólita ZSM-5 e suas propriedades estruturais após troca iônica com cobre Synthesis of the ZSM-5 zeolite and its structural properties after copper ion-exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Foletto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A zeólita ZSM-5 foi sintetizada utilizando sílica "Aerosil-Degussa -- 380 m²/g" como fonte de silício, em substituição ao trisilicato de sódio, que é normalmente utilizado na síntese dessa zeólita. Subseqüentemente, foi incorporado cobre à ZSM-5 através do método convencional de troca iônica. Técnicas de difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, área superficial e análise elementar por absorção atômica foram utilizadas para verificar a formação da zeólita sintetizada e suas propriedades após troca com cobre. Os resultados mostraram que houve a formação da ZSM-5 nas condições de síntese empregadas e que a amostra modificada pelo processo de troca manteve as propriedades da zeólita original.The ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized using silica "Aerosil-Degussa -- 380 m²/g" as silicon source, in substitution to the sodium trisilicate, which is usually employed in the zeolite synthesis. Subsequently, the copper was incorporated to ZSM-5 by conventional ion-exchange method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, surface area and elemental analysis by atomic absorption have been used to verify ZSM-5 formation and its properties after copper exchange. The results presented ZSM-5 formation in the employed synthesis conditions. The ion-exchanged sample conserved the original ZSM-5 properties.

  16. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M., E-mail: yoshida.masafumi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L.R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5792 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  17. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile

  18. Study on possibility of development of a laser multicharged ion source for a heavy ion fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studying laser produced plasma ion sources for a heavy ion accelerating-storage complex used as a heavy ion fusion driver are presented. The following parameters were measured on an installation aimed for studying physical characteristics of heavy ion laser plasma for a lead target at laser radiation flux density of approximately 3x1010 W/cm2: scattered ion charge composition, energy spectra and scattering angle distributions, ion currents, absolute number of ions in every charge state, plasma electron temperature. The ion current pulse duration varied from 3x10-4 s at Z+1 to 2x10-5 s at Z+10. The maximum current amplitude of 2 mA corresponded to Z+7 charge. The scattering velocity increased with charge. The total number of ions that could be used for acceleration was approximately 5x1013 for Z+2 and 5x1012 for Z+6 per pulse. The ion laser source brightness was 2x1011 A/cm2, the particle phase density was 1018 (cmxrad)-1

  19. Status report on ECR ion sources at HIMAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Sasaki, M; Yamada, S; Sakuma, T; Sasaki, N; Takahashi, H; Takasugi, W; Yamamoto, M; Biri, S; Sudlitz, K; Drentje, AG

    2004-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is the first heavy-ion accelerator complex dedicated to cancer therapy. Over 1600 patients have already been treated with 140-400 MeV/amu carbon beams since 1994. The production of carbon ion

  20. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  1. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  2. The Resonance Laser Ion Source at Ipn-Atlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Franchoo, S.; Lau, C.; Fedosseev, V.; Goodacre, T. D.; March, B.; Flanagan, K.; Kron, T.; Wendt, K.

    2015-06-01

    Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS), based on the stepwise excitations of atomic transitions, offers an outstanding combination of excellent elemental selectivity and high ionization efficiency. It has become a powerful and versatile tool for generation of pure radioactive isotope beams at on-line mass separator facilities worldwide. Initiated in 2009, IPN-Orsay has installed RILIS in the Isotope Separators on-line (ISOL) system at the photofission facility ALTO, which aims to the measurements of the nuclear properties of exotic nuclei through β-γ and β-n spectroscopy, among other techniques. RILS at ALTO (RIALTO) consists of two dye lasers pumped with a 532nm 10kHz Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength extension options via frequency doubling/tripling of nonlinear crystals. Gallium and Zinc isotopic beams were successfully delivered by RIALTO starting from 2011. To develop the laser ionization scheme for different elements and test optimal operational parameters for on-line radioactive beam deliveries, an off-line reference cell has been built. The preliminary result of the first commence of the off-line reference cell will be presented in this paper.

  3. Extractor configurations for a heavy ion fusion volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.A.

    2004-08-30

    In order for volume sources to deliver the current (e.g., 0.8 A of Ar{sup +} per module) and brightness necessary for heavy ion fusion (HIF), they must operate at high current density. Conventional extractor designs for 1 to 2 MeV run into voltage breakdown limitations and cannot easily produce the required current rise time (about one microsecond). We discuss two systems that can overcome these volume-extraction problems. Each uses multichannel preaccelerators followed by a single channel main accelerator. Fast beam switching is done in the low energy beamlet stages. A new design, utilizing concentric ring preaccelerators, was recently described for another application [2]. A more conventional design uses a large number of small round beamlets. In either case, the merging beamlets are angled toward the axis, a feature that dominates other focusing. By suitable adjustment of the individual angles, beam aberrations are reduced. Because of the high current density, the overall structure is compact. Emittance growth from merging of beamlets is calculated and scaling is discussed.

  4. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H., E-mail: Hrh-Etoh@shi.co.jp; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Hiasa, T.; Yajima, S. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Onai, M.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okumura, Y. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H{sup −} beam of 10 mA and D{sup −} beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H{sup −} beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H{sup −} current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H{sup −} production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H{sup −} current dependence on the arc power.

  5. Extractor configurations for a heavy ion fusion volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order for volume sources to deliver the current (e.g., 0.8 A of Ar+ per module) and brightness necessary for heavy ion fusion (HIF), they must operate at high current density. Conventional extractor designs for 1 to 2 MeV run into voltage breakdown limitations and cannot easily produce the required current rise time (about one microsecond). We discuss two systems that can overcome these volume-extraction problems. Each uses multichannel preaccelerators followed by a single channel main accelerator. Fast beam switching is done in the low energy beamlet stages. A new design, utilizing concentric ring preaccelerators, was recently described for another application [2]. A more conventional design uses a large number of small round beamlets. In either case, the merging beamlets are angled toward the axis, a feature that dominates other focusing. By suitable adjustment of the individual angles, beam aberrations are reduced. Because of the high current density, the overall structure is compact. Emittance growth from merging of beamlets is calculated and scaling is discussed

  6. RF-driven ion source with a back-streaming electron dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Joe; Ji, Qing

    2014-05-20

    A novel ion source is described having an improved lifetime. The ion source, in one embodiment, is a proton source, including an external RF antenna mounted to an RF window. To prevent backstreaming electrons formed in the beam column from striking the RF window, a back streaming electron dump is provided, which in one embodiment is formed of a cylindrical tube, open at one end to the ion source chamber and capped at its other end by a metal plug. The plug, maintained at the same electrical potential as the source, captures these backstreaming electrons, and thus prevents localized heating of the window, which due to said heating, might otherwise cause window damage.

  7. An improved extraction for the multicusp-type light ion-ion source apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Liukkonen, E.; ńrje, J.

    1998-02-01

    A new ion extraction system has been developed for use with the light ion source apparatus (LIISA) of the Accelerator Laboratory. The aim of the new extraction system is to have a more intense and better quality beam. For simulation of the beam behavior at the extraction region a computer code IGUNe has been used. The simulation shows that a simple triode extraction would be efficient enough to extract total beam intensities of around 5 mA at an extraction voltage of 10-15 kV. At the same time, with the carefully designed plasma electrode, the emittance could be decreased significantly from the original design. The new extraction was installed in May 1997 and the results have been encouraging. The transport efficiency of the extracted beam to the first Faraday cup (at a distance of 1.2 m) was 100% and the maximum proton current obtained was 2.0 mA. The maximum proton current in the cyclotron inflector is 1.0 mA, which is eight times larger than the previous record.

  8. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. H.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Park, M.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe.

  9. Main magnetic focus ion source: Basic principles, theoretical predictions and experimental confirmations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Nefiodov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    It is proposed to produce highly charged ions in the local potential traps formed by the rippled electron beam in a focusing magnetic field. In this method, extremely high electron current densities can be attained on short length of the ion trap. The design of very compact ion sources of the new generation is presented. The computer simulations predict that for such ions as, for example, Ne8+ and Xe44+, the intensities of about 109 and 106 ions per second, respectively, can be obtained. The experiments with pilot example of the ion source confirm efficiency of the suggested method. The X-ray emission from Ir59+, Xe44+ and Ar16+ ions was detected. The control over depth of the local ion trap is shown to be feasible.

  10. Plasma and Beam Production Experiments with HYBRIS, a Microwave-assisted H- Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage ion source concept had been presented a few years ago, consisting of a proven H- ion source and a 2.45-GHz Electron Cyclotron-Resonance (ECR) type ion source, here used as a plasma cathode. This paper describes the experimental development path pursued at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, from the early concept to a working unit that produces plasma in both stages and creates a negative particle beam. Without cesiation applied to the second stage, the H- fraction of this beam is very low, yielding 75 micro-amperes of extracted ion beam current at best. The apparent limitations of this approach and envisaged improvements are discussed

  11. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development

  12. Characterization of volume type ion source for $p$, $H_2^+$ and $H_3^+$ beams

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need for $H_{2}^+$ and $H_{3}^+$ ion sources. One example are ion therapy facilities, where $C^{4+}$ and $H_{3}^+$ ion beams along the linac are of great interest. Another example is a $H_{2}^+$ test beam for linacs finally operated with intense deuteron beams. At Frankfurt, a simple proton ion source is needed to test a new kind of beam injection into a magnetic storage ring\\cite{EPAC08}\\cite{EPAC06}. This article describes a volume type ion source which can deliver upto $3.05~mA$ beam current at $10~keV$ in stable dc operation. It is a hot filament driven ion source which can provide high fractions of $p$, $H_{2}^+$ or $H_{3}^+$, depending on the operation settings.

  13. Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 2 workshop presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Alonso, J. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Pulsed Spallation Source study, this Workshop was convened to address ion-source technology`s present status with respect to the next-generation Pulsed Spallation Source in the 1-5 MW range for the neutron scattering community. Considerations of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) parameters and designs were included in the discussions throughout the Workshop. Ion-source requirements and actually-achieved performances were assessed, resulting in a determination of research and development requirements to bridge the gap. Part 1 of these Proceedings summarizes the Workshop; Part 2 contains viewgraphs of Workshop presentations.

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on ion source issues relevant to a pulsed spallation neutron source: Part 2 workshop presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Pulsed Spallation Source study, this Workshop was convened to address ion-source technology's present status with respect to the next-generation Pulsed Spallation Source in the 1-5 MW range for the neutron scattering community. Considerations of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) parameters and designs were included in the discussions throughout the Workshop. Ion-source requirements and actually-achieved performances were assessed, resulting in a determination of research and development requirements to bridge the gap. Part 1 of these Proceedings summarizes the Workshop; Part 2 contains viewgraphs of Workshop presentations

  15. Calculated and measured emittance of sputter-type negative-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for calculating the beam current and emittance of a negative ion beam from a sputter-type source is described. Calculations are compared to measured emittance. The dependence of the emittance on ion source parameters such as cathode shape, exit aperture diameter, and cathode voltage is discussed

  16. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) for cyclotrons and radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources are discussed. These improvements include improvements in the charge-state distribution to increase the fraction of high charge-state current, improvement in production of beams of metallic ions, and reduction of construction cost and energy consumption for such sources

  17. Development of Yttrium alloy ion source and its application in nanofabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Mazarov, Swetlana; Bushev, Pavel; Wieck, Andreas; Mazarov, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present a new YAuSi Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source (LMAIS), generating focused ion beams of yttrium ions, and its prospective applications for nanofabrication, sample preparation, lithographic and implantation processes. Working parameters of the AuSiY LMAIS are similar to other gold-silicon based LMAIS. We found anomalously high emission current of triple charged Yttrium ions. Influence of Yttrium implantation on optical qualities of the implanted ion-ensembles is shown in luminescence of co-implanted Erbium ions.

  18. Comparison of reactant and analyte ions for ⁶³Nickel, corona discharge, and secondary electrospray ionization sources with ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, C L; Hill, H H

    2013-03-30

    (63)Nickel radioactive ionization ((63)Ni) is the most common and widely used ion source for ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Regulatory, financial, and operational concerns with this source have promoted recent development of non-radioactive sources, such as corona discharge ionization (CD), for stand-alone IMS systems. However, there has been no comparison of the negative ion species produced by all three sources in the literature. This study compares the negative reactant and analyte ions produced by three sources on an ion mobility-mass spectrometer: conventional (63)Ni, CD, and secondary electrospray ionization (SESI). Results showed that (63)Ni and SESI produced the same reactant ion species while CD produced only the nitrate monomer and dimer ions. The analyte ions produced by each ion source were the same except for the CD source which produced a different ion species for the explosive RDX than either the (63)Ni or SESI source. Accurate and reproducible reduced mobility (K0) values, including several values reported here for the first time, were found for each explosive with each ion source. Overall, the SESI source most closely reproduced the reactant ion species and analyte ion species profiles for (63)Ni. This source may serve as a non-radioactive, robust, and flexible alternative for (63)Ni. PMID:23598216

  19. Design of triode extraction system for a dual hollow cathode ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Hui; ZHU Kun; ZHAO Wei-Jiang; LIU Ke-Xin

    2011-01-01

    A triode extraction system is designed for a dual hollow cathode ion source being developed at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics,Peking University.Basic parameters of the plasma are selected after examining the operation principle of the ion source,then the triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using software PBGUNS (for Particle Beam GUN Simulations).The physical design of the system is given in this paper.

  20. Compact permanent magnet H+ ECR ion source with pulse gas valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Y.; Tongu, H.; Fuwa, Y.; Ichikawa, M.

    2016-02-01

    Compact H+ ECR ion source using permanent magnets is under development. Switching the hydrogen gas flow in pulse operations can reduce the gas loads to vacuum evacuation systems. A specially designed piezo gas valve chops the gas flow quickly. A 6 GHz ECR ion source equipped with the piezo gas valve is tested. The gas flow was measured by a fast ion gauge and a few ms response time is obtained.

  1. MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT EFFECTS ON ION FLUX BEHAVIORS IN ECR PLASMA SOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The available electron cyclotron resonance plasma source has been simulated in two-dimensional configuration space (z, r) and three-dimensional velocity space (Vz, Vr Vθ). The simulation is focused on the magnetic field gradient effects on ion flux behaviors in electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. The simulation results show that, when the magnetic field gradients increase, electron temperature, plasma density, ionization rate, and ion flux in Zdirection would decrease, while ion energy and plasma potential would increase.

  2. Effect of coupling transformer on the performance of microwave ion source: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.45 GHz high current microwave ion source is currently operational at VECC. It is able to produce more than 12 mA of beam current with just 300 watts of microwave power. The extracted beam current from the ion source depends strongly on the microwave coupling transformer. In order to understand the effect of microwave coupling on the performance of ion source, we have designed three different types of coupling transformers using ANSYS HFSS code, namely WR-284 waveguide and two double ridged waveguides one with 24 mm ridge width and another with 48 mm ridge width. We have fabricated these transformers and studied experimentally their effect on the extracted current from the ion source. This paper presents simulation details and experimental results of different microwave coupling transformers on performance of the ion source. (author)

  3. Study on the microwave ion source of 100-MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A microwave ion source is used as an ion source of 100-MeV proton accelerator at Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the ion source are 50 keV in energy and 20 mA in peak current. The plasma is operated in CW mode using magnetron and the pulse beam is extracted using semiconductor switch located in the extraction power supply. The beam characteristics were measured based on the pulse voltage and current. A test stand was also installed to study the beam characteristics of the ion source in off-line. In this paper, the pulse beam characteristics of the ion source are presented and the installation of the test stand is reported.

  4. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  5. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  6. Ion temperature in the ASTRAL helicon plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Ion temperature is measured in the ASTRAL (Auburn Steady sTate Research fAciLity) helicon plasma source by means of a diode laser based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) diagnostic. ASTRAL produces plasmas with the following parameters: ne = 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3, Te = 2 to 15 eV and Ti = 0.03 to 0.5 eV. A series of 7 large coils produce an axial magnetic field up to 1.3 kGauss. A fractional helix antenna is used to introduce rf power up to 2 kWatt. The 1.5 MHz bandwidth diode laser has a Littrow external cavity with a mode-hop free tuning range up to 15 GHz and with a total power output of about 15 mW. The wavelength is measured by a wavemeter and frequent monitoring prevents wavelength drift. For Ar plasma, the laser tuned at 668.61 nm, is used to pump the 3d^4F7/2 Ar II metastable level to the 4p^4D5/2 level. The fluorescence radiation between the 4p^4D5/2 and the 4s^4P3/2 levels (442.6 nm) is monitored by a PMT. Other diagnostics are presently installed on the plasma device. They included a RF compensated Langmuir probe which is used to measure both electron temperature and plasma density. A spectrometer which features a 0.33 m Criss-Cross Scanning monochromator and a CCD camera is used for spectroscopy studies of the plasma.

  7. Boron ion beam production with the supernanogan ECR ion source for the CERN BIO-LEIR facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stafford-Haworth, J; Scrivens, R; Toivanen, V; Röhrich, J

    2014-01-01

    To deliver B3+ ions for medical research the compounds decaborane and m-carborane were tested using the metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC) method with the Supernanogan 14.5 GHz ECR ion source. Using decaborane the source delivered less than 10 A intensity of B3+ and after operation large deposits of material were found inside the source. Using m-carborane 50 A of B3+ were delivered without support gas. For m-carborane, helium and oxygen support gasses were also tested, and the effects of different source tuning parameters are discussed. The average consumption of m-carborane was 0:1 mg/Ah over all operation.

  8. Optimum plasma grid bias for a negative hydrogen ion source operation with Cs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, Marthe; Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; McAdams, Roy

    2016-02-01

    The functions of a biased plasma grid of a negative hydrogen (H-) ion source for both pure volume and Cs seeded operations are reexamined. Proper control of the plasma grid bias in pure volume sources yields: enhancement of the extracted negative ion current, reduction of the co-extracted electron current, flattening of the spatial distribution of plasma potential across the filter magnetic field, change in recycling from hydrogen atomic/molecular ions to atomic/molecular neutrals, and enhanced concentration of H- ions near the plasma grid. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with Cs with additional direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment onto the plasma electrode.

  9. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reponen, M., E-mail: mikael.reponen@riken.jp [Nuclear Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Moore, I. D., E-mail: iain.d.moore@jyu.fi; Pohjalainen, I.; Savonen, M.; Voss, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Rothe, S. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sonnenschein, V. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Ag isotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary {sup 107}Ag{sup 21+} ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z {sup 94}Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusion coefficients for silver in graphite were measured for temperatures of 1470 K, 1630 K, and 1720 K, from which an activation energy of 3.2 ± 0.3 eV could be determined.

  10. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Reponen, M; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A

    2015-01-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Agisotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusio...

  11. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, M.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rothe, S.; Savonen, M.; Sonnenschein, V.; Voss, A.

    2015-12-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Ag isotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary 107Ag21+ ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z 94Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusion coefficients for silver in graphite were measured for temperatures of 1470 K, 1630 K, and 1720 K, from which an activation energy of 3.2 ± 0.3 eV could be determined.

  12. An inductively heated hot cavity catcher laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, M; Moore, I D; Pohjalainen, I; Rothe, S; Savonen, M; Sonnenschein, V; Voss, A

    2015-12-01

    An inductively heated hot cavity catcher has been constructed for the production of low-energy ion beams of exotic, neutron-deficient Ag isotopes. A proof-of-principle experiment has been realized by implanting primary (107)Ag(21+) ions from a heavy-ion cyclotron into a graphite catcher. A variable-thickness nickel foil was used to degrade the energy of the primary beam in order to mimic the implantation depth expected from the heavy-ion fusion-evaporation recoils of N = Z (94)Ag. Following implantation, the silver atoms diffused out of the graphite and effused into the catcher cavity and transfer tube, where they were resonantly laser ionized using a three-step excitation and ionization scheme. Following mass separation, the ions were identified by scanning the frequency of the first resonant excitation step while recording the ion count rate. Ion release time profiles were measured for different implantation depths and cavity temperatures with the mean delay time varying from 10 to 600 ms. In addition, the diffusion coefficients for silver in graphite were measured for temperatures of 1470 K, 1630 K, and 1720 K, from which an activation energy of 3.2 ± 0.3 eV could be determined. PMID:26724021

  13. A gapless micro-dielectric-barrier-discharge ion source for analytical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Coy, Stephen L; Eiceman, Gary A; Kanik, Isik

    2016-01-01

    Use of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as an ion source for sensitive chemical analysis is uncommon because barrier discharges generate excess noise due to spatial and temporal instability. This design uses contacted, crossed glass-coated micro-wires to focus the field into a gradually vanishing gap, suppressing spatial and temporal variability, reducing pressure, temperature, and humidity effects, stabilizing discharge initiation and limiting chemical fragmentation. Positive-ion-mode proton transfer, chemical fragmentation from a micro-discharge, and NO+ adducts combine to allow broad chemical sensitivity. We analyze noise properties of the ion source and report chemical responsivity for a wide range of volatile organic compounds. Source noise spectral density is compared for three systems: the contacted coated wires source, a gapped dielectric barrier discharge source, and a 5 mCi Ni-63 radioactive source. The crossed-wires source shows noise properties approaching those of the white-noise Ni-63 source, ...

  14. Space-charge-dominated mass spectrometry ion sources: Modeling and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman, M; Sunner, J; Vogel, C R

    1991-01-01

    The factors determining the sensitivity of space-charge-dominated (SCD) unipolar ion sources, such as electrospray (ESP) and corona atmospheric pressure ionization (API) have been studied theoretically. The most important parameters are the ion density and ion drift time in the vicinity of the sampling orifice. These are obtained by solving a system of differential equations, "the space-charge problem." For some simple geometries, analytical solutions are known. For a more realistic "needle-in-can" geometry, a solution to the space-charge problem was obtained using a finite-element method. The results illustrate some general characteristics of SCD ion sources. It is shown that for typical operating conditions the minimum voltage required to overcome the space-charge effect in corona API or ESP ion sources constitutes a dominant or significant fraction of total applied voltage. Further, the electric field and the ion density in the region of the ion-sampling orifice as well as the ion residence time in the source are determined mainly by the space charge. Finally, absolute sensitivities of corona API ion sources were calculated by using a geometry-independent treatment of space charge.

  15. The first results with the new JYFL 14 GHz ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, H. E-mail: hannu.koivisto@phys.jyu.fi; Heikkinen, P.; Haenninen, V.; Lassila, A.; Leinonen, H.; Nieminen, V.; Pakarinen, J.; Ranttila, K.; Aerje, J.; Liukkonen, E

    2001-04-01

    A new 14 GHz ECR ion source has been built for the Accelerator Laboratory in the Department of Physics (JYFL), University of Jyvaeskylae. This source belongs to the family of the LBNL AECR-U-based ECR ion sources. The operation during the first four months has shown that the new ion source performs well and is able to produce intensive highly charged ion beams. For example, 145 {mu}A of O{sup 7+} ion beam was recorded. The production of iron and boron ion beams was tested using the MIVOC method. The {sup 56}Fe{sup 11+} ion beam current reached a value of 115 {mu}A. The intensities of {sup 11}B{sup 3+} and {sup 11}B{sup 5+} ion beams were 235 and 52 {mu}A, respectively. This iron beam intensity is the second highest and the boron beam intensities are the highest ever produced by an ECR ion source. In all the tests an extraction voltage of 10 kV was applied.

  16. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R and D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe27+, 236 eμA Xe30+, and 64 eμA Xe35+. Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi30+ and 202 eμA U33+ have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation

  17. Laser ion source with long pulse width for RHIC-EBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new heavy ion-projector for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Laser Ion Source (LIS) with solenoid can supply many kinds of ion from solid targets and is suitable for long pulse length with low current as ion provider for RHIC-EBIS. In order to understand a plasma behavior for fringe field of solenoid, we measure current, pulse width and total ion charges by a new ion probe. The experimental result indicates that the solenoid confines the laser ablation plasma transversely. Laser ion source needs long pulse length with limited current as primary ion provider for RHIC-EBIS. New ion probe can measure current distribution for the radial positions along z axis. The beam pulse length is not effected by magnetic field strength. However, the currents and charges decay with the distance from the end of solenoid. These results indicate that solenoid field has important role for plasma confinement not longitudinally but transversely and solenoid is able to have long pulse length with sufficient total ion charges. Moreover, the results are useful for a design of the extraction system for RHIC-EBIS.

  18. Effects of source temperature and characteristics on the optical emission from a gallium liquid metal ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornsey, R.I.; Marriott, P.

    1989-05-14

    The light emitted from the region close to the tip of an emitting liquid metal ion source has been observed. It is shown that at high currents the light intensity rises almost as the cube of the current, but that the optical emission also depends on the source characteristics. A model based on the break-up of charged droplets is proposed to account for these results, thermal evaporation being found to be insignificant. Measurements of the effects of source temperature on light emission are also presented. From these measurements it is demonstrated that field ionisation cannot be responsible for the distortion of the total ion energy distribution seen at elevated temperatures. (author).

  19. Design of the Prototype Negative Ion Source for Neutral Beam Injector at ASIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianglong; Xie, Yahong; Liang, Lizhen; Gu, Yuming; Yi, Wei; Li, Jun; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yuanlai; Jiang, Caichao; Tao, Ling; Sheng, Peng; Xu, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    In order to support the design, manufacture and commissioning of the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the Hefei utility negative ion test equipment with RF source (HUNTER) was proposed at ASIPP. A prototype negative ion source will be developed at first. The main bodies of plasma source and accelerator of the prototype negative ion source are similar to that of the ion source for EAST-NBI. But instead of the filament-arc driver, an RF driver is adopted for the prototype negative ion source to fulfill the requirement of long pulse operation. A cesium seeding system and a magnetic filter are added for enhancing the negative ion density near the plasma grid and minimizing co-extracted electrons. Besides, an ITER-like extraction system is applied inside the accelerator, where the negative ion beam is extracted and accelerated up to 50 kV. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505224, 11575240, 11405207), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001, 2013GB101002, 2013GB101003), International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950), and Foundation of ASIPP (No. DSJJ-14-JC07)

  20. APS Science 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-30

    This report provides research highlights from the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Although these highlights represent less than 10% of the published work from the APS in 2007, they give a flavor of the diversity and impact of user research at the facility. In the strategic planning the aim is to foster the growth of existing user communities and foresee new areas of research. This coming year finds the APS engaged in putting together, along with the users, a blueprint for the next five years, and making the case for a set of prioritized investments in beamlines, the accelerator, and infrastructure, each of which will be transformational in terms of scientific impact. As this is written plans are being formulated for an important user workshop on October 20-21, 2008, to prioritize strategic plans. The fruit from past investments can be seen in this report. Examples include the creation of a dedicated beamline for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy at Sector 8, the evolution of dedicated high-energy x-ray scattering beamlines at sectors 1 and 11, a dedicated imaging beamline at Sector 32, and new beamlines for inelastic scattering and powder diffraction. A single-pulse facility has been built in collaboration with Sector 14 (BioCARS) and Phil Anfinrud at the National Institutes of Health, which will offer exceptionally high flux for single-pulse diffraction. The nanoprobe at Sector 26, built and operated jointly by the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials and the X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) section of the APS X-ray Science Division, has come on line to define the state of the art in nanoscience.

  1. Generation of compensated ion beams from source with oscillating electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Borisko, V N; Yunakov, N N

    2000-01-01

    The generation of compensated ion beams from electrically unsymmetrical reflecting discharge was investigated.The spatial location of a compensation zone,the optimal values of operating gas pressures P=(0.8/1) centre dot 10 sup - sup 4 Torr and potential difference between cathodes DELTA U = 80B were determined.The way to control the current compensation degree of the extracted ion beam a several to 100% was found.

  2. Kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H{sup −} negative ion sources (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatayama, A., E-mail: akh@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Shibata, T.; Nishioka, S.; Ohta, M.; Yasumoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Yamamoto, T. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Fukano, A. [Monozukuri Department, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Shinagawa, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan); Mizuno, T. [Department of Management Science, College of Engineering, Tamagawa University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Progress in the kinetic modeling of particle dynamics in H{sup −} negative ion source plasmas and their comparisons with experiments are reviewed, and discussed with some new results. Main focus is placed on the following two topics, which are important for the research and development of large negative ion sources and high power H{sup −} ion beams: (i) Effects of non-equilibrium features of EEDF (electron energy distribution function) on H{sup −} production, and (ii) extraction physics of H{sup −} ions and beam optics.

  3. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ropponen, Tommi [JYFL; Jones, Peter [JYFL; Kalvas, Taneli [JYFL

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  4. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  5. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  6. The APS ceramic chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  7. Sources et bibliographie

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES Sources Archivistiques Archives nationales (AN) Série AP. Archives personnelles et familiales AP/09. Fonds privés d’avocats. 304/ AP. Maurice Garçon. 334/AP. Bluet. 417/AP. Georges Coulon. 470/AP. Alexandre Millerand. 476/AP. Chauveau- Lagarde. 488/AP. Joseph Denaïs. 505/AP. Edgar Faure. 516/AP. Bourdeau de Fontenay. 556/AP. Gabriel Olivier. 596/AP. Georges Calzant. Série BB. Ministère de la Justice BB29 : Enregistrement général de la correspondance BB29/723-724. Matricule des avoués ...

  8. 12th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The EBIST symposia date back to 1977 and have taken place every 3 to 4 years to specifically discuss progress and exchange ideas in the design, development, applications of electron beam ion sources and traps, and the physics with highly charged ions. The topics to be covered in 2014 are: - Progress and status of EBIS/T facilities, - Atomic spectroscopy of highly charged ions, - Charge-exchange and surface interaction with highly charged ions, - Charge breeding of stable and radioactive isotopes, - Nuclear physics with highly charged ions.

  9. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  10. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69Ga+, Ga++ and Ga2+ ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  11. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators

  12. Analysis of the emission characteristics of ion sources for high-value optical counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of complex high-quality thin film systems requires a detailed understanding of all partial processes. One of the most relevant partial processes is the condensation of the coating material on the substrate surface. The optical and mechanical material properties can be adjusted by the well-defined impingement of energetic ions during deposition. Thus, in the past, a variety of different ion sources were developed. With respect to the present and future challenges in the production of precisely fabricated high performance optical coatings, the ion emission of the sources has commonly not been characterized sufficiently so far. This question is addressed in the frame of this work which itself is thematically integrated in the field of process-development and -control of ion assisted deposition processes. In a first step, a Faraday cup measurement system was developed which allows the spatially resolved determination of the ion energy distribution as well as the ion current distribution. Subsequently, the ion emission profiles of six ion sources were determined depending on the relevant operating parameters. Consequently, a data pool for process planning and supplementary process analysis is made available. On the basis of the acquired results, the basic correlations between the operating parameters and the ion emission are demonstrated. The specific properties of the individual sources as well as the respective control strategies are pointed out with regard to the thin film properties and production yield. Finally, a synthesis of the results and perspectives for future activities are given. (orig.)

  13. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  14. Status of ECR ion sources for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Guillaume; Felice, Helene; Fogleman, Jesse; Hafalia, Ray; Morgan, Glenn; Pan, Heng; Prestemon, Soren; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Xing; Ren, Haitao; Tobos, Larry

    2016-02-01

    Ahead of the commissioning schedule, installation of the first Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in the front end area of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam (FRIB) is planned for the end of 2015. Operating at 14 GHz, this first ECR will be used for the commissioning and initial operation of the facility. In parallel, a superconducting magnet structure compatible with operation at 28 GHz for a new ECR ion source is in development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The paper reviews the overall work in progress and development done with ECR ion sources for FRIB. PMID:26931961

  15. A Newly Designed 14.5 GHz All Permanent ECR Ion Source in IMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunLiangting; ZhaoHongwei; ZhangZimin; WangHui; MaBaohua; D.Hitz

    2003-01-01

    A new all permanent ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECRIS No. 2) is now under developing in IMP. This source will be used to set up on thc IMP 400 HV (High Voltage) platform. This HV platform aims to deliver high ion beams from low charge state to very high charge state, so the rigorous requirement to this ECRIS is obvious. To satisfy this requirement, the ion source is designed to be a very large one, which has very large volumc plasma chamber, larger ECR length and mirror length, and very strong 3 -dimension magnetic field. The detail parameters, are shown in Table 1 listed below.

  16. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  17. Microwave to plasma coupling in electron cyclotron resonance and microwave ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupling improvements between microwaves and plasmas are a key factor to design more powerful electron cyclotron resonance and microwave ion sources. On this purpose different activities have been undertaken by the INFN-LNS ion source team and a new approach was developed. Recent experiments confirmed the simulations, demonstrating that even in presence of a dense plasma, resonant modes are excited inside the cavity and the plasma dynamics depends on their structure. An overview of the coupling issues on microwave ion sources is also given along with a discussion on alternative coupling techniques.

  18. Status of ECR ion sources for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machicoane, Guillaume, E-mail: machicoane@frib.msu.edu; Morgan, Glenn; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Rao, Xing; Ren, Haitao [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Felice, Helene; Hafalia, Ray; Pan, Heng; Prestemon, Soren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fogleman, Jesse; Tobos, Larry [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Ahead of the commissioning schedule, installation of the first Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source in the front end area of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beam (FRIB) is planned for the end of 2015. Operating at 14 GHz, this first ECR will be used for the commissioning and initial operation of the facility. In parallel, a superconducting magnet structure compatible with operation at 28 GHz for a new ECR ion source is in development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The paper reviews the overall work in progress and development done with ECR ion sources for FRIB.

  19. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  20. Optimized Discretization of Sources Imaged in Heavy-Ion Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David A.; Danielewicz, Pawel

    1997-01-01

    We develop the new method of optimized discretization for imaging the relative source from two particle correlation functions. In this method, the source resolution depends on the relative particle separation and is adjusted to available data and their errors. We test the method by restoring assumed pp sources and then apply the method to pp and IMF data. In reactions below 100 MeV/nucleon, significant portions of the sources extend to large distances (r > 20 fm). The results from the imaging...