Litvinova, E; Tselyaev, V; Langanke, K
2008-01-01
Theoretical studies of low-lying dipole strength in even-even spherical nuclei within the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) are presented. The RQTBA developed recently as an extension of the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) enables one to investigate effects of coupling of two-quasiparticle excitations to collective vibrations within a fully consistent calculation scheme based on covariant energy density functional theory. Dipole spectra of even-even $^{130}$Sn -- $^{140}$Sn and $^{68}$Ni -- $^{78}$Ni isotopes calculated within both RQRPA and RQTBA show two well separated collective structures: the higher-lying giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the lower-lying pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) which can be identified by a different behavior of the transition densities of states in these regions.
HTLV-II seroprevalence in pygmies across Africa since 1970.
Goubau, P; Liu, H F; De Lange, G G; Vandamme, A M; Desmyter, J
1993-08-01
HTLV-II-specific antibodies, with patterns similar to those in the Americas, were present in sera collected about 1970 from Bambuti pygmies in Zaire (14/102; 14%) and from pygmies in Cameroon (5/214; 2.3%), and were more prevalent than HTLV-I. In the Central African Republic, 504 pygmies were HTLV negative. After finding of 4 HTLV-II seropositives among 12 Bambuti pygmies sampled in 1991, this established that HTLV-II or a related retrovirus is present as an ancient endemic in some, but not all, insulated groups of African pygmies, similar to the HTLV-II distribution in Amerindian populations. The endemic among the oldest inhabitants of central Africa, and the occasional and scattered occurrence of apparent HTLV-II among predominant HTLV-I in other Africans, fit well with an ancient African virus and not with importation from the New World. Theories on the origin and evolution of the primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLVs) should take into account the longstanding presence of HTLV-II-type viruses in both the Old and New World. Present serology suggests identity of the African viruses with HTLV-II, but their assignment to a new HTLV type is open should genetic analysis show strong divergence from American HTLV-II. Clinical expression, if any, remains to be studied.
Pygmy dipole response of proton rich argon beyond the random phase approximation
Barbieri, C; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G
2007-01-01
The occurrence of a pygmy dipole resonance in proton rich Ar-32 and Ar-34 is studied using the unitary correlator operator method interaction Vucom, based on Argonne V18. Predictions from the random phase approximation (RPA) and the shell model in a no-core basis are compared. It is found that the inclusion of configuration mixing up to two-particle--two-holes broadens the pygmy strength slightly and reduces sensibly its strength, as compared to the RPA predictions. For Ar-32 a clear peak associated with a pygmy resonance is found. For Ar-34, the pygmy states are obtained close to the giant dipole resonance and mix with it.
Growth hormone-binding protein: II. Studies in pygmies and normal statured subjects.
Merimee, T J; Baumann, G; Daughaday, W
1990-11-01
The serum concentrations of a specific GH-binding protein, derived from the GH receptor, were assayed in sera from 62 African pygmies and 101 normal statured controls. Samples were assayed in the absence and presence of excess GH using 2 separatory procedures. Interassay variability for samples was corrected by a standard reference pool of sera from adults assayed with all unknown samples. Results were expressed as specific binding relative to this standard. The mean percent relative specific binding for GH increased with age in normal-statured controls throughout childhood and adolescence. Relative specific binding for GH was 37.0 +/- 2.0% (mean +/- SEM) in control subjects between the ages of 1-5 yr (mean age, 2.9 yr) and increased progressively to 93.0 +/- 7.0% in young adults (mean age, 23 yr). The relative specific binding of GH by serum from pygmies did not exceed 30.1 +/- 3.4% of the control adult standard at any age period (P less than 0.001), and there was no progressive age-related increase in binding. The decrease from normal binding was minimal in pygmies during childhood (29%), but the decrease from normal was 60-70% in adolescents and adults. Thus, short stature in pygmies probably results not from an absolute deficiency of GH receptors per se, as in Laron dwarfism, but from a failure of cellular GH receptors to increase in a normal manner. This is most compatible with a change in regulating expression of the GH receptor gene, rather than a structural defect in the coding sequence of the GH receptor gene.
Co', G; Anguiano, M; Lallena, A M
2013-01-01
The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is studied in various medium-heavy nuclei by using a Gogny interaction in a self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus Random Phase Approximation method. We compare the details of the PDR structure with those of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). In the PDR protons and neutrons vibrate in phase, and the main contributions are given by particle-hole excitations involving the neutrons in excess. On the contrary, in the GDR protons and neutrons vibrate out of phase, and all the nucleons are involved in the excitation. The values of the parameters we used to define the collectivity of an excitation indicate that the PDR is less collective than the GDR. We also investigate the role of the residual interaction in the appearance of the PDR and we find a subtle interplay with the shell structure of the nucleus.
Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric
2013-04-01
Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.
Diversity among African pygmies.
Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V; Sardi, Marina L
2010-01-01
Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.
Diversity among African pygmies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi
Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.
Paar, N
2008-01-01
In recent paper by C. Barbieri, E. Caurier, K. Langanke, and G. Mart\\'inez Pinedo \\cite{Bar.08}, low-energy dipole excitations have been studied in proton-rich $^{32,34}$Ar with random phase approximation (RPA) and no-core shell model (NCSM) using the correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions obtained by the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) \\cite{Fel.98}. The main objective of this comment is to argue that the paper \\cite{Bar.08} contains an inconsistency with respect to previous study of excitations in the same UCOM-RPA framework using identical correlated Argonne V18 interaction \\cite{Paa.06}, it does not provide any evidence that the low-lying state declared as pygmy dipole resonance in $^{32}$Ar indeed has the resonance-like structure, and that priror to studying exotic modes of excitation away from the valley of stability one should ensure that the model provides reliable description of available experimental data on nuclear ground state properties and excitations in nuclei.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2006-01-01
In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal...
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...
Pygmy Resonances and Neutron Skins
Piekarewicz, J
2010-01-01
Motivated by a recent experiment, the distribution of electric dipole strength in the neutron-rich 68Ni isotope was computed using a relativistic random phase approximation with a set of effective interactions that - although well calibrated - predict significantly different values for the neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb. The emergence of low-energy "Pygmy" strength that exhausts about 5-8% of the energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) is clearly identified. In addition to the EWSR, special emphasis is placed on the dipole polarizability. In particular, our results suggest a strong correlation between the dipole polarizability of 68Ni and the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb. Yet we find a correlation just as strong and an even larger sensitivity between the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb and the fraction of the dipole polarizability exhausted by the Pygmy resonance. These findings suggest that the dipole polarizability may be used as a proxy for the neutron skin.
Renquin, J; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Halle, L; Rivalland, S; Jaeger, G; Mbayo, K; Bianchi, F; Kaplan, C
2001-10-01
HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 polymorphisms were investigated in two African populations, the Basse Lobaye Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic, and a Bantu-speaking group from the Democratic Republic of Congo Kinshasa. Allelic and haplotypic frequency distributions reveal marked differences between the two populations in spite of their geographical proximity: the Aka exhibit high frequencies for several alleles, especially at the DPB1 locus (0.695 for DPB1*0402), probably due to rapid genetic drift, while the Bantu distributions are more even. Genetic distances computed from DRB1 allelic frequencies among 21 populations from North and sub-Saharan Africa were applied to a multidimensional scaling analysis. African populations genetic structure is significantly shaped by linguistic differentiation, as confirmed by an analysis of molecular variance. However, selective neutrality tests indicate that many African populations exhibit an excess of heterozygotes for DRB1, which is likely to explain the genetic similarity observed between some North African and Bantu populations. Overall, this study shows that natural selection must be taken into account when interpreting the patterns of HLA diversity, but that this effect is probably minor in relation to the stochastic events of human population differentiations.
Pygmy resonances and nucleosynthesis
Tsoneva, Nadia
2014-01-01
A microscopic theoretical approach based on a self-consistent density functional theory for the nuclear ground state and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom for the nuclear excited states is implemented in investigations of new low-energy modes called pygmy resonances. Advantage of the method is the unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations, pygmy resonances and core polarization effects. This is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear response functions at low energies. Aspects of the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions around the neutron threshold are discussed in a connection to nucleosynthesis.
Pygmy resonances and nucleosynthesis
Tsoneva, Nadia; Lenske, Horst
2015-05-01
A microscopic theoretical approach based on a self-consistent density functional theory for the nuclear ground state and QRPA formalism extended with multi-phonon degrees of freedom for the nuclear excited states is implemented in investigations of new low-energy modes called pygmy resonances. Advantage of the method is the unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations, pygmy resonances and core polarization effects. This is found of crucial importance for the understanding of the fine structure of nuclear response functions at low energies. Aspects of the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions around the neutron threshold are discussed in a connection to nucleosynthesis.
Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S.A.; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric
2013-01-01
Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration,...
Insulin-like growth factors in pygmies. The role of puberty in determining final stature.
Merimee, T J; Zapf, J; Hewlett, B; Cavalli-Sforza, L L
1987-04-01
We measured the serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II and testosterone in pygmy children, adolescents, and adults, as well as in controls, to determine more precisely the role of these factors in controlling growth. We had previously shown that growth hormone levels were normal in pygmies. Prepubertal pygmy children and controls did not differ in linear growth or in serum concentrations of IGF I and II. In pygmy adolescent boys, the mean (+/- SEM) serum concentration of IGF I was only one third that in control adolescents, who were similar to the pygmies in age and Tanner stage of development (154 +/- 22 vs. 435 +/- 37 ng per milliliter; P less than 0.01). A similar difference in IGF I concentration was observed in girls (278 +/- 18 vs. 570 +/- 25 ng per milliliter; P less than 0.01). IGF II and testosterone levels were normal in all groups. There was a significant difference in growth between controls and pygmies only during puberty. There was a marked acceleration of growth in the controls during adolescence, but such an acceleration was absent or blunted in the pygmies. These findings suggest that the short stature of adult pygmies is due primarily to a failure of growth to accelerate during puberty. We postulate that IGF I is the principal factor responsible for normal pubertal growth and that testosterone does not accelerate growth appreciably in the absence of an increase in the level of IGF I.
Piekarewicz, J.
2013-03-01
Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.
Piekarewicz, J
2012-01-01
Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of energetic heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova all depend critically on the nuclear-matter EOS. In this contribution I focus on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I discuss how laboratory experiments on neutron skins as well as on Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of these fascinating objects.
Insulin-like growth factor I resistance in immortalized T cell lines from African Efe Pygmies.
Geffner, M E; Bersch, N; Bailey, R C; Golde, D W
1995-12-01
Previous investigations suggested that resistance to GH was the cause of short stature of African Pygmies. Because many of the actions of GH are mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), we sought to determine whether Pygmy tissue was responsive to IGF-I. An initial effort to obtain HTLV-II-transformed T lymphoblast cell lines resulted in a single cell line that showed complete resistance to both IGF-I and GH in a clonal proliferation assay as well as decreased IGF-I binding. In the current study, we examined T cell lines from seven Efe Pygmy subjects, three neighboring Lese farmers, and six American controls and quantified clonal responses to IGF-I, GH, and insulin. The T cell lines from the Efe Pygmies were all completely resistant to the growth-promoting actions of IGF-I concentrations less than 250 micrograms/L and GH concentrations less than 500 micrograms/L. The Lese population, with whom there is admixture with the Efe population, showed heights and clonal responses to IGF-I and GH intermediate between those of Pygmies and American controls. The Pygmy T cell lines showed reduced clonal proliferation in response to high insulin concentrations known to act through the IGF-I receptor. These findings indicate that genetic IGF-I resistance is present in the T cell lines of Efe Pygmies and suggest that unresponsiveness to IGF-I may be responsible for their short stature.
Intelligent systems II complete approximation by neural network operators
Anastassiou, George A
2016-01-01
This monograph is the continuation and completion of the monograph, “Intelligent Systems: Approximation by Artificial Neural Networks” written by the same author and published 2011 by Springer. The book you hold in hand presents the complete recent and original work of the author in approximation by neural networks. Chapters are written in a self-contained style and can be read independently. Advanced courses and seminars can be taught out of this brief book. All necessary background and motivations are given per chapter. A related list of references is given also per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also for all science and engineering libraries. .
Dermatoglyphics of the Efe pygmies.
Pospisil, M F
1992-04-01
This paper deals with the dermatoglyphics in a group of Efe Pygmies, especially with the quantitative traits of fingers, as well as with palmar dermatoglyphics. This material was collected by P. Schebesta in Zaire and was partially published already by J.A. Valsík in 1938.
Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.
Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert
2016-01-01
We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas.
Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.
Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert
2016-01-01
We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384
On the isoscalar-isovector splitting of pygmy dipole structures
Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J
2009-01-01
The electric dipole response of $^{140}$Ce is investigated using the fully consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. By analyzing the isospin structure of the E1 response, it is shown that the low-energy (pygmy) strength separates into two segments with different isospin character. The more pronounced pygmy structure at lower energy is composed of predominantly isoscalar states with surface-peaked transition densities. At somewhat higher energy the calculated E1 strength is primarily of isovector character, as expected for the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. The results are in qualitative agreement with those obtained in recent $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ and $(\\alpha,\\alpha'\\gamma)$ experiments, and provide a simple explanation for the splitting of low-energy E1 strength into two groups of states with different isospin structure and radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Etienne Patin
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainforests and are characterized by their short mean stature. However, little is known about the chronology of the demographic events-size changes, population splits, and gene flow--ultimately giving rise to contemporary Pygmy (Western and Eastern groups and neighboring agricultural populations. We studied the branching history of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and agricultural populations from Africa and estimated separation times and gene flow between these populations. We resequenced 24 independent noncoding regions across the genome, corresponding to a total of approximately 33 kb per individual, in 236 samples from seven Pygmy and five agricultural populations dispersed over the African continent. We used simulation-based inference to identify the historical model best fitting our data. The model identified included the early divergence of the ancestors of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and farming populations approximately 60,000 years ago, followed by a split of the Pygmies' ancestors into the Western and Eastern Pygmy groups approximately 20,000 years ago. Our findings increase knowledge of the history of the peopling of the African continent in a region lacking archaeological data. An appreciation of the demographic and adaptive history of African populations with different modes of subsistence should improve our understanding of the influence of human lifestyles on genome diversity.
On the collectivity of Pygmy Dipole Resonance within schematic TDA and RPA models
Baran, V; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M; Croitoru, A; Nicolin, A I
2014-01-01
Within schematic models based on the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and the Random-Phase Approximation with separable interactions, we investigate the physical conditions which determine the emergence of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in the E1 response of atomic nuclei. We find that if some particle-hole excitation manifests a different, weaker residual interaction, an additional mode will appear, with an energy centroid closer to the distance between two major shells and therefore well below the Giant Dipole Resonance. This state, together with Giant Dipole Resonance, exhausts all the transition strength in the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and all the Energy Weighted Sum Rule in the Random-Phase Approximation. These features suggest a collective nature for this mode which we identify with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance.
IGF-I resistance in virus-transformed B-lymphocytes from African Efe Pygmies.
Cortez, A B; Van Dop, C; Bailey, R C; Bersch, N; Scott, M; Golde, D W; Geffner, M E
1996-06-01
To investigate IGF-I resistance in African Efe Pygmies, we examined clonal responsiveness to IGF-I in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphocytes from three Efe Pygmies and three American control subjects. The Efe B-lymphoblasts did not increase clonal responsiveness when incubated with IGF-I (as high as 250 micrograms/liter) in contrast to the control B-lymphoblasts which showed a bimodal dose-response with a maximal stimulation of 50% above baseline. The proliferative response of Efe B-lymphoblasts was similar to that of control B-lymphoblasts when incubated with another growth factor, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which does not activate the IGF-I receptor. These findings indicate that Efe Pygmy B-lymphoblasts are resistant to IGF-I as measured by in vitro clonal proliferation assays. Coupled with our previous report of IGF-I unresponsiveness in Efe Pygmy HTLV-II-transformed T-lymphocytes, these data suggest that IGF-I resistance is generalized and may play a central role in the etiology of short stature in this population.
Systematics and evolution of the African pygmy mice, subgenus Nannomys: A review
Britton-Davidian, J.; Robinson, T. J.; Veyrunes, F.
2012-07-01
African pygmy mice (subgenus Nannomys) are a group of small murine rodents that are widespread throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Although this group has long been recognized for its extensive chromosomal diversity, the highly conserved morphology of its members has made taxonomic assignments problematic. Renewed interest resulting from a series of cytogenetic and molecular investigations has led to the identification of novel patterns of diversification in these rodents that are reviewed herein. These approaches have considerably improved species delimitation and provide tentative diagnostic criteria as well as preliminary phylogenetic relationships that will be refined as more taxa are investigated. Although sparse, ecological data suggest that pygmy mice may exhibit original reproductive traits that deserve further investigation. Chromosomal diversity undoubtedly remains one of the most interesting features of African pygmy mouse biology. They display several karyotypic traits that are rare in mammals: (i) their genomes tolerate the recurrent formation of tandem fusions and sex-autosome translocations, both of which are rare in other mammals due to their highly deleterious effects on fertility; (ii) they exhibit the first case of a whole arm exchange involving an X chromosome, and (iii) two species show novel means of sex chromosome determination - one exhibits XY females, whereas the other harbors populations in which males have no Y chromosome. The diversity of African pygmy mice offers a unique opportunity to study the processes involved in their radiation, and in a broader context, the evolution of sex chromosome determination in mammals.
Pygmy dipole resonance as a constraint on the neutron skin of heavy nuclei
Piekarewicz, J
2006-01-01
The isotopic dependence of the isovector Pygmy dipole response in tin is studied within the framework of the relativistic random phase approximation. Regarded as an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isospin-symmetric core, the pygmy dipole resonance may place important constraints on the neutron skin of heavy nuclei and, as a result, on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. The present study centers around two questions. First, is there a strong correlation between the development of a neutron skin and the emergence of low-energy isovector dipole strength? Second, could one use the recently measured Pygmy dipole resonance in 130Sn and 132Sn to discriminate among theoretical models? For the first question we found that while a strong correlation between the neutron skin and the Pygmy dipole resonance exists, a mild anti-correlation develops beyond 120Sn. The answer to the second question suggests that models with overly large neutron skins--and thus stiff symmetry energies--are in conflict wi...
Emergence of pygmy dipole resonances: Magic numbers and neutron skins
Inakura, Tsunenori; Yabana, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
The pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) for even-even nuclei in 8=
Pygmy resonances and radiative nucleon captures for stellar nucleosynthesis
Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.; Lenske, H.; Schwengner, R.
2015-04-01
The impact of low-energy multipole excitations and pygmy resonances on radiative neutron and proton-capture cross sections in nuclei close to the β -stability line is investigated. For this purpose, a microscopic theoretical approach based on self-consistent density functional theory and quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation formalism extended with multiphonon degrees of freedom is implemented in a statistical reaction model. The advantage of the method is the microscopic nuclear structure input for unified description of low-energy multiphonon excitations and pygmy and giant resonances. This is found to be important for the understanding of the fine structure and dynamics of the nuclear response function at low energies, which strongly influences nuclear reaction rates of astrophysical relevance. Calculations of the radiative capture cross sections of the reactions 85Kr (n ,γ )86Kr , 87Sr (n ,γ )88Sr , and 89Y (p ,γ )90Zr are discussed in comparison with experimental data. For the reactions 89Zr (n ,γ )90Zr and 91Mo (n ,γ )92Mo theoretical predictions of the reaction cross sections are made.
Energetics of locomotion in African pygmies.
Ferretti, G; Atchou, G; Grassi, B; Marconi, C; Cerretelli, P
1991-01-01
The energy cost of walking (Cw) and running (Cr), and the maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) were determined in a field study on 17 Pygmies (age 24 years, SD 6; height 160 cm, SD 5; body mass 57.2 kg, SD 4.8) living in the region of Bipindi, Cameroon. The Cw varied from 112 ml.kg-1.km-1, SD 25 [velocity (v), 4 km.h-1] to 143 ml.kg-1.km-1, SD 16 (v, 7 km.h-1). Optimal walking v was 5 km.h-1. The Cr was 156 ml.kg-1.km-1, SD 14 (v, 10 km.h-1) and was constant in the 8-11 km.h-1 speed range. The VO2max was 33.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, i.e. lower than in other African populations of the same age. The Cr and Cw were lower than in taller Caucasian endurance runners. These findings, which challenge the theory of physical similarity as applied to animal locomotion, may depend either on the mechanics of locomotion which in Pygmies may be different from that observed in Caucasians, or on a greater mechanical efficiency in Pygmies than in Caucasians. The low Cr values observed enable Pygmies to reach higher running speeds than would be expected on the basis of their VO2max.
Paedomorphosis and neoteny in the pygmy chimpanzee.
Shea, B T
1983-11-01
The strongly paedomorphic skull form in the pygmy chimpanzee results from the heterochronic process of neoteny. This cranial paedomorphosis and neoteny in Pan paniscus may be related to reduced sexual dimorphism in morphology and behavior. The interspecific differences in form result from shifts in the rate and timing of similar patterns of development. PMID:6623093
Limited dispersal in mobile hunter-gatherer Baka Pygmies.
Verdu, Paul; Leblois, Raphaël; Froment, Alain; Théry, Sylvain; Bahuchet, Serge; Rousset, François; Heyer, Evelyne; Vitalis, Renaud
2010-12-23
Hunter-gatherer Pygmies from Central Africa are described as being extremely mobile. Using neutral genetic markers and population genetics theory, we explored the dispersal behaviour of the Baka Pygmies from Cameroon, one of the largest Pygmy populations in Central Africa. We found a strong correlation between genetic and geographical distances: a pattern of isolation by distance arising from limited parent-offspring dispersal. Our study suggests that mobile hunter-gatherers do not necessarily disperse over wide geographical areas.
Hyperimmunoglobulinaemia in Babinga Pygmies is present from infancy.
Meazza, C; Travaglino, P; Pagani, S; Laarej, K; Duse, M; Bozzola, M
2009-01-01
Pygmies, a population characterized by short stature, have high immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. In this study, we evaluated Ig levels in Cameroons Babinga Pygmies from infancy to adulthood and the effects of a national health program on these Ig levels. We found that IgG and IgM levels were outside the normal range for Italians of the same age and were comparable to those measured in Babinga Pygmies living in the same region by Siccardi in 1975. In conclusion, the hypergammaglobulinaemia of Babinga Pygmies is already present in infants and is not affected by sanitation improvements, suggesting that it could be partly genetically-determined.
Coia, Valentina; Sansonetti, Barbara; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni
2002-01-01
Ten protein coding loci (6-PGD, A1-AT, ACP1, CaII, ESD, GC, GPX1, Hb beta, PGM1, and TF) were analyzed in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. The frequency data were used to calculate the genetic distances between Mbenzele Pygmies and other African groups. In the principal coordinate plot of FST genetic distances, the Mbenzele cluster together with other Pygmies of the western cluster, the Biaka from C.A.R., Gielli from Cameroon, and Babinga from Congo. By contrast, they are considerably distanced from other Pygmy groups of the eastern cluster (Twa from Rwanda, Mbuti from Zaire). Genetic distances obtained using protein loci were compared with those based on microsatellite loci. The two distance matrices are insignificantly correlated (r = 0.268; one tail probability = 0.332), and the main difference is in the higher genetic affinity between the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies observed at the protein level. Although reasons underlying the discrepancy between inter-populational variation at protein and DNA loci are not established with certainty, the comparison suggests that the genetic distance between the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies at microsatellite loci could have been shaped by genetic drift.
A possible proton pygmy resonance in 17Ne
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
The low-lying electric dipole strengths in proton-rich nuclei 17F and 17Ne, which can be produced at HIRFL-CSR in Lanzhou, are investigated. In the framework of the covariant density functional theory the self-consistent relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov model and the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation with the NL3 parameter set and Gogny pairing interaction are adopted in the calculations. A pronounced dipole peak appears below 10 MeV in17Ne, but does not occur in 17F. The prop erties of this low-lying E1 excitation in 17Ne are studied, which may correspond to a proton pygmy resonance with different characteristics from those of giant dipole resonance.
Isospin Character of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in 124Sn
Endres, J; Savran, D; Butler, P A; Harakeh, M N; Harissopulos, S; Herzberg, R -D; Krücken, R; Lagoyannis, A; Pietralla, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Popescu, L; Ring, P; Scheck, M; Sonnabend, K; Stoica, V I; Wörtche, H J; Zilges, A; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.212503
2010-01-01
The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the proton-magic nucleus 124Sn with the (a,a'g) coincidence method at E=136 MeV. The comparison with results of photon-scattering experiments reveals a splitting into two components with different structure: one group of states which is excited in (a,a'g) as well as in (g,g') reactions and a group of states at higher energies which is only excited in (g,g') reactions. Calculations with the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle phonon model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and predict a low-lying isoscalar component dominated by neutron-skin oscillations and a higher-lying more isovector component on the tail of the giant dipole resonance.
Connecting Pygmy Dipole Resonance to neutron skin
Baran, V; Di Toro, M; Croitoru, A; Dumitru, D
2013-01-01
We study the correlation between the neutron skin development and the low-energy dipole response associated with Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in connection with the properties of symmetry energy. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation by employing three different equations of state in the isovector sector. Together with Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR), for all studied systems, we identify a PDR collective mode whose energy centroid is very well described by the parametrization E_{PDR}=41 A^{-1/3}. A linear correlation between the Energy Weighted Sum Rule (EWSR) associated to PDR and the neutron skin thickness is evidenced. We conjecture that different nuclei having close neutron skin size will exhaust the same EWSR in the pygmy region. This suggests that a precise experimental estimate of total EWSR exhausted by PDR allows the determination of the neutron skin size and to constrain the slope parameter of the symmetry energy.
Ito, Kazufumi; Teglas, Russell
1987-01-01
The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.
Exploration and mating range in African Pygmies.
Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Hewlett, B
1982-07-01
The distributions of exploration range and of mating range were studied among Aka Pygmies of the Central African Republic. Exploration range is defined and methods of estimation for single individuals suggested. A simple exponential distribution is found for individual Aka Pygmies, with variation of exploration range (the parameter defining mobility) with sex, age and ethnic affiliation. Distribution of distances from birthplace and place of residence are compared and show modest differences. The frequency of visits to a given place has also been studied. The average distance between birthplaces of mates is very similar to the mean exploration range. Correlations between individual exploration and mating ranges suggest that it is the male who may be choosing a marriage partner among Pygmies. A theory by Boyce, Küchemann & Harrison (1967) on the relations between "neighbourhood knowledge" and mating distance is inapplicable because of its reliance on the Pareto distribution, which does not apply in the present case, and of other unnecessary assumptions, but the general principle of a close relationship between exploratory activity and mating distance seems valid, at least in the present case. Suggestions are made for causes for the difference between the present distributions and those with other shapes observed in less primitive economies.
Treatment decisions on approximal caries and longevity of Class II restorations
2013-01-01
Placing restorations due to dental caries is still a commonly performed treatment by dental practitioners in Norway. The aim of this thesis was to explore dentists’ treatment decisions on approximal caries and to assess the longevity of approximal restorations in posterior teeth and reasons for their failure. The research employed a questionnaire and included a practice-based study. The questionnaire revealed that, in 2009, 7% of Norwegian dentists would restore approximal lesions confined to...
The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS). Part II: Approximation schemes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Diego; Lesgourgues, Julien [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: diego.blas@epfl.ch, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: tram@phys.au.dk [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2011-07-01
Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} Boltzmann code executions. The newly released code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic ΛCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.
Pygmy Quadrupole Resonance in Skin Nuclei
Tsoneva, N
2009-01-01
The electric quadrupole response is investigated theoretically by HFB and QPM calculations along the Sn isotopic chain with special emphasis on excitations above the first collective state and below the particle threshold. Depending on the asymmetry, additional strength clustering as a group of states similar to the known PDR mode is found. The spectral distributions and electric response functions are discussed. The transition densities of these Pygmy Quadrupole Resonances (PQR) states are closely related to the neutron excess and showing special features being compatible with an oscillation of the neutron skin against the nuclear core. These features may indicate a new nuclear quadrupole mode connected to the skin configuration.
Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesús Olivero
Full Text Available Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654 in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.
Distribution and Numbers of Pygmies in Central African Forests.
Olivero, Jesús; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel A; Lewis, Jerome; Hewlett, Barry; Breuer, Thomas; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Fernández, María; Germi, Francesco; Hattori, Shiho; Head, Josephine; Ichikawa, Mitsuo; Kitanaishi, Koichi; Knights, Jessica; Matsuura, Naoki; Migliano, Andrea; Nese, Barbara; Noss, Andrew; Ekoumou, Dieudonné Ongbwa; Paulin, Pascale; Real, Raimundo; Riddell, Mike; Stevenson, Edward G J; Toda, Mikako; Vargas, J Mario; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Nasi, Robert
2016-01-01
Pygmy populations occupy a vast territory extending west-to-east along the central African belt from the Congo Basin to Lake Victoria. However, their numbers and actual distribution is not known precisely. Here, we undertake this task by using locational data and population sizes for an unprecedented number of known Pygmy camps and settlements (n = 654) in five of the nine countries where currently distributed. With these data we develop spatial distribution models based on the favourability function, which distinguish areas with favourable environmental conditions from those less suitable for Pygmy presence. Highly favourable areas were significantly explained by presence of tropical forests, and by lower human pressure variables. For documented Pygmy settlements, we use the relationship between observed population sizes and predicted favourability values to estimate the total Pygmy population throughout Central Africa. We estimate that around 920,000 Pygmies (over 60% in DRC) is possible within favourable forest areas in Central Africa. We argue that fragmentation of the existing Pygmy populations, alongside pressure from extractive industries and sometimes conflict with conservation areas, endanger their future. There is an urgent need to inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to these indigenous peoples' culture and lifestyles.
Proton pygmy resonances: predictions for N=20 isotones
Kim, Y
2015-01-01
We study theoretically the low-energy electric-dipole response of N=20 isotones to assess the possibility of detecting a proton-pygmy mode in the near future and to examine the factors that would determine such an outcome. We present results from a quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) and a continuum random-phase approximation (CRPA), and we compare our results with other calculations of proton-rich nuclei. According to our analysis, enhanced E1 strength is expected energetically well below the giant dipole resonance in the proton-rich isotones. A proton-skin oscillation could develop especially in 46Fe. We identify factors which affect theoretical predictions, besides the equation of state (EoS) of infinite matter: the nucleon separation energy, accordingly the proper description of non localized threshold transitions, and the nucleon effective mass in mean-field treatments. Future measurements of E1 transitions in proton-rich nuclei and comparisons with mirror stable nuclei could help disentangle...
Casadei, D.
2014-10-01
The objective Bayesian treatment of a model representing two independent Poisson processes, labelled as ``signal'' and ``background'' and both contributing additively to the total number of counted events, is considered. It is shown that the reference prior for the parameter of interest (the signal intensity) can be well approximated by the widely (ab)used flat prior only when the expected background is very high. On the other hand, a very simple approximation (the limiting form of the reference prior for perfect prior background knowledge) can be safely used over a large portion of the background parameters space. The resulting approximate reference posterior is a Gamma density whose parameters are related to the observed counts. This limiting form is simpler than the result obtained with a flat prior, with the additional advantage of representing a much closer approximation to the reference posterior in all cases. Hence such limiting prior should be considered a better default or conventional prior than the uniform prior. On the computing side, it is shown that a 2-parameter fitting function is able to reproduce extremely well the reference prior for any background prior. Thus, it can be useful in applications requiring the evaluation of the reference prior for a very large number of times.
Approximation of N(k)(infinity)-functions II : Convergence of Models
Dijksma, Aad; Luger, Annemarie; Shondin, Yuri; Behrndt, J; Forster, KH; Trunk, C
2010-01-01
This paper is a continuation of Part I, [9] in the list of references, where models for N(k)(infinity)-functions have been studied in detail. In the present paper we investigate the convergence of the corresponding models as a singular N(k)(infinity)-functionis approximated by regular N(k)(infinity)
Pygmy resonance and torus mode within Vlasov dynamics
Urban, Michael
2011-01-01
The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei is studied within the framework of the Vlasov equation which is solved numerically. The interaction used in the Thomas-Fermi ground state and in the Vlasov equation is derived from an energy functional which correctly describes the equation of state of nuclear matter and neutron matter. It is found that the pygmy resonance appears in the electric dipole response of all nuclei with strong neutron excess, the energies and transition probabilities being in reasonable agreement with experimental results. Since the Vlasov equation does not account for any shell effects, this indicates that the existence of the pygmy resonance is a generic phenomenon and does not rely on the specific shell structure. Besides the electric dipole response, the isoscalar torus response is calculated. The transition densities and velocity fields are discussed, too. A comparison of the peak positions and velocity fields suggests that the pygmy resonance can be identified with the mainly ...
Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme
2016-08-01
We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.
Casadei, Diego
2014-01-01
The objective Bayesian treatment of a model representing two independent Poisson processes, labelled as "signal" and "background" and both contributing additively to the total number of counted events, is considered. It is shown that the reference prior for the parameter of interest (the signal intensity) is well approximated by the widely (ab)used flat prior only when the expected background is very high. For a large portion of the background parameters space, a very simple approximation (the asymptotic form of the reference prior for the limit of perfect prior background knowledge) can be safely used. In all cases, this approximation outperforms the uniform prior. When the asymptotic prior is not good enough, a simple 1-parameter fitting function is often sufficient to obtain an objective Bayesian solution. Otherwise, it is shown that a 2-parameters fitting function is able to reproduce the reference prior in all other cases. The latter is also useful to speed-up the computing time, which can be useful in a...
Relation of E1 pygmy and toroidal resonances
Nesterenko, V O; Reinhard, P -G; Kvasil, J
2014-01-01
A possible relation of the low-lying E1 (pygmy resonance) and toroidal strengths is analyzed by using Skyrme-RPA results for the strength functions, transition densities and current fields in $^{208}$Pb. It is shown that the irrotational pygmy motion can appear as a local manifestation of the collective vortical toroidal dipole resonance (TDR) at the nuclear surface. The RPA results are compared to unperturbed (1ph) ones.
A viscous-convective instability in laminar Keplerian thin discs. II. Anelastic approximation
Shakura, N
2015-01-01
Using the anelastic approximation of linearised hydrodynamic equations, we investigate the development of axially symmetric small perturbations in thin Keplerian discs. The sixth-order dispersion equation is derived and numerically solved for different values of relevant physical parameters (viscosity, heat conductivity, disc semi-thickness and vertical structure). The analysis reveals the appearance of two overstable modes which split out from the classical Rayleigh inertial modes in a wide range of the parameters in both ionized and neutral gases. These modes have a viscous-convective nature and can serve as a seed for turbulence in astrophysical discs even in the absence of magnetic fields.
Study of pygmy dipole resonance with a new time-dependent mean field theory
Ebata, Shuichiro; Inakura, Tsunenori
2011-01-01
We carry out a systematic investigation on the low-energy electric dipole strength, which is often called pygmy dipole resonances (PDR), using the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (Cb-TDHFB) method. The Cb-TDHFB is a new method which is derived from TDHFB with an approximation analogous to the BCS theory that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the time-dependent canonical basis. We apply the method to linear-response calculation for even-even nuclei. We report the neutron-number dependence of PDR in light (A 100) around N = 82.
Lanza, Edoardo G; Litvinova, Elena; Savran, Deniz
2014-01-01
Inelastic $\\alpha$-scattering excitation cross sections are calculated for electric dipole excitations in $^{124}$Sn based on the transition densities obtained from the relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the framework of a semiclassical model. The calculation provides the missing link to directly compare the results from the microscopic RQTBA calculations to recent experimental data measured via the $(\\alpha ,\\alpha '\\gamma)$ reaction, which show a structural splitting of the low-lying E1 strength often denoted as pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The experimentally observed splitting is reproduced by the cross section calculations, which allows to draw conclusion on the structure of the PDR.
Excitation energy and strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in stable tin isotopes
Özel, B; Lenske, H; Von Neumann-Cosel, P; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Savran, D; Tsoneva, N
2009-01-01
The $^{112,120}$Sn$(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ reactions have been studied at the S-DALINAC. Electric dipole (E1) strength distributions have been determined including contributions from unresolved strength extracted by a fluctuation analysis. Together with available data on $^{116,124}$Sn, an experimental systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable even-mass tin isotopes is established. The PDR centroid excitation energies and summed strengths are in reasonable agreement with quasiparticle-phonon model calculations based on a nonrelativistic description of the mean field but disagree with relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions.
Experimental results on the Pygmy dipole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance(PDR), an additional structure of low-lying electric dipole strength, has attracted strong interest in the last years. Different experimental approaches have been used in the last decade in order to investigate this new interesting nuclear excitation mode. In this contribution an overview on the available experimental data is given. The strength of the PDR, its decay properties as well as what can be expected from hadron scattering are examined. In summary, the experiments performed so far to investigate the PDR have shown, that this new excitation mode is a general phenomenon of medium-heavy to heavy nuclei. In many aspects the available experimental data is still incomplete and the open questions need to be answered by the experiments which are currently under way
Pygmy dipole resonance in 208Pb
Poltoratska, I; Tamii, A; Adachi, T; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Dozono, M; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kalmykov, Y; Krumbholz, A M; Litvinova, E; Matsubara, H; Nakanishi, K; Neveling, R; Okamura, H; Ong, H J; Özel-Tashenov, B; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Rubio, B; Sakaguchi, H; Sakemi, Y; Sasamoto, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Suzuki, T; Tameshige, Y; Wambach, J; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J
2012-01-01
Scattering of protons of several hundred MeV is a promising new spectroscopic tool for the study of electric dipole strength in nuclei. A case study of 208Pb shows that at very forward angles J^pi = 1- states are strongly populated via Coulomb excitation. A separation from nuclear excitation of other modes is achieved by a multipole decomposition analysis of the experimental cross sections based on theoretical angular distributions calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon model. The B(E1) transition strength distribution is extracted for excitation energies up to 9 MeV, i.e., in the region of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The Coulomb-nuclear interference shows sensitivity to the underlying structure of the E1 transitions, which allows for the first time an experimental extraction of the strength and energy centroid of the PDR.
Pygmy dipole resonance in stable nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Von Neumann-Cosel
2010-07-01
Two examples of recent work on the structure of low-energy electric dipole modes are presented. The first part discusses the systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable tin isotopes deduced from high-resolution (, ′) experiments. These help to distinguish between microscopic QRPA calculations based on either a relativistic or a non-relativistic mean-field description, predicting significantly different properties of the PDR. The second part presents a novel approach to measure the complete electric dipole strength distribution from excitation energies starting at about 5 MeV across the giant dipole resonance (GDR) with high-resolution inelastic proton scattering under 0° at energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon. The case of 208Pb is discussed in detail and first result from a recent experiment on 120Sn is presented.
Heng, Kevin; Lee, Jaemin
2014-01-01
We present a comprehensive analytical study of radiative transfer using the method of moments and include the effects of non-isotropic scattering in the coherent limit. Within this unified formalism, we derive the governing equations and solutions describing two-stream radiative transfer (which approximates the passage of radiation as a pair of outgoing and incoming fluxes), flux-limited diffusion (which describes radiative transfer in the deep interior) and solutions for the temperature-pressure profiles. Generally, the problem is mathematically under-determined unless a set of closures (Eddington coefficients) is specified. We demonstrate that the hemispheric (or hemi-isotropic) closure naturally derives from the radiative transfer equation if energy conservation is obeyed, while the Eddington closure produces spurious enhancements of both reflected light and thermal emission. We further demonstrate that traditional non-isothermal treatments of each atmospheric layer lead to unphysical contributions to the ...
Montoya-Castillo, Andrés
2016-01-01
The ability to efficiently and accurately calculate equilibrium time correlation functions of many-body condensed phase quantum systems is one of the outstanding problems in theoretical chemistry. The Nakajima-Zwanzig-Mori formalism coupled to the self-consistent solution of the memory kernel has recently proven to be highly successful for the computation of nonequilibrium dynamical averages. Here, we extend this formalism to treat symmetrized equilibrium time correlation functions for the spin-boson model. Following the first paper in this series [A. Montoya-Castillo and D. R. Reichman, J. Chem. Phys. $\\bf{144}$, 184104 (2016)], we use a Dyson-type expansion of the projected propagator to obtain a self-consistent solution for the memory kernel that requires only the calculation of normally evolved auxiliary kernels. We employ the approximate mean-field Ehrenfest method to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Via comparison with numerically exact results for the correlation function $\\mathcal{C}_{zz}...
Pygmy Rabbit Surveys on State Lands in Oregon
Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George
2007-01-01
Introduction The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as 'sensitive-vulnerable,' meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of
Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Romero, Irene Gallego; Metspalu, Mait; Leavesley, Matthew; Pagani, Luca; Antao, Tiago; Huang, Da-Wei; Sherman, Brad T; Siddle, Katharine; Scholes, Clarissa; Hudjashov, Georgi; Kaitokai, Elton; Babalu, Avis; Belatti, Maggie; Cagan, Alex; Hopkinshaw, Byrony; Shaw, Colin; Nelis, Mari; Metspalu, Ene; Mägi, Reedik; Lempicki, Richard A; Villems, Richard; Lahr, Marta Mirazon; Kivisild, Toomas
2013-01-01
Human pygmy populations inhabit different regions of the world, from Africa to Melanesia. In Asia, short-statured populations are often referred to as "negritos." Their short stature has been interpreted as a consequence of thermoregulatory, nutritional, and/or locomotory adaptations to life in tropical forests. A more recent hypothesis proposes that their stature is the outcome of a life history trade-off in high-mortality environments, where early reproduction is favored and, consequently, early sexual maturation and early growth cessation have coevolved. Some serological evidence of deficiencies in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis have been previously associated with pygmies' short stature. Using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data, we first tested whether different negrito groups living in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea are closely related and then investigated genomic signals of recent positive selection in African, Asian, and Papuan pygmy populations. We found that negritos in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea are genetically more similar to their nonpygmy neighbors than to one another and have experienced positive selection at different genes. These results indicate that geographically distant pygmy groups are likely to have evolved their short stature independently. We also found that selection on common height variants is unlikely to explain their short stature and that different genes associated with growth, thyroid function, and sexual development are under selection in different pygmy groups.
Nuclear pygmy modes and the dynamics of the nuclear skin
Tsoneva, Nadia
2012-01-01
The information on pygmy resonances reveals new aspects on the isospin dynamics of the nucleus with important astrophysical consequences. In this connection, the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions plays a key role in the determination of photonuclear reactions cross sections which are of importance for the synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements. For that purpose, a theoretical method based on density functional theory and multi-phonon approach is applied for investigations of nuclear excitations with different multipolarities and energies in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically investigated for isotonic and isotopic chains. Our studies of dipole and quadrupole response functions and the corresponding transition densities indicate new pygmy dipole and pygmy quadrupole resonances, describing oscillations of the nuclear skin. Also, the presence of skins is found to affect the magnetic response of nuclei.
Nuclear pygmy modes and the dynamics of the nuclear skin
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Tsoneva Nadia
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The information on pygmy resonances reveals new aspects on the isospin dynamics of the nucleus with important astrophysical consequences. In this connection, the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions plays a key role in the determination of photonuclear reactions cross sections which are of importance for the synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements. For that purpose, a theoretical method based on density functional theory and multi-phonon approach is applied for investigations of nuclear excitations with different multipolarities and energies in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically investigated for isotonic and isotopic chains. Our studies of dipole and quadrupole response functions and the corresponding transition densities indicate new pygmy dipole and pygmy quadrupole resonances, describing oscillations of the nuclear skin. Also, the presence of skins is found to affect the magnetic response of nuclei.
HPA polymorphism in sub-Saharan African populations: Beninese, Cameroonians, Congolese, and Pygmies.
Halle, L; Bigot, A; Mulen-Imandy, G; M'Bayo, K; Jaeger, G; Anani, L; Martageix, C; Bianchi, F; Julien, E; Kaplan, C
2005-03-01
The frequency of human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) to HPA-11w (excluding HPA-8w) and HPA-15 systems was studied in four sub-Saharan populations: Beninese, Congolese (Democratic Republic of Congo Kinshasa), Cameroonians, and Aka pygmies (Central African Republic). No report of HPA prevalence has previously been published concerning these populations which are characterized by the highest HPA-2b gene frequencies of any reported to date (Aka 0.393, Benin 0.292, Cameroon 0.237, and Congo 0.224) and at lesser degree HPA-5b (Aka 0.405, Congo 0.268, Cameroon 0.254, and Benin 0.182). This study is of great importance (i) particularly in the context of the diversity caused by the population migrations, we may observe today in our hospitals (ii) to confirm that the Pygmy population with distinctive frequencies (absence of the HPA-1b, HPA-2b, and HPA-5b highest frequencies) is an isolated population.
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Joseph P Jarvis
Full Text Available African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.
Nuclear deformation and neutron excess as competing effects for pygmy dipole strength
Massarczyk, R; Dönau, F; Frauendorf, S; Anders, M; Bemmerer, D; Beyer, R; Bhatia, C; Birgersson, E; Butterling, M; Elekes, Z; Ferrari, A; Gooden, M E; Hannaske, R; Junghans, A R; Kempe, M; Kelley, J H; Kögler, T; Matic, A; Menzel, M L; Müller, S; Reinhardt, T P; Röder, M; Rusev, G; Schilling, K D; Schmidt, K; Schramm, G; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Wagner, A
2013-01-01
The electromagnetic dipole strength below the neutron-separation energy has been studied for the xenon isotopes with mass numbers A = 124, 128, 132, and 134 in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using the ELBE bremsstrahlung facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the HIgS facility at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory Durham. The systematic study gained new information about the influence of the neutron excess as well as of nuclear deformation on the strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The results are compared with those obtained for the chain of molybdenum isotopes and with predictions of a random-phase approximation in a deformed basis. It turned out that the effect of nuclear deformation plays a minor role compared with the one caused by neutron excess. A global parametrization of the strength in terms of neutron and proton numbers allowed us to derive a formula capable of predicting the summed E1 strengths in the pygmy region for a wide mass range of nuclides.
Jarvis, Joseph P; Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Soi, Sameer; Lambert, Charla; Omberg, Larsson; Ferwerda, Bart; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Beggs, William; Hoffman, Gabriel; Mezey, Jason; Tishkoff, Sarah A
2012-01-01
African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.
Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn-124
Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Kruecken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlueter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Zilges, A.; Wortche, Heinrich
2012-01-01
Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of
Indirect evidence for the genetic determination of short stature in African Pygmies.
Becker, Noémie S A; Verdu, Paul; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Pagezy, Hélène; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne
2011-07-01
Central African Pygmy populations are known to be the shortest human populations worldwide. Many evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this short stature: adaptation to food limitations, climate, forest density, or high mortality rates. However, such hypotheses are difficult to test given the lack of long-term surveys and demographic data. Whether the short stature observed nowadays in African Pygmy populations as compared to their Non-Pygmy neighbors is determined by genetic factors remains widely unknown. Here, we study a uniquely large new anthropometrical dataset comprising more than 1,000 individuals from 10 Central African Pygmy and neighboring Non-Pygmy populations, categorized as such based on cultural criteria rather than height. We show that climate, or forest density may not play a major role in the difference in adult stature between existing Pygmies and Non-Pygmies, without ruling out the hypothesis that such factors played an important evolutionary role in the past. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between stature and neutral genetic variation in a subset of 213 individuals and found that the Pygmy individuals' stature was significantly positively correlated with levels of genetic similarity with the Non-Pygmy gene-pool for both men and women. Overall, we show that a Pygmy individual exhibiting a high level of genetic admixture with the neighboring Non-Pygmies is likely to be taller. These results show for the first time that the major morphological difference in stature found between Central African Pygmy and Non-Pygmy populations is likely determined by genetic factors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two sets of close coupling calculations have been carried out on the Cray-2 and the Cray Y-MP using the R-matrix method: (i) a 38-term calculation in LS coupling and (ii) a 41-level fine structure calculation in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The first set includes the quartet and sextet terms dominated by the configurations 3d64s, 3d7 and 3d6 4p and collision strengths are calculated for all 703 transitions in LS coupling. The second set of calculations is carried out using the Breit-Pauli version of the R-matrix method and includes a number of important fine structure levels from the quartet and the sextet multiplets and 820 corresponding transitions. Detailed autoionization structures are obtained in both sets of collision strengths, and a significant enhancement is seen in the effective collision strengths for a number of transitions due to the resonances: for example, an enhancement of factors of 1.4, 2.5 and 1.15 respectively for transitions from the 6D ground term to the lowest 4F, 4D and 4P terms. (author)
Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S; Ranzani, G N; Antonini, G
1977-11-01
A group of Babinga Pygmies from the Central African Republic have been analyzed for the acid phosphatase polymorphism with special reference to the ACPR allele. The frequency of this allele (17%) is one of the highest observed in Africa and is comparable only with those reported for the Khoikhoi and the San.
Blurring the Lines. Ritual and Relationships between Babongo Pygmies and their Neighbours (Gabon)
Bonhomme, Julien; De Ruyter, Magali; Moussavou, Guy-Max
2012-01-01
International audience; This article focuses on the ritual performance of relations between Babongo Pygmies and their neighbours in Gabon. Whereas the Babongo occupy socially subordinate positions vis-à-vis neighbouring populations, the Bwiti initiation ritual inverses this relational form by placing Pygmies at its mythical origin-point. The Babongo who perform at rituals embody the "Pygmy" as he is construed by their neighbours. However, the profound changes undergone by Bwiti over the 20th ...
Wozniak-Biel, Anna; Janeczek, Maciej; Janus, Izabela; Nowak, Marcin
2015-01-01
Background Neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland, lymph nodes, or oral cavity in African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are common in captive animals. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols have not yet been established for the African pygmy hedgehog. Thus, surgical resection is the current treatment of choice in this species. Case presentation A 5-year-old male African pygmy hedgehog showed multiple erythematous, round small tumors located in the oral cavity, on both sides of maxi...
Constraints on the symmetry energy and on neutron skins from the pygmy resonances in 68Ni and 132Sn
Carbone, Andrea; Bracco, Angela; Cao, Li-Gang; Bortignon, Pier Francesco; Camera, Franco; Wieland, Oliver
2010-01-01
Correlations between the behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy, the neutron skins, and the percentage of energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) exhausted by the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in 68Ni and 132Sn have been investigated by using different Random Phase Approximation (RPA) models for the dipole response, based on a representative set of Skyrme effective forces plus meson-exchange effective Lagrangians. A comparison with the experimental data has allowed us to constrain the value of the derivative of the symmetry energy at saturation. The neutron skin radius is deduced under this constraint.
Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei with neutron excess
Có, G; Maieron, C; Anguiano, M; Lallena, A M
2009-01-01
The electric dipole excitation of various nuclei is calculated with a Random Phase Approximation phenomenological approach. The evolution of the strength distribution in various groups of isotopes, oxygen, calcium, zirconium and tin, is studied. The neutron excess produces $E1$ strength in the low energy region. Indexes to measure the collectivity of the excitation are defined. We studied the behavior of proton and neutron transition densities to determine the isoscalar or isovector nature of the excitation. We observed that in medium-heavy nuclei the low-energy $E1$ excitation has characteristics rather different that those exhibited by the giant dipole resonance. This new type of excitation can be identified as pygmy dipole resonance.
On the importance of using exact pairing in the study of pygmy dipole resonance
Dang, Nguyen Dinh
2013-01-01
The strength functions of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in oxygen $^{18 - 24}$O, calcium $^{50 - 60}$Ca, and tin $^{120 - 130}$Sn isotopes are calculated within the phonon damping model under three approximations: without superfluid pairing, including BCS pairing, and exact pairing gaps. The analysis of the numerical results shows that exact pairing decreases the two-neutron separation energy in light nuclei, but increases it in heavy nuclei as compared to that obtained within the BCS theory. In neutron-rich medium and heavy nuclei, exact pairing significantly enhances the strength located at the low-energy tail of the GDR, which is usually associated with the pygmy dipole resonance. The line shape of the GDR changes significantly with increasing the neutron number within an isotopic chain if the model parameter is kept fixed at the value determined for the stable isotope.
Thyroid c-cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Stobaeus, Janeen K; Norton, Terry M
2002-12-01
A 3-yr-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was submitted with dysphagia, weight loss, and tetraparesis. A palpable mass was found on the ventral neck. Histologic examination revealed replacement of the thyroid gland by a highly cellular, expansile, and infiltrative mass composed of lobules of polygonal cells separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Examination of ultrathin sections revealed tumor cells with few to many dense-core neuroendocrine granules, approximately 100-200 nm in diameter, and stromal amyloid. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for neuron-specific enolase. Only rare cells had positive immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin. Findings are consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor of C-cell origin. This is the first report of a C-cell carcinoma in a hedgehog. PMID:12564541
Pygmy dipole resonance: collective features and symmetry energy effects
Baran, V; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M
2011-01-01
Some of the very actual questions regarding the pygmy dipole resonance are concerned with the collective nature, quite elusive, of this mode. In this paper, within a harmonic oscillator shell model, we generalize an approach first introduced by Brink and identify the dipole normal modes in neutron rich nuclei. This allows one to obtain an upper limit for the energy weighted sum rule exhausted by the pygmy dipole resonance. By solving numerically the self-consistent Landau-Vlasov kinetic equations for neutrons and protons with specific initial conditions, we explore the structure of the different dipole vibrations in the neutron rich nucleus $^{132}Sn$ and investigate their dependence on the symmetry energy. Our calculations point out the existence of a distinctive collective mode with an energy well below the giant dipole resonance, very weak dependent on the isovector part of the nuclear effective interaction.
Gastrointestinal leiomyosarcoma in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).
Leone, Angelique; Dark, Michael; Kondo, Hirotaka; Rotstein, David S; Kiupel, Matti; Walsh, Michael T; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Gordon, Nadia; Conway, Julia A
2013-09-01
An adult male pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) was stranded within a tidal pool on Fernandina Beach on the north Florida Atlantic coast (USA) and expired soon after discovery. Necropsy findings included a small intestinal mass markedly expanding the intestinal wall and partially obstructing the lumen. This finding likely led to the malnutrition and ultimately the stranding of this whale. The differential diagnoses for the mass based on gross evaluation included a duodenal adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma/sarcoma, gastrointestinal stroma tumor, and benign/malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, previously referred to as neurofibromas or schwannomas. The mass was presumptively diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma via routine histopathology and confirmed by immunoreactivity for desmin and smooth actin (SMA). KIT, a gene name for CD 117, was negative, excluding a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Leiomyosarcomas have been reported within numerous wild and domestic species, although this is the first reported case of any neoplasm in a pygmy sperm whale (K. breviceps). PMID:24063105
The role of GHR and IGF1 genes in the genetic determination of African pygmies' short stature
Becker, Noémie SA; Verdu, Paul; Georges, Myriam; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Froment, Alain; Amselem, Serge; Le Bouc, Yves; Heyer, Evelyne
2012-01-01
African pygmies are at the lower extreme of human variation in adult stature and many evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenotype. We showed in a recent study that the difference in average stature of about 10 cm observed between contemporary pygmies and neighboring non-pygmies has a genetic component. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of African pygmies' short stature remains unknown. Using a candidate-gene approach, we show that intronic polymorphisms in GH receptor (...
HLA-A and B antigens in AKA pygmies.
Muller, J Y; Hallé, L; Jaeger, G
1981-01-01
HLA-A and B antigens were studied in 543 AKA pygmies. The present analysis showed two characteristics of this pygmoid group: the absence of HLA-A1, A11, B8 and Bw38 and the high frequency of Aw30, B17, B27, B37, B40 and Bw39. The strongest gametic associations were found with the haplotypes Aw30, B37 and A3, B5.
Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.
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Frieder Schaumburg
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.
The comparative growth of Efe pygmies and African farmers from birth to age 5 years.
Bailey, R C
1991-01-01
Recent studies of African pygmies have concluded that the pattern of pygmy growth is similar to that of other Africans up to the time of puberty and that the short stature of adult pygmies is due primarily, if not solely, to the absence of accelerated adolescent growth. These conclusions are thought to be consistent with biochemical studies showing pygmies to have low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). All previous pygmy-growth studies have been of subjects of estimated, not known age. This paper reports the results of a mixed longitudinal growth study of Efe pygmy children of known age from birth to age 5 years. The mean adult stature of Efe pygmies is the shortest of any human population known, including other pygmy populations of central Africa. At birth, Efe were significantly smaller than neighbouring Lese Sudanic-speaking farmers and other rural Africans. During the first 5 years of life, Efe not only remained shorter than Lese controls at all ages, but the difference in stature between them increased. Unlike the Lese, Efe children showed a trend of increasingly negative z scores compared with the American reference population, from -2.71 (SD = 0.93) at 6 months to -4.16 (SD = 0.46) at age 5 years. These results indicate that suppression of pygmy growth does not occur solely at puberty, but from birth onward. Furthermore, they suggest that conclusions concerning the lack of an adolescent pygmy growth spurt have been premature and must await studies of older pygmy sub-adults of known age.
Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn isotopes
Toft, H K; Bürger, A; Guttormsen, M; Görgen, A; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Siem, S; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.83.044320
2011-01-01
Nuclear level density and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{121,122}$Sn below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the ($^3$He,$^3$He$^\\prime\\gamma$) and ($^3$He,$\\alpha \\gamma$) reactions. The level densities of $^{121,122}$Sn display step-like structures, interpreted as signatures of neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in both strength functions, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed in our measurements for $E_\\gamma \\gtrsim 5.2 $ MeV. This enhancement is compatible with pygmy resonances centered at $\\approx 8.4(1)$ and $\\approx 8.6(2)$ MeV, respectively, and with integrated strengths corresponding to $\\approx1.8^{+1}_{-5}%$ of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Similar resonances were also seen in $^{116-119}$Sn. Experimental neutron-capture cross reactions are well reproduced by our pygmy resonance predictions, while standard strength models are less successful. The evolution as a function of neutron number of the pygmy resonance in...
Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear level density and γ-ray strength functions of 121,122Sn below the neutron separation energy are extracted with the Oslo method using the (3He,3He'γ) and (3He,αγ) reactions. The level densities of 121,122Sn display steplike structures, interpreted as signatures of neutron pair breaking. An enhancement in both strength functions, compared to standard models for radiative strength, is observed in our measurements for Eγ > or approx. 5.2 MeV. This enhancement is compatible with pygmy resonances centered at ≅8.4(1) and ≅8.6(2) MeV, respectively, and with integrated strengths corresponding to ≅1.8-5+1% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Similar resonances were also seen in 116-119Sn. Experimental neutron-capture cross reactions are well reproduced by our pygmy resonance predictions, while standard strength models are less successful. The evolution as a function of neutron number of the pygmy resonance in 116-122Sn is described as a clear increase of centroid energy from 8.0(1) to 8.6(2) MeV, but with no observable difference in integrated strengths.
Low levels of high-affinity growth hormone-binding protein in African pygmies.
Baumann, G; Shaw, M A; Merimee, T J
1989-06-29
The cause of growth hormone resistance and short stature in African Pygmies in unknown. Low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 that fail to respond to growth hormone suggest a possible deficiency of growth hormone receptors. The high-affinity growth hormone-binding protein is a fragment of the growth hormone receptor and may be an indicator of the number of receptors in tissues. We measured growth hormone-binding activity in plasma from 20 pygmies and 12 control subjects (7 white Americans and 5 non-Pygmy black Africans of normal stature). Growth hormone binding to the high-affinity binding protein was significantly reduced in the Pygmies as compared with the controls (mean +/- SD, 6.50 +/- 2.33 percent vs. 12.95 +/- 3.95 percent bound per 160 microliters of plasma; P less than 0.001); however, there was substantial overlap between the values for Pygmies and controls. Growth hormone binding to the low-affinity binding protein was similar in Pygmies and control subjects. We conclude that Pygmies have low levels of high-affinity growth hormone-binding protein in their plasma, which may indicate a reduced number of growth hormone receptors in their tissues. The finding may help explain the resistance to growth in Pygmies, but there may be additional reasons, related to the receptors or not, for their short stature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashley, Paul
1992-06-01
The Northwest Power Planning Council and the Bonneville Power Administration approved the pygmy rabbit project as partial mitigation for impacts caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The focus of this project is the protection and enhancement of shrub-steppe/pygmy rabbit habitat in northeastern Washington.
Linkage disequilibrium between HLA-G*0104 and HLA-E*0103 alleles in Tswa Pygmies.
Di Cristofaro, J; Julie, D C; Buhler, S; Frassati, C; Basire, A; Galicher, V; Baier, C; Essautier, A; Regnier, A; Granier, T; Lepfoundzou, A D; Chiaroni, J; Picard, C
2011-03-01
Nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and -E loci are separated by approximately 660 kb on the short arm of chromosome 6. Interestingly, some functional and expression characteristics are relatively identical or associated for both molecules. For example, expression of HLA-E on the cell surface has been linked to preferential binding of nonameric leader peptides derived from the signal sequence of HLA-G. It has been suggested that these two molecules act synergistically in modulating susceptibility to infectious or chronic inflammatory diseases. A possible explanation for these observations is that HLA-E and HLA-G are evolving under analogous selective pressures and have functions that place them under selective regimes differing from classical HLA genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of this hypothesis based on the characterization of the molecular polymorphism of these two genes and their linkage disequilibrium (LD) in three populations, i.e. Southeastern French (n = 57), Teke Congolese (n = 84) and Tswa Pygmies (n = 74). Allelic frequencies observed for HLA-G and HLA-E and for 14-bp ins/del polymorphism in the three populations were similar to those observed in the literature for populations from corresponding geographic areas. Only one of the recently described HLA-G polymorphisms (HLA-G*01:07-01:16) was found, i.e. HLA-G*01:15 in one individual from Congo. We showed that two haplotypes in Tswa Pygmies, i.e. HLA-G*01:04-E*01:03:01 and G*01:04-E*01:01, exhibited highly significant positive and negative D' values respectively. Although these LD could have functional implications, it is more likely because of the genetic drift as the two other populations did not display any significant LD.
Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age.
Rozzi, Fernando V Ramirez; Koudou, Yves; Froment, Alain; Le Bouc, Yves; Botton, Jérémie
2015-01-01
The African pygmy phenotype stems from genetic foundations and is considered to be the product of a disturbance in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis. However, when and how the pygmy phenotype is acquired during growth remains unknown. Here we describe growth patterns in Baka pygmies based on two longitudinal studies of individuals of known age, from the time of birth to the age of 25 years. Body size at birth among the Baka is within standard limits, but their growth rate slows significantly during the first two years of life. It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations. Therefore, the pygmy phenotype in the Baka is the result of a change in growth that occurs during infancy, which differentiates them from East African pygmies revealing convergent evolution.
Insights into the demographic history of African Pygmies from complete mitochondrial genomes.
Batini, Chiara; Lopes, Joao; Behar, Doron M; Calafell, Francesc; Jorde, Lynn B; van der Veen, Lolke; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Comas, David
2011-02-01
Pygmy populations are among the few hunter-gatherers currently living in sub-Saharan Africa and are mainly represented by two groups, Eastern and Western, according to their current geographical distribution. They are scattered across the Central African belt and surrounded by Bantu-speaking farmers, with whom they have complex social and economic interactions. To investigate the demographic history of Pygmy groups, a population approach was applied to the analysis of 205 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from ten central African populations. No sharing of maternal lineages was observed between the two Pygmy groups, with haplogroup L1c being characteristic of the Western group but most of Eastern Pygmy lineages falling into subclades of L0a, L2a, and L5. Demographic inferences based on Bayesian coalescent simulations point to an early split among the maternal ancestors of Pygmies and those of Bantu-speaking farmers (∼ 70,000 years ago [ya]). Evidence for population growth in the ancestors of Bantu-speaking farmers has been observed, starting ∼ 65,000 ya, well before the diffusion of Bantu languages. Subsequently, the effective population size of the ancestors of Pygmies remained constant over time and ∼ 27,000 ya, coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum, Eastern and Western Pygmies diverged, with evidence of subsequent migration only among the Western group and the Bantu-speaking farmers. Western Pygmies show signs of a recent bottleneck 4,000-650 ya, coincident with the diffusion of Bantu languages, whereas Eastern Pygmies seem to have experienced a more ancient decrease in population size (20,000-4,000 ya). In conclusion, the results of this first attempt at analyzing complete mtDNA sequences at the population level in sub-Saharan Africa not only support previous findings but also offer new insights into the demographic history of Pygmy populations, shedding new light on the ancient peopling of the African continent.
Kovács, M; Lindgren, F
2012-01-01
We present an abstract framework for analyzing the weak error of fully discrete approximation schemes for linear evolution equations driven by additive Gaussian noise. First, an abstract representation formula is derived for sufficiently smooth test functions. The formula is then applied to the wave equation, where the spatial approximation is done via the standard continuous finite element method and the time discretization via an I-stable rational approximation to the exponential function. It is found that the rate of weak convergence is twice that of strong convergence. Furthermore, in contrast to the parabolic case, higher order schemes in time, such as the Crank-Nicolson scheme, are worthwhile to use if the solution is not very regular. Finally we apply the theory to parabolic equations and detail a weak error estimate for the linearized Cahn-Hilliard-Cook equation as well as comment on the stochastic heat equation.
The role of GHR and IGF1 genes in the genetic determination of African pygmies' short stature.
Becker, Noémie S A; Verdu, Paul; Georges, Myriam; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Froment, Alain; Amselem, Serge; Le Bouc, Yves; Heyer, Evelyne
2013-06-01
African pygmies are at the lower extreme of human variation in adult stature and many evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenotype. We showed in a recent study that the difference in average stature of about 10 cm observed between contemporary pygmies and neighboring non-pygmies has a genetic component. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of African pygmies' short stature remains unknown. Using a candidate-gene approach, we show that intronic polymorphisms in GH receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) genes present outlying values of the genetic distance between Baka pygmies and their non-pygmy Nzimé neighbors. We further show that GHR and IGF1 genes have experienced divergent natural selection pressures between pygmies and non-pygmies throughout evolution. In addition, these SNPs are associated with stature in a sample composed of 60 pygmies and 30 non-pygmies and this association remains significant when correcting for population structure for the GHR locus. We conclude that the GHR and IGF1 genes may have a role in African pygmies' short stature. The use of phenotypically contrasted populations is a promising strategy to identify new variants associated with complex traits in humans.
Isovector dipole-resonance structure within the effective surface approximation
Blocki, J P; Ring, P
2013-01-01
The nuclear isovector-dipole strength structure is analyzed in terms of the main and satellite (pygmy) peaks within the Fermi-liquid droplet model. Such a structure is sensitive to the value of the surface symmetry-energy constant obtained analytically for different Skyrme forces in the leptodermous effective surface approximation. Energies, sum rules and transition densities of the main and satellite peaks for specific Skyrme forces are qualitatively in agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations.
High diversity of the saliva microbiome in Batwa Pygmies.
Nasidze, Ivan; Li, Jing; Schroeder, Roland; Creasey, Jean L; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark
2011-01-01
We describe the saliva microbiome diversity in Batwa Pygmies, a former hunter-gatherer group from Uganda, using next-generation sequencing of partial 16S rRNA sequences. Microbial community diversity in the Batwa is significantly higher than in agricultural groups from Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We found 40 microbial genera in the Batwa, which have previously not been described in the human oral cavity. The distinctive composition of the salvia microbiome of the Batwa may have been influenced by their recent different lifestyle and diet.
A study of yaws among pygmies in Cameroon and Zaire.
Pampiglione, S; Wilkinson, A E
1975-06-01
In a survey of 333 pygmies in the Cameroon 4.5 percent. were found to have clinical evidence of yaws. This was also found in 10 per cent. of the inhabitants of camps in Zaire. The results of VDRL and FTA-ABS tests on a sample of the population are presented. These provide evidence of a very high incidence of treponemal disease, 80 to 90 percent. of the population showing serological evidence of infection. Active transmission is taking place in both areas but more frequently in Zaire.
High diversity of the saliva microbiome in Batwa Pygmies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Nasidze
Full Text Available We describe the saliva microbiome diversity in Batwa Pygmies, a former hunter-gatherer group from Uganda, using next-generation sequencing of partial 16S rRNA sequences. Microbial community diversity in the Batwa is significantly higher than in agricultural groups from Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We found 40 microbial genera in the Batwa, which have previously not been described in the human oral cavity. The distinctive composition of the salvia microbiome of the Batwa may have been influenced by their recent different lifestyle and diet.
Fine structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in (136)Xe.
Savran, D; Fritzsche, M; Hasper, J; Lindenberg, K; Müller, S; Ponomarev, V Yu; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A
2008-06-13
The photoresponse of the semimagic N=82 nucleus (136)Xe was measured up to the neutron separation energy S(n) using the (gamma, gamma') reaction. A concentration of strong dipole excitations is observed well below S(n) showing a fragmented resonancelike structure. Microscopic calculations in the quasiparticle phonon model including complex configurations of up to three phonons agree well with the experimental data in the total integrated strength, in the shape and the fragmentation of the resonance, which allows us to draw conclusions on the damping mechanism of the pygmy dipole resonance.
Acinic cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Fukuzawa, Kazuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Nagai, Toshihiro; Kameyama, Kaori
2004-01-01
A male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), estimated to be 3 years old, presented with exophthalmos and fixed abduction of the right eye. Radiographic examination revealed a retrobulbar tumor in the right orbital cavity. The mass was surgically resected but recurred 3 months later and the hedgehog died. There was no gross or microscopic evidence of salivary or lacrimal gland involvement of the tumor at surgery or at necropsy. The histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings were those of acinic cell carcinoma, the origin of which was unknown. This is the first known case of acinic cell carcinoma in an African hedgehog. PMID:15048626
Allometry and adaptation of body proportions and stature in African pygmies.
Shea, B T; Bailey, R C
1996-07-01
We have analyzed the growth allometry of external body proportions in Efe pygmies from Zaire and combined these data with values from the literature for comparable dimensions in adult pygmies and nonpygmies. We sequentially tested the hypotheses that adult proportion differences between 1) male vs. female Efe, and 2) pygmies vs. nonpygmies result from ontogenetic scaling, or the differential extension of common patterns of growth allometry. Results indicate an almost complete concordance of allometric trajectories for male and female Efe. These preliminary analyses also strongly suggest that adult nonpygmy Africans generally differ from pygmies in their terminal size and correlated allometric consequences, rather than in more fundamental alterations of underlying patterns of growth. Biacromial diameter emerges as the measurement most likely to depart from this general pattern. These results provide further evidence that shifts in systemic growth hormones yielding differences in terminal overall body size may be accompanied by global and coordinated allometric transformations. Certain proportion differences previously interpreted by some as specific evidence of primitive retention in pygmies in fact reflect simple growth allometric correlates of the derive rapid size decrease in these groups. Selected divergent body proportions characterizing adult pygmies, previously interpreted by some as independent evidence of climatic adaptation, also reflect such allometric correlates of ontogenetic scaling. We critically assess arguments that the small overall body size of pygmies was specifically selected for reasons of thermoregulatory efficiency, and consider an alternative or complementary scenario, based on selection for small size in order to reduce caloric requirements.
Anagnostou, Paolo; Coia, Valentina; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni
2010-06-01
In this paper, we carry out a combined analysis of autosomal (ten microsatellites and an Alu insertion), mitochondrial (HVR-1 sequence, 360 nucleotides) and Y-chromosomal (seven microsatellites) variation in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. This study focuses on two important questions concerning the admixture and origin of African Pygmies. Ethnographic observations suggest a sex-biased gene flow between the Bantus and Pygmies, an issue which could be clarified through genetic analyses may shed light. A study of intrapopulational variation of mtDNA and Y-chromosome produces results in accordance with the hypothesized matrimonial behaviour. In fact, while shared mitochondrial haplotypes belonging to the L1c5 (or L1c1a1 clade) sub-haplogroup provides evidence of a Pygmy-to-Bantu female biased gene flow, a male biased gene flow from Bantu to Pygmies is supported by the distribution of the Y-chromosomes bearing M2 mutation. The second part of our study regards the question of the genetic relationships between Western and Eastern Pygmies. Our results favour the pre-Bantu hypothesis which suggests that the two Pygmy groups separated in ancient times (at least 18,000 years ago), whereas they do not support the recent divergence and differential admixture hypothesis which posits their separation as a consequence of the Bantu expansion (2,000-3,000 years ago).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Korzhavyi, P.A.;
2002-01-01
-electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions...... for the ordinary single-site methods, including the generalized perturbation method, is still possible. We obtained such a parametrization for bulk and surface NiPt alloys, which allows one to obtain quantitatively accurate effective interactions in this system....
Phenotype manipulation influences microhabitat choice in pygmy grasshoppers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lena WENNERSTEN; Einat KARPESTAM; Anders FORSMAN
2012-01-01
The matching habitat choice hypothesis posits that individuals actively choose those microhabitats that best match their specific phenotype to maximize fitness.Despite the profound implications,matching habitat choice has not been unequivocally demonstrated.We conducted two experiments to examine the impact of pigmentation pattern in the color polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata on habitat choice in a laboratory thermal mosaic arena.We found no behavioral differences in the thermal mosaic among pygmy grasshoppers belonging to either pale,intermediate or dark natural color morphs.However,after manipulating the grasshoppers' phenotype,the utilization through time of warmer and colder parts of the arena was different for black-painted and white-painted individuals.White-painted individuals used warmer parts of the arena,at least during the initial stage of the experiment.We conclude that microhabitat choice represents a form of behavioural plasticity.Thus,even if the choice itself is flexible and not genetically determined,it can still lead to spatial genetic structure in the population because the phenotypes themselves may be genetically mediated.
Infections among pygmies in the Eastern Province of Cameroon.
Ndumbe, P M; Atchou, G; Biwole, M; Lobe, V; Ayuk-Takem, J
1993-12-01
The health requirements of pygmies is poorly understood because of their continued isolation from the other tribes in Central Africa. This study was undertaken among the Baka pygmies of the Eastern Province of Cameroon to generate basic health data among them. A total of 141 adults (18-45 years) were tested for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to the surface antigen (anti-HBs), antibody to the core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibody to the hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). All HBsAg-positive sera were tested for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody (anti-HBe). The presence of antibodies to the hepatitis D virus was determined in most of the anti-Hbs-positive sera, and some of the HBsAg-positive sera. In addition to these, previous infection with syphilis, measles, HIV 1/2 and HTLV were determined by looking for the specific antibodies. We found HBsAg in 14.2% (20/141), anti-HBs in 93.6% (132/141), anti-HBs in 52.2% (73/140), anti-HCV in 7.9% (11/139, measles antibody in 99.3% (139/140), antibody to Treponema pallidum in 13.4% (18/134), antibody to HTLV-1 in 10.9% (15/138) and antibody to HIV-1 in 0.7% (1/140) of the sera tested.
Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faris A. Al-Obaidi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Results revealed that average values egg breadth, length, shape index, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell weight, yolk weight, albumin weight, egg shell percentage, egg yolk percentage and egg albumin percentage were: 3.11±0.45 (cm, 4.59±0.24 (cm, 67.75±1.07, 12.77±0.55 (gm, 22.64±0.74 (cm3 3 , 0.56±0.1 (gm/cm , 0.87±0.15 (gm, 2.76±0.27 (gm, 9.15±0.59 (gm, 6.80±0.25 (%, 21.58±0.55 (% and 71.62±2.32 (% respectively. This report provides important information that can help the avian taxonomists in species classification.
Sharp-tailed Grouse and Pygmy Rabbit Wildlife Mitigation Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Proposed Action is needed to protect and enhance shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus), Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and other indigenous wildlife species. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to compensate, in part, for wildlife habitat lost from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Bonneville Power Administration proposes to fund management agreements, conservation easements, acquisition of fee title, or a combination of these on as many as 29,000 acres in Lincoln and Douglas Counties to improve shrub-steppe and riparian habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and pygmy rabbits. The BPA also proposes to fund habitat improvements (enhancements) on project lands including existing public lands. Proposed habitat treatments would include control of grazing; planting of native trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses; protection of wetlands and streambanks; herbicide use; fire prescriptions; and wildfire suppression. Proposed management activities may include predator control, population introductions, and control of crop depredation
Klabucar, D; Mekterovic, D; Podobnik, B
2003-01-01
If instantons are introduced into the MIT bag model in such a way that bag radii are allowed to vary, the MIT bag interior can accommodate instanton density which is by an order of magnitude larger than in the case when the radii are fixed (although it is still significantly smaller than in the nonperturbative QCD vacuum). The instanton contribution to baryon mass shifts is also correspondingly larger. The instanton-induced part of the scalar strangeness of the nucleon MIT bag is an order of magnitude larger than found previously, within the linearized approximation. The decrease of the model radii (which is associated with the increase of the instanton density) is very favorable from the standpoint of nuclear physics.
Mode-coupling and the pygmy dipole resonance in a relativistic two-phonon model
Litvinova, Elena; Tselyaev, Victor
2009-01-01
A two-phonon version of the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA-2) represents a new class of many-body models for nuclear structure calculations based on the covariant energy density functional. As a fully consistent extension of the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA), the two-phonon RQTBA implies a fragmentation of nuclear states over two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations. This leads, in particular, to a splitting-out of the lowest 1$^-$ state as a member of the two-phonon $[2^+\\otimes3^-]_{1^-}$ quintuplet from the RQRPA pygmy dipole mode, thus establishing a physical mixing between these three modes. The inclusion of the two-phonon configurations in the model space allows to describe the positions and the reduced transition probabilities of the lowest 1$^-$ states in isotopes $^{116,120}$Sn as well as the low-energy fraction of the dipole strength without any adjustment procedures. The model is also applied to the low-lying dipole strength in n...
The shortness of Pygmies is associated with severe under-expression of the growth hormone receptor.
Bozzola, Mauro; Travaglino, Paola; Marziliano, Nicola; Meazza, Cristina; Pagani, Sara; Grasso, Maurizia; Tauber, Maithè; Diegoli, Marta; Pilotto, Andrea; Disabella, Eliana; Tarantino, Paolo; Brega, Agnese; Arbustini, Eloisa
2009-11-01
The stature is a highly heritable trait controlled by genetic and environmental factors. The African Pygmies represent a paradigmatic example of non-disease-related idiopathic short stature (ISS), showing a similar endocrine profile of Caucasian individuals with ISS. Pygmy children show normal anthropometric and endocrine parameters until puberty, while adult Pygmies show normal baseline and post-stimulation serum growth hormone (GH) levels but low values of baseline serum GH-binding protein (GHBP) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). This discrepancy suggests a defective response to GH occurring in adulthood since Pygmies lack both the pubertal serum IGF-I surge and the growth spurt. However, sequencing of the key genes of the GH-IGF-I axis failed to identify Pygmy specific variants or haplotypes. We therefore aimed at assessing whether the quantitative gene expression profile of two key genes of the GH-IGF-I axis, GH and GHR, was also similar in low-stature and normal stature populations. We showed that the GH gene expression is 1.8-fold reduced and the GH receptor (GHR) gene expression is 8-fold reduced in adult Pygmies in comparison with sympatric adult Bantu, and that this reduction is not associated with sequence variants of the GHR gene. The marked decrease of the GHR expression in Pygmies is associated with reduced serum levels of the IGF-I and GHBP. Our results, documenting a markedly reduced GHR gene expression in adult Pygmies, could contribute to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ISS in Caucasoid subjects.
Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen
2015-01-01
Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duratio...
Campioni, Letizia; Sarasola, José Hernán; Santillán, M.; Reyes, M.M.
2013-01-01
Capsule The presence of Ferruginous Pygmy Owls Glaucidium brasilianum breeding in the xerophytic forest of Caldén Prosopis caldenia in central Argentina was slightly affected by forest maturity but neither by the structure of vegetation strata at the micro-habitat scale, nor by forest composition (mosaic of forest-grassland or shrubland) or proximity of water bodies at the macro-habitat scale. Aims To assess the habitat characteristics selected by Ferruginous Pygmy Owls during the breeding se...
Rajalingam, Raja; Hong, Mei; Adams, Erin J.; Shum, Benny P.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Parham, Peter
2001-01-01
Some pygmy chimpanzees (also called Bonobos) give much simpler patterns of hybridization on Southern blotting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) cDNA probes than do either humans or common chimpanzees. Characterization of KIRs from pygmy chimpanzees having simple and complex banding patterns identified nine different KIRs, representing seven genes. Five of these genes have orthologs in the common chimpanzee, and three of them (KIRCI, KIR2DL4, and KIR2DL5) also have human orth...
Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan
2015-01-01
Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea margi...
Recent acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka pygmies.
Nell, Sandra; Eibach, Daniel; Montano, Valeria; Maady, Ayas; Nkwescheu, Armand; Siri, Jose; Elamin, Wael F; Falush, Daniel; Linz, Bodo; Achtman, Mark; Moodley, Yoshan; Suerbaum, Sebastian
2013-01-01
Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations
Recent acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka pygmies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandra Nell
Full Text Available Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8% than non-Baka (80.2%. We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using
Xu, Bo; Xu, Weijiang; Yang, Fuya; Li, Junjun; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi
2013-01-01
The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. An analysis of 78,619 pyrosequencing reads generated from pygmy loris fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the pygmy loris gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that pygmy loris fecal microbiomes were dominated by B...
Population genetics of red cell enzymes in Pygmies: a conclusive account.
Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S; Beretta, M; Negri, M; Ranzani, G; Antonini, G; Barberio, C; Modiano, G; Cavalli-Sforza, L L
1980-11-01
In the course of a long-term research project, three groups of Pygmies and some non-Pygmy Central Africans have been examined for the following red cell enzyme markers: ACP, PGM1, PGM2, PEPA, PEPB, and PEPC, AK, ADA, and PHI. Several other red cell enzymes (ESD, CA1 and CA2, GPT, GLO, and DIA1) have been studied in only some of these groups. This paper reports all the information we obtained, including what we have already published. The following conclusions can be drawn from the whole body of data: (1) Gene patterns of Pygmies are those typical of other Africans (e.g.: lack of ADA2 and AK2 genes, low GPT2 gene frequency, polymorphism of the CA2 locus, and presence at polymorphic frequencies of PEPA2 allele. (2) Superimposed on this African genetic makeup, a number of Pygmy characters were identified, namely, a private polymorphism for the PGM26 Pygmy allele and possibly one for the PEPC2 allele, and particularly high ACPR and low PGM12 gene frequencies. (3) Some markers, especially PGM1 and ACP, turned out also to discriminate efficiently among different groups of Pygmies.
Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen
2014-01-01
Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29-99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.
Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies.
Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Vinicius, Lucio; Lahr, Marta Mirazón
2007-12-18
Explanations for the evolution of human pygmies continue to be a matter of controversy, recently fuelled by the disagreements surrounding the interpretation of the fossil hominin Homo floresiensis. Traditional hypotheses assume that the small body size of human pygmies is an adaptation to special challenges, such as thermoregulation, locomotion in dense forests, or endurance against starvation. Here, we present an analysis of stature, growth, and individual fitness for a large population of Aeta and a smaller one of Batak from the Philippines and compare it with data on other pygmy groups accumulated by anthropologists for a century. The results challenge traditional explanations of human pygmy body size. We argue that human pygmy populations and adaptations evolved independently as the result of a life history tradeoff between the fertility benefits of larger body size against the costs of late growth cessation, under circumstances of significant young and adult mortality. Human pygmies do not appear to have evolved through positive selection for small stature-this was a by-product of selection for early onset of reproduction.
Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen
2014-01-01
Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29-99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hauke eEgermann
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.
Polygyny without wealth: popularity in gift games predicts polygyny in BaYaka Pygmies.
Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Thompson, James; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail; Smith, Daniel; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg
2015-05-01
The occurrence of polygynous marriage in hunter-gatherer societies, which do not accumulate wealth, remains largely unexplored since resource availability is dependent on male hunting capacity and limited by the lack of storage. Hunter-gatherer societies offer the greatest insight in to human evolution since they represent the majority of our species' evolutionary history. In order to elucidate the evolution of hunter-gatherer polygyny, we study marriage patterns of BaYaka Pygmies. We investigate (i) rates of polygyny among BaYaka hunter-gatherers; (ii) whether polygyny confers a fitness benefit to BaYaka men; (iii) in the absence of wealth inequalities, what are the alternative explanations for polygyny among the BaYaka. To understand the latter, we explore differences in phenotypic quality (height and strength), and social capital (popularity in gift games). We find polygynous men have increased reproductive fitness; and that social capital and popularity but not phenotypic quality might have been important mechanisms by which some male hunter-gatherers sustained polygynous marriages before the onset of agriculture and wealth accumulation.
XY females do better than the XX in the African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides.
Saunders, Paul A; Perez, Julie; Rahmoun, Massilva; Ronce, Ophélie; Crochet, Pierre-André; Veyrunes, Frédéric
2014-07-01
All therian mammals have a similar XY/XX sex-determination system except for a dozen species. The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, harbors an unconventional system in which all males are XY, and there are three types of females: the usual XX but also XX* and X*Y ones (the asterisk designates a sex-reversal mutation on the X chromosome). The long-term evolution of such a system is a paradox, because X*Y females are expected to face high reproductive costs (e.g., meiotic disruption and loss of unviable YY embryos), which should prevent invasion and maintenance of a sex-reversal mutation. Hence, mechanisms for compensating for the costs could have evolved in M. minutoides. Data gathered from our laboratory colony revealed that X*Y females do compensate and even show enhanced reproductive performance in comparison to the XX and XX*; they produce significantly more offspring due to (i) a higher probability of breeding, (ii) an earlier first litter, and (iii) a larger litter size, linked to (iv) a greater ovulation rate. These findings confirm that rare conditions are needed for an atypical sex-determination mechanism to evolve in mammals, and provide valuable insight into understanding modifications of systems with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes.
Nutritional status of Efe pygmies and Lese horticulturists.
Dietz, W H; Marino, B; Peacock, N R; Bailey, R C
1989-04-01
We assessed the nutritional status of 90 pygmies (Efe) and 211 members of a neighboring horticultural Lese in the Ituri forest in northeast Zaire. Clinical signs of iron and iodine deficiency were highly prevalent, but the frequency of these and other clinical signs of nutritional deficiency did not differ between the two groups. Infectious diseases such as yaws, cellulitis, and filiariasis were common. Absolute heights and weights of both Efe males and females aged 2-18 years were less than the 5th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics standards. Weights for height of both groups were within the normal range. Weights and heights, expressed as percentages of the 50th percentile for age and sex, were significantly lower (P less than .001) in Efe males and females than among Lese males and females, but weights for height did not differ significantly. Z-Scores of height and weight were also significantly lower in Efe males and females than among their Lese counterparts. The differences in weight and height, expressed either as a percentage of the 50th percentile or as Z-scores, were most apparent in older adolescents and persisted among adults. The normal weight for height among both populations indicated that acute undernutrition did not exist at the time of the survey. Despite comparable levels of adult fatness, measured by triceps skinfold thickness, heights of Efe males and females were lower than those of the Lese. These observations support the hypothesis that genetic differences account for the short stature of the Ituri pygmy. However, because the environments shared by the two groups are not identical and because other practices differ, nutritional effects cannot be excluded.
Isospin Character of Low-Lying Pygmy Dipole States via Inelastic Scattering of $^{17}$O
Crespi, F C L
2015-01-01
The γ decay from the pygmy states was measured in 208 Pb, 124 Sn and 90 Zr nuclei using the inelastic scattering of 17 O at 340 MeV. The emitted γ rays were detected with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array and the scattered ions were detected in two segmented ∆ E-E silicon telescopes. The multipolarity of the observed gamma transitions was determined with remarkable sensitivity thanks to angu lar distribution measurements. Cross sections and angular distributions of the γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with ( γ , γ ’) and (p, p’) data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering a nd of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3− states. For the dipole transitions, a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition dens ity was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the ...
Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro
2013-01-01
Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.
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Alejandro Romero
Full Text Available Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs, are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager-farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations.
Shipley, Lisa A; Davila, Tara B; Thines, Nicole J; Elias, Becky A
2006-11-01
Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) comprises up to 99% of the winter and 50% of the summer diets of pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis). Few animals specialize on such plants as sagebrush, which contain high levels of plant chemicals that can be toxic. We investigated the nutritional requirements of pygmy rabbits and their ability and propensity to consume sagebrush alone and as part of a mixed diet. We compared diet choices of pygmy rabbits with that of a generalist forager, the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus). Pygmy rabbits had a moderately low nitrogen requirement (306.5 mg N/kg(0.75)/d), but a relatively high energy requirement, needing 750.8 kJ digestible energy/kg(0.75)/d to maintain their body mass while residing in small cages. They digested fiber in pelleted diets similarly to other small hindgut fermenters, but both cottontails and pygmy rabbits digested the fiber in sagebrush better than expected based on its indigestible acid detergent lignin content. Pygmy rabbits consumed more sagebrush than cottontails, regardless of the amount and nutritional quality of supplemental pellets provided. When consuming sagebrush alone, they ate barely enough to meet their energy requirements, whereas cottontails ate only enough sagebrush to meet 67% of theirs. Both rabbit species ate more sagebrush as the quality and quantity of supplemental pellets declined, and more greenhouse-grown sagebrush than sagebrush grown outside. Urine was more acidic when consuming sagebrush than when consuming pellets, indicating detoxification by the liver. Pygmy rabbits do not require sagebrush to survive, but seem to tolerate terpenes and other plant chemicals in sagebrush better than cottontails do. PMID:17082988
Molecular epidemiology of human polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa.
Chima, S C; Ryschkewitsch, C F; Stoner, G L
1998-01-01
Polyomavirus JC (JCV) is ubiquitous in humans and causes a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is common in AIDS. JCV is excreted in urine of 30-70% of adults worldwide. Based on sequence analysis of JCV complete genomes or fragments thereof, JCV can be classified into geographically derived genotypes. Types 1 and 2 are of European and Asian origin respectively while Types 3 and 6 are African in origin. Type 4, a possible recombinant of European and African genotypes (1 and 3) is common in the USA. To delineate the JCV genotypes in an aboriginal African population, random urine samples were collected from the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu from the Central African Republic. There were 43 males and 25 females aged 4-55 years, with an average age of 26 years. After PCR amplification of JCV in urine, products were directly cycle sequenced. Five of 23 Pygmy adults (22%) and four of 20 Bantu adults (20%) were positive for JC viruria. DNA sequence analysis revealed JCV Type 3 (two), Type 6 (two) and one Type 1 variant in Biaka Pygmies. All the Bantu strains were Type 6. Type 3 and 6 strains of JCV are the predominant strains in central Africa. The presence of multiple subtypes of JCV in Biaka Pygmies may be a result of extensive interactions of Pygmies with their African tribal neighbors during their itinerant movements in the equatorial forest.
Molecular Epidemiology of Human Polyomavirus JC in the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu of Central Africa
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Sylvester C Chima
1998-09-01
Full Text Available Polyomavirus JC (JCV is ubiquitous in humans and causes a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system , progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy which is common in AIDS. JCV is excreted in urine of 30-70% of adults worldwide. Based on sequence analysis of JCV complete genomes or fragments thereof, JCV can be classified into geographically derived genotypes. Types 1 and 2 are of European and Asian origin respectively while Types 3 and 6 are African in origin. Type 4, a possible recombinant of European and African genotypes (1 and 3 is common in the USA. To delineate the JCV genotypes in an aboriginal African population, random urine samples were collected from the Biaka Pygmies and Bantu from the Central African Republic. There were 43 males and 25 females aged 4-55 years, with an average age of 26 years. After PCR amplification of JCV in urine, products were directly cycle sequenced. Five of 23 Pygmy adults (22% and four of 20 Bantu adults (20% were positive for JC viruria. DNA sequence analysis revealed JCV Type 3 (two, Type 6 (two and one Type 1 variant in Biaka Pygmies. All the Bantu strains were Type 6. Type 3 and 6 strains of JCV are the predominant strains in central Africa. The presence of multiple subtypes of JCV in Biaka Pygmies may be a result of extensive interactions of Pygmies with their African tribal neighbors during their itinerant movements in the equatorial forest.
Spontaneous symbol acquisition and communicative use by pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus).
Savage-Rumbaugh, S; McDonald, K; Sevcik, R A; Hopkins, W D; Rubert, E
1986-09-01
Two pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) have spontaneously begun to use symbols to communicate with people. In contrast to common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using the same communicative system, the pygmy chimpanzees did not need explicit training in order to form referential symbol-object associations. Instead, they acquired symbols by observing others use these symbols in daily communications with them. In addition, the pygmy chimpanzees have begun to comprehend spoken English words and can readily identify lexigrams upon hearing the spoken words. By contrast, common chimpanzees who received similar exposure to spoken English are unable to do so. The older pygmy chimpanzee has begun to form requests of the form agent-verb-recipient in which he is neither the agent nor the recipient. By contrast, similarly aged common chimpanzees limited their requests to simple verbs, in which the agent was always presumed to be the addressee and the chimpanzee itself was always the recipient, thus they had no need to indicate a specific agent or recipient. These results suggest that these pygmy chimpanzees exhibit symbolic and auditory perceptual skills that are distinctly different from those of common chimpanzees. PMID:2428917
Bowcock, A; Sartorelli, V
1990-08-01
Probes detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the insulinlike growth factor (IGF1) gene were isolated and allele frequencies in different human populations determined. No difference was detected between the distribution of IGF1 alleles in Pygmies versus non-Pygmy black Africans, despite the proposal that a defect in the IGF1 gene might be responsible for Pygmy short stature. This was supported by the absence of a correlation of IGF1 genotype with height in the C.A.R. Pygmies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing failed to demonstrate an alteration in the region upstream the IGF1 start site in Pygmies. Linkage analysis demonstrated that IGF1 is tightly linked to the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene on chromosome 12q22-24.1.
Heymer, A
1985-01-01
The falling of tropical rain forests in Equatorial Africa, and the subsequent penetration of Bantu hoe farmers into the former jungle regions are depriving the Pygmies of the basis for their traditional way of life as roaming hunters and gatherers. Most of the former roaming groups now live in permanent settlements near Bantu villages. But becoming sedentary and adapting to the habits of the Bantu have had catastrophic results for the Pygmies: today, this people suffers to a great extent from infectious diseases and animal parasites, which were once almost unknown among them. In particular, Yaws, a skin disease which is widespread in Africa affects whole tribes. With the loss of their cultural identity their social structure also collapses: formerly free Pygmies get employed as cheap labour on coffee plantations.
Investigation of Pygmy Dipole Resonances in the Tin Region
Tsoneva, N
2007-01-01
The evolution of the low-energy electromagnetic dipole response with the neutron excess is investigated along the Sn isotopic chain within an approach incorporating Hartree-Fock-Bogoljubov (HFB) and multi-phonon Quasiparticle-Phonon-Model (QPM) theory. General aspects of the relationship of nuclear skins and dipole sum rules are discussed. Neutron and proton transition densities serve to identify the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) as a generic mode of excitation. The PDR is distinct from the GDR by its own characteristic pattern given by a mixture of isoscalar and isovector components. Results for the 110Sn-132Sn isotopes and the several N=82 isotones are presented. In the heavy Sn-isotopes the PDR excitations are closely related to the thickness of the neutron skin. Approaching 100Sn a gradual change from a neutron to a proton skin is found and the character of the PDR is changed correspondingly. A delicate balance between Coulomb and strong interaction effects is found. Recent measurements of the dipole respo...
Addisonian Crisis due to Metastatic Adenocarcinoma in a Pygmy Goat
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Nora Nogradi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A 15-year-old Pygmy doe was evaluated for acute onset of lethargy, anorexia, and weakness. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed based on physical exam findings, blood work abnormalities (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and hypoglycemia, and lack of cortisol response to the ACTH stimulation test. Abdominal ultrasound exam revealed an intact urinary tract and multiple bilateral peri-renal masses. The doe was treated with intravenous fluid therapy aimed at correcting the electrolyte abnormalities and intravenous corticosteroids. She responded favorably to medical therapy in 24 hours, with dramatic improvement in attitude and appetite. Fluid therapy was discontinued, and the doe was discharged from the hospital on steroid supplementation. She deteriorated rapidly and died at home 36 hours after discharge. Necropsy results revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma originating from the uterus that infiltrated the urinary bladder, the region of the adrenal glands, the left and right renal lymph nodes, the left kidney, the caudal vena cava, the submandibular lymph nodes, the diaphragm, the lungs, and the omentum. Addison’s syndrome in ruminants should be considered as an uncommon sequel of intra-abdominal neoplastic processes.
Jayakar, S D; Marcovina, S; Peracino, A; Siccardi, A G
1978-09-01
Data on serum protein levels in Binga Pygmies are presented, and these are compared with the levels in healthy Italians and in Italians suffering from liver diseases. Principal Component Analysis carried out on the three groups points out similarities in protein levels between the Pygmies and the Italian Hepatopaths on one hand and between healthy and liver diseased Italians on the other. Discriminant Analyses reveal the important differences between the populations. It is suggested that such analyses of protein levels could serve as tools in population biology.
Observation of double pygmy resonances in $^{195,196}$Pt and enhanced astrophysical reaction rates
Giacoppo, F; Eriksen, T K; Görgen, A; Guttormsen, M; Hagen, T W; Larsen, A C; Kheswa, B V; Klintefjord, M; Koehler, P E; Nyhus, H T; Renstr\\om, T; Sahin, E; Siem, S; Tornyi, T G
2014-01-01
Our measurements of $^{195,196}$Pt $\\gamma$-strength functions show a double-humped enhancement in the $E_{\\gamma}= 4-8$ MeV region. For the first time, the detailed shape of these resonances is revealed for excitation energies in the quasicontinuum. We demonstrate that the corresponding neutron-capture cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates are increased by up to a factor of 2 when these newly observed pygmy resonances are included. These results lend credence to theoretical predictions of enhanced reaction rates due to such pygmy resonances and hence are important for a better understanding of r-process nucleosynthesis.
Toroidal resonance: relation to pygmy mode, vortical properties and anomalous deformation splitting
Nesterenko, V O; Repko, A; Kleinig, W; Reinhard, P -G
2016-01-01
We review a recent progress in investigation of the isoscalar toroidal dipole resonance (TDR). A possible relation of the TDR and low-energy dipole strength (also called a pygmy resonance) is analyzed. It is shown that the dipole strength in the pygmy region can by understood as a local manifestation of the collective vortical toroidal motion at the nuclear surface. Application of the TDR as a measure of the nuclear dipole vorticity is discussed. Finally, an anomalous splitting of the TDR in deformed nuclei is scrutinized.
Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan
2015-01-01
Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium.
Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan
2015-01-01
Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
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Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
Cobbaert, C; Mulder, P; Lindemans, J; Kesteloot, H
1997-09-01
Serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) and its correlates were studied in African Aboriginal Pygmies (n = 146) and Bantus (n = 208) from Cameroon. Geometric mean Lp(a) levels were 274 and 289 mg/l in Bantu males and females, respectively, and 220 and 299 mg/l in Pygmy males and females, the gender difference being significant in Pygmies (p = 0.024). In Pygmies 41% and 52% of the males and females, respectively, had Lp(a) levels above 300 mg/l, compared with 47% and 55% in Bantus. Overall, Lp(a) levels did not significantly differ between Pygmies and Bantus, and did not correlate with age, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Compared with healthy Asian and Caucasian population samples, age- and BMI-adjusted geometric Lp(a) means were 2.3- to 5.0-fold higher in Pygmy and Bantu males, and 2.9- to 3.6-fold higher in Pygmy and Bantu females (p < or = 0.05). Across the population samples studied ethnicity predicted 12% and 17% of serum Lp(a) variance in males and females, respectively.
Niven, Ivan
2008-01-01
This self-contained treatment originated as a series of lectures delivered to the Mathematical Association of America. It covers basic results on homogeneous approximation of real numbers; the analogue for complex numbers; basic results for nonhomogeneous approximation in the real case; the analogue for complex numbers; and fundamental properties of the multiples of an irrational number, for both the fractional and integral parts.The author refrains from the use of continuous fractions and includes basic results in the complex case, a feature often neglected in favor of the real number discuss
2006-01-01
This interactive tutorial presents the following concepts of Approximation Techniques: Methods of Weighted Residual (MWR), Weak Formulatioin, Piecewise Continuous Function, Galerkin Finite Element FormulationExplanations especially for mathematical statements are provided using mouseover the highlight equations. ME4613 Finite Element Methods
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E Biezakala Mudiandambu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile
2015-12-01
A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924
Wellehan, James F X; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael
2003-03-01
A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695
Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog
Wellehan, James F. X.; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A.; Taylor, Michael
2003-01-01
A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively.
2012-02-21
... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.22(d) and 17.32(d). See also our policy on CCAAs (64 FR... on a petition to list the spring pygmy sunfish as endangered under the Act (76 FR 18138). The Service..., including a portion of ``Lowe Ditch''; and (4) refraining from any deforestation, land clearing,...
Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms
Moore, Cristopher
2010-01-01
Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities in terms of the ratio d / d_min where d_min is the dimension of the smallest nontrivial representation of G. As an application, we bound the extent to which a function f : G -> H can be an approximate homomorphism where H is another finite group. We show that if H's representations are significantly smaller than G's, no such f can be much more homomorphic than a random function. We interpret these results as showing that if G is quasirandom, that is, if d_min is large, then G cannot be embedded in a small number of dimensi...
Bruges Armas, J; Destro-Bisol, G; López-Vazquez, A; Couto, A R; Spedini, G; Gonzalez, S; Battaggia, C; Peixoto, M J; Martinez-Borra, J; López-Larrea, C
2003-09-01
We have studied the polymorphism of HLA class I in two West African Pygmy populations, namely, the Bakola from Cameroon and the Mbenzele from the Central African Republic. A unique number of HLA alleles and haplotypes showed specific patterns of these populations. In this study, we identify two alleles (B*37, B*41) and three haplotypes (A*30-B*37, A*66-B*41 and A*68-B*58) that appear to be 'private' or typical of Western Pygmies. These data reflect similarities with the AKA Pygmies from the Central African Republic. On the other hand, we failed to identify alleles that are found at high frequencies among other sub-Saharan populations (B*42, B*51). Allelic and haplotypic frequency distributions show differences between the two Pygmy groups, e.g. B*35 was very common in the Mbenzele but has been found to be absent in the Bakola. In contrast, B*53, which is found in the Bakola, has been found to be rare in the Mbenzele Pygmies. In order to analyse the genetic relationships of the Bakola and Mbenzele Pygmies with other sub-Saharan populations, HLA gene frequencies were subjected to the Neighbour-Joining tree analysis. The Mbenzele, Bakola and AKA were found to be relatively close to each other and isolated from other sub-African populations. However, both the genetic distances and the within-group variation suggests that the Bakola are more admixed with Bantu farmers than Mbenzele.
Xu, Bo; Xu, Weijiang; Yang, Fuya; Li, Junjun; Yang, Yunjuan; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi
2013-01-01
The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. An analysis of 78,619 pyrosequencing reads generated from pygmy loris fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the pygmy loris gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that pygmy loris fecal microbiomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla. The hierarchical clustering of several gastrointestinal metagenomes demonstrated the similarities of the microbial community structures of pygmy loris and mouse gut systems despite their differences in functional capacity. The comparative analysis of function classification revealed that the metagenome of the pygmy loris was characterized by an overrepresentation of those sequences involved in aromatic compound metabolism compared with humans and other animals. The key enzymes related to the benzoate degradation pathway were identified based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway assignment. These results would contribute to the limited body of primate metagenome studies and provide a framework for comparative metagenomic analysis between human and non-human primates, as well as a comparative understanding of the evolution of humans and their microbiome. However, future studies on the metagenome sequencing of pygmy loris and other prosimians regarding the effects of age, genetics, and environment on the composition and activity of the metagenomes are required. PMID:23457582
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Xu
Full Text Available The animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. An analysis of 78,619 pyrosequencing reads generated from pygmy loris fecal DNA extracts was performed to help better understand the microbial diversity and functional capacity of the pygmy loris gut microbiome. The taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic reads indicated that pygmy loris fecal microbiomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla. The hierarchical clustering of several gastrointestinal metagenomes demonstrated the similarities of the microbial community structures of pygmy loris and mouse gut systems despite their differences in functional capacity. The comparative analysis of function classification revealed that the metagenome of the pygmy loris was characterized by an overrepresentation of those sequences involved in aromatic compound metabolism compared with humans and other animals. The key enzymes related to the benzoate degradation pathway were identified based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway assignment. These results would contribute to the limited body of primate metagenome studies and provide a framework for comparative metagenomic analysis between human and non-human primates, as well as a comparative understanding of the evolution of humans and their microbiome. However, future studies on the metagenome sequencing of pygmy loris and other prosimians regarding the effects of age, genetics, and environment on the composition and activity of the metagenomes are required.
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...
Schmidt, Wolfgang M
1980-01-01
"In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)
A rare null allele potentially encoding a dominant-negative TRIM5alpha protein in Baka pygmies.
Torimiro, Judith N; Javanbakht, Hassan; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kim, Jonghwa; Carr, Jean K; Carrington, Mary; Sawitzke, Julie; Burke, Donald S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph
2009-08-15
The global acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic is thought to have arisen by the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-like viruses from chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon to humans. TRIM5alpha is a restriction factor that can decrease the susceptibility of cells of particular mammalian species to retrovirus infection. A survey of TRIM5 genes in 127 indigenous individuals from southeastern Cameroon revealed that approximately 4% of the Baka pygmies studied were heterozygous for a rare variant with a stop codon in exon 8. The predicted product of this allele, TRIM5 R332X, is truncated in the functionally important B30.2(SPRY) domain, does not restrict retrovirus infection, and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of wild-type human TRIM5alpha. Thus, some indigenous African forest dwellers potentially exhibit diminished TRIM5alpha function; such genetic factors, along with the high frequency of exposure to chimpanzee body fluids, may have predisposed to the initial cross-species transmission of HIV-1-like viruses.
Tooth scaling and evolutionary dwarfism: an investigation of allometry in human pygmies.
Shea, B T; Gomez, A M
1988-09-01
Gould has predicted that in rapidly dwarfed lineages the postcanine teeth exhibit a different scaling pattern than is the normal interspecific trend. His prediction of strong negative allometry has not been frequently tested in quantitative detail. Here we present results of scaling analyses of the molar teeth in African pygmies compared with other Africans of larger size and in Philippine pygmies compared with Filipinos of larger size. We find a pattern of strong negative allometry of tooth size to skull and body size in both these comparisons. This scaling pattern is explained by recourse to the developmental bases (known or inferred) of dwarfing in these populations. Body size decrease is related to low levels of the growth control substance insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which does not appear to affect the size of the dentition. The implications of such developmental information for our understanding of allometric patterns in general, and dwarfing events in particular, are discussed.
The decay pattern of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance of 140Ce
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Löher
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The decay properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR have been investigated in the semi-magic N=82 nucleus 140Ce using a novel combination of nuclear resonance fluorescence and γ–γ coincidence techniques. Branching ratios for transitions to low-lying excited states are determined in a direct and model-independent way both for individual excited states and for excitation energy intervals. Comparison of the experimental results to microscopic calculations in the quasi-particle phonon model exhibits an excellent agreement, supporting the observation that the Pygmy Dipole Resonance couples to the ground state as well as to low-lying excited states. A 10% mixing of the PDR and the [21+×PDR] is extracted.
Excitation of Pygmy Dipole Resonance in neutron-rich nuclei via Coulomb and nuclear fields
Vitturi, A; Andrés, M V; Catara, F; Gambacurta, D
2010-01-01
We study the nature of the low-lying dipole strength in neutron-rich nuclei, often associated to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance. The states are described within the Hartree-Fock plus RPA formalism, using different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction. We show how the information from combined reactions processes involving the Coulomb and different mixtures of isoscalar and isovector nuclear interactions can provide a clue to reveal the characteristic features of these states.
Epidemiology and genetic variability of HHV-8/KSHV in Pygmy and Bantu populations in Cameroon.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edouard Betsem
2014-05-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma. Molecular epidemiology of the variable K1 region identified five major subtypes exhibiting a clear geographical clustering. The present study is designed to gain new insights into the KSHV epidemiology and genetic diversity in Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bantu and Pygmy populations from remote rural villages were studied. Antibodies directed against latent nuclear antigens (LANA were detected by indirect immunofluorescence using BC3 cells. Peripheral blood cell DNAs were subjected to a nested PCR amplifying a 737 bp K1 gene fragment. Consensus sequences were phylogenetically analyzed. We studied 2,063 persons (967 females, 1,096 males, mean age 39 years, either Bantus (1,276 or Pygmies (787. The Bantu group was older (42 versus 35 years: P<10(-4. KSHV anti-LANA seroprevalence was of 37.2% (768/2063, with a significant increase with age (P<10(-4 but no difference according to sex. Seroprevalence, as well as the anti-LANA antibodies titres, were higher in Bantus (43.2% than in Pygmies (27.6% (P<10(-4, independently of age. We generated 29 K1 sequences, comprising 24 Bantus and five Pygmies. These sequences belonged to A5 (24 cases or B (five cases subtypes. They exhibited neither geographical nor ethnic aggregation. A5 strains showed a wide genetic diversity while the B strains were more homogenous and belonged to the B1 subgroup. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate high KSHV seroprevalence in the two major populations living in Southern and Eastern Cameroon with presence of mostly genetically diverse A5 but also B K1 subtypes.
Excitation of pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei via Coulomb and nuclear fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Vitturi; E G Lanza; M V Andrés; F Catara; D Gambacurta
2010-07-01
We study the nature of the low-lying dipole strength in neutron-rich nuclei, often associated with the pygmy dipole resonance. The states are described within the Hartree–Fock plus RPA formalism, using different parametrizations of the Skyrme inter-action. We show how the information from combined reaction processes involving the Coulomb and different mixtures of isoscalar and isovector nuclear interactions can provide a clue to reveal the characteristic features of these states.
The management of wild yam tubers by the Baka pygmies in Southern Cameroon
Dounias, Edmond
2001-01-01
Wild yams (#Dioscorea$ spp.) are primordial sources of carbohydrates for many hunter-gatherers of African forests. Yams play a key role in the symbolic perception of the forest by the Baka Pygmies of Southern Cameroon. The Baka have elaborated an original form of wild yam exploitation that I have termed "paracultivation". Paracultivation defines a set of technical, social and cultural practices aiming at managing wild resources while keeping them in their natural environment. In 1994, I under...
Coombe, D. A.; Snider, R. F.
1980-02-01
ES, CS, and IOS approximations to atom-diatom kinetic cross sections are derived. In doing so, reduced S-matrices in a translational-internal coupling scheme are stressed. This entails the insertion of recently obtained approximate reduced S-matrices in the translational-internal coupling scheme into previously derived general expressions for the kinetic cross sections. Of special interest is the structure (rotational j quantum number dependence) of the kinetic cross sections associated with the Senftleben Beenakker effects and of pure internal state relaxation phenomena. The viscomagnetic effect is used as an illustrative example. It is found in particular that there is a great similarity of structure between the energy sudden (and IOS) approximation and the previously derived distorted wave Born results.
Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Coia, Valentina; Boschi, Ilaria; Verginelli, Fabio; Cagliá, Alessandra; Pascali, Vincenzo; Spedini, Gabriella; Calafell, Francesc
2004-02-01
The Eastern Pygmies from Zaire and Western Pygmies from Cameroon, Congo, and the Central African Republic represent the two principal groups of African Pygmies. In the "recent divergence" hypothesis in which Western Pygmies are thought to be the result of hybridization between the ancestors of Eastern Pygmies and Bantu farmers who penetrated the equatorial belt and came into contact with Pygmies around 2-3 kiloyears ago. On the basis of recent archaeological research in the tropical rain forest, we propose a "pre-Bantu divergence" hypothesis, which posits the separation between the ancestors of Eastern and Western Pygmies earlier than 18 kiloyears ago. In order to test the two hypotheses, we analyzed the variation of the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA in the Mbenzele, Western Pygmies of the Central African Republic, and compared our results with those of previous mtDNA and Y chromosome studies. Distribution, sequence variation, and age of haplogroups along with genetic distances among populations, estimates of divergence times, and simulations based on the coalescent approach were found to be congruent with the pre-Bantu divergence but failed to support the recent divergence hypothesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Increasing computer power is allowing higher-order angular approximations to replace diffusion theory methods in whole core reactor physics computations. Spherical harmonic (Pn), simplified spherical harmonic (SPn), and discrete ordinates (Sn) methods are capable of performing such calculations in three dimensions. Most advantages of such transport methods are gained by eliminating fuel assembly homogenization, thus allowing pin powers to be calculated directly. A further step, currently under investigation, is the elimination of spatial homogenization at the pin cell level as well. The fuel-moderator interfaces may be treated explicitly in Pn, Sn, or SPn calculations by applying triangular finite elements (FEM) to the spatial variables. Early results using a modified form of the VARIANT code, however, indicate that without pin cell homogenization, high-order angular approximations may be required to represent the lattice effects accurately within the whole-core calculations. To examine these lattice effects further, a modified form of VARIANT was created to use the spatial triangular finite element scheme. The program was set up to treat a single heterogeneous pin cell coupled with Pn, SPn, or Sn angular approximations. Additional modifications replaced the nodal interface approximations with exact reflected boundary conditions to increase the accuracy of the results. Several pressurized water reactor pin cells, taken from a previous benchmark specification, were examined. However, the results shown here focus only on the most severe case, i.e., a pin cell containing 8.7% mixed-oxide enriched fuel. The DRAGON collision probability code was used to collapse a 69-group cross-section library to a more manageable 7-group library that contained cross sections for the fuel-cladding mixture and for the water. Eigenvalue results are shown in Figs. 1 and 2 using the modified VARIANT code with Pn, SPn, and Sn angular approximations. A 7-group MCNP Monte Carlo solution and a
Klaiber, M.; Yakaboylu, E.; Hatsagortsyan, K.
2013-01-01
We develop a relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong field approximation (SFA) for the investigation of spin effects at above-threshold ionization in relativistically strong laser fields with highly charged hydrogen-like ions. The Coulomb-corrected SFA is based on the relativistic eikonal-Volkov wave function describing the ionized electron laser-driven continuum dynamics disturbed by the Coulomb field of the ionic core. The SFA in different partitions of the total Hamiltonian is considered. Th...
Annalaura Mancia; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; McFee, Wayne E; Newton, Danforth A; Baatz, John E
2012-01-01
Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm whale (PSW), Kogia breviceps, comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the southeastern United States. Thus, development of a method for preserving live tissues and retrieving live cells from deceased stranded individuals was initiated. This report documents successful cryopreservation of PSW lung tissue. We established in vitro cultures of primary lung cell types from tissue fragments that had been cryopreserved several months earlier at the stranding event. Dissociation of cryopreserved lung tissues readily provides a variety of primary cell types that, to varying degrees, can be expanded and further studied/manipulated in cell culture. In addition, PSW-specific molecular markers have been developed that permitted the monitoring of fibroblast, alveolar type II, and vascular endothelial cell types. Reconstitution of 3-D cultures of lung tissues with these cell types is now underway. This novel system may facilitate the development of rare or disease-specific lung tissue models (e.g., to test causes of PSW stranding events and lead to improved treatments for pulmonary hypertension or reperfusion injury in humans). Also, the establishment of a "living" tissue bank biorepository for rare/endangered species could serve multiple purposes as surrogates for freshly isolated samples. PMID:21501697
Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold
1984-02-01
In the preceding paper, the laws of motion were established for classical particles with spin which are monopole-dipole singularities of Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. In this paper, a systematic approximation scheme is developed for solving the coupled nonlinear field equations in any order and for determining the corresponding equations of motion. In zeroth order the potentials are taken as the usual Liénard-Wiechert and Bhabha-Harish-Chandra potentials (generalized to isospace); in this order the solutions are necessarily Abelian, since the isovector describing the charge is constant. The regularization necessary to obtain expressions finite on the world lines of the particles is achieved by the method of Riesz potentials. All fields are taken as retarded and are expressed in integral form. Omitting dipole interactions, the integrals for the various terms are carried out as far as possible for general motions, including radiation-reaction terms. In first order, the charge isovectors are no longer necessarily constant; thus the solutions are not necessarily Abelian, and it is possible for charge to be radiated away. The cases of time-symmetric field theory and of an action-at-a-distance formulation of the theory are discussed in an appendix.
Effects of hunter-gatherer subsistence mode on arterial distensibility in Cameroonian pygmies.
Lemogoum, Daniel; Ngatchou, William; Janssen, Christophe; Leeman, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Degaute, Jean Paul; Van de Borne, Philippe
2012-07-01
We aimed to assess whether arterial distensibility estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) differs between Cameroon traditional pygmies (TPs) on hunter-gather subsistence mode, contemporary pygmies who migrated to semiurban area, and the Bantou farmers (BFs) sharing the same environment. For that purpose, we recorded carotid-femoral PWV (ComplioR) in age and sex carefully matched 20 TPs, 20 contemporary pygmies, and 22 BFs. Aortic AI corrected for heart rate and blood pressures were generated from pressure wave analysis (SphygmoCor). Lipid profile was determined in TP and BF participants. TPs were shorter (P=0.02) with lower body weight (Ppygmies and BFs. TPs had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than BFs (Ppygmies (6.82±0.36 m/s) or BFs (6.93±0.29 m/s); however, after its adjustment for age, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, the difference was slightly attenuated (P=0.051). PWV adjusted for weight did not differ between groups (P=0.10). In the whole study population but not in TPs taken separately, multivariate regression analysis revealed that PWV was independently associated with mean arterial pressure, age, and TP status (P<0.001), whereas age, mean arterial pressure, and height emerged as independent determinants of aortic AI corrected for heart rate (P<0.001). Aortic AI corrected for heart rate did not differ in the 3 groups. In conclusion, hunter-gather lifestyle is associated with low atherosclerosis risk translated by lower aortic stiffness attributed at least partly to low weight and blunted effects of aging and blood pressures on TP arterial structure and function.
Hierarchical spatial models for predicting pygmy rabbit distribution and relative abundance
Wilson, T.L.; Odei, J.B.; Hooten, M.B.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.
2010-01-01
Conservationists routinely use species distribution models to plan conservation, restoration and development actions, while ecologists use them to infer process from pattern. These models tend to work well for common or easily observable species, but are of limited utility for rare and cryptic species. This may be because honest accounting of known observation bias and spatial autocorrelation are rarely included, thereby limiting statistical inference of resulting distribution maps. We specified and implemented a spatially explicit Bayesian hierarchical model for a cryptic mammal species (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis). Our approach used two levels of indirect sign that are naturally hierarchical (burrows and faecal pellets) to build a model that allows for inference on regression coefficients as well as spatially explicit model parameters. We also produced maps of rabbit distribution (occupied burrows) and relative abundance (number of burrows expected to be occupied by pygmy rabbits). The model demonstrated statistically rigorous spatial prediction by including spatial autocorrelation and measurement uncertainty. We demonstrated flexibility of our modelling framework by depicting probabilistic distribution predictions using different assumptions of pygmy rabbit habitat requirements. Spatial representations of the variance of posterior predictive distributions were obtained to evaluate heterogeneity in model fit across the spatial domain. Leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted to evaluate the overall model fit. Synthesis and applications. Our method draws on the strengths of previous work, thereby bridging and extending two active areas of ecological research: species distribution models and multi-state occupancy modelling. Our framework can be extended to encompass both larger extents and other species for which direct estimation of abundance is difficult. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 British Ecological Society.
Sperm sex chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridisation in pygmy hippopotamus
sprotocols
2015-01-01
Authors: Joseph Saragusty, Robert Hermes, Heribert Hofer, Tim Bouts, Frank Göritz & Thomas B. Hildebrandt ### Abstract Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random, equal opportunity both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. The prevailing assumption has been that males produce approximately equal numbers of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa in large quantities and that ...
Dynamical Coupling of Pygmy and Giant Resonances in Relativistic Coulomb Excitation
Brady, N; Bertulani, C A; Thomas, J
2016-01-01
We study the Coulomb excitation of pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) in heavy ion reactions at 100 MeV/nucleon and above. The reactions 68Ni+197Au and 68Ni+208Pb are taken as a practical examples. Our goal is to address the question of the influence of giant resonances on the PDR as the dynamics of the collision evolves. We show that the coupling to the giant resonances affects considerably the excitation probabilities of the PDR, a result that indicates the need of an improved theoretical treatment of the reaction dynamics at these bombarding energies.
A pygmy blue whale (Cetacea : Balaenopteridae) in the inshore waters of New Caledonia
Borsa, Philippe; Hoarau, G.
2004-01-01
International audience The occurrence of a blue whale is reported for the first time for the New Caledonian archipelago. The whale, a juvenile male in poor condition, entered the shallow inshore waters of the coral reef lagoon (22°19-24' S, 166° 46-52' E) where it spent at least 1 month until it was killed by whaler sharks on 27 January 2002. Live observations, examination of photographic documents, and skull osteology indicated that this was a pygmy blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus brevi...
Lowden, L R; Davies, J L
2016-07-01
A malignant neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid) of the spleen was diagnosed on post-mortem examination of a 3-year-old, male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The animal presented with a history of inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, a wide-based gait and a palpable abdominal mass. The gross pathological, histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings are described. Primary splenic carcinoids are reported rarely in the human medical literature and this is believed to be the first report in a non-human animal. PMID:27212029
Relativistic Continuum Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation in Spherical Nuclei
Daoutidis, I
2011-01-01
We have calculated the strength distributions of the dipole response in spherical nuclei, ranging all over the periodic table. The calculations were performed within two microscopic models: the discretized quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and the quasiparticle continuum RPA, which takes into account the coupling of the single-particle continuum in an exact way. Pairing correlations are treated with the BCS model. In the calculations, two density functionals were used, namely the functional PC-F1 and the functional DD-PC1. Both are based on relativistic point coupling Lagrangians. It is explicitly shown that this model is capable of reproducing the giant as well as the pygmy dipole resonance for open-shell nuclei in a high level of quantitative agreement with the available experimental observations.
Relativistic Coulomb excitation within Time Dependent Superfluid Local Density Approximation
Stetcu, I; Bulgac, A; Magierski, P; Roche, K J
2014-01-01
Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus $^{238}$U. The approach is based on Superfluid Local Density Approximation (SLDA) formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We have computed the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance and giant quadrupole modes were excited during the process. The one body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width $\\Gamma_\\downarrow \\approx 0.4$ MeV and the number of pre-equilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.
Quiazon, Karl Marx A
2016-09-01
Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae. PMID:27300704
Sureau, P; Jaeger, G; Pinerd, G; Palisson, M J; Bedaya-N'Garo, S
1977-01-01
Sero-epidemiological survey for Arboviruses among Bi-Aka Pigmies of the Lobaye, Central African Empire. A sero-epidemiological survey has been conducted, in 1975-1976, among 349 nomadic Pygmies of the Lobaye area in the Central African Empire, to investigate the prevalence of arbovirus infections. The percentages of individuals with detectable antibodies were 9,5 % for Chikungunya, 13,5 % for Semliki Forest, 5,2 % for Sindbis; 11,7 % for Bunyamwera; 2,3 % for West Nile, 6,3 % for Uganda S, and 8,9 % for Yellow Fever. These results are similar to those found in 1964 by CHIPPAUX in a comparable group of Pigmies of the same area and confirm that the prevalence of arbovirus infections is lower in the nomadic pygmies of the same area and confirm that the prevalence of arbovirus infections is lower in the nomadic Pygmies than in the sedentary Pygmies as well as in the settled bantus of the Lobaye valley villages. Yellow fever specific antibodies detected in this non vaccinated population indicate that latent infections occur in human beings living in the depth of the tropical forest, from the natural sylvatic focus of yellow fever, which remains active as recently proven in the Central African Empire by virus isolations obtained from wild caught mosquitoes.
Diversity in tooth eruption and life history in humans: illustration from a Pygmy population.
Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando
2016-01-01
Life history variables (LHV) in primates are closely correlated with the ages of tooth eruption, which are a useful proxy to predict growth and development in extant and extinct species. However, it is not known how tooth eruption ages interact with LHV in polymorphic species such as modern humans. African pygmies are at the one extreme in the range of human size variation. LHV in the Baka pygmies are similar to those in standard populations. We would therefore expect tooth eruption ages to be similar also. This mixed (longitudinal and cross-sectional) study of tooth eruption in Baka individuals of known age reveals that eruption in all tooth classes occurs earlier than in any other human population. Earlier tooth eruption can be related to the particular somatic growth in the Baka but cannot be correlated with LHV. The link between LHV and tooth eruption seems disrupted in H. sapiens, allowing adaptive variations in tooth eruption in response to different environmental constraints while maintaining the unique human life cycle.
The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: the last of the cetotheres.
Fordyce, R Ewan; Marx, Felix G
2013-02-22
The pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata, is the most enigmatic of the living baleen whales (Mysticeti). Its highly disparate morphology and the virtual absence of a described fossil record have made it extremely difficult to place Caperea into a broader evolutionary context, and molecular and morphological studies have frequently contradicted each other as to the origins and phylogenetic relationships of the species. Our study of a wealth of material from New Zealand collections, representing a wide range of ontogenetic stages, has identified several new features previously unreported in Caperea, which suggest that the pygmy right whale may be the last survivor of the supposedly extinct family Cetotheriidae. This hypothesis is corroborated by both morphology-based and total evidence cladistic analyses, including 166 morphological characters and 23 taxa, representing all the living and extinct families of toothless baleen whales. Our results allow us to formally refer Caperea to Cetotheriidae, thus resurrecting the latter from extinction and helping to clarify the origins of a long-problematic living species.
The pygmy quadrupole resonance and neutron-skin modes in 124Sn
Spieker, M.; Tsoneva, N.; Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lenske, H.; Pietralla, N.; Popescu, L.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.
2016-01-01
We present an extensive experimental study of the recently predicted pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR) in Sn isotopes, where complementary probes were used. In this study, (α ,α‧ γ) and (γ ,γ‧) experiments were performed on 124Sn. In both reactions, Jπ =2+ states below an excitation energy of 5 MeV were populated. The E2 strength integrated over the full transition densities could be extracted from the (γ ,γ‧) experiment, while the (α ,α‧ γ) experiment at the chosen kinematics strongly favors the excitation of surface modes because of the strong α-particle absorption in the nuclear interior. The excitation of such modes is in accordance with the quadrupole-type oscillation of the neutron skin predicted by a microscopic approach based on self-consistent density functional theory and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM). The newly determined γ-decay branching ratios hint at a non-statistical character of the E2 strength, as it has also been recently pointed out for the case of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). This allows us to distinguish between PQR-type and multiphonon excitations and, consequently, supports the recent first experimental indications of a PQR in 124Sn.
The pygmy quadrupole resonance and neutron-skin modes in 124Sn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Spieker
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present an extensive experimental study of the recently predicted pygmy quadrupole resonance (PQR in Sn isotopes, where complementary probes were used. In this study, (α,α′γ and (γ,γ′ experiments were performed on 124Sn. In both reactions, Jπ=2+ states below an excitation energy of 5 MeV were populated. The E2 strength integrated over the full transition densities could be extracted from the (γ,γ′ experiment, while the (α,α′γ experiment at the chosen kinematics strongly favors the excitation of surface modes because of the strong α-particle absorption in the nuclear interior. The excitation of such modes is in accordance with the quadrupole-type oscillation of the neutron skin predicted by a microscopic approach based on self-consistent density functional theory and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM. The newly determined γ-decay branching ratios hint at a non-statistical character of the E2 strength, as it has also been recently pointed out for the case of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR. This allows us to distinguish between PQR-type and multiphonon excitations and, consequently, supports the recent first experimental indications of a PQR in 124Sn.
Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.
Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón
2016-09-01
Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides. PMID:27377751
Coia, Valentina; Caglià, Alessandra; Arredi, Barbara; Donati, Francesco; Santos, Fabrício R; Pandya, Arpita; Taglioli, Luca; Paoli, Giorgio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Spedini, Gabriella; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Tyler-Smith, Chris
2004-01-01
This study analyzes the variation of six binary polymorphisms and six microsatellites in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. Five different haplogroups (B2b, E(xE3a), E3a, P and BR(xB2b,DE,P)) were observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.609 (haplogroup E3a). A comparison of haplogroup frequencies indicates a close genetic affinity between the Mbenzele and the Biaka Pygmies, a finding consistent with the common origin and the geographical proximity of the two populations. The haplogroups P, BR(xB2b,DE,P) and E(xE3a), which are rare in sub-Saharan Africa but common in western Eurasia, were observed with frequencies ranging from 0.022 (haplogroup P) to 0.087 (haplogroup E(xE3a)). Thirty different microsatellite haplotypes were detected, with frequencies ranging from 0.022 to 0.152. The Mbenzele share the highest percent of microsatellite haplotypes with the Biaka Pygmies. Five out seven haplotypes which are shared by the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies belong to haplogroup E3a, which suggests that they are of Bantu origin. The plot based on F(st) genetic distances calculated using microsatellite data provides a picture of population relationships which is in part congruent and in part complementary to that obtained using haplogroup frequencies. Finally, the Mbenzele and Biaka Pygmies were found to be markedly more genetically similar using Y-chromosomal than autosomal microsatellites. We suggest that this could be due to the higher phylogenetic stability of Y-chromosome and to the effect of the male-biased gene flow during the Bantu expansion.
Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.
2006-01-01
. The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension....... Applications of our general framework include those from number theory (classical, complex, p-adic and formal power series) and dynamical systems (iterated function schemes, rational maps and Kleinian groups)....
Germaine, Stephen S.; Ignizio, Drew; Keinath, Doug; Copeland, Holly
2014-01-01
Species distribution models are an important component of natural-resource conservation planning efforts. Independent, external evaluation of their accuracy is important before they are used in management contexts. We evaluated the classification accuracy of two species distribution models designed to predict the distribution of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis habitat in southwestern Wyoming, USA. The Nature Conservancy model was deductive and based on published information and expert opinion, whereas the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database model was statistically derived using historical observation data. We randomly selected 187 evaluation survey points throughout southwestern Wyoming in areas predicted to be habitat and areas predicted to be nonhabitat for each model. The Nature Conservancy model correctly classified 39 of 77 (50.6%) unoccupied evaluation plots and 65 of 88 (73.9%) occupied plots for an overall classification success of 63.3%. The Wyoming Natural Diversity Database model correctly classified 53 of 95 (55.8%) unoccupied plots and 59 of 88 (67.0%) occupied plots for an overall classification success of 61.2%. Based on 95% asymptotic confidence intervals, classification success of the two models did not differ. The models jointly classified 10.8% of the area as habitat and 47.4% of the area as nonhabitat, but were discordant in classifying the remaining 41.9% of the area. To evaluate how anthropogenic development affected model predictive success, we surveyed 120 additional plots among three density levels of gas-field road networks. Classification success declined sharply for both models as road-density level increased beyond 5 km of roads per km-squared area. Both models were more effective at predicting habitat than nonhabitat in relatively undeveloped areas, and neither was effective at accounting for the effects of gas-energy-development road networks. Resource managers who wish to know the amount of pygmy rabbit habitat present in an
Pygmy dipole strength close to particle-separation energies --The case of the Mo isotopes
Rusev, G.; Grosse, E.; Erhard, M.; Junghans, A.; Kosev, K.; Schilling, K.-D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.
2006-03-01
The distribution of electromagnetic dipole strength in 92, 98, 100Mo has been investigated by photon scattering using bremsstrahlung from the new ELBE facility. The experimental data for well-separated nuclear resonances indicate a transition from a regular to a chaotic behaviour above 4MeV of excitation energy. As the strength distributions follow a Porter-Thomas distribution much of the dipole strength is found in weak and in unresolved resonances appearing as fluctuating cross section. An analysis of this quasi-continuum --here applied to nuclear resonance fluorescence in a novel way-- delivers dipole strength functions, which are combining smoothly to those obtained from (γ, n) data. Enhancements at 6.5MeV and at ˜ 9MeV are linked to the pygmy dipole resonances postulated to occur in heavy nuclei.
Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.
Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D
2014-05-01
Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed. PMID:24815291
Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
Allison, N; Chang, T C; Steele, K E; Hilliard, J K
2002-01-01
An adult pygmy African hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by C-T scan. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. Macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. Numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. A herpes virus was isolated and identified by fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction studies as herpesvirus simplex type 1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of herpes infection in the African hedgehog and the first time herpes simplex has been identified as a cause of disease in insectivores. PMID:11814325
Pygmy and Giant Dipole Resonances by Coulomb Excitation using a Quantum Molecular Dynamics model
Tao, C; Zhang, G Q; Cao, X G; Wang, D Q Fang H W
2012-01-01
Pygmy and Giant Dipole Resonance (PDR and GDR) in Ni isotopes have been investigated by Coulomb excitation in the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (IQMD). The spectra of $\\gamma$ rays are calculated and the peak energy, the strength and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of GDR and PDR have been extracted. Their sensitivities to nuclear equation of state, especially to its symmetry energy term are also explored. By a comparison with the other mean-field calculations, we obtain the reasonable values for symmetry energy and its slope parameter at saturation, which gives an important constrain for IQMD model. In addition, we also studied the neutron excess dependence of GDR and PDR parameters for Ni isotopes and found that the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) $PDR_{m_1}/GDR_{m_1}%$ increases linearly with the neutron excess.
Polyphenols, fungal enzymes, and the fate of organic nitrogen in a Californian pygmy forest
Slessarev, E.
2011-12-01
Polyphenols are a diverse family of plant secondary compounds which may influence litter decay and soil nutrient turnover. The "short circuit" hypothesis for polyphenol function proposes that polyphenolic compounds provision plants with nitrogen in nutrient-poor soils by facilitating the accumulation of organic nitrogen in soil humus. By binding peptides, polyphenols may sequester nitrogen in a bank of recalcitrant organic matter, granting competitive advantage to plants with the mycorrhizal fungi most capable of recapturing the tightly bound organic nitrogen. Specifically, fungi may retrieve nitrogen from polyphenol-peptide complexes with an extracellular enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In order to evaluate the "short circuit" hypothesis, I measured soil PPO activity during four seasons in the Mendocino "ecological staircase," a soil age-gradient consisting of a series of wave-cut terraces along stretches of the northern California coast. Stunted, pygmy-forest plants growing in the nutrient-poor soils of the older marine terraces produce more polyphenols than their con-specifics on nutrient-rich younger terraces, potentially influencing PPO facilitated nitrogen cycling. I found that PPO activity reached its maximum in the younger terrace forest during the spring, achieving levels nearly twice as high as those observed on the younger terrace in other seasons and in the older terrace forest year-round. In both terraces, PPO activity was greatest in the organic humus at the soil surface, decreasing dramatically in the lower mineral horizon. When PPO activity reached its maximum in the younger terrace, I found that soil polyphenol content positively correlated (Rsq=0.63) with enzyme activity, suggesting that polyphenols might induce enzyme production. However, in the tannin-rich soil of the pygmy forest on the older terrace, enzyme activity remained low, and was most strongly correlated with soil moisture. The results do not support the hypothesis that nutrient
Baquillon, G; Scandella, B; Testa, J; Desfontaines, M; André, J; Limbassa, J
1992-01-01
A leprosy survey was conducted from 1982 to 1985 among 2650 semi-sedentarized Pygmies in two camp-villages in the Central African Republic. Leprosy is endemic there, with an estimated prevalence rate of 1.05% and an annual detection rate of 0.2%. In view of its close relations with other neighbouring ethnic groups this Pygmy community can be considered as a target population the study of which provides indications on the transmission and typical course of leprosy in the region and also as a potential focus of contamination. However, the concurrent presence of endemic tuberculosis made it necessary during the survey to look for clinical associations of leprosy and tuberculosis in patients so that the standard multidrug treatment schedules comprising rifampicin could be adjusted accordingly.
Kowo, M P; Goubau, P; Ndam, E C; Njoya, O; Sasaki, S; Seghers, V; Kesteloot, H
1995-01-01
The prevalences of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV), human T lymphotrophic virus (anti-HTLV) and of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) were determined in 168 subjects aged 12 years and over (108 Pygmies, 60 Bantus) living in south Cameroon. In 167 subjects, we found an estimated minimal anti-HCV prevalence of 13%. The prevalence was significantly higher in Bantus (31.7%) than in Pygmies (11.1%) and increased with age in both groups, albeit more rapidly in Bantus. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 7.2% and correlated with neither sex nor ethnic group. No association was found between anti-HCV and HbsAg prevalence rates. No subject was confirmed to be positive for HTLV or HIV. These findings confirm the high prevalence of HCV infection in south Cameroon and indicate that even secluded population groups are affected.
Ivanter Ernest; Kurhinen Jury
2014-01-01
According to the long-term (1965-2013) stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew) increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006), but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minut...
Pygmies, giants, and skins as laboratory constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter
Piekarewicz, J
2013-01-01
Laboratory experiments sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy may place stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter and, thus, on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. Understanding the equation of state of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. In this contribution I focus on how laboratory experiments on neutron skins and on both Pygmy and Giant resonances can help...
Double, Michael C; Virginia Andrews-Goff; K Curt S Jenner; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Sarah M Laverick; Branch, Trevor A.; Gales, Nicholas J.
2014-01-01
In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...
Attard, Catherine R. M.; Luciano B Beheregaray; K Curt S Jenner; Gill, Peter C.; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole M.; Morrice, Margaret G.; Teske, Peter R; Möller, Luciana M.
2015-01-01
Unusually low genetic diversity can be a warning of an urgent need to mitigate causative anthropogenic activities. However, current low levels of genetic diversity in a population could also be due to natural historical events, including recent evolutionary divergence, or long-term persistence at a small population size. Here, we determine whether the relatively low genetic diversity of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Australia is due to natural causes or overexploitat...
昆明动物园笼养倭蜂猴的能量代谢%Energy metabolism of Pygmy loris(Nycticebus pygmaeus)in cage of Kunming Zoo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖彩虹; 钮建然; 贾婷; 朱万龙; 王睿; 王政昆; 柳鹏飞; 楚永兴; 钱良超; 蔡金红; 刘春燕; 孟丽华
2009-01-01
The Pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) is a small prosimian living in Vietnam, Laos, eastern Cambodia and the south of part China. In China it is only found in Pingbian, Hekou, Jinping, Luchun of Yunnan Province. As yV. pyg-maeus is seriously threatened by hunting, trade and habitat destruction, it is listed in Appendix II of CITES, and in 2006 the IUCN classified it as " vulnerable". But the Pygmy loris is nocturnal which creates difficulties to study in the field. In order to understand the characteristics of energy metabolism in N. pygmaeus, the energy intake, digestable energy intake and digestability were estimated by means of feeding trials in Kunming Zoo. The results obtained mainly were as follows: N. pygmaeus intook dry food averaged 9. 28±0. 48 g per day. Therefore they were estimated to gain 160. 94 ± 8. 05 kJ/d from food intake, and earn 34. 00 ±7. 74 kJ digestable energy intake per day with 82. 84± 1. 98% of the digestability. All these characteristics of energy metabolism in N. pygmaeus of cage are possibly related with their body mass, climate, habi-tat , and might be considered as the adaptive characteristics to their survival environment in tropical semi-evergreen and sec-ondary forests.%@@ 食物是动物适应性生存的基础,能量平衡对动物生存、繁殖和进化起着至关重要的作用 (McNab,1988).
Leike, Reimar H
2016-01-01
In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...
Becker, Noémie S A; Verdu, Paul; Hewlett, Barry; Pavard, Samuel
2010-02-01
Walker et al. ["Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies," Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:295-311 (2006)] used life history theory to develop an innovative explanation for human diversity in stature. Short stature could have been selected for in some human populations as a result of the advantage of an earlier growth cessation and earlier reproduction in a context of high mortality. Migliano et al. ["Life history trade-offs explain the evolution of human pygmies," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:20,216-20,219 (2007)] recently published an important article that tested this hypothesis to explain short stature in human pygmy populations. However innovative this work may be, we believe that some of the data and results presented are controversial if not questionable. As problematic points we note (1) the use of an arbitrary threshold of height (155 cm) to categorize populations into pygmies and nonpygmies; (2) the use of demographic data from Philippine pygmy groups that have experienced dramatic cultural and environmental changes in the last 20 years, and (3) the use of demographic data concerning African pygmy groups because good systematic data on these groups are not available. Finally, we report here mathematical errors and loopholes in the optimization model developed by Migliano and colleagues. In this paper we suggest alternative trade-offs that can be used to explain Migliano's results on more reliable bases.
Bin Qin
2014-01-01
Relationships between fuzzy relations and fuzzy topologies are deeply researched. The concept of fuzzy approximating spaces is introduced and decision conditions that a fuzzy topological space is a fuzzy approximating space are obtained.
Rasin, A
1994-01-01
We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.
Egorova, Irina A
2016-01-01
New results for electric dipole strength in the chain of even-even Calcium isotopes with the mass numbers A = 40 - 54 are presented. Starting from the covariant Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics, spectra of collective vibrations (phonons) and phonon-nucleon coupling vertices for $J \\leq 6$ and normal parity were computed in a self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA). These vibrations coupled to Bogoliubov two-quasiparticle configurations (2q$\\otimes$phonon) form the model space for the calculations of the dipole response function in the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA). The results for giant dipole resonance in the latter approach are compared to those obtained in RQRPA and to available data. Evolution of the dipole strength with neutron number is investigated for both high-frequency giant dipole resonance (GDR) and low-lying strength. Development of a pygmy resonant structure on the low-energy shoulder of GDR is traced and analyzed in terms...
Approximate iterative algorithms
Almudevar, Anthony Louis
2014-01-01
Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a
Isobe, H; Shoji, M; Yamanaka, S; Mino, H; Umena, Y; Kawakami, K; Kamiya, N; Shen, J-R; Yamaguchi, K
2014-06-28
Full geometry optimizations followed by the vibrational analysis were performed for eight spin configurations of the CaMn4O4X(H2O)3Y (X = O, OH; Y = H2O, OH) cluster in the S1 and S3 states of the oxygen evolution complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). The energy gaps among these configurations obtained by vertical, adiabatic and adiabatic plus zero-point-energy (ZPE) correction procedures have been used for computation of the effective exchange integrals (J) in the spin Hamiltonian model. The J values are calculated by the (1) analytical method and the (2) generalized approximate spin projection (AP) method that eliminates the spin contamination errors of UB3LYP solutions. Using J values derived from these methods, exact diagonalization of the spin Hamiltonian matrix was carried out, yielding excitation energies and spin densities of the ground and lower-excited states of the cluster. The obtained results for the right (R)- and left (L)-opened structures in the S1 and S3 states are found to be consistent with available optical and magnetic experimental results. Implications of the computational results are discussed in relation to (a) the necessity of the exact diagonalization for computations of reliable energy levels, (b) magneto-structural correlations in the CaMn4O5 cluster of the OEC of PSII, (c) structural symmetry breaking in the S1 and S3 states, and (d) the right- and left-handed scenarios for the O-O bond formation for water oxidation.
Approximation of distributed delays
Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre
2010-01-01
We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Sparse approximation with bases
2015-01-01
This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications. The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...
Zekraoui, L; Lagarde, J P; Raisonnier, A; Gérard, N; Aouizérate, A; Lucotte, G
1997-08-01
Apolipoprotein E genotypes (alleles *2, *3, and *4) have been determined in 70 Aka Pygmies and 470 unrelated African sub-Saharan subjects. Allele frequencies for Pygmies are 5.7% for APOE*2, 53.6% for APOE*3, and 40.7% for APOE*4, and the global proportions for sub-Saharan subjects are 11.6% for APOE*2, 70.6% for APOE*3, and 17.8% for APOE*4. The frequencies in some ethnic groups are statistically different from the overall mean in the Afar and the Isa, the Ewe (Togo), the Malinke (Guinea), and the Mossi; three ethnic groups have a higher allele frequency of APOE*4 (Fon, 29.4%; Zairians, 33.3%; Tutsi, 38.5%). The APOE*4 allele is considered the ancestral form because of its high frequency in African Pygmies and other aboriginal populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvatore Siciliano
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra and Pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata are very poorly known species and are often confused with each other. We examined in detail Figure 3 in MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 who reported that two melon-headed whales were taken in a surface driftnet about 90 nm off Santos, Brazil. We concluded they were in fact pygmy killer whales and explain our reasoning. To aid in future identifications, we illustrate and describe some of the main differences between these two species of small cetaceans. The incident reported by MARIGO and GIFFONI (2010 might represent the 'tip of the iceberg' regarding the incidental catches of cetaceans by pelagic drift nets off Brazil. Offshore driftnetting operating along the south-southeastern coast of Brazil may threaten pygmy killer whales.
Vulnerability of indigenous health to climate change: a case study of Uganda's Batwa Pygmies.
Berrang-Ford, Lea; Dingle, Kathryn; Ford, James D; Lee, Celine; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didas B; Henderson, Jim; Llanos, Alejandro; Carcamo, Cesar; Edge, Victoria
2012-09-01
The potential impacts of climate change on human health in sub-Saharan Africa are wide-ranging, complex, and largely adverse. The region's Indigenous peoples are considered to be at heightened risk given their relatively poor health outcomes, marginal social status, and resource-based livelihoods; however, little attention has been given to these most vulnerable of the vulnerable. This paper contributes to addressing this gap by taking a bottom-up approach to assessing health vulnerabilities to climate change in two Batwa Pygmy communities in rural Uganda. Rapid Rural Appraisal and PhotoVoice field methods complemented by qualitative data analysis were used to identify key climate-sensitive, community-identified health outcomes, describe determinants of sensitivity at multiple scales, and characterize adaptive capacity of Batwa health systems. The findings stress the importance of human drivers of vulnerability and adaptive capacity and the need to address social determinants of health in order to reduce the potential disease burden of climate change.
Bastrukov, S I; Misicu, S; Chang, H-K; Podgainy, D V
2008-01-01
Motivated by arguments of the nuclear core-layer model formulated in [S.I. Bastrukov, J.A. Maruhn, Z.Phys. A 335 (1990) 139], the macroscopic excitation mechanism of electric pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is considered as owing its origin to perturbation-induced effective decomposition of nucleus into two spherical domains - undisturbed inner region treated as static core and dynamical layer undergoing elastic shear vibrations. The focus is placed on the imprinted in the core-layer model mechanism of emergence of the low-energy dipole electric resonant excitation as Goldstone soft mode of translation layer-against-core oscillations. To accentuate this attitude we regain the obtained in the above paper spectral equation for the frequency of spheroidal elastic vibrations trapped in the finite-depth layer, but by working from canonical equation of elastic dynamics of continuous medium. The obtained analytic equations for the energy of E1 vibrational soft mode and its excitation strength exhibit fundamental charac...
Mountain pygmies of Western New Guinea: a morphological and molecular approach.
Tommaseo-Ponzetta, M; Mona, S; Calabrese, F; Konrad, G; Vacca, E; Attimonelli, M
2013-01-01
The presence of "pygmy" or pygmoid groups among New Guinea populations has been the object of scientific interest since the end of the nineteenth century. Morphological and molecular data are used here to study western New Guinea population variability, focusing in particular on two pygmoid groups living in the eastern fringe highlands of Papua: the Una and the Ketengban. Various kinds of anthropometric data are examined, as well as height, weight, and body mass index, to carry out comparisons with nearby ethnic groups living in the highland and lowland regions. The Ketengban data were also compared with other data recorded 20 years before. The results of previous research on the sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment 1 region and nuclear DNA nonrecombining Y-chromosome polymorphisms are presented. Both morphological and molecular studies involve adult subjects of both genders, representative of the same ethnic groups and/or geographic regions. The pygmoid groups turn out to be significantly different from all other study groups, due to their small size, as confirmed by analysis of variance, although significant height and weight increments are observed with respect to those previously recorded. However, putative neutral genetic variation estimated from mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome markers support a recent shared common history between these pygmoid populations and the other central Papua groups (except for the Dani-Lani). These findings suggest that the short-stature phenotype is an independent secondary adaptation, possibly driven by an iodine-deficient environment, which leaves the potential for further investigations.
Fragmentation and systematics of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in the stable N=82 isotones
Savran, D; Endres, J; Fritzsche, M; Löher, B; Pietralla, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Romig, C; Schnorrenberger, L; Sonnabend, K; Zilges, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.84.024326
2012-01-01
The low-lying electric dipole (E1) strength in the semi-magic nucleus 136Xe has been measured which finalizes the systematic survey to investigate the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in all stable even N=82 isotones with the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence using real photons in the entrance channel. In all cases, a fragmented resonance-like structure of E1 strength is observed in the energy region 5 MeV to 8 MeV. An analysis of the fragmentation of the strength reveals that the degree of fragmentation decreases towards the proton-deficient isotones while the total integrated strength increases indicating a dependence of the total strength on the neutron-to-proton ratio. The experimental results are compared to microscopic calculations within the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). The calculation includes complex configurations of up to three phonons and is able to reproduce also the fragmentation of the E1 strength which allows to draw conclusions on the damping of the PDR. Calculations and ex...
Gaither, Michelle R.
2014-05-01
The pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge, family Pomacanthidae) are brightly colored species that occupy reef habitats in every tropical ocean. Some species are rarely observed because they occur below conventional scuba depths. Their striking coloration can command thousands of U.S. dollars in the aquarium trade, and closely related species are often distinguished only by coloration. These factors have impeded phylogenetic resolution, and every phylogeographic survey to date has reported discordance between coloration, taxonomy, and genetic partitions. Here we report a phylogenetic survey of 29 of the 34 recognized species (N= 94 plus 23 outgroups), based on two mtDNA and three nuclear loci, totaling 2272. bp. The resulting ML and Baysian trees are highly concordant and indicate that the genus Centropyge is paraphyletic, consistent with a previous analysis of the family Pomacanthidae. Two recognized genera (Apolemichthys and Genicanthus) nest within Centropyge, and two subgenera (Xiphypops and Paracentropyge) comprise monophyletic lineages that should be elevated to genus level. Based on an age estimate of 38. Ma for the family Pomacanthidae, Centropyge diverged from the closest extant genus Pygoplites about 33. Ma, three deep lineages within Centropyge diverged about 18-28. Ma, and four species complexes diverged 3-12. Ma. However, in 11 of 13 cases, putative species in these complexes are indistinguishable based on morphology and genetics, being defined solely by coloration. These cases indicate either emerging species or excessive taxonomic splitting based on brightly colored variants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N
2016-03-01
African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YueShihong; ZhangKecun
2002-01-01
In a dot product space with the reproducing kernel (r. k. S. ) ,a fuzzy system with the estimation approximation errors is proposed ,which overcomes the defect that the existing fuzzy control system is difficult to estimate the errors of approximation for a desired function,and keeps the characteristics of fuzzy system as an inference approach. The structure of the new fuzzy approximator benefits a course got by other means.
Approximation techniques for engineers
Komzsik, Louis
2006-01-01
Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.
Pygmies, giants, and skins as laboratory constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter
Piekarewicz, J.
2014-03-01
Laboratory experiments sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy may place stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter and, thus, on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. Understanding the equation of state of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. In this contribution I focus on how laboratory experiments on neutron skins and on both Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of neutron stars.
Pygmies, giants, and skins as laboratory constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter
Piekarewicz, J
2013-01-01
Laboratory experiments sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy may place stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter and, thus, on the structure, dynamics, and composition of neutron stars. Understanding the equation of state of neutron-rich matter is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. In this contribution I focus on how laboratory experiments on neutron skins and on both Pygmy and Giant resonances can help us elucidate the structure of neutron stars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manirakiza Alexandre
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region. Findings and conclusion The rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested.
Etienne Patin; Guillaume Laval; Barreiro, Luis B.; Antonio Salas; Ornella Semino; Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Judith R Kidd; Lolke Van der Veen; Jean-Marie Hombert; Antoine Gessain; Alain Froment; Serge Bahuchet; Evelyne Heyer; Lluís Quintana-Murci
2009-01-01
The transition from hunting and gathering to farming involved a major cultural innovation that has spread rapidly over most of the globe in the last ten millennia. In sub-Saharan Africa, hunter-gatherers have begun to shift toward an agriculture-based lifestyle over the last 5,000 years. Only a few populations still base their mode of subsistence on hunting and gathering. The Pygmies are considered to be the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers of Africa. They dwell in equatorial rainfore...
Weishaupt, Julia; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette; Lempert, Sigrid; Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Hamm, Henning; Goebeler, Matthias
2014-02-01
The unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to Trichophyton erinacei is described. The patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. Mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of T. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slowly resolved. This case illustrates that the increasingly popular keeping of extraordinary pets such as hedgehogs may bear the risk of infections with uncommon dermatophytes. PMID:23889168
Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2005-01-01
We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...
Ordered cones and approximation
Keimel, Klaus
1992-01-01
This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.
Approximate Modified Policy Iteration
Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daoutidis, Ioannis
2009-10-01
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
Relativistic continuum random phase approximation in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Covariant density functional theory is used to analyze the nuclear response in the external multipole fields. The investigations are based on modern functionals with zero range and density dependent coupling constants. After a self-consistent solution of the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) equations for the nuclear ground states multipole giant resonances are studied within the Relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA), the small amplitude limit of the time-dependent RMF. The coupling to the continuum is treated precisely by calculating the single particle Greens-function of the corresponding Dirac equation. In conventional methods based on a discretization of the continuum this was not possible. The residual interaction is derived from the same RMF Lagrangian. This guarantees current conservation and a precise decoupling of the Goldstone modes. For nuclei with open shells pairing correlations are taken into account in the framework of BCS theory and relativistic quasiparticle RPA. Continuum RPA (CRPA) presents a robust method connected with an astonishing reduction of the numerical effort as compared to conventional methods. Modes of various multipolarities and isospin are investigated, in particular also the newly discovered Pygmy modes in the vicinity of the neutron evaporation threshold. The results are compared with conventional discrete RPA calculations as well as with experimental data. We find that the full treatment of the continuum is essential for light nuclei and the study of resonances in the neighborhood of the threshold. (orig.)
The Karlqvist approximation revisited
Tannous, C.
2015-01-01
The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.
Approximations in Inspection Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.;
2000-01-01
Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations....... One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found...... by the inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malvina Baica
1985-01-01
Full Text Available The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF, and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA to approximate irrationals.
Approximation Behooves Calibration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf
2013-01-01
Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....
Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M
2011-01-01
Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashley, Paul R.
1997-01-01
This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.
Vergnes, H; Sevin, A; Sevin, J; Jaeger, G
1979-05-10
Blood samples collected in a single Pygmy tribe, the Aka, living in Bokoka district (Central African Empire) were investigated with respect to the phenotype and gene frequencies of the following 12 enzyme systems: acid phosphatase, adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, carbonic anhydrase, esterase D, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase 1, phosphoglucomutase 2, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and serum cholinesterase variants (locus E1 and E2). The data obtained in the study of genetic polymorphisms of this isolated and inbred population show a specific pattern with the following characteristics: the very low frequency of PGDB and pa alleles; the existence of two rare PGM variants at the PGM2 locus, typical PGM26Pyg (4.2%) and PGM29 (0.2%); the high frequency of the pr allele (10.8%) and CAII2 (8.22%) and ESD2 genes (18.4%). Furthermore, at the G6PD locus four distinct alleles have been found: the negroid GdA- (4%) and GdA+ (16%), the common GdB+ (79.2%)--, and the rare Gd+Ibadan Austin (0.7%). Cholinesterase typings disclosed the presence of the uncommon E1f and E1s genes distributed within a single breeding unit. The results are compared with other data previously reported on South African Khoisan and some Negroid populations; the particular genetic background of Pygmies is discussed.
Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Belledi, Michele; Capelli, Cristian; Maviglia, Riccardo; Spedini, Gabriella
2000-09-01
This study analyzes the polymorphic minisatellite ApoB 3' HVR in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. A total of 14 alleles was observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.020 (19, 21, 27, and 45 repeat unit alleles) to 0.210 (37 repeat unit allele). Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not statistically significant. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.874 +/- 0.016. Taking data from the literature into consideration, the results support the hypothesis that the Africans are different from non-Africans due to greater ApoB 3' HVR genetic diversity and a unimodal profile of ApoB 3' HVR allele frequency distribution. Interpopulational relationships were also analyzed using an F(ST) based genetic distance. The results highlight the similarity between the Mbenzele Pygmies and Bantu-speaking groups (Ewondo and Zulu), and the divergence between the Mbenzele and San, the two groups which are often considered to be the most direct descendants of proto-Africans. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:588-592, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites
Diophantine approximations on fractals
Einsiedler, Manfred; Shapira, Uri
2009-01-01
We exploit dynamical properties of diagonal actions to derive results in Diophantine approximations. In particular, we prove that the continued fraction expansion of almost any point on the middle third Cantor set (with respect to the natural measure) contains all finite patterns (hence is well approximable). Similarly, we show that for a variety of fractals in [0,1]^2, possessing some symmetry, almost any point is not Dirichlet improvable (hence is well approximable) and has property C (after Cassels). We then settle by similar methods a conjecture of M. Boshernitzan saying that there are no irrational numbers x in the unit interval such that the continued fraction expansions of {nx mod1 : n is a natural number} are uniformly eventually bounded.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, P.L.; Agarwala, B.V.; Dey, A.K. (Allahabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)
1980-08-01
Salicylaldehyde semicarbazone (SALSC), yields complexes, ML/sub 2/.2H/sub 2/O (M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)) and ML/sub 2/ (M = Be(II) and UO/sub 2/(VI)). The complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic and thermogravimetric studies. SALSC acts as a singly negatively charged bidentate anion, and two such anions coordinate to the metal ion through the hydroxyl oxygen and nitrogen of the C = N group yielding a neutral chelate. The complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are paramagnetic with magnetic moment values 4.93, 3.35 and 1.98 BM, respectively. The magnetic and spectral data suggest octahedral geometry of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and UO/sub 2/(VI) complexes, whereas the Be(II) complex is tetrahedral. TG study reveals the order of thermal stability as : Zn(II) approximately equal to Ni(II) >Be(II) approximately equal to Cd(II) > UO/sub 2/(VI) approximately equal to Co(II) approximately equal to Cu(II).
Approximate and Incomplete Factorizations
Chan, T.F.; Vorst, H.A. van der
2001-01-01
In this chapter, we give a brief overview of a particular class of preconditioners known as incomplete factorizations. They can be thought of as approximating the exact LU factorization of a given matrix A (e.g. computed via Gaussian elimination) by disallowing certain ll-ins. As opposed to other PD
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-09-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
White, Martin
2014-01-01
This year marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yakov Zel'dovich. Amongst his many legacies is the Zel'dovich approximation for the growth of large-scale structure, which remains one of the most successful and insightful analytic models of structure formation. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the two-point function of the matter and biased tracers, and compare to the results of N-body simulations and other Lagrangian perturbation theories. We show that Lagrangian perturbation theories converge well and that the Zel'dovich approximation provides a good fit to the N-body results except for the quadrupole moment of the halo correlation function. We extend the calculation of halo bias to 3rd order and also consider non-local biasing schemes, none of which remove the discrepancy. We argue that a part of the discrepancy owes to an incorrect prediction of inter-halo velocity correlations. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the ingredients of the Gaussian streaming model and show that ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg
2005-01-01
The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM that...
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Silbergleit, A. S.
The uniform closeness of coordinates partial derivatives of the approximate and exact Poincaré maps for ODE systems with hyperbolic fixed point possessing the homoclinic orbit connecting this point to itself is studied. The conditions of the uniform bound existence for the difference between these derivatives in the domain of uniform closeness of the approximate and exact Poincaré maps are found. It is shown that partial derivatives for the systems with more than one unstable direction are generally not uniformly close.
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端特征%Characteristics of the limb in slow loris and pygmy loris
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢朝晖; 胡建业; 周孟业; 邓大军
2013-01-01
Objective:To explore the morphological characteristics of the limbs in slow loris (Nycticebus coucang)and pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus).Methods:7 adult slow loris (2 male,5 female) and 4 adult pygmy loris (3 male,1 female) were observed and their length of the digit was measured.Results:The limbs in the slow loris were bigger than those in the pygmy loris.Both the second digit in the slow loris and the pygmy loris had 1-1.2 cm nail in the length curling to middle part,others digits were flat.The order of the length of the digit in the forelimb was 4＞3＞5＞1＞2 and 4＞3＞5＞2＞1 in the hindlimb in the slow loris.There existed differences between the lengths of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in the slow loris.However,the order of the digit of the forelimb and hindlimb in length was 4＞3＞5＞1＞2 in pygmy loris.Conclusion:Those distinctive morphological differences in forelimb and hindlimb between the slow loris and pygmy loris are related with the species feature.%目的:研究蜂猴、倭蜂猴肢端形态的种属特征.方法:本研究通过观察成年7只蜂猴(2雄,5雌)和4只倭蜂猴(3雄,1雌),测量了它们的指(趾)骨长度,并将所得数据进行了分析.结果:蜂猴肢端大于倭蜂猴；蜂猴和倭蜂猴的第2趾端均有长1～1.2cm卷向内侧的细长趾甲,而其他指(趾)甲均呈扁平状.蜂猴的指骨长度顺序依次为4＞3＞5＞1＞2,趾骨顺序为4＞3＞5＞2＞1,指骨与趾骨长度排序有差异；倭蜂猴的指骨与趾骨排序无差异,都是4＞3＞5＞1＞2.结论:蜂猴和倭蜂猴其肢端形态差异与种属特征相关.
Cesari, Ilaria; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Moundipa, Paul F; Brusotti, Gloria; Wolfender, Jean-Luc
2013-12-01
The water maceration and methanolic extract of the stem barks of Diospyros bipindensis, which is a medicinal plant used in Cameroon by Baka pygmies, revealed a complex high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile primarily composed of coumarin and naphthoquinone glycosides. The methanolic and apolar extracts also exhibited significant antifungal activity on a TLC bioautography assay against Candida albicans. HPLC-microfractionation in 96-well plates combined with bioautography enabled the rapid localization of the antifungal compound that was identified by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS analysis as plumbagin. These on-line structural information were also used to dereplicate four known compounds. The isolation of the polar constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the identification of eleven other compounds also present in the traditional preparation, nine of which are reported for the first time. The structures of those compounds were elucidated by UV, NMR and HR-MS analysis.
Mouélé, R; Bodo, J M; Mpelé, D M; Feingold, J; Galactéros, F
2000-04-01
We analyzed beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and deletional alpha+-thalassemia (-alpha3.7kb) in 54 Babinga pygmy subjects from Congo-Brazzaville. The beta(S)-globin gene frequency was 0.065 and that of the deletional alpha-globin gene (-alpha3.7kb) was 0.29. Eighty-five percent of the beta(S) chromosomes and 13% of the beta(A) chromosomes were associated with the Bantu haplotype, 10% of beta(A) chromosomes with the Senegal haplotype, and the remaining beta chromosomes with atypical haplotypes. None of the chromosomes were of the Benin haplotype. These results are clearly of anthropological and evolutionary interest. They also support earlier observations that alpha+-thalassemia is prevalent at a high frequency in African populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivanter Ernest
2014-11-01
Full Text Available According to the long-term (1965-2013 stationary and expedition studies in the Easten Fennoscandia, different species of shrews react differently to clear-cutting and the formation of transformed anthropogenic landscape. The dominant species (common shrew increases in the number in these conditions, however, the population becomes unstable, and the number fluctuates severely from year to year and from season to season (Kurhinen et al., 2006, but the other species - pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus L. and masked shrew (Sorex caecutiens Laxm. – respond to these changes otherwise. The first one reduces in the number, especially in highly transformed habitats, but in general, its populations acquire the necessary stability and sustainability, while the masked shrew is affected by the massive lumbering negatively. Nevertheless, the latter is regularly found in the newly formed coniferous plantations emerging after the radical forest devastation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (IQMD) has been applied to investigate the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) and Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) in Ni isotopes by Coulomb excitation. By Gaussian fitting to the photon emission spectra, the peak energies and strengths of PDR and GDR are extracted. Their sensitivities to impact parameter, incident energy and the symmetry energy are discussed. By the comparison of energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) with the data and other calculations for 68Ni, the parameters of density-dependence of symmetry energy in the IQMD are constrained. In addition, the N/Z dependence of PDR and GDR parameters of Ni isotopes are investigated, and the results that the EWSR increases linearly with the N/Z are obtained. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1996-04-08
As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.
Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J
2014-01-01
In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation. PMID:24718589
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael C Double
Full Text Available In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day. Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km. Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.
Approximations to Euler's constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a problem of finding good approximations to Euler's constant γ=lim→∞ Sn, where Sn = Σk=Ln (1)/k-log(n+1), by linear forms in logarithms and harmonic numbers. In 1995, C. Elsner showed that slow convergence of the sequence Sn can be significantly improved if Sn is replaced by linear combinations of Sn with integer coefficients. In this paper, considering more general linear transformations of the sequence Sn we establish new accelerating convergence formulae for γ. Our estimates sharpen and generalize recent Elsner's, Rivoal's and author's results. (author)
Finite elements and approximation
Zienkiewicz, O C
2006-01-01
A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o
The Compact Approximation Property does not imply the Approximation Property
Willis, George A.
1992-01-01
It is shown how to construct, given a Banach space which does not have the approximation property, another Banach space which does not have the approximation property but which does have the compact approximation property.
Livermore, R. C.; Jones, T.; Richard, J.; Bower, R. G.; Ellis, R. S.; Swinbank, A. M.; Rigby, J. R.; Smail, Ian; Arribas, S.; Rodriguez-Zaurin, J.; Colina, L.; Ebeling, H.; Crain, R. A.
2013-01-01
We present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 narrow-band imaging of the Ha emission in a sample of eight gravitationally lensed galaxies at z = 1-1.5. The magnification caused by the foreground clusters enables us to obtain a median source plane spatial resolution of 360 pc, as well as providing magnifications in flux ranging from approximately 10× to approximately 50×. This enables us to identify resolved star-forming HII regions at this epoch and therefore study their Ha luminosity distributions for comparisons with equivalent samples at z approximately 2 and in the local Universe. We find evolution in the both luminosity and surface brightness of HII regions with redshift. The distribution of clump properties can be quantified with an HII region luminosity function, which can be fit by a power law with an exponential break at some cut-off, and we find that the cut-off evolves with redshift. We therefore conclude that 'clumpy' galaxies are seen at high redshift because of the evolution of the cut-off mass; the galaxies themselves follow similar scaling relations to those at z = 0, but their HII regions are larger and brighter and thus appear as clumps which dominate the morphology of the galaxy. A simple theoretical argument based on gas collapsing on scales of the Jeans mass in a marginally unstable disc shows that the clumpy morphologies of high-z galaxies are driven by the competing effects of higher gas fractions causing perturbations on larger scales, partially compensated by higher epicyclic frequencies which stabilize the disc.
Pratiwi, B. N.; Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Husein, A. S.; Yunianto, M.
2016-08-01
We apllied asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to obtain the analytical solution of the Dirac equation in case exact pseudospin symmetry in the presence of modified Pcischl- Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential. The Dirac equation was solved by variables separation into one dimensional Dirac equation, the radial part and angular part equation. The radial and angular part equation can be reduced into hypergeometric type equation by variable substitution and wavefunction substitution and then transform it into AIM type equation to obtain relativistic energy eigenvalue and wavefunctions. Relativistic energy was calculated numerically by Matlab software. And then relativistic energy spectrum and wavefunctions were visualized by Matlab software. The results show that the increase in the radial quantum number nr causes decrease in the relativistic energy spectrum. The negative value of energy is taken due to the pseudospin symmetry limit. Several quantum wavefunctions were presented in terms of the hypergeometric functions.
Vandamme, A M; Salemi, M; Van Brussel, M; Liu, H F; Van Laethem, K; Van Ranst, M; Michels, L; Desmyter, J; Goubau, P
1998-05-01
We identified a potential new subtype within human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), HTLV-2d, present in members of an isolated Efe Bambuti Pygmy tribe. Two of 23 Efe Pygmies were HTLV-2 seropositive, with HTLV-2 Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. From one of them the entire genome of the HTLV-2 strain Efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. In all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent HTLV-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% (long terminal repeat) from both subtypes HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b, yet major functional elements are conserved. The similarity between the HTLV-2 Efe2 Gag and Env proteins and the corresponding HTLV-2a and -2b proteins is consistent with the observed serological reactivity. In the proximal pX region, one of the two alternative splice acceptor sites is abolished in HTLV-2 Efe2. Another interesting feature of this potential new subtype is that it has a Tax protein of 344 amino acids (aa), which is intermediate in length between the HTLV-2a Tax protein (331 aa) and the HTLV-2b and -2c Tax proteins (356 aa) and similar to the simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (STLV-2) PP1664 Tax protein. Together these two findings suggest a different phenotype for the HTLV-2 Efe2 strain. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Pygmy Efe2 strain potentially belonged to a new and quite divergent subtype, HTLV-2d. When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin.
Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Salemi, Marco; Van Brussel, Marianne; Liu, Hsin-Fu; Van Laethem, Kristel; Van Ranst, Marc; Michels, Ludovic; Desmyter, Jan; Goubau, Patrick
1998-01-01
We identified a potential new subtype within human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2), HTLV-2d, present in members of an isolated Efe Bambuti Pygmy tribe. Two of 23 Efe Pygmies were HTLV-2 seropositive, with HTLV-2 Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivities. From one of them the entire genome of the HTLV-2 strain Efe2 could be amplified and sequenced. In all gene regions analyzed, this strain was the most divergent HTLV-2 strain, differing by 2.4% (tax/rex) to 10.7% (long terminal repeat) from both subtypes HTLV-2a and HTLV-2b, yet major functional elements are conserved. The similarity between the HTLV-2 Efe2 Gag and Env proteins and the corresponding HTLV-2a and -2b proteins is consistent with the observed serological reactivity. In the proximal pX region, one of the two alternative splice acceptor sites is abolished in HTLV-2 Efe2. Another interesting feature of this potential new subtype is that it has a Tax protein of 344 amino acids (aa), which is intermediate in length between the HTLV-2a Tax protein (331 aa) and the HTLV-2b and -2c Tax proteins (356 aa) and similar to the simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (STLV-2) PP1664 Tax protein. Together these two findings suggest a different phenotype for the HTLV-2 Efe2 strain. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Pygmy Efe2 strain potentially belonged to a new and quite divergent subtype, HTLV-2d. When the STLV-2 bonobo viruses PP1664 and PanP were used as an outgroup, it was clear that the Pygmy HTLV-2 Efe2 strain had the longest independent evolution and that HTLV-2 evolution is consistent with an African origin. PMID:9557723
Mancia, Annalaura; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; McFee, Wayne E.; Newton, Danforth A.; Baatz, John E.
2011-01-01
Current models for in vitro studies of tissue function and physiology, including responses to hypoxia or environmental toxins, are limited and rely heavily on standard 2-dimensional (2-D) cultures with immortalized murine or human cell lines. To develop a new more powerful model system, we have pursued methods to establish and expand cultures of primary lung cell types and reconstituted tissues from marine mammals. What little is known about the physiology of the deep-sea diving pygmy sperm w...
Clua, E.E.; Manire, C.A.; Garrigue, Claire
2014-01-01
Despite its distribution throughout the tropics and subtropics, the pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) is one of the most poorly known species of odontocetes (Cetacea: Delphinidae). We used the opportunity of a mass stranding of six animals in New Caledonia (early February 2006) to gather information about their biology. Four animals, including three males and one female, were found dead, and morphometrics, including dental counts, were collected. Two live mature males of 236 and 246 cm to...
Interacting boson approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lectures notes on the Interacting Boson Approximation are given. Topics include: angular momentum tensors; properties of T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices; T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices as Clebsch-Gordan coefficients; construction of higher rank tensors; normalization: trace of products of two s-rank tensors; completeness relation; algebra of U(N); eigenvalue of the quadratic Casimir operator for U(3); general result for U(N); angular momentum content of U(3) representation; p-Boson model; Hamiltonian; quadrupole transitions; S,P Boson model; expectation value of dipole operator; S-D model: U(6); quadratic Casimir operator; an O(5) subgroup; an O(6) subgroup; properties of O(5) representations; quadratic Casimir operator; quadratic Casimir operator for U(6); decomposition via SU(5) chain; a special O(3) decomposition of SU(3); useful identities; a useful property of D/sub αβγ/(α,β,γ = 4-8) as coupling coefficients; explicit construction of T/sub x//sup (2)/ and d/sub αβγ/; D-coefficients; eigenstates of T3; and summary of T = 2 states
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-05-01
Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan
2004-01-01
Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.
Approximation algorithms and hardness of approximation for knapsack problems
Buhrman, H.; Loff, B.; Torenvliet, L.
2012-01-01
We show various hardness of approximation algorithms for knapsack and related problems; in particular we will show that unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis is false, then subset-sum cannot be approximated any better than with an FPTAS. We also give a simple new algorithm for approximating knapsac
Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole M; Morrice, Margaret G; Teske, Peter R; Möller, Luciana M
2015-05-01
Unusually low genetic diversity can be a warning of an urgent need to mitigate causative anthropogenic activities. However, current low levels of genetic diversity in a population could also be due to natural historical events, including recent evolutionary divergence, or long-term persistence at a small population size. Here, we determine whether the relatively low genetic diversity of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Australia is due to natural causes or overexploitation. We apply recently developed analytical approaches in the largest genetic dataset ever compiled to study blue whales (297 samples collected after whaling and representing lineages from Australia, Antarctica and Chile). We find that low levels of genetic diversity in Australia are due to a natural founder event from Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) that occurred around the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by evolutionary divergence. Historical climate change has therefore driven the evolution of blue whales into genetically, phenotypically and behaviourally distinct lineages that will likely be influenced by future climate change. PMID:25948571
Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Jenner, K Curt S; Gill, Peter C; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole M; Morrice, Margaret G; Teske, Peter R; Möller, Luciana M
2015-05-01
Unusually low genetic diversity can be a warning of an urgent need to mitigate causative anthropogenic activities. However, current low levels of genetic diversity in a population could also be due to natural historical events, including recent evolutionary divergence, or long-term persistence at a small population size. Here, we determine whether the relatively low genetic diversity of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Australia is due to natural causes or overexploitation. We apply recently developed analytical approaches in the largest genetic dataset ever compiled to study blue whales (297 samples collected after whaling and representing lineages from Australia, Antarctica and Chile). We find that low levels of genetic diversity in Australia are due to a natural founder event from Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) that occurred around the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by evolutionary divergence. Historical climate change has therefore driven the evolution of blue whales into genetically, phenotypically and behaviourally distinct lineages that will likely be influenced by future climate change.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris J Brauer
Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92. We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2015-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Approximate sine-Gordon solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))
1993-08-01
We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)
Exact constants in approximation theory
Korneichuk, N
1991-01-01
This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SANDRA S. KONSTANTINOVIC
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The composition and stability of the complexes of isatin-b-thiosemicarbazone with Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II have been investigated using spectrophotometric method at 30 °C and constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm-3 (KNO3 in 70 % ethanol. Experimental results indicate the formation of MeL and MeL2 complexes for Ni(II and Co(II, and MeL for Cu(II, Zn(II, Pd(II and Hg(II complexes, whose stability constants, bn, have been calculated using a computerized iterative method of successive approximation.
Koizumi, Motoki; Shigeno, Shuichi; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K
2016-07-01
Cephalopods have the largest and most complex nervous system of all invertebrates, and the brain-to-body weight ratio exceeds those of most fish and reptiles. The brain is composed of lobe units, the functions of which have been studied through surgical manipulation and electrical stimulation. However, how information is processed in each lobe for the animal to make a behavioral decision has rarely been investigated. To perform such functional analyses, it is necessary to precisely describe how brain lobes are spatially organized and mutually interconnected as a whole. We thus made three-dimensional digital brain atlases of both hatchling and juvenile pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus. I. paradoxus is the smallest squid and has a brain small enough to scan as a whole region in the field-of-view of a low-magnification laser scan microscope objective. Precise analyses of the confocal images of the brains revealed one newly identified lobe and also that the relative volume of the vertical lobe system, the higher association center, in the pygmy squid represents the largest portion compared with the cephalopod species reported previously. In addition, principal component analyses of relative volumes of lobe complexes revealed that the organization of I. paradoxus brain is comparable to those of Decapodiformes species commonly used to analyze complex behaviors such as Sepia officinalis and Sepioteuthis sepioidea. These results suggest that the pygmy squid can be a good model to investigate the brain functions of coleoids utilizing physiological methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2142-2157, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663197
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kang Hae Ji
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanganya virus (TGNV, the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae, and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus and Imjin virus (MJNV in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura. The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi, 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae, 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV, was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution
Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in $^{124-132}$Sn
Arsenyev, N N; Voronov, V V; Van Giai, Nguyen
2012-01-01
Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in $^{124-132}$Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy $E1$ strength distribution.
Effects of phonon-phonon coupling on properties of pygmy resonance in 124-132Sn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voronov V. V.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Starting from an effective Skyrme interaction we study effects of phonon-phonon coupling on the low-energy electric dipole response in 124-132Sn. The QRPA calculations are performed within a finite rank separable approximation. The inclusion of two-phonon configurations gives a considerable contribution to low-lying strength. Comparison with available experimental data shows a reasonable agreement for the low-energy E1 strength distribution.
Santachiara-Benerecetti, A S; Ranzani, G N; Antonini, G
1981-09-01
Seventy-eight Twa Pygmies from North Rwanda have been subtyped by acid starch gel electrophoresis for the polymorphism at the phosphoglucomutase locus 1 (PGM1). A third common PGM1(1) allele that has been named PGM1(1Twa) was detected in heterozygous association with both PGM1(1S) and PGM1(1F) alleles. The PGM1(1Twa) product is faster than those of the other two PGM1(1) alleles and has the same electrophoretic mobility as the rare PGM1(6) enzyme. The frequency of PGM1(1Twa) was found to be 0.45.
Kim Kyu-Rim; Ahn Kyu-Sung; Oh Dae-Sung; Shin Sung-Shik
2012-01-01
Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany) was tested in 40 African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) naturally infested with Caparinia tripilis. Methods The optimal dosage level of the combination for hedgehogs was determined by assigning 20 hedgehogs into three treatment groups (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 ml/Kg b.w.), and one untreated control group of 5...
López-Suárez, Pedro; Oujo, Carolina; Acre, Matthew; Hazevoet, Cornelis J.
2015-01-01
On 10 February 2012, at 0845 UTC, a mass stranding involving seven (six adults and a juvenile) pygmy killer whales Feresa attenuata Gray, 1874 occurred at Praia de Boa Esperança (16º12’26”N, 22º52’00”W), along the northern coast of Boavista island, Cape Verde Islands. The event was witnessed by a group of kite-surfers, who managed to move three animals (two adults and a juvenile) back to the sea. No re-strandings were noted. At 1330 UTC, staff of the Protected Areas Department visited the sit...
Approximate solutions for the skyrmion
Ponciano, J A; Fanchiotti, H; Canal-Garcia, C A
2001-01-01
We reconsider the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Skyrme model in the hedgehog ansatz and study the analytical properties of the solitonic solution. In view of the lack of a closed form solution to the problem, we work on approximate analytical solutions. We show that Pade approximants are well suited to continue analytically the asymptotic representation obtained in terms of a power series expansion near the origin, obtaining explicit approximate solutions for the Skyrme equations. We improve the approximations by applying the 2-point Pade approximant procedure whereby the exact behaviour at spatial infinity is incorporated. An even better convergence to the exact solution is obtained by introducing a modified form for the approximants. The new representations share the same analytical properties with the exact solution at both small and large values of the radial variable r.
Intelligent mathematics II applied mathematics and approximation theory
Duman, Oktay
2016-01-01
This special volume is a collection of outstanding more applied articles presented in AMAT 2015 held in Ankara, May 28-31, 2015, at TOBB Economics and Technology University. The collection is suitable for Applied and Computational Mathematics and Engineering practitioners, also for related graduate students and researchers. Furthermore it will be a useful resource for all science and engineering libraries. This book includes 29 self-contained and well-edited chapters that can be among others useful for seminars in applied and computational mathematics, as well as in engineering.
BDD Minimization for Approximate Computing
Soeken, Mathias; Grosse, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Drechsler, Rolf
2016-01-01
We present Approximate BDD Minimization (ABM) as a problem that has application in approximate computing. Given a BDD representation of a multi-output Boolean function, ABM asks whether there exists another function that has a smaller BDD representation but meets a threshold w.r.t. an error metric. We present operators to derive approximated functions and present algorithms to exactly compute the error metrics directly on the BDD representation. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the app...
Quasi-chemical approximation for polyatomic mixtures
Dávila, M V; Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Ramirez-Pastor, A J
2016-01-01
The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures of polyatomic species was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The new theoretical framework is obtained by combining: (i) the exact analytical expression for the partition function of non-interacting mixtures of linear $k$-mers and $l$-mers (species occupying $k$ sites and $l$ sites, respectively) adsorbed in one dimension, and its extension to higher dimensions; and (ii) a generalization of the classical QCA for multicomponent adsorbates and multisite-occupancy adsorption. The process is analyzed through the partial adsorption isotherms corresponding to both species of the mixture. Comparisons with analytical data from Bragg-Williams approximation (BWA) and Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model. Even though a good fitting is obtained from BWA, it is found that QCA provides a more accurate description of the phenomenon of adsorpti...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaori Tsurui
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds, as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tetrix japonica, a pygmy grasshopper, is highly polymorphic in colour-markings and occurs in both sand and grass microhabitats. Even within a microhabitat, T. japonica is highly polymorphic. Using humans as dummy predators and printed photographs in which various morphs of grasshoppers were placed against different backgrounds, we addressed three questions to test the neutral, background heterogeneity, and differential crypsis hypotheses in four marking-type morphs: 1 do the morphs differ in the degree of crypsis in each microhabitat, 2 are different morphs most cryptic in specific backgrounds of the microhabitats, and 3 does the morph frequency reflect the degree of crypsis? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The degree of camouflage differed among the four morphs; therefore, the neutral hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, the order of camouflage advantage among morphs differed depending on the two types of backgrounds (sand and grass, although the grass background consistently provided greater camouflage effects. Thus, based on our results, we could not reject the background heterogeneity hypothesis. Under field conditions, the more cryptic morphs comprised a minority of the population. Overall, our results demonstrate that the different morphs were not equivalent in the degree of crypsis, but the degree of camouflage of the morphs was not consistent with the morph frequency. These findings suggest that trade-offs exist between the camouflage benefit of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Kyu-Rim
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of a combination formulation of 10% imidacloprid + 1.0% moxidectin spot-on (Advocate® for Cats, Bayer Animal Health GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany was tested in 40 African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris naturally infested with Caparinia tripilis. Methods The optimal dosage level of the combination for hedgehogs was determined by assigning 20 hedgehogs into three treatment groups (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 ml/Kg b.w., and one untreated control group of 5 hedgehogs each. Twenty naturally infested hedgehogs were then randomly assigned to either treatment or control group with 10 animals each, and the number of live mites was counted from 13 body regions on day 0, 3, 9, 16, and 30 after single treatment at the dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg. Results Before the chemotherapy, the highest density of mite was observed in external ear canals followed by the dorsal and the lowest in the ventral regions of the body surface. The dosage level of 0.1 ml/Kg, which corresponded to the recommended dosage level for cats, containing 10 mg imidacloprid and 1 mg moxidectin was also the optimal dosage level for hedgehogs. No hedgehogs in the treatment group showed live mites from day 3 post treatment. Side effects such as ataxia, depression, nausea, and weight fluctuation were not observed during the whole period of study. Conclusions This report suggests that a combination formulation of 0.1 ml/Kg of 10% imidacloprid + 1% moxidectin spot-on for cats is also useful for the control of Caparinia tripilis infestation in hedgehogs.
Gowell, C P; Quinn, T P; Taylor, E B
2012-12-01
Ecologically, morphologically and genetically distinct populations within single taxa often coexist in postglacial lakes and have provided important model systems with which to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes such as niche partitioning and ecological speciation. Within the Salmonidae, these species complexes have been well studied, particularly within the Coregonus clupeaformis-C. laveratus (lake and European whitefish, respectively) group, but the phenomenon has been less well documented in the other whitefish genera, Prosopium and Stenodus. Here, we examined the morphology, feeding biology and genetic structure of three putative forms of the pygmy whitefish, Prosopium coulterii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1892), first reported from Chignik Lake, south-western Alaska, over 40 years ago. Field collections and morphological analyses resolved a shallow water ( 30 m), low gill raker form and a deepwater, high gill raker count (> 15 gill rakers) form. The two low gill raker count forms fed almost exclusively on benthic invertebrates (mostly chironomids), while the deepwater, high gill raker count form fed almost exclusively on zooplankton; differences in diet were also reflected in differences both in δ(13) C and δ(15) N stable isotopes. All three forms were characterized by the same major mitochondrial DNA clade that has been associated with persistence in, and postglacial dispersal from, a Beringian glacial refugium. Analysis of variation at nine microsatellite DNA loci indicated low, but significant differentiation among forms, especially between the two low gill raker count forms and the high gill raker count form. The extent of differentiation along phenotypic (considerable) and genetic (subtle) axes among the Chignik Lake forms is similar to that found among distinct taxa of Prosopium found in pre-glacial Bear Lake (Utah-Idaho, USA) which is probably at least ten times older than Chignik Lake. Our analyses illustrate the potential for the
Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.
2005-01-01
In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general...
Approximate Inference in Probabilistic Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2004-01-01
We present a framework for approximate inference in probabilistic data models which is based on free energies. The free energy is constructed from two approximating distributions which encode different aspects of the intractable model. Consistency between distributions is required on a chosen set...
The Logic of Approximate Dependence
Väänänen, Jouko
2014-01-01
We extend the treatment of functional dependence, the basic concept of dependence logic, to include the possibility of dependence with a limited number of exceptions. We call this approximate dependence. The main result of the paper is a Completeness Theorem for approximate dependence atoms. We point out some problematic features of this which suggests that we should consider multi-teams, not just teams.
Beyond the random phase approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.
2013-01-01
We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-12-22
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-08-18
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
N-variable rational approximants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures
Lewnard, Joseph A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lwasa, Shuaib; Namanya, Didacus Bambaiha; Patterson, Kaitlin A; Donnelly, Blánaid; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Harper, Sherilee L; Ogden, Nicholas H; Carcamo, Cesar P
2014-07-01
Although malnutrition and malaria co-occur among individuals and populations globally, effects of nutritional status on risk for parasitemia and clinical illness remain poorly understood. We investigated associations between Plasmodium falciparum infection, nutrition, and food security in a cross-sectional survey of 365 Batwa pygmies in Kanungu District, Uganda in January of 2013. We identified 4.1% parasite prevalence among individuals over 5 years old. Severe food insecurity was associated with increased risk for positive rapid immunochromatographic test outcome (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 13.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.23-76.79). High age/sex-adjusted mid-upper arm circumference was associated with decreased risk for positive test among individuals who were not severely food-insecure (ARR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69). Within Batwa pygmy communities, where malnutrition and food insecurity are common, individuals who are particularly undernourished or severely food-insecure may have elevated risk for P. falciparum parasitemia. This finding may motivate integrated control of malaria and malnutrition in low-transmission settings.
Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in {sup 94}Mo using the (α,α{sup ′}γ) coincidence technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Derya, V., E-mail: derya@ikp.uni-koeln.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Endres, J.; Elvers, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Pietralla, N.; Romig, C. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Savran, D. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Ruth-Moufang-Straße 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Scheck, M.; Siebenhühner, F. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Stoica, V.I. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Sociology/ICS, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen (Netherlands); Wörtche, H.J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); and others
2013-05-15
The (α,α{sup ′}γ) reaction at E{sub α}=136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus {sup 94}Mo below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands, exploiting the Big-Bite Spectrometer and an array of large volume High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Due to the excellent energy resolution and high selectivity to transitions stemming from the pygmy dipole resonance, singles α-scattering cross sections could be determined for individual electric dipole excitations between 4 and 8 MeV. For three of the excited low-lying J{sup π}=1{sup −} states in {sup 94}Mo a γ-decay branch into the J{sup π}=2{sub 1}{sup +} state could be observed. The experiment extends the systematic studies of the pygmy dipole resonance by real-photon scattering (γ,γ{sup ′}) experiments and (α,α{sup ′}γ) experiments. Recently, a (γ,γ{sup ′}) experiment on {sup 94}Mo was performed at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup at the S-DALINAC in Darmstadt, Germany, permitting the comparison of B(E1)↑ strength distribution and α-scattering cross sections.
Daoutidis, I
2012-01-01
Large-scale calculations of the E1 strength are performed within the random phase approximation (RPA) based on the relativistic point-coupling mean field approach in order to derive the radiative neutron capture cross sections for all nuclei of astrophysical interest. While the coupling to the single-particle continuum is taken into account in an explicit and self-consistent way, additional corrections like the coupling to complex configurations and the temperature and deformation effects are included in a phenomenological way to account for a complete description of the nuclear dynamical problem. It is shown that the resulting E1-strength function based on the PCF1 force is in close agreement with photoabsorption data as well as the available experimental E1 strength data at low energies. For neutron-rich nuclei, as well as light neutron-deficient nuclei, a low-lying so-called pygmy resonance is found systematically in the 5-10 MeV region. The corresponding strength can reach 10% of the giant dipole strength...
The efficiency of Flory approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)
The pygmy dipole strength, the neutron radius of ${}^{208}$Pb and the symmetry energy
Roca-Maza, X; Centelles, M; Colo', G; Mizuyama, K; Pozzi, G; Viñas, X; Warda, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/342/1/012009
2012-01-01
The accurate characterization of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence is one of the outstanding open problems in nuclear physics. A promising nuclear observable in order to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy at saturation is the neutron skin thickness of medium and heavy nuclei. Recently, a low-energy peak in the isovector dipole response of neutron-rich nuclei has been discovered that may be correlated with the neutron skin thickness. The existence of this correlation is currently under debate due to our limited experimental knowledge on the microscopic structure of such a peak. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for the dipole response in several neutron-rich nuclei and try to elucidate whether models of common use in nuclear physics confirm or dismiss its possible connection with the neutron skin thickness. Finally, we briefly present theoretical results for parity violating electron scattering ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Carpaneto
1989-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract This work deals with the mammals and their role in the zoological culture of the Mbuti Pygmies, hunter-gatherers of the Ituri Forest of Zaire. The ethnozoological information was gathered in parallel to faunistic investigation. A checklist of the mammals inhabiting the Ituri Forest was compiled on the basis of both carefully selected literature and direct field research. Field work was conducted in many study sites (pygmy camps and agriculturalists' settlements throughout the region. Several Mbuti hunters of each band were interviewed in order to ensure reliability to the information they were giving. Direct observation of their hunting activities, feeding habits and relations with animals were also carried out. For each mammalian species the exact words of the Pygmies were translated into English. From their own culture, the Pygmies gave a great deal of information about habits, food, interspecific relations, reproduction and behaviour of 59 species of mammals. Details were also given by the Mbuti hunters on their own taboos, food restrictions, medicine and villagers' witchcraft, concerning mammals, as well as the utilization of animal parts for making objects and tools. Vernacular names of the mammals are reported in six local languages, as well as the names of plants which, according to the Mbuti, are used by the animals as food. The hunting techniques of the Ituri Pygmies are summarized together with quantitative data from 60 net casts and 4 bow-hunting days. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro vengono studiati i mammiferi nella cultura zoologica dei Pigmei Mbuti, cacciatori-raccoglitori della Foresta dell'Ituri in Zaire. Gli autori hanno condotto parallelamente sia l'indagine etnozoologica che ricerche faunistiche di base sui mammiferi. Un elenco sistematico delle specie viventi nella regione studiata è stato compilato sia sulla base di osservazioni dirette che attraverso una revisione critica dei
Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation
Kalikmanov, V.I.
2010-01-01
Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption
Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver J. D. Barrowclough
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.
Weighted approximation with varying weight
Totik, Vilmos
1994-01-01
A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.
Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals
Buzzi, Jerome
2009-01-01
G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These approximate maximizers work simultaneously for all intricacies. We also establish some properties of arbitrary approximate maximizers, in particular the existence of a threshold in the size of subsystems of approximate maximizers: most smaller subsystems are almost equidistributed, most larger subsystems determine the full system. The main ideas are a random construction of almost maximizers with a high statistical symmetry and the consideration of entropy profiles, i.e., the average entropies of sub-systems of a given size. ...
Gambacurta, D; Catara, F
2011-01-01
Low-energy dipole excitations are analyzed for the stable isotopes $^{40}$Ca and $^{48}$Ca in the framework of the Skyrme-second random-phase approximation. The corresponding random-phase approximation calculations provide a negligible strength distribution for both nuclei in the energy region from 5 to 10 MeV. The inclusion and the coupling of 2 particle-2 hole configurations in the second random-phase approximation lead to an appreciable dipole response at low energies for the neutron-rich nucleus $^{48}$Ca. The presence of a neutron skin in the nucleus $^{48}$Ca would suggest the interpretation of the low-lying response in terms of a pygmy excitation. The composition of the excitation modes (content of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations), their transition densities and their collectivity (number and coherence of the different contributions) are analyzed. This analysis indicates that, in general, these excitations cannot be clearly interpreted in terms of oscillations of the neutron skin...
Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation
Veness, Joel; Ng, Kee Siong; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To deve...
Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation
Kalikmanov, V.I.
2010-01-01
Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption is taken into account within Gibbsian approximation. Binary clusters are treated by means of statistical-mechanical considerations: tracing out the molecular degrees of freedom of the more volatil...
Development of the relativistic impulse approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This talk contains three parts. Part I reviews the developments which led to the relativistic impulse approximation for proton-nucleus scattering. In Part II, problems with the impulse approximation in its original form - principally the low energy problem - are discussed and traced to pionic contributions. Use of pseudovector covariants in place of pseudoscalar ones in the NN amplitude provides more satisfactory low energy results, however, the difference between pseudovector and pseudoscalar results is ambiguous in the sense that it is not controlled by NN data. Only with further theoretical input can the ambiguity be removed. Part III of the talk presents a new development of the relativistic impulse approximation which is the result of work done in the past year and a half in collaboration with J.A. Tjon. A complete NN amplitude representation is developed and a complete set of Lorentz invariant amplitudes are calculated based on a one-meson exchange model and appropriate integral equations. A meson theoretical basis for the important pair contributions to proton-nucleus scattering is established by the new developments. 28 references
Twisted inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets
Harrap, Stephen
2010-01-01
For any real pair i, j geq 0 with i+j=1 let Bad(i, j) denote the set of (i, j)-badly approximable pairs. That is, Bad(i, j) consists of irrational vectors x:=(x_1, x_2) in R^2 for which there exists a positive constant c(x) such that max {||qx_1||^(-i), ||qx_2||^(-j)} > c(x)/q for all q in N. Building on a result of Kurzweil, a new characterization of the set Bad(i, j) in terms of `well-approximable' vectors in the area of `twisted' inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation is established. In addition, it is shown that Bad^x(i, j), the `twisted' inhomogeneous analogue of Bad(i, j), has full Hausdorff dimension 2 when x is chosen from the set Bad(i, j).
The Sobolev approximation for line formation with partial frequency redistribution
Hummer, D. G.; Rybicki, G. B.
1992-01-01
Attention is given to the formation of a spectral line in a uniformly expanding infinite medium in the Sobolev approximation, with emphasis on the various mechanisms for frequency redistribution. Numerical and analytic solutions of the transfer equation are presented of a number of redistribution functions and their approximations, including type I and type II partial redistribution, coherent scattering and complete redistribution, and the Fokker-Planck and uncorrelated approximation to the R sub II function. The solutions for the mean intensity are shown to depend very much on the type of redistribution mechanism, while for the frequency-weighted mean intensity, which enters the rate equations, this dependence is weak. It is inferred that use of Sobolev escape probabilities based on complete redistribution can be an adequate approximation for many calculations for which only the radiative excitation rates are needed.
Pygmy dipole mode in deformed neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line
Yoshida, Kenichi
2009-01-01
We investigate the microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector-dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich $^{36,38,40}$Mg close to the drip line by means of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation employing the Skyrme and the local pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying bump structure above the neutron emission-threshold energy develops when the drip line is approached, and that the isovector dipole strength at $E_{x} < 10$ MeV exhausts about $6.0 %$ of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule in $^{40}$Mg. We obtained the collective dipole modes at around 8-10 MeV in Mg isotopes, which consist of many two-quasiparticle excitations of neutron. The transition density clearly shows an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isoscalar core. We found significant coupling effects between the dipole and octupole excitation modes due to the nuclear deformation. It is also found that the responses for the compressional dipole and isoscalar octupole excitations...
Wavelet Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioners
Chan, Tony F.; Tang, W.-P.; Wan, W. L.
1996-01-01
There is an increasing interest in using sparse approximate inverses as preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. Recent studies of Grote and Huckle and Chow and Saad also show that sparse approximate inverse preconditioner can be effective for a variety of matrices, e.g. Harwell-Boeing collections. Nonetheless a drawback is that it requires rapid decay of the inverse entries so that sparse approximate inverse is possible. However, for the class of matrices that, come from elliptic PDE problems, this assumption may not necessarily hold. Our main idea is to look for a basis, other than the standard one, such that a sparse representation of the inverse is feasible. A crucial observation is that the kind of matrices we are interested in typically have a piecewise smooth inverse. We exploit this fact, by applying wavelet techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse in the wavelet basis. We shall justify theoretically and numerically that our approach is effective for matrices with smooth inverse. We emphasize that in this paper we have only presented the idea of wavelet approximate inverses and demonstrated its potential but have not yet developed a highly refined and efficient algorithm.
The structure of approximate groups
Breuillard, Emmanuel; Tao, Terence
2011-01-01
Let K >= 1 be a parameter. A K-approximate group is a finite set A in a (local) group which contains the identity, is symmetric, and such that A^2 is covered by K left translates of A. The main result of this paper is a qualitative description of approximate groups as being essentially finite-by-nilpotent, answering a conjecture of H. Helfgott and E. Lindenstrauss. This may be viewed as a generalisation of the Freiman-Ruzsa theorem on sets of small doubling in the integers to arbitrary groups. We begin by establishing a correspondence principle between approximate groups and locally compact (local) groups that allows us to recover many results recently established in a fundamental paper of Hrushovski. In particular we establish that approximate groups can be approximately modeled by Lie groups. To prove our main theorem we apply some additional arguments essentially due to Gleason. These arose in the solution of Hilbert's fifth problem in the 1950s. Applications of our main theorem include a finitary refineme...
Relativistic regular approximations revisited: An infinite-order relativistic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The concept of the regular approximation is presented as the neglect of the energy dependence of the exact Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Expansion of the normalization terms leads immediately to the zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and first-order regular approximation (FORA) Hamiltonians as the zeroth- and first-order terms of the expansion. The expansion may be taken to infinite order by using an un-normalized Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation, which results in the ZORA Hamiltonian and a non-unit metric. This infinite-order regular approximation, IORA, has eigenvalues which differ from the Dirac eigenvalues by order E3/c4 for a hydrogen-like system, which is a considerable improvement over the ZORA eigenvalues, and similar to the non-variational FORA energies. A further perturbation analysis yields a third-order correction to the IORA energies, TIORA. Results are presented for several systems including the neutral U atom. The IORA eigenvalues for all but the 1s spinor of the neutral system are superior even to the scaled ZORA energies, which are exact for the hydrogenic system. The third-order correction reduces the IORA error for the inner orbitals to a very small fraction of the Dirac eigenvalue. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings
Mömke, Tobias
2011-01-01
We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.
Approximation methods in probability theory
Čekanavičius, Vydas
2016-01-01
This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.
Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation
Veness, Joel; Hutter, Marcus; Silver, David
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a principled approach for the design of a scalable general reinforcement learning agent. This approach is based on a direct approximation of AIXI, a Bayesian optimality notion for general reinforcement learning agents. Previously, it has been unclear whether the theory of AIXI could motivate the design of practical algorithms. We answer this hitherto open question in the affirmative, by providing the first computationally feasible approximation to the AIXI agent. To develop our approximation, we introduce a Monte Carlo Tree Search algorithm along with an agent-specific extension of the Context Tree Weighting algorithm. Empirically, we present a set of encouraging results on a number of stochastic, unknown, and partially observable domains.
Concept Approximation between Fuzzy Ontologies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Fuzzy ontologies are efficient tools to handle fuzzy and uncertain knowledge on the semantic web; but there are heterogeneity problems when gaining interoperability among different fuzzy ontologies. This paper uses concept approximation between fuzzy ontologies based on instances to solve the heterogeneity problems. It firstly proposes an instance selection technology based on instance clustering and weighting to unify the fuzzy interpretation of different ontologies and reduce the number of instances to increase the efficiency. Then the paper resolves the problem of computing the approximations of concepts into the problem of computing the least upper approximations of atom concepts. It optimizes the search strategies by extending atom concept sets and defining the least upper bounds of concepts to reduce the searching space of the problem. An efficient algorithm for searching the least upper bounds of concept is given.
An Approximation Ratio for Biclustering
Puolamäki, Kai; Hanhijärvi, Sami; Garriga, Gemma C
2007-01-01
The problem of biclustering consists of the simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a matrix such that each of the submatrices induced by a pair of row and column clusters is as uniform as possible. In this paper we approximate the optimal biclustering by applying one-way clustering algorithms independently on the rows and on the columns of the input matrix. We show that such a solution yields a worst-case approximation ratio of 1+sqrt(2) under L1-norm for 0-1 valued matrices, and of 2...
An Approximation Ratio for Biclustering
Puolamäki, Kai; Garriga, Gemma C
2007-01-01
The problem of biclustering consists of the simultaneous clustering of rows and columns of a matrix such that each of the submatrices induced by a pair of row and column clusters is as uniform as possible. In this paper we approximate the optimal biclustering by applying one-way clustering algorithms independently on the rows and on the columns of the input matrix. We show that such a solution yields a worst-case approximation ratio of 1+sqrt(2) under L1-norm for 0-1 valued matrices, and of 2 under L2-norm for real valued matrices.
Tree wavelet approximations with applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
[1]Baraniuk, R. G., DeVore, R. A., Kyriazis, G., Yu, X. M., Near best tree approximation, Adv. Comput. Math.,2002, 16: 357-373.[2]Cohen, A., Dahmen, W., Daubechies, I., DeVore, R., Tree approximation and optimal encoding, Appl. Comput.Harmonic Anal., 2001, 11: 192-226.[3]Dahmen, W., Schneider, R., Xu, Y., Nonlinear functionals of wavelet expansions-adaptive reconstruction and fast evaluation, Numer. Math., 2000, 86: 49-101.[4]DeVore, R. A., Nonlinear approximation, Acta Numer., 1998, 7: 51-150.[5]Davis, G., Mallat, S., Avellaneda, M., Adaptive greedy approximations, Const. Approx., 1997, 13: 57-98.[6]DeVore, R. A., Temlyakov, V. N., Some remarks on greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1996, 5: 173-187.[7]Kashin, B. S., Temlyakov, V. N., Best m-term approximations and the entropy of sets in the space L1, Mat.Zametki (in Russian), 1994, 56: 57-86.[8]Temlyakov, V. N., The best m-term approximation and greedy algorithms, Adv. Comput. Math., 1998, 8:249-265.[9]Temlyakov, V. N., Greedy algorithm and m-term trigonometric approximation, Constr. Approx., 1998, 14:569-587.[10]Hutchinson, J. E., Fractals and self similarity, Indiana. Univ. Math. J., 1981, 30: 713-747.[11]Binev, P., Dahmen, W., DeVore, R. A., Petruchev, P., Approximation classes for adaptive methods, Serdica Math.J., 2002, 28: 1001-1026.[12]Gilbarg, D., Trudinger, N. S., Elliptic Partial Differential Equations of Second Order, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,1983.[13]Ciarlet, P. G., The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, New York: North Holland, 1978.[14]Birman, M. S., Solomiak, M. Z., Piecewise polynomial approximation of functions of the class Wαp, Math. Sb.,1967, 73: 295-317.[15]DeVore, R. A., Lorentz, G. G., Constructive Approximation, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.[16]DeVore, R. A., Popov, V., Interpolation of Besov spaces, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988, 305: 397-414.[17]Devore, R., Jawerth, B., Popov, V., Compression of wavelet decompositions, Amer. J. Math., 1992, 114: 737-785.[18]Storozhenko, E
Truthful approximations to range voting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro
We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...
Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q
2012-01-01
Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations...
Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans
Broek, van den P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.
2004-01-01
This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp ante
Analytical Approximations to Galaxy Clustering
Mo, H. J.
1997-01-01
We discuss some recent progress in constructing analytic approximations to the galaxy clustering. We show that successful models can be constructed for the clustering of both dark matter and dark matter haloes. Our understanding of galaxy clustering and galaxy biasing can be greatly enhanced by these models.
Approximation properties of haplotype tagging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dreiseitl Stephan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.
Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap
Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
2013-01-01
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and
Approximation by Penultimate Stable Laws
L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens); L. Peng (Liang); H. Iglesias Pereira
1997-01-01
textabstractIn certain cases partial sums of i.i.d. random variables with finite variance are better approximated by a sequence of stable distributions with indices \\\\alpha_n \\\\to 2 than by a normal distribution. We discuss when this happens and how much the convergence rate can be improved by using
Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
2009-01-01
In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...
The semiclassical approximation to supersymmetric quantum gravity
Kiefer, C; Moniz, P; Kiefer, Claus; Lueck, Tobias; Moniz, Paulo
2005-01-01
We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The formalism is only consistent if the states at each order depend on the gravitino field. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schrodinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schrodinger equation. In particular, the following consequences are found: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many fingered) local time parameter has to be present on $SuperRiem \\Sigma$ (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields), (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early universe. The physical meaning of these equations and results, in particular the similarities to and differences from the pure bos...
Low Rank Approximation in $G_0W_0$ Approximation
Shao, Meiyue; Yang, Chao; Liu, Fang; da Jornada, Felipe H; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven G
2016-01-01
The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn--Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in transport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green's function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The $G_0W_0$ approximation is a widely used technique in which the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a non-interacting Green's function ($G_0$) and a screened Coulomb interaction ($W_0$) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating $W_0$ at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cos...
Mahieux, R; Ibrahim, F; Mauclere, P; Herve, V; Michel, P; Tekaia, F; Chappey, C; Garin, B; Van Der Ryst, E; Guillemain, B; Ledru, E; Delaporte, E; de The, G; Gessain, A
1997-02-01
To gain new insights on the origin, evolution, and modes of dissemination of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), we performed a molecular analysis of 58 new African HTLV-1 strains (18 from West Africa, 36 from Central Africa, and 4 from South Africa) originating from 13 countries. Of particular interest were eight strains from Pygmies of remote areas of Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR), considered to be the oldest inhabitants of these regions. Eight long-term activated T-cell lines producing HTLV-1 gag and env antigens were established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, including three from Pygmies. A fragment of the env gene encompassing most of the gp21 transmembrane region was sequenced for the 58 new strains, while the complete long terminal repeat (LTR) region was sequenced for 9 strains, including 4 from Pygmies. Comparative sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies performed on both the env and LTR regions by the neighbor-joining and DNA parsimony methods demonstrated that all 22 strains from West and South Africa belong to the widespread cosmopolitan subtype (also called HTLV-1 subtype A). Within or alongside the previously described Zairian cluster (HTLV-1 subtype B), we discovered a number of new HTLV-1 variants forming different subgroups corresponding mainly to the geographical origins of the infected persons, Cameroon, Gabon, and Zaire. Six of the eight Pygmy strains clustered together within this Central African subtype, suggesting a common origin. Furthermore, three new strains (two originating from Pygmies from Cameroon and the CAR, respectively, and one from a Gabonese individual) were particularly divergent and formed a distinct new phylogenetic cluster, characterized by specific mutations and occupying in most analyses a unique phylogenetic position between the large Central African genotype (HTLV-1 subtype B) and the Melanesian subtype (HTLV-1 subtype C). We have
Mas-Coma, S; Fons, R; Galan-Puchades, M T; Valero, M A
1986-01-01
Description and differentiation of the adult stage of Hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the Pygmy white-toothed shrew, Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822) (Insectivora: Soricidae: Crocidurinae) in the region of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Cerbère (Oriental Pyrenees, France). The new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. The general composition of the fauna of Cyclophyllidea parasitizing S. etruscus is analysed. There are three less specialised Hymenolepis species with a scolex of the same type and one Pseudhymenolepis species, with the absence of unarmed species lacking a rostrum. The oioxenous character of the Cestodes parasitizing Suncus species sustains the validity of the genus Suncus. The resemblance of the Cestodefaunas suggests a narrow phyletic relationship between the genera Suncus and Crocidura.
Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation
Scivetti, I
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augsten, Nikolaus
formally proof that the pq-gram index can be incrementally updated based on the log of edit operations without reconstructing intermediate tree versions. The incremental update is independent of the data size and scales to a large number of changes in the data. We introduce windowed pq-grams for the......-gram based distance between streets, introduces a global greedy matching that guarantees stable pairs, and links addresses that are stored with different granularity. The connector has been successfully tested with public administration databases. Our extensive experiments on both synthetic and real world......The goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and evaluate new methods for the approximate matching of hierarchical data represented as labeled trees. In approximate matching scenarios two items should be matched if they are similar. Computing the similarity between labeled trees is hard as in...
Validity of the eikonal approximation
Kabat, D
1992-01-01
We summarize results on the reliability of the eikonal approximation in obtaining the high energy behavior of a two particle forward scattering amplitude. Reliability depends on the spin of the exchanged field. For scalar fields the eikonal fails at eighth order in perturbation theory, when it misses the leading behavior of the exchange-type diagrams. In a vector theory the eikonal gets the exchange diagrams correctly, but fails by ignoring certain non-exchange graphs which dominate the asymptotic behavior of the full amplitude. For spin--2 tensor fields the eikonal captures the leading behavior of each order in perturbation theory, but the sum of eikonal terms is subdominant to graphs neglected by the approximation. We also comment on the eikonal for Yang-Mills vector exchange, where the additional complexities of the non-abelian theory may be absorbed into Regge-type modifications of the gauge boson propagators.
Approximate Privacy: Foundations and Quantification
Feigenbaum, Joan; Schapira, Michael
2009-01-01
Increasing use of computers and networks in business, government, recreation, and almost all aspects of daily life has led to a proliferation of online sensitive data about individuals and organizations. Consequently, concern about the privacy of these data has become a top priority, particularly those data that are created and used in electronic commerce. There have been many formulations of privacy and, unfortunately, many negative results about the feasibility of maintaining privacy of sensitive data in realistic networked environments. We formulate communication-complexity-based definitions, both worst-case and average-case, of a problem's privacy-approximation ratio. We use our definitions to investigate the extent to which approximate privacy is achievable in two standard problems: the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem of Yao. For both the second-price Vickrey auction and the millionaires problem, we show that not only is perfect privacy impossible or infeasibly costly to achieve...
Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Concentration Bounds for Stochastic Approximations
Frikha, Noufel
2012-01-01
We obtain non asymptotic concentration bounds for two kinds of stochastic approximations. We first consider the deviations between the expectation of a given function of the Euler scheme of some diffusion process at a fixed deterministic time and its empirical mean obtained by the Monte-Carlo procedure. We then give some estimates concerning the deviation between the value at a given time-step of a stochastic approximation algorithm and its target. Under suitable assumptions both concentration bounds turn out to be Gaussian. The key tool consists in exploiting accurately the concentration properties of the increments of the schemes. For the first case, as opposed to the previous work of Lemaire and Menozzi (EJP, 2010), we do not have any systematic bias in our estimates. Also, no specific non-degeneracy conditions are assumed.
Variance approximation under balanced sampling
Deville, Jean-Claude; Tillé, Yves
2016-01-01
A balanced sampling design has the interesting property that Horvitz–Thompson estimators of totals for a set of balancing variables are equal to the totals we want to estimate, therefore the variance of Horvitz–Thompson estimators of variables of interest are reduced in function of their correlations with the balancing variables. Since it is hard to derive an analytic expression for the joint inclusion probabilities, we derive a general approximation of variance based on a residual technique....
Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals
Buzzi, Jerome; Zambotti, Lorenzo
2009-01-01
G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These appr...
Approximating Metal-Insulator Transitions
Danieli, C.; Rayanov, K.; Pavlov, B.; Martin, G.; Flach, S
2014-01-01
We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility ed...
Product Approximation of Grade and Precision
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen
2005-01-01
The normal graded approximation and variable precision approximation are defined in approximate space. The relationship between graded approximation and variable precision approximation is studied, and an important formula of conversion between them is achieved. The product approximation of gradeand precision is defined and its basic properties are studied.
Ji, Fei-Yu; Zhang, Shun-Li
2013-11-01
In this paper, the generalized diffusion equation with perturbation ut = A(u;ux)uII+eB(u;ux) is studied in terms of the approximate functional variable separation approach. A complete classification of these perturbed equations which admit approximate functional separable solutions is presented. Some approximate solutions to the resulting perturbed equations are obtained by examples.
Rollout Sampling Approximate Policy Iteration
Dimitrakakis, Christos
2008-01-01
Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a supervised learning problem. This paper proposes variants of an improved policy iteration scheme which addresses the core sampling problem in evaluating a policy through simulation as a multi-armed bandit machine. The resulting algorithm offers comparable performance to the previous algorithm achieved, however, with significantly less computational effort. An order of magnitude improvement is demonstrated experimentally in two standard reinforcement learning domains: inverted pendulum and mountain-car.
Quantum Tunneling Beyond Semiclassical Approximation
Banerjee, Rabin
2008-01-01
Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.
Quantum tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation
Banerjee, Rabin; Ranjan Majhi, Bibhas
2008-06-01
Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.
Fermion Tunneling Beyond Semiclassical Approximation
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2008-01-01
Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond the semiclassical approximation prescribed in \\cite{Majhi3} for the scalar particle, Hawking radiation as tunneling of Dirac particle through an event horizon is analysed. We show that, as before, all quantum corrections in the single particle action are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We also compute the modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole. Finally, the coefficient of the logarithmic correction to entropy is shown to be related with the trace anomaly.
Fermion tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2009-02-01
Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond the semiclassical approximation prescribed in R. Banerjee and B. R. Majhi, J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 06 (2008) 09510.1088/1126-6708/2008/06/095 for the scalar particle, Hawking radiation as tunneling of the Dirac particle through an event horizon is analyzed. We show that, as before, all quantum corrections in the single particle action are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We also compute the modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole. Finally, the coefficient of the logarithmic correction to entropy is shown to be related with the trace anomaly.
The distorted wave Glauber approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A solution of the Pauli equation with non-zero potentials defines quantum scalar and vector potentials and magnetic fields and quantum trajectories. If a line integral of perturbing potentials and fields along these quantum trajectories is added to the phase of this solution, an approximate solution of the perturbed equation is found. Glauber theory is a special case and the conditions of applicability are similar. Applications given start from the harmonic oscillator and from a homogeneous magnetic field and add a perturbation. (author)
Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1998-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...... projection of the surface onto this plane, a reference curve is determined by use of methods for thinning of binary images. Finally, the cylinder surface is constructed as follows: the directrix of the cylinder surface is determined by a least squares method minimizing the distance to the points...
Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation
Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.
Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Managan, R. A.
2015-01-08
Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, F_{n}( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e^{ μ/θ} ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for A^{α} (ζ ),A^{β} (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e^{-μ/θ})F_{1/2}(μ/θ), F_{1/2}'/F_{1/2}, F_{c}^{α}, and F_{c}^{β}. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.
SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
童景成
2004-01-01
Let ξ be an irrational number with simple continued fraction expansion ξ= [a0;a1,… ,ai,…] and pi/qi be its ith convergent. Let Ci be defined by ξ - pi/qi = (-1)i/(Ciqiqi+1). The author proves the following theorem: Theorem. Let r ＞ 1, R ＞ 1 be two real numbers and L=1/r-1+1/R-1 +annan+1rR, K=1/2(L+ L2-4/(r-1)(R-1)). Then (i) Cn-2 ＜r, Cn ＜R imply Cn-1 ＞K; (ii) Cn-2 ＞r, Cn ＞R imply Cn-1 ＜K. This theorem generalizes the main result in [1].
Simple approximations for condensational growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostinski, A B [Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1200 (United States)], E-mail: alex.kostinski@mtu.edu
2009-01-15
A simple geometric argument relating to the liquid water content of clouds is given. The phase relaxation time and the nature of the quasi-steady approximation for the diffusional growth of cloud drops are elucidated directly in terms of water vapor concentration. Spatial gradients of vapor concentration, inherent in the notion of quasi-steady growth, are discussed and we argue for an occasional reversal of the traditional point of view: rather than a drop growing in response to a given supersaturation, the observed values of the supersaturation in clouds are the result of a vapor field adjusting to droplet growth. Our perspective is illustrated by comparing the exponential decay of condensation trails with a quasi-steady regime of cirrus clouds. The role of aerosol loading in decreasing relaxation times and increasing the rate of growth of the liquid water content is also discussed.
Strong shock implosion, approximate solution
Fujimoto, Y.; Mishkin, E. A.; Alejaldre, C.
1983-01-01
The self-similar, center-bound motion of a strong spherical, or cylindrical, shock wave moving through an ideal gas with a constant, γ= cp/ cv, is considered and a linearized, approximate solution is derived. An X, Y phase plane of the self-similar solution is defined and the representative curved of the system behind the shock front is replaced by a straight line connecting the mappings of the shock front with that of its tail. The reduced pressure P(ξ), density R(ξ) and velocity U1(ξ) are found in closed, quite accurate, form. Comparison with numerically obtained results, for γ= {5}/{3} and γ= {7}/{5}, is shown.
Diophantine approximations and Diophantine equations
Schmidt, Wolfgang M
1991-01-01
"This book by a leading researcher and masterly expositor of the subject studies diophantine approximations to algebraic numbers and their applications to diophantine equations. The methods are classical, and the results stressed can be obtained without much background in algebraic geometry. In particular, Thue equations, norm form equations and S-unit equations, with emphasis on recent explicit bounds on the number of solutions, are included. The book will be useful for graduate students and researchers." (L'Enseignement Mathematique) "The rich Bibliography includes more than hundred references. The book is easy to read, it may be a useful piece of reading not only for experts but for students as well." Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum
Stochastic Approximation with Averaging Innovation
Laruelle, Sophie
2010-01-01
The aim of the paper is to establish a convergence theorem for multi-dimensional stochastic approximation in a setting with innovations satisfying some averaging properties and to study some applications. The averaging assumptions allow us to unify the framework where the innovations are generated (to solve problems from Numerical Probability) and the one with exogenous innovations (market data, output of "device" $e.g.$ an Euler scheme) with stationary or ergodic properties. We propose several fields of applications with random innovations or quasi-random numbers. In particular we provide in both setting a rule to tune the step of the algorithm. At last we illustrate our results on five examples notably in Finance.
Benchmarking Declarative Approximate Selection Predicates
Hassanzadeh, Oktie
2009-01-01
Declarative data quality has been an active research topic. The fundamental principle behind a declarative approach to data quality is the use of declarative statements to realize data quality primitives on top of any relational data source. A primary advantage of such an approach is the ease of use and integration with existing applications. Several similarity predicates have been proposed in the past for common quality primitives (approximate selections, joins, etc.) and have been fully expressed using declarative SQL statements. In this thesis, new similarity predicates are proposed along with their declarative realization, based on notions of probabilistic information retrieval. Then, full declarative specifications of previously proposed similarity predicates in the literature are presented, grouped into classes according to their primary characteristics. Finally, a thorough performance and accuracy study comparing a large number of similarity predicates for data cleaning operations is performed.
Approximating metal-insulator transitions
Danieli, Carlo; Rayanov, Kristian; Pavlov, Boris; Martin, Gaven; Flach, Sergej
2015-12-01
We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step, the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate Metal-Insulator Transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges, which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-André model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase, similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.
Transition probabilities of Br II
Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.
1976-01-01
Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.
Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.
Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383
Randomized approximate nearest neighbors algorithm.
Jones, Peter Wilcox; Osipov, Andrei; Rokhlin, Vladimir
2011-09-20
We present a randomized algorithm for the approximate nearest neighbor problem in d-dimensional Euclidean space. Given N points {x(j)} in R(d), the algorithm attempts to find k nearest neighbors for each of x(j), where k is a user-specified integer parameter. The algorithm is iterative, and its running time requirements are proportional to T·N·(d·(log d) + k·(d + log k)·(log N)) + N·k(2)·(d + log k), with T the number of iterations performed. The memory requirements of the procedure are of the order N·(d + k). A by-product of the scheme is a data structure, permitting a rapid search for the k nearest neighbors among {x(j)} for an arbitrary point x ∈ R(d). The cost of each such query is proportional to T·(d·(log d) + log(N/k)·k·(d + log k)), and the memory requirements for the requisite data structure are of the order N·(d + k) + T·(d + N). The algorithm utilizes random rotations and a basic divide-and-conquer scheme, followed by a local graph search. We analyze the scheme's behavior for certain types of distributions of {x(j)} and illustrate its performance via several numerical examples.
Semiclassical approximation to supersymmetric quantum gravity
Kiefer, Claus; Lück, Tobias; Moniz, Paulo
2005-08-01
We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The formalism is only consistent if the states at each order depend on the gravitino field. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schrödinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schrödinger equation. In particular, the following consequences are found: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many-fingered) local time parameter has to be present on super Riem Σ (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields), (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early Universe. The physical meaning of these equations and results, in particular, the similarities to and differences from the pure bosonic case, are discussed.
Fuzzy Set Approximations in Fuzzy Formal Contexts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mingwen Shao; Shiqing Fan
2006-01-01
In this paper, a kind of multi-level formal concept is introduced. Based on the proposed multi-level formal concept, we present a pair of rough fuzzy set approximations within fuzzy formal contexts. By the proposed rough fuzzy set approximations, we can approximate a fuzzy set according to different precision level. We discuss the properties of the proposed approximation operators in detail.
Obtaining exact value by approximate computations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2007-01-01
Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast.They have the advantage of high efficiency.However they only give approximate results,whereas we need exact results in some fields.There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results. In this paper,we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.
The periodic standing-wave approximation: post-Minkowski computation
Beetle, Christopher; Hernández, Napoleón; Price, Richard H
2007-01-01
The periodic standing wave method studies circular orbits of compact objects coupled to helically symmetric standing wave gravitational fields. From this solution an approximation is extracted for the strong field, slowly inspiralling motion of black holes and binary stars. Previous work on this model has dealt with nonlinear scalar models, and with linearized general relativity. Here we present the results of the method for the post-Minkowski (PM) approximation to general relativity, the first step beyond linearized gravity. We compute the PM approximation in two ways: first, via the standard approach of computing linearized gravitational fields and constructing from them quadratic driving sources for second-order fields, and second, by solving the second-order equations as an ``exact'' nonlinear system. The results of these computations have two distinct applications: (i) The computational infrastructure for the ``exact'' PM solution will be directly applicable to full general relativity. (ii) The results w...
Hsieh, PingHsun; Woerner, August E; Wall, Jeffrey D; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Hammer, Michael F
2016-03-01
Comparisons of whole-genome sequences from ancient and contemporary samples have pointed to several instances of archaic admixture through interbreeding between the ancestors of modern non-Africans and now extinct hominids such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. One implication of these findings is that some adaptive features in contemporary humans may have entered the population via gene flow with archaic forms in Eurasia. Within Africa, fossil evidence suggests that anatomically modern humans (AMH) and various archaic forms coexisted for much of the last 200,000 yr; however, the absence of ancient DNA in Africa has limited our ability to make a direct comparison between archaic and modern human genomes. Here, we use statistical inference based on high coverage whole-genome data (greater than 60×) from contemporary African Pygmy hunter-gatherers as an alternative means to study the evolutionary history of the genus Homo. Using whole-genome simulations that consider demographic histories that include both isolation and gene flow with neighboring farming populations, our inference method rejects the hypothesis that the ancestors of AMH were genetically isolated in Africa, thus providing the first whole genome-level evidence of African archaic admixture. Our inferences also suggest a complex human evolutionary history in Africa, which involves at least a single admixture event from an unknown archaic population into the ancestors of AMH, likely within the last 30,000 yr.
Mitrovski, P; Heinze, D A; Broome, L; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R
2007-01-01
In endangered mammals, levels of genetic variation are often low and this is accompanied by genetic divergence among populations. The mountain pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus) is an endangered marsupial restricted to the alpine region of Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. By scoring variation at eight microsatellite loci, we found that B. parvus populations exhibit high levels of genetic divergence and fall into three distinct groups from the northern, central and southern areas of the distribution of this species, consistent with previous assessments of mitochondrial DNA variation. F(ST) values between populations from these regions ranged from 0.19 to 0.54. Within the central area, there was further genetic fragmentation, and a linear association between genetic and geographical distance. This pattern is likely to reflect limited dispersal across barriers despite the fact that individual B. parvus can move several kilometres. Levels of genetic variation within populations were high with the exception of a southern population where there was evidence of inbreeding. From a conservation perspective, all three areas where B. parvus are found should be considered as separate gene pools; management of populations within these areas needs to take into account the low gene flow between populations, as well as threats posed by roads, resorts and other developments in the alpine region. The low genetic variability and inbreeding in the southern population is of particular concern given the high levels of variability in other B. parvus populations. PMID:17181722
Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (p,p'γ) and (d,pγ) experiments with SONIC@HORUS
Pickstone, S. G.; Derya, V.; Hennig, A.; Mayer, J.; Spieker, M.; Weinert, M.; Wilhelmy, J.; Zilges, A.
2015-05-01
Last year, the new silicon-detector array SONIC with up to 8 silicon-detector positions was installed inside the existing γ-ray spectrometer HORUS consisting of 14 HPGe detectors. The combined setup SONIC@HORUS allows for a coincident detection of γ-rays and light charged particles in the exit channel of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. As a first physics case, the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in 92Mo has been investigated in a (p,p'γ) experiment at Ep = 10.5 MeV. Since specific excitation energy can be chosen oﬄine in the coincidence data, the sensitivity to weak decay branchings of PDR states is increased. Additionally, a second reaction mechanism for the excitation of PDR states has been tested with the new setup. In a 119Sn(d,pγ) transfer reaction at Ed = 8.5 MeV, PDR states in 120Sn could be excited. Since this one-neutron transfer reaction is sensitive to the neutron single-particle structure, it could reveal new information on the microscopic structure of the PDR.
Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (p,p’γ and (d,pγ experiments with SONIC@HORUS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pickstone S. G.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Last year, the new silicon-detector array SONIC with up to 8 silicon-detector positions was installed inside the existing γ-ray spectrometer HORUS consisting of 14 HPGe detectors. The combined setup SONIC@HORUS allows for a coincident detection of γ-rays and light charged particles in the exit channel of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions. As a first physics case, the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR in 92Mo has been investigated in a (p,p’γ experiment at Ep = 10.5 MeV. Since specific excitation energy can be chosen oﬄine in the coincidence data, the sensitivity to weak decay branchings of PDR states is increased. Additionally, a second reaction mechanism for the excitation of PDR states has been tested with the new setup. In a 119Sn(d,pγ transfer reaction at Ed = 8.5 MeV, PDR states in 120Sn could be excited. Since this one-neutron transfer reaction is sensitive to the neutron single-particle structure, it could reveal new information on the microscopic structure of the PDR.
Vendl, Catharina; Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie Theres; Furrer, Samuel; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lawrenz, Arne; Lange, Bastian; Munn, Adam; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus
2016-01-01
Methane (CH4) production varies between herbivore species, but reasons for this variation remain to be elucidated. Here, we report open-circuit chamber respiration measurements of CH4 production in four specimens each of two non-ruminant mammalian herbivores with a complex forestomach but largely differing in body size, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, mean body mass 17kg) and the pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis, 229kg) fed lucerne-based diets. In addition, food intake, digestibility and mean retention times were measured in the same experiments. CH4 production averaged 8 and 72L/d, 18 and 19L/kg dry matter intake, and 4.0 and 4.2% of gross energy intake for the two species, respectively. When compared with previously reported data on CH4 production in other non-ruminant and ruminant foregut-fermenting as well as hindgut-fermenting species, it is evident that neither the question whether a species is a foregut fermenter or not, or whether it ruminates or not, is of the relevance previously suggested to explain variation in CH4 production between species. Rather, differences in CH4 production between species on similar diets appear related to species-specific differences in food intake and digesta retention kinetics.
APPROXIMATE SAMPLING THEOREM FOR BIVARIATE CONTINUOUS FUNCTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨守志; 程正兴; 唐远炎
2003-01-01
An approximate solution of the refinement equation was given by its mask, and the approximate sampling theorem for bivariate continuous function was proved by applying the approximate solution. The approximate sampling function defined uniquely by the mask of the refinement equation is the approximate solution of the equation, a piece-wise linear function, and posseses an explicit computation formula. Therefore the mask of the refinement equation is selected according to one' s requirement, so that one may controll the decay speed of the approximate sampling function.
Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation
Vaserstein, Leonid N.
2006-01-01
It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.
Legendre rational approximation on the whole line
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO; Benyu; WANG; Zhongqing
2004-01-01
The Legendre rational approximation is investigated. Some approximation results are established, which form the mathematical foundation of a new spectral method on the whole line. A model problem is considered. Numerical results show the efficiency of this new approach.
An approximation technique for jet impingement flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald [Kent State University Ashtabula Department of Mathematical Sciences (United States); Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Massah, H. [Acoustic Research Center, Institute of Applied Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-03-10
The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.
Diophantine approximation and special Liouville numbers
Schleischitz, Johannes
2013-01-01
This paper introduces some methods to determine the simultaneous approximation constants of a class of well approximable numbers $\\zeta_{1},\\zeta_{2},...,\\zeta_{k}$. The approach relies on results on the connection between the set of all $s$-adic expansions ($s\\geq 2$) of $\\zeta_{1},\\zeta_{2},...,\\zeta_{k}$ and their associated approximation constants. As an application, explicit construction of real numbers $\\zeta_{1},\\zeta_{2},...,\\zeta_{k}$ with prescribed approximation properties are dedu...
Nonlinear approximation with bi-framelets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten; Gribonval, Rémi
2005-01-01
We study the approximation in Lebesgue spaces of wavelet bi-frame systems given by translations and dilations of a finite set of generators. A complete characterization of the approximation spaces associated with best m-term approximation of wavelet bi-framelet systems is given. The characterizat...
Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑志明
1999-01-01
A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.
NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION WITH GENERAL WAVE PACKETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L. Borup; M. Nielsen
2005-01-01
We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a complete characterization of the approximation spaces is derived.
Axiomatic Characterizations of IVF Rough Approximation Operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangji Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of axiomatic characterizations of IVF rough approximation operators. IVF approximation spaces are investigated. The fact that different IVF operators satisfy some axioms to guarantee the existence of different types of IVF relations which produce the same operators is proved and then IVF rough approximation operators are characterized by axioms.
Approximation properties of fine hyperbolic graphs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Benyin Fu
2016-05-01
In this paper, we propose a definition of approximation property which is called the metric invariant translation approximation property for a countable discrete metric space. Moreover, we use the techniques of Ozawa’s to prove that a fine hyperbolic graph has the metric invariant translation approximation property.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries, I: Direct estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
$-term approximation with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space...
Approximate Nearest Neighbor Queries among Parallel Segments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Malamatos, Theocharis; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
We develop a data structure for answering efficiently approximate nearest neighbor queries over a set of parallel segments in three dimensions. We connect this problem to approximate nearest neighbor searching under weight constraints and approximate nearest neighbor searching on historical data...
Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics
Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph
2011-01-01
This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the
Upper Bounds on Numerical Approximation Errors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper suggests a method for determining rigorous upper bounds on approximationerrors of numerical solutions to infinite horizon dynamic programming models.Bounds are provided for approximations of the value function and the policyfunction as well as the derivatives of the value function...... to approximations of a standard (strictly concave)growth model.KEYWORDS: Numerical approximation errors, Bellman contractions, Error bounds...
APPROXIMATE AMENABILITY OF CERTAIN INVERSE SEMIGROUP ALGEBRAS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mehdi ROSTAMI; Abdolrasoul POURABBAS; Morteza ESSMAILI
2013-01-01
In this article,the approximate amenability of semigroup algebra e1(S) is investigated,where S is a uniformly locally finite inverse semigroup.Indeed,we show that for a uniformly locally finite inverse semigroup S,the notions of amenability,approximate amenability and bounded approximate amenability of e1 (S) are equivalent.We use this to give a direct proof of the approximate amenability of e1(S) for a Brandt semigroup S.Moreover,we characterize the approximate amenability of e1(S),where S is a uniformly locally finite band semigroup.
Mapping moveout approximations in TI media
Stovas, Alexey
2013-11-21
Moveout approximations play a very important role in seismic modeling, inversion, and scanning for parameters in complex media. We developed a scheme to map one-way moveout approximations for transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI), which is widely available, to the tilted case (TTI) by introducing the effective tilt angle. As a result, we obtained highly accurate TTI moveout equations analogous with their VTI counterparts. Our analysis showed that the most accurate approximation is obtained from the mapping of generalized approximation. The new moveout approximations allow for, as the examples demonstrate, accurate description of moveout in the TTI case even for vertical heterogeneity. The proposed moveout approximations can be easily used for inversion in a layered TTI medium because the parameters of these approximations explicitly depend on corresponding effective parameters in a layered VTI medium.
On Gakerkin approximations for the quasigeostrophic equations
Rocha, Cesar B; Grooms, Ian
2015-01-01
We study the representation of approximate solutions of the three-dimensional quasigeostrophic (QG) equations using Galerkin series with standard vertical modes. In particular, we show that standard modes are compatible with nonzero buoyancy at the surfaces and can be used to solve the Eady problem. We extend two existing Galerkin approaches (A and B) and develop a new Galerkin approximation (C). Approximation A, due to Flierl (1978), represents the streamfunction as a truncated Galerkin series and defines the potential vorticity (PV) that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation B, due to Tulloch and Smith (2009b), represents the PV as a truncated Galerkin series and calculates the streamfunction that satisfies the inversion problem exactly. Approximation C, the true Galerkin approximation for the QG equations, represents both streamfunction and PV as truncated Galerkin series, but does not satisfy the inversion equation exactly. The three approximations are fundamentally different unless the b...
Approximate nearest neighbors via dictionary learning
Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2011-06-01
Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) in high dimensional vector spaces is a fundamental, yet challenging problem in many areas of computer science, including computer vision, data mining and robotics. In this work, we investigate this problem from the perspective of compressive sensing, especially the dictionary learning aspect. High dimensional feature vectors are seldom seen to be sparse in the feature domain; examples include, but not limited to Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) descriptors, Histogram Of Gradients, Shape Contexts, etc. Compressive sensing advocates that if a given vector has a dense support in a feature space, then there should exist an alternative high dimensional subspace where the features are sparse. This idea is leveraged by dictionary learning techniques through learning an overcomplete projection from the feature space so that the vectors are sparse in the new space. The learned dictionary aids in refining the search for the nearest neighbors to a query feature vector into the most likely subspace combination indexed by its non-zero active basis elements. Since the size of the dictionary is generally very large, distinct feature vectors are most likely to have distinct non-zero basis. Utilizing this observation, we propose a novel representation of the feature vectors as tuples of non-zero dictionary indices, which then reduces the ANN search problem into hashing the tuples to an index table; thereby dramatically improving the speed of the search. A drawback of this naive approach is that it is very sensitive to feature perturbations. This can be due to two possibilities: (i) the feature vectors are corrupted by noise, (ii) the true data vectors undergo perturbations themselves. Existing dictionary learning methods address the first possibility. In this work we investigate the second possibility and approach it from a robust optimization perspective. This boils down to the problem of learning a dictionary robust to feature
Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V
2016-09-01
This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day.
Orekhova, Natal'ya A; Modorov, Makar V
2016-09-01
This work is based on the comparative analysis of data obtained in the course of monitoring pygmy wood mouse populations (Apodemus uralensis Pallas, 1811) in the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) area and background territories. The effect of population size and its interaction with the radioactivity on biochemical parameters in the spleen and adrenal glands was studied. The concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and catalase as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated. The functional-metabolic shifts seen with large population sizes were characterized by delipidisation of adrenocortical cells, increased LPO as the main mechanism for steroidogenesis, growth of the protein components of the adrenal glands to maintain their hyperfunction, as well as immunosuppression associated with the restriction of carbohydrates providing splenocytes, reduction of DNA synthesis, and the development of a pro-/antioxidant imbalance. Reactivity of the neuroendocrine and hematopoietic systems of animals experiencing a high population density was higher in the EURT zone compared with the reference group. This difference can be explained by the additional stress from the chronic radiation exposure. The level of LPO, catalase activity, and DNA/protein ratio in the spleen and the total protein content in the adrenal glands were the most sensitive to the interaction of population size and radiation exposure. The harmful effect (distress) of the interaction of non-radiation and radiation factors can manifest when there is a population abundance above 30 ind./100 trap-day and a radiation burden which exceeds the lower boundary of the Derived Consideration Reference Levels, which is above 0.1 mGy/day. PMID:27353005
Frankenstein's Glue: Transition functions for approximate solutions
Yunes, N
2006-01-01
Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and proof that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the...
A Conditional Saddlepoint Approximation for Testing Problems
Gatto, R.; Jammalamadaka, SR
1999-01-01
A saddlepoint approximation is provided for the distribution function of one M statistic conditional on another M statistic. Many interesting statistics based on dependent quantities (e.g., spacings, multinomial frequencies, rank differences) can be expressed in terms of independent identically distributed random variables conditioned on their sum, so that this conditional saddlepoint approximation yields accurate approximations for the distribution of such statistics. This saddlepoint approx...
Approximation Resistant Predicates From Pairwise Independence
Austrin, Per
2008-01-01
We study the approximability of predicates on $k$ variables from a domain $[q]$, and give a new sufficient condition for such predicates to be approximation resistant under the Unique Games Conjecture. Specifically, we show that a predicate $P$ is approximation resistant if there exists a balanced pairwise independent distribution over $[q]^k$ whose support is contained in the set of satisfying assignments to $P$.
Weak approximation of second-order BSDEs
Possamaï, Dylan; Tan, Xiaolu
2013-01-01
We study the weak approximation of the second-order backward SDEs (2BSDEs), when the continuous driving martingales are approximated by discrete time martingales. We establish a convergence result for a class of 2BSDEs, using both robustness properties of BSDEs, as proved in Briand, Delyon and M\\'{e}min [Stochastic Process. Appl. 97 (2002) 229-253], and tightness of solutions to discrete time BSDEs. In particular, when the approximating martingales are given by some particular controlled Mark...
Nonadiabatic charged spherical evolution in the postquasistatic approximation
Rosales, L; Peralta, C; guez-Mueller, B Rodrí
2010-01-01
We apply the postquasistatic approximation, an iterative method for the evolution of self-gravitating spheres of matter, to study the evolution of dissipative and electrically charged distributions in General Relativity. We evolve nonadiabatic distributions assuming an equation of state that accounts for the anisotropy induced by the electric charge. Dissipation is described by streaming out or diffusion approximations. We match the interior solution, in noncomoving coordinates, with the Vaidya-Reissner-Nordstr\\"om exterior solution. Two models are considered: i) a Schwarzschild-like shell in the diffusion limit; ii) a Schwarzschild-like interior in the free streaming limit. These toy models tell us something about the nature of the dissipative and electrically charged collapse. Diffusion stabilizes the gravitational collapse producing a spherical shell whose contraction is halted in a short characteristic hydrodynamic time. The streaming out radiation provides a more efficient mechanism for emission of energ...
A Note on Generalized Approximation Property
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antara Bhar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a notion of generalized approximation property, which we refer to as --AP possessed by a Banach space , corresponding to an arbitrary Banach sequence space and a convex subset of , the class of bounded linear operators on . This property includes approximation property studied by Grothendieck, -approximation property considered by Sinha and Karn and Delgado et al., and also approximation property studied by Lissitsin et al. We characterize a Banach space having --AP with the help of -compact operators, -nuclear operators, and quasi--nuclear operators. A particular case for ( has also been characterized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semmler, Diego; Aumann, T.; Bauer, C.; Baumann, M.; Beckstein, M.; Beller, J.; Blecher, A.; Cvejin, N.; Duchene, M.; Hug, F.; Kahlbow, J.; Knoerzer, M.; Kreis, K.; Kremer, C.; Ries, P.; Romig, C.; Scheit, H.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Symochko, D.; Walz, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Lefol, R. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Loeher, B. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, Frankfurt (Germany); Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany)
2014-07-01
The low energy photon tagger NEPTUN at the S-DALINAC delivers a quasi-monoenergetic photon beam between about 4 MeV and 20 MeV with a resolution of approximately 25 keV. Tagged photons provide the possibility to measure the dipole strength of nuclei in the energy range below and above the neutron threshold. The highly efficient LaBr{sub 3} based spectrometer GALATEA will be used to detect not only the direct decays to the ground state, but also cascading decays can be measured with suitable efficiency. We will measure (γ,n)- and (γ,nγ)-reactions with neutron detectors based on plastic scintillators. This talk provides an overview about setup and goals of the NEPTUN experiment as well as the current state of the commissioning phase. Planned optimizations of the setup, based on the results of a test beam time in June 2013, are also presented.
INVARIANT RANDOM APPROXIMATION IN NONCONVEX DOMAIN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Shrivastava
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Random fixed point results in the setup of compact and weakly compact domain of Banach spaces which is not necessary starshaped have been obtained in the present work. Invariant random approximation results have also been determined asits application. In this way, random version of invariant approximation results due toMukherjee and Som [13] and Singh [17] have been given.
On approximating multi-criteria TSP
Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.
2009-01-01
We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized app
A case where BO Approximation breaks down
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ The Bom-Oppenheimer (BO)Approximation is ubiquitous in molecular physics,quantum physics and quantum chemistry. However, CAS researchers recently observed a breakdown of the Approximation in the reaction of fluorine with deuterium atoms.The result has been published in the August 24 issue of Science.
Computing Functions by Approximating the Input
Goldberg, Mayer
2012-01-01
In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…
Approximation of the Inverse -Frame Operator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M R Abdollahpour; A Najati
2011-05-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of (strong) projection method for -frames which works for all conditional -Riesz frames. We also derive a method for approximation of the inverse -frame operator which is efficient for all -frames. We show how the inverse of -frame operator can be approximated as close as we like using finite-dimensional linear algebra.
Two Point Pade Approximants and Duality
Banks, Tom
2013-01-01
We propose the use of two point Pade approximants to find expressions valid uniformly in coupling constant for theories with both weak and strong coupling expansions. In particular, one can use these approximants in models with a strong/weak duality, when the symmetries do not determine exact expressions for some quantity.
Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries I. Direct estimates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten
2004-01-01
with algorithmic constraints: thresholding and Chebychev approximation classes are studied, respectively. We consider embeddings of the Jackson type (direct estimates) of sparsity spaces into the mentioned approximation classes. General direct estimates are based on the geometry of the Banach space, and we prove...
Nonlinear approximation with general wave packets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
2005-01-01
We study nonlinear approximation in the Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with dictionaries formed by dilating and translating one single function g. A general Jackson inequality is derived for best m-term approximation with such dictionaries. In some special cases where g has a special structure, a comple...
Improved Approximation for the Directed Spanner Problem
Bhattacharyya, Arnab; Makarychev, Konstantin
2010-01-01
We prove that the size of the sparsest directed k-spanner of a graph can be approximated in polynomial time to within a factor of $\\tilde{O}(\\sqrt{n})$, for all k >= 3. This improves the $\\tilde{O}(n^{2/3})$-approximation recently shown by Dinitz and Krauthgamer.
On the closedness of approximation spectra
Parkkonen, Jouni; Paulin, Frédéric
2008-01-01
Generalizing Cusick's theorem on the closedness of the classical Lagrange spectrum for the approximation of real numbers by rational ones, we prove that various approximation spectra are closed, using penetration properties of the geodesic flow in cusp neighbourhoods in negatively curved manifolds and a result of Maucourant.
Inverse scattering problem in relativistic quasiclassical approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inverse scattering problem is solved on the basis of quasipotential approach in quantum field theory within the framework of relativistic quasiclassical approximation. Formulas of quasipotential restoration by phase shifts are derived. Cases of non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic approximations are investigated
Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums
Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.
2005-01-01
Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use
Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums
Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.
2003-01-01
Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use
On approximating multi-criteria TSP
Manthey, Bodo
2012-01-01
We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multicriteria traveling salesman problem (TSP). First, we devise randomized approximation algorithms for multicriteria maximum traveling salesman problems (Max-TSP). For multicriteria Max-STSP where the edge weights have to be symmet
Metadata for Approximate Query Answering Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Di Tria
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In business intelligence systems, data warehouse metadata management and representation are getting more and more attention by vendors and designers. The standard language for the data warehouse metadata representation is the Common Warehouse Metamodel. However, business intelligence systems include also approximate query answering systems, since these software tools provide fast responses for decision making on the basis of approximate query processing. Currently, the standard meta-model does not allow to represent the metadata needed by approximate query answering systems. In this paper, we propose an extension of the standard metamodel, in order to define the metadata to be used in online approximate analytical processing. These metadata have been successfully adopted in ADAP, a web-based approximate query answering system that creates and uses statistical data profiles.
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-01-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...
An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics
Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D
2012-01-01
A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated to their shapes. Indeed, in the so called "proximity force approximation" the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contribution of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied to different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful to discuss the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction i...
Frankenstein's glue: transition functions for approximate solutions
Yunes, Nicolás
2007-09-01
Approximations are commonly employed to find approximate solutions to the Einstein equations. These solutions, however, are usually only valid in some specific spacetime region. A global solution can be constructed by gluing approximate solutions together, but this procedure is difficult because discontinuities can arise, leading to large violations of the Einstein equations. In this paper, we provide an attempt to formalize this gluing scheme by studying transition functions that join approximate analytic solutions together. In particular, we propose certain sufficient conditions on these functions and prove that these conditions guarantee that the joined solution still satisfies the Einstein equations analytically to the same order as the approximate ones. An example is also provided for a binary system of non-spinning black holes, where the approximate solutions are taken to be given by a post-Newtonian expansion and a perturbed Schwarzschild solution. For this specific case, we show that if the transition functions satisfy the proposed conditions, then the joined solution does not contain any violations to the Einstein equations larger than those already inherent in the approximations. We further show that if these functions violate the proposed conditions, then the matter content of the spacetime is modified by the introduction of a matter shell, whose stress energy tensor depends on derivatives of these functions.
Optimizing the structure of Tetracyanoplatinate(II)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dohn, Asmus Ougaard; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2013-01-01
The geometry of tetracyanoplatinate(II) (TCP) has been optimized with density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to compare different computational strategies. Two approximate scalar relativistic methods, i.e. the scalar zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and non-relativistic ca......The geometry of tetracyanoplatinate(II) (TCP) has been optimized with density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to compare different computational strategies. Two approximate scalar relativistic methods, i.e. the scalar zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and non...
Orthorhombic rational approximants for decagonal quasicrystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Ranganathan; Anandh Subramaniam
2003-10-01
An important exercise in the study of rational approximants is to derive their metric, especially in relation to the corresponding quasicrystal or the underlying clusters. Kuo’s model has been the widely accepted model to calculate the metric of the decagonal approximants. Using an alternate model, the metric of the approximants and other complex structures with the icosahedral cluster are explained elsewhere. In this work a comparison is made between the two models bringing out their equivalence. Further, using the concept of average lattices, a modified model is proposed.
DIFFERENCE SCHEMES BASING ON COEFFICIENT APPROXIMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MOU Zong-ze; LONG Yong-xing; QU Wen-xiao
2005-01-01
In respect of variable coefficient differential equations, the equations of coefficient function approximation were more accurate than the coefficient to be frozen as a constant in every discrete subinterval. Usually, the difference schemes constructed based on Taylor expansion approximation of the solution do not suit the solution with sharp function.Introducing into local bases to be combined with coefficient function approximation, the difference can well depict more complex physical phenomena, for example, boundary layer as well as high oscillatory, with sharp behavior. The numerical test shows the method is more effective than the traditional one.
Approximately Liner Phase IIR Digital Filter Banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. D. Ćertić
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, uniform and nonuniform digital filter banks based on approximately linear phase IIR filters and frequency response masking technique (FRM are presented. Both filter banks are realized as a connection of an interpolated half-band approximately linear phase IIR filter as a first stage of the FRM design and an appropriate number of masking filters. The masking filters are half-band IIR filters with an approximately linear phase. The resulting IIR filter banks are compared with linear-phase FIR filter banks exhibiting similar magnitude responses. The effects of coefficient quantization are analyzed.
The Boussinesq approximation in rapidly rotating flows
Lopez, Jose M; Avila, Marc
2013-01-01
In the classical formulation of the Boussinesq approximation centrifugal buoyancy effects related to differential rotation, as well as strong vortices in the flow, are neglected. However, these may play an important role in rapidly rotating flows, such as in astrophysical and geophysical applications, and also in turbulent convection. We here provide a straightforward approach resulting in a Boussinesq-type approximation that consistently accounts for centrifugal effects. We further compare our new approach to the classical one in fluid flows confined between two differentially heated and rotating cylinders. The results justify the need of using the proposed approximation in rapidly rotating flows.
Mathematical analysis, approximation theory and their applications
Gupta, Vijay
2016-01-01
Designed for graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mathematics, optimization, and economics, this self-contained volume presents theory, methods, and applications in mathematical analysis and approximation theory. Specific topics include: approximation of functions by linear positive operators with applications to computer aided geometric design, numerical analysis, optimization theory, and solutions of differential equations. Recent and significant developments in approximation theory, special functions and q-calculus along with their applications to mathematics, engineering, and social sciences are discussed and analyzed. Each chapter enriches the understanding of current research problems and theories in pure and applied research.
Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Huiru; Don Hadwin
2005-01-01
One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).
Regression with Sparse Approximations of Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noorzad, Pardis; Sturm, Bob L.
2012-01-01
We propose sparse approximation weighted regression (SPARROW), a method for local estimation of the regression function that uses sparse approximation with a dictionary of measurements. SPARROW estimates the regression function at a point with a linear combination of a few regressands selected by a...... sparse approximation of the point in terms of the regressors. We show SPARROW can be considered a variant of \\(k\\)-nearest neighbors regression (\\(k\\)-NNR), and more generally, local polynomial kernel regression. Unlike \\(k\\)-NNR, however, SPARROW can adapt the number of regressors to use based on the...
Relativistic stellar pulsations in the Cowling approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Much that is known about the general pulsational properties of non-rotating Newtonian stars is traceable to the fact that in the Cowling approximation, the stellar pulsation equations can be cast in a nearly Sturm-Liouville form. In this paper, the relativistic Cowling approximation is investigated, and it is shown that in this approximation the equations for non-radial relativistic stellar pulsations are also of nearly Sturm-Liouville character. The consequences of this are discussed as a series of theorems regarding the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of g-, f- and p-modes in relativistic stars. (author)
Approximation of the semi-infinite interval
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. McD. Mercer
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The approximation of a function f∈C[a,b] by Bernstein polynomials is well-known. It is based on the binomial distribution. O. Szasz has shown that there are analogous approximations on the interval [0,∞ based on the Poisson distribution. Recently R. Mohapatra has generalized Szasz' result to the case in which the approximating function is αe−ux∑k=N∞(uxkα+β−1Γ(kα+βf(kαuThe present note shows that these results are special cases of a Tauberian theorem for certain infinite series having positive coefficients.
Choi, B. H.; Poe, R. T.
1977-01-01
A detailed vibrational-rotational (V-R) close-coupling formulation of electron-diatomic-molecule scattering is developed in which the target molecular axis is chosen to be the z-axis and the resulting coupled differential equation is solved in the moving body-fixed frame throughout the entire interaction region. The coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions in the body-fixed frame are given for each parity, and procedures are outlined for evaluating V-R transition cross sections on the basis of the body-fixed transition and reactance matrix elements. Conditions are discussed for obtaining identical results from the space-fixed and body-fixed formulations in the case where a finite truncated basis set is used. The hybrid theory of Chandra and Temkin (1976) is then reformulated, relevant expressions and formulas for the simultaneous V-R transitions of the hybrid theory are obtained in the same forms as those of the V-R close-coupling theory, and distorted-wave Born-approximation expressions for the cross sections of the hybrid theory are presented. A close-coupling approximation that conserves the internuclear axis component of the incident electronic angular momentum (l subscript z-prime) is derived from the V-R close-coupling formulation in the moving body-fixed frame.
Low Rank Approximation Algorithms, Implementation, Applications
Markovsky, Ivan
2012-01-01
Matrix low-rank approximation is intimately related to data modelling; a problem that arises frequently in many different fields. Low Rank Approximation: Algorithms, Implementation, Applications is a comprehensive exposition of the theory, algorithms, and applications of structured low-rank approximation. Local optimization methods and effective suboptimal convex relaxations for Toeplitz, Hankel, and Sylvester structured problems are presented. A major part of the text is devoted to application of the theory. Applications described include: system and control theory: approximate realization, model reduction, output error, and errors-in-variables identification; signal processing: harmonic retrieval, sum-of-damped exponentials, finite impulse response modeling, and array processing; machine learning: multidimensional scaling and recommender system; computer vision: algebraic curve fitting and fundamental matrix estimation; bioinformatics for microarray data analysis; chemometrics for multivariate calibration; ...
Methods of Fourier analysis and approximation theory
Tikhonov, Sergey
2016-01-01
Different facets of interplay between harmonic analysis and approximation theory are covered in this volume. The topics included are Fourier analysis, function spaces, optimization theory, partial differential equations, and their links to modern developments in the approximation theory. The articles of this collection were originated from two events. The first event took place during the 9th ISAAC Congress in Krakow, Poland, 5th-9th August 2013, at the section “Approximation Theory and Fourier Analysis”. The second event was the conference on Fourier Analysis and Approximation Theory in the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona, during 4th-8th November 2013, organized by the editors of this volume. All articles selected to be part of this collection were carefully reviewed.
Seismic wave extrapolation using lowrank symbol approximation
Fomel, Sergey
2012-04-30
We consider the problem of constructing a wave extrapolation operator in a variable and possibly anisotropic medium. Our construction involves Fourier transforms in space combined with the help of a lowrank approximation of the space-wavenumber wave-propagator matrix. A lowrank approximation implies selecting a small set of representative spatial locations and a small set of representative wavenumbers. We present a mathematical derivation of this method, a description of the lowrank approximation algorithm and numerical examples that confirm the validity of the proposed approach. Wave extrapolation using lowrank approximation can be applied to seismic imaging by reverse-time migration in 3D heterogeneous isotropic or anisotropic media. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis
Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.
1976-01-01
It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.
Broadband Approximations for Doubly Curved Reflector Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Schejbal
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The broadband approximations for shaped-beam doubly curved reflector antennas with primary feed (rectangular horn producing uniform amplitude and phase aperture distribution are derived and analyzed. They are very valuable for electromagnetic compatibility analyses both from electromagnetic interference and susceptibility point of view, because specialized more accurate methods such as physical optics are only used by antenna designers. To allow quick EMC analyses, typical values, beamwidth changes, sidelobe levels and aperture efficiencies are given for frequency changes approximately up to four times operating frequency. A comparison of approximated and measured patterns of doubly curved reflector antennas shows that the given approximation could be reliably used for analyses of pattern changes due to very broad frequency changes.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Selfconsistent approximations, symmetries and choice of representation
Leupold, Stefan
2006-01-01
In thermal field theory selfconsistent (Phi-derivable) approximations are used to improve (resum) propagators at the level of two-particle irreducible diagrams. At the same time vertices are treated at the bare level. Therefore such approximations typically violate the Ward identities connected to internal symmetries. Examples are presented how such violations can be tamed by a proper choice of representation for the fields which describe the system under consideration. These examples cover t...
Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility
Mostafazadeh, Ali
2014-01-01
arXiv:1401.4315v3 [quant-ph] 27 Feb 2014 Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility Ali Mostafazadeh∗ Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H( ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation ...
Approximate Bayesian computation in population genetics.
Beaumont, Mark A; Zhang, Wenyang; Balding, David J.
2002-01-01
We propose a new method for approximate Bayesian statistical inference on the basis of summary statistics. The method is suited to complex problems that arise in population genetics, extending ideas developed in this setting by earlier authors. Properties of the posterior distribution of a parameter, such as its mean or density curve, are approximated without explicit likelihood calculations. This is achieved by fitting a local-linear regression of simulated parameter values on simulated summ...
Approximation by Semigroups of Spherical Operators
Wang, Yuguang; Cao, Feilong
2011-01-01
This paper discusses the approximation by %semigroups of operators of class ($\\mathscr{C}_0$) on the sphere and focuses on a class of so called exponential-type multiplier operators. It is proved that such operators form a strongly continuous semigroup of contraction operators of class ($\\mathscr{C}_0$), from which the equivalence between approximation for these operators and $K$-functionals introduced by the operators is given. As examples, the constructed $r$-th Boolean of generalized spher...
Polynomial approximation of functions in Sobolev spaces
Dupont, T.; Scott, R.
1980-01-01
Constructive proofs and several generalizations of approximation results of J. H. Bramble and S. R. Hilbert are presented. Using an averaged Taylor series, we represent a function as a polynomial plus a remainder. The remainder can be manipulated in many ways to give different types of bounds. Approximation of functions in fractional order Sobolev spaces is treated as well as the usual integer order spaces and several nonstandard Sobolev-like spaces.
Introduction to the Maxwell Garnett approximation: tutorial.
Markel, Vadim A
2016-07-01
This tutorial is devoted to the Maxwell Garnett approximation and related theories. Topics covered in this first, introductory part of the tutorial include the Lorentz local field correction, the Clausius-Mossotti relation and its role in the modern numerical technique known as the discrete dipole approximation, the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula for isotropic and anisotropic media, multicomponent mixtures and the Bruggeman equation, the concept of smooth field, and Wiener and Bergman-Milton bounds. PMID:27409680
A Ballistic Monte Carlo Approximation of {\\pi}
Dumoulin, Vincent
2014-01-01
We compute a Monte Carlo approximation of {\\pi} using importance sampling with shots coming out of a Mossberg 500 pump-action shotgun as the proposal distribution. An approximated value of 3.136 is obtained, corresponding to a 0.17% error on the exact value of {\\pi}. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt at estimating {\\pi} using such method, thus opening up new perspectives towards computing mathematical constants using everyday tools.
Time Stamps for Fixed-Point Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damian, Daniela
2001-01-01
Time stamps were introduced in Shivers's PhD thesis for approximating the result of a control-flow analysis. We show them to be suitable for computing program analyses where the space of results (e.g., control-flow graphs) is large. We formalize time-stamping as a top-down, fixed......-point approximation algorithm which maintains a single copy of intermediate results. We then prove the correctness of this algorithm....
Parallel local approximation MCMC for expensive models
Conrad, Patrick; Davis, Andrew; Marzouk, Youssef; Pillai, Natesh; Smith, Aaron
2016-01-01
Performing Bayesian inference via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) can be exceedingly expensive when posterior evaluations invoke the evaluation of a computationally expensive model, such as a system of partial differential equations. In recent work [Conrad et al. JASA 2015, arXiv:1402.1694] we described a framework for constructing and refining local approximations of such models during an MCMC simulation. These posterior--adapted approximations harness regularity of the model to reduce the c...
The Actinide Transition Revisited by Gutzwiller Approximation
Xu, Wenhu; Lanata, Nicola; Yao, Yongxin; Kotliar, Gabriel
2015-03-01
We revisit the problem of the actinide transition using the Gutzwiller approximation (GA) in combination with the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, we compute the equilibrium volumes of the actinide series and reproduce the abrupt change of density found experimentally near plutonium as a function of the atomic number. We discuss how this behavior relates with the electron correlations in the 5 f states, the lattice structure, and the spin-orbit interaction. Our results are in good agreement with the experiments.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ+ pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Staying Thermal with Hartree Ensemble Approximations
Salle, M; Vink, Jeroen C
2000-01-01
Using Hartree ensemble approximations to compute the real time dynamics of scalar fields in 1+1 dimension, we find that with suitable initial conditions, approximate thermalization is achieved much faster than found in our previous work. At large times, depending on the interaction strength and temperature, the particle distribution slowly changes: the Bose-Einstein distribution of the particle densities develops classical features. We also discuss variations of our method which are numerically more efficient.
Approximations for the Erlang Loss Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mejlbro, Leif
1998-01-01
Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error <1E-2, and methods are indicated for improving this bound.......Theoretically, at least three formulae are needed for arbitrarily good approximates of the Erlang Loss Function. In the paper, for convenience five formulae are presented guaranteeing a relative error
Approximate Assertional Reasoning Over Expressive Ontologies
Tserendorj, Tuvshintur
2010-01-01
In this thesis, approximate reasoning methods for scalable assertional reasoning are provided whose computational properties can be established in a well-understood way, namely in terms of soundness and completeness, and whose quality can be analyzed in terms of statistical measurements, namely recall and precision. The basic idea of these approximate reasoning methods is to speed up reasoning by trading off the quality of reasoning results against increased speed.
Phase Transitions for Greedy Sparse Approximation Algorithms
Blanchard, Jeffrey D.; Cartis, Coralia; Tanner, Jared; Thompson, Andrew
2010-01-01
A major enterprise in compressed sensing and sparse approximation is the design and analysis of computationally tractable algorithms for recovering sparse, exact or approximate, solutions of underdetermined linear systems of equations. Many such algorithms have now been proven to have optimal-order uniform recovery guarantees using the ubiquitous Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) (Candes and Tao (2005) [11]). However, without specifying a matrix, or class of matrices, it is unclear when the ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Payman
1997-01-01
This paper deals with a projection algorithm for stochastic approximation using simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation for optimization under inequality constraints where no direct gradient of the loss function is available and the inequality constraints are given as explicit functions...
Benchmarking mean-field approximations to level densities
Alhassid, Y.; Bertsch, G. F.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Nakada, H.
2016-04-01
We assess the accuracy of finite-temperature mean-field theory using as a standard the Hamiltonian and model space of the shell model Monte Carlo calculations. Two examples are considered: the nucleus 162Dy, representing a heavy deformed nucleus, and 148Sm, representing a nearby heavy spherical nucleus with strong pairing correlations. The errors inherent in the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations are analyzed by comparing the entropies of the grand canonical and canonical ensembles, as well as the level density at the neutron resonance threshold, with shell model Monte Carlo calculations, which are accurate up to well-controlled statistical errors. The main weak points in the mean-field treatments are found to be: (i) the extraction of number-projected densities from the grand canonical ensembles, and (ii) the symmetry breaking by deformation or by the pairing condensate. In the absence of a pairing condensate, we confirm that the usual saddle-point approximation to extract the number-projected densities is not a significant source of error compared to other errors inherent to the mean-field theory. We also present an alternative formulation of the saddle-point approximation that makes direct use of an approximate particle-number projection and avoids computing the usual three-dimensional Jacobian of the saddle-point integration. We find that the pairing condensate is less amenable to approximate particle-number projection methods because of the explicit violation of particle-number conservation in the pairing condensate. Nevertheless, the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory is accurate to less than one unit of entropy for 148Sm at the neutron threshold energy, which is above the pairing phase transition. This result provides support for the commonly used "back-shift" approximation, treating pairing as only affecting the excitation energy scale. When the ground state is strongly deformed, the Hartree-Fock entropy is significantly
Cross sections for electron-hydrogen collisions in the Born approximation to the reactance matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Born partial-wave integrals have been performed for a range of energies and total cross sections are presented for electron-hydrogen-atom excitation both in the conventional first Born approximation (Born I) and the unitarised Born approximation (Born II). Exchange effects are not included. With the exception of exact resonance-allowed transitions (n = n', lambda = 1) results are presented for all transitions between hydrogen-atom states whose principal quantum number is less than or equal to 4. (author)
Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms
Liang, Faming
2010-10-01
The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.
Tree-fold loop approximation of AMD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ono, Akira [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science
1997-05-01
AMD (antisymmetrized molecular dynamics) is a frame work for describing a wave function of nucleon multi-body system by Slater determinant of Gaussian wave flux, and a theory for integrally describing a wide range of nuclear reactions such as intermittent energy heavy ion reaction, nucleon incident reaction and so forth. The aim of this study is induction on approximation equation of expected value, {nu}, in correlation capable of calculation with time proportional A (exp 3) (or lower), and to make AMD applicable to the heavier system such as Au+Au. As it must be avoided to break characteristics of AMD, it needs not to be anxious only by approximating the {nu}-value. However, in order to give this approximation any meaning, error of this approximation will have to be sufficiently small in comparison with bond energy of atomic nucleus and smaller than 1 MeV/nucleon. As the absolute expected value in correlation may be larger than 50 MeV/nucleon, the approximation is required to have a high accuracy within 2 percent. (G.K.)
An Approximation Algorithm for #k-SAT
Thurley, Marc
2011-01-01
We present a simple randomized algorithm that approximates the number of satisfying assignments of Boolean formulas in conjunctive normal form. To the best of our knowledge this is the first algorithm which approximates #k-SAT for any k >= 3 within a running time that is not only non-trivial, but also significantly better than that of the currently fastest exact algorithms for the problem. More precisely, our algorithm is a randomized approximation scheme whose running time depends polynomially on the error tolerance and is mildly exponential in the number n of variables of the input formula. For example, even stipulating sub-exponentially small error tolerance, the number of solutions to 3-CNF input formulas can be approximated in time O(1.5366^n). For 4-CNF input the bound increases to O(1.6155^n). We further show how to obtain upper and lower bounds on the number of solutions to a CNF formula in a controllable way. Relaxing the requirements on the quality of the approximation, on k-CNF input we obtain sign...
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Approximating light rays in the Schwarzschild field
Semerak, Oldrich
2014-01-01
A short formula is suggested which approximates photon trajectories in the Schwarzschild field better than other simple prescriptions from the literature. We compare it with various "low-order competitors", namely with those following from exact formulas for small $M$, with one of the results based on pseudo-Newtonian potentials, with a suitably adjusted hyperbola, and with the effective and often employed approximation by Beloborodov. Our main concern is the shape of the photon trajectories at finite radii, yet asymptotic behaviour is also discussed, important for lensing. An example is attached indicating that the newly suggested approximation is usable--and very accurate--for practical solving of the ray-deflection exercise.
On the approximate zero of Newton method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄正达
2003-01-01
A judgment criterion to guarantee a point to be a Chen' s approximate zero of Newton method for solving nonlinear equation is sought by dominating sequence techniques. The criterion is based on the fact that the dominating function may have only one simple positive zero, assuming that the operator is weak Lipschitz continuous, which is much more relaxed and can be checked much more easily than Lipschitz continuous in practice. It is demonstrated that a Chen' s approximate zero may not be a Smale' s approximate zero. The error estimate obtained indicated the convergent order when we use |f(x) | < ε to stop computation in software.The result can also be applied for solving partial derivative and integration equations.
Large scale systems approximation: Analysis and control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work concerns the study of the approximation of high dimensional systems by low order models. This approximation is defined by aggregation methods, the method based on singular perturbations and a relatively recent method. This later one is formulated in a particular representation of the system and is called balanced realisation method. The application of the approximation is then studied in the case of suboptimal control theory for the several defined models. The results of numerical simulation for the analysis and control are carried on two examples defined by a model of a nuclear reactor core of order nine and a steam generator of a fuel station of order twenty and permitted to develop a comparative study of the performances of the different methods analysed in the case of open loop and closed loop models
Numerical approximation of partial differential equations
Bartels, Sören
2016-01-01
Finite element methods for approximating partial differential equations have reached a high degree of maturity, and are an indispensible tool in science and technology. This textbook aims at providing a thorough introduction to the construction, analysis, and implementation of finite element methods for model problems arising in continuum mechanics. The first part of the book discusses elementary properties of linear partial differential equations along with their basic numerical approximation, the functional-analytical framework for rigorously establishing existence of solutions, and the construction and analysis of basic finite element methods. The second part is devoted to the optimal adaptive approximation of singularities and the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations arising from finite element discretizations. In the third part, the mathematical framework for analyzing and discretizing saddle-point problems is formulated, corresponding finte element methods are analyzed, and particular ...
Approximate Bayesian Computation: a nonparametric perspective
Blum, Michael
2010-01-01
Approximate Bayesian Computation is a family of likelihood-free inference techniques that are well-suited to models defined in terms of a stochastic generating mechanism. In a nutshell, Approximate Bayesian Computation proceeds by computing summary statistics s_obs from the data and simulating summary statistics for different values of the parameter theta. The posterior distribution is then approximated by an estimator of the conditional density g(theta|s_obs). In this paper, we derive the asymptotic bias and variance of the standard estimators of the posterior distribution which are based on rejection sampling and linear adjustment. Additionally, we introduce an original estimator of the posterior distribution based on quadratic adjustment and we show that its bias contains a fewer number of terms than the estimator with linear adjustment. Although we find that the estimators with adjustment are not universally superior to the estimator based on rejection sampling, we find that they can achieve better perfor...
On approximation of Markov binomial distributions
Xia, Aihua; 10.3150/09-BEJ194
2010-01-01
For a Markov chain $\\mathbf{X}=\\{X_i,i=1,2,...,n\\}$ with the state space $\\{0,1\\}$, the random variable $S:=\\sum_{i=1}^nX_i$ is said to follow a Markov binomial distribution. The exact distribution of $S$, denoted $\\mathcal{L}S$, is very computationally intensive for large $n$ (see Gabriel [Biometrika 46 (1959) 454--460] and Bhat and Lal [Adv. in Appl. Probab. 20 (1988) 677--680]) and this paper concerns suitable approximate distributions for $\\mathcal{L}S$ when $\\mathbf{X}$ is stationary. We conclude that the negative binomial and binomial distributions are appropriate approximations for $\\mathcal{L}S$ when $\\operatorname {Var}S$ is greater than and less than $\\mathbb{E}S$, respectively. Also, due to the unique structure of the distribution, we are able to derive explicit error estimates for these approximations.
The unitary convolution approximation for heavy ions
Grande, P L
2002-01-01
The convolution approximation for the impact-parameter dependent energy loss is reviewed with emphasis on the determination of the stopping force for heavy projectiles. In this method, the energy loss in different impact-parameter regions is well determined and interpolated smoothly. The physical inputs of the model are the projectile-screening function (in the case of dressed ions), the electron density and oscillators strengths of the target atoms. Moreover, the convolution approximation, in the perturbative mode (called PCA), yields remarkable agreement with full semi-classical-approximation (SCA) results for bare as well as for screened ions at all impact parameters. In the unitary mode (called UCA), the method contains some higher-order effects (yielding in some cases rather good agreement with full coupled-channel calculations) and approaches the classical regime similar as the Bohr model for large perturbations (Z/v>>1). The results are then used to compare with experimental values of the non-equilibri...
Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo
2004-01-01
The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.
Local density approximations from finite systems
Entwistle, Mike; Wetherell, Jack; Longstaff, Bradley; Ramsden, James; Godby, Rex
2016-01-01
The local density approximation (LDA) constructed through quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) is the most common approximation to the exchange-correlation functional in density functional theory. We introduce an alternative set of LDAs constructed from slab-like systems of one, two and three electrons that resemble the HEG within a finite region, and illustrate the concept in one dimension. Comparing with the exact densities and Kohn-Sham potentials for various test systems, we find that the LDAs give a good account of the self-interaction correction, but are less reliable when correlation is stronger or currents flow.
Weisskopf--Wigner approximation in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several approximations involved in the usual Weisskopf-Wigner treatment of the emission of light by an atom are investigated. The system considered is a recoilless, nonrelativistic hydrogen atom interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field, in dipole approximation (with a nonrelativistic cutoff in momentum space). Since only electric dipole waves interact with the atom, the Hamiltonian can be expressed in a simple one-dimensional form. The time evolution of the system is determined by resolvent operator techniques. The method goes beyond the analysis by Van Hove and Hugenholtz, allowing one to treat also fields of finite intensity in the infinite-volume limit. A comparison between this and other techniques is made
Extending the Eikonal Approximation to Low Energy
Capel, Pierre; Ogata, Kazuyuki
2014-01-01
E-CDCC and DEA, two eikonal-based reaction models are compared to CDCC at low energy (e.g. 20AMeV) to study their behaviour in the regime at which the eikonal approximation is supposed to fail. We confirm that these models lack the Coulomb deflection of the projectile by the target. We show that a hybrid model, built on the CDCC framework at low angular momenta and the eikonal approximation at larger angular momenta gives a perfect agreement with CDCC. An empirical shift in impact parameter can also be used reliably to simulate this missing Coulomb deflection.
Computing Nash Equilibria: Approximation and Smoothed Complexity
Chen, Xi; Deng, Xiaotie; Teng, Shang-Hua
2006-01-01
We show that the BIMATRIX game does not have a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme, unless PPAD is in P. In other words, no algorithm with time polynomial in n and 1/\\epsilon can compute an \\epsilon-approximate Nash equilibrium of an n by nbimatrix game, unless PPAD is in P. Instrumental to our proof, we introduce a new discrete fixed-point problem on a high-dimensional cube with a constant side-length, such as on an n-dimensional cube with side-length 7, and show that they are PPAD-co...
Generalized companion matrix for approximate GCD
Boito, Paola
2011-01-01
We study a variant of the univariate approximate GCD problem, where the coe?- cients of one polynomial f(x)are known exactly, whereas the coe?cients of the second polynomial g(x)may be perturbed. Our approach relies on the properties of the matrix which describes the operator of multiplication by gin the quotient ring C[x]=(f). In particular, the structure of the null space of the multiplication matrix contains all the essential information about GCD(f; g). Moreover, the multiplication matrix exhibits a displacement structure that allows us to design a fast algorithm for approximate GCD computation with quadratic complexity w.r.t. polynomial degrees.
Static correlation beyond the random phase approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
derived from Hedin's equations (Random Phase Approximation (RPA), Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF), Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE), and Time-Dependent GW) all reproduce the correct dissociation limit. We also show that the BSE improves the correlation energies obtained within RPA and TDHF significantly...... for intermediate binding distances. A Hubbard model for the dimer allows us to obtain exact analytical results for the various approximations, which is readily compared with the exact diagonalization of the model. Moreover, the model is shown to reproduce all the qualitative results from the ab initio...
BEST APPROXIMATION BY DOWNWARD SETS WITH APPLICATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
H.Mohebi; A. M. Rubinov
2006-01-01
We develop a theory of downward sets for a class of normed ordered spaces. We study best approximation in a normed ordered space X by elements of downward sets, and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any element of best approximation by a closed downward subset of X. We also characterize strictly downward subsets of X, and prove that a downward subset of X is strictly downward if and only if each its boundary point is Chebyshev. The results obtained are used for examination of some Chebyshev pairs (W,x), where x ∈ X and W is a closed downward subset of X.
A cryogenic system for TIBER II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phase II of the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II) study describes one option for a small, economical, next-generation tokamak. Because of its small size, minimum shielding is used between the plasma and the toroidal-field (TF) coils. Consequently, a large cryogenic system (approximately 70 kW at 4.5 K) capable of delivering forced-flow helium is required. This paper describes a cryogenic system that meets this requirement and includes TIBER-II requirements
Nonlinear approximation in alpha-modulation spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten
2006-01-01
The α-modulation spaces are a family of spaces that contain the Besov and modulation spaces as special cases. In this paper we prove that brushlet bases can be constructed to form unconditional and even greedy bases for the α-modulation spaces. We study m -term nonlinear approximation with brushlet...
An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory
Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.
1992-05-01
We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.
Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Mazaheri
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.
Median Approximations for Genomes Modeled as Matrices.
Zanetti, Joao Paulo Pereira; Biller, Priscila; Meidanis, Joao
2016-04-01
The genome median problem is an important problem in phylogenetic reconstruction under rearrangement models. It can be stated as follows: Given three genomes, find a fourth that minimizes the sum of the pairwise rearrangement distances between it and the three input genomes. In this paper, we model genomes as matrices and study the matrix median problem using the rank distance. It is known that, for any metric distance, at least one of the corners is a [Formula: see text]-approximation of the median. Our results allow us to compute up to three additional matrix median candidates, all of them with approximation ratios at least as good as the best corner, when the input matrices come from genomes. We also show a class of instances where our candidates are optimal. From the application point of view, it is usually more interesting to locate medians farther from the corners, and therefore, these new candidates are potentially more useful. In addition to the approximation algorithm, we suggest a heuristic to get a genome from an arbitrary square matrix. This is useful to translate the results of our median approximation algorithm back to genomes, and it has good results in our tests. To assess the relevance of our approach in the biological context, we ran simulated evolution tests and compared our solutions to those of an exact DCJ median solver. The results show that our method is capable of producing very good candidates. PMID:27072561
WEIGHTED APPROXIMATION ON SZASZ-TYPE OPERATORS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Guo
2003-01-01
In this paper, we use weighted modules ω2φλ (f,t)w to study the pointwise approximation on Szász-type operators, and obtain the direct and converse theorem, as well as characterizations of the pointwise approxi- mation of Jacobi-weighted Szász-type operators.
Semi-classical approximation and microcanonical ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For quantum mechanical systems with spherically symmetric potential the improved W.K.B. approximation of Elworthy and Truman corresponds to the classical microcanonical ensemble in the limit where (h/2π) goes to zero, at least for small time. (orig.)
Eignets for function approximation on manifolds
Mhaskar, H N
2009-01-01
Let $\\XX$ be a compact, smooth, connected, Riemannian manifold without boundary, $G:\\XX\\times\\XX\\to \\RR$ be a kernel. Analogous to a radial basis function network, an eignet is an expression of the form $\\sum_{j=1}^M a_jG(\\circ,y_j)$, where $a_j\\in\\RR$, $y_j\\in\\XX$, $1\\le j\\le M$. We describe a deterministic, universal algorithm for constructing an eignet for approximating functions in $L^p(\\mu;\\XX)$ for a general class of measures $\\mu$ and kernels $G$. Our algorithm yields linear operators. Using the minimal separation amongst the centers $y_j$ as the cost of approximation, we give modulus of smoothness estimates for the degree of approximation by our eignets, and show by means of a converse theorem that these are the best possible for every \\emph{individual function}. We also give estimates on the coefficients $a_j$ in terms of the norm of the eignet. Finally, we demonstrate that if any sequence of eignets satisfies the optimal estimates for the degree of approximation of a smooth function, measured in ter...
Approximating the Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem
Fiorini, Samuel
2011-01-01
We prove a strong inapproximability result for the Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem. Our proof also implies that the problem remains NP-hard even when restricted to metric instances. Furthermore, we give a MST-based 2-approximation algorithm for the problem for such instances.
Optical bistability without the rotating wave approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharaby, Yasser A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Joshi, Amitabh, E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.ed [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Hassan, Shoukry S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.co [Mathematics Department, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)
2010-04-26
Optical bistability for two-level atomic system in a ring cavity is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA) using non-autonomous Maxwell-Bloch equations with Fourier decomposition up to first harmonic. The first harmonic output field component exhibits reversed or closed loop bistability simultaneously with the usual (anti-clockwise) bistability in the fundamental field component.
Kravchuk functions for the finite oscillator approximation
Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
1995-01-01
Kravchuk orthogonal functions - Kravchuk polynomials multiplied by the square root of the weight function - simplify the inversion algorithm for the analysis of discrete, finite signals in harmonic oscillator components. They can be regarded as the best approximation set. As the number of sampling points increases, the Kravchuk expansion becomes the standard oscillator expansion.
An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.
2004-01-01
Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...
Approximations in the PE-method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arranz, Marta Galindo
1996-01-01
Two differenct sources of errors may occur in the implementation of the PE methods; a phase error introduced in the approximation of a pseudo-differential operator and an amplitude error generated from the starting field. First, the inherent phase errors introduced in the solution are analyzed...
Quantum electrodynamics in a classical approximation, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum electrodynamics is formulated in a classical approximation. A quantum mechanical proper-time is employed as a useful parameter, which enables us to elucidate the relationship between quantum electrodynamics and classical electrodynamics. The classical motion of a charged particle is realized as an asymptotic limit of quantum electrodynamics. (author)
Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. J. Shipway
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment which can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down which can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. Multimode aerosol with only N different dispersion characteristics require only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap and very accurate physically-based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and NWP models.
On operators with bounded approximation property
Reinov, Oleg
2013-01-01
It is known that any separable Banach space with BAP is a complemented subspace of a Banach space with a basis. We show that every operator with bounded approximation property, acting from a separable Banach space, can be factored through a Banach space with a basis.
Approximation by Penultimate Extreme Value Distributions
L.F.M. de Haan (Laurens)
1998-01-01
textabstractn certain cases the distribution of the normalized maximum of a sample can be better approximated by a sequence of different extreme value distributions than by the final one. We show that these cases are rather restricted and that the possible improvement is not spectacular.
Approximate fixed point of Reich operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Saha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, we study the existence of approximate fixed pointfor Reich operator together with the property that the ε-fixed points are concentrated in a set with the diameter tends to zero if ε $to$ > 0.
An Approximation of Ultra-Parabolic Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allaberen Ashyralyev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The first and second order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of the initial boundary value problem for ultra-parabolic equations are presented. Stability of these difference schemes is established. Theoretical results are supported by the result of numerical examples.
Approximation Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis
Feldman, A.B.
2010-01-01
Model-based diagnosis is an area of abductive inference that uses a system model, together with observations about system behavior, to isolate sets of faulty components (diagnoses) that explain the observed behavior, according to some minimality criterion. This thesis presents greedy approximation a
Neutral kaons without Weisskopf-Wigner approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The model-independent formalism is constructed to describe decays of mixed particles without using the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation (WWA). Limitations due to various symmetries are traced for neutral K mesons. As an application we show that effects of CPT violation and going beyond WWA may be separated and studied independently. 16 refs
Neutral Kaons without Weisskopf-Wigner Approximation
Azimov, Ya. I.
1995-01-01
The model-independent formalism is constructed to describe decays of mixed particles without using the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. Limitations due to various symmetries are traced for neutral $K-$mesons. As an application we show that effects of $CPT-$violation and going beyond WWA may be separated and studied independently.
Approximating the DGP of China's Quarterly GDP
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H. Mees (Heleen)
2010-01-01
textabstractWe demonstrate that the data generating process (DGP) of China’s cumulated quarterly Gross Domestic Product (GDP, current prices), as it is reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, can be (very closely) approximated by a simple rule. This rule is that annual growth in any
Empirical progress and nomic truth approximation revisited
Kuipers, Theodorus
2014-01-01
In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of
Image Compression Via a Fast DCT Approximation
Bayer, F. M.; Cintra, R. J.
2010-01-01
Discrete transforms play an important role in digital signal processing. In particular, due to its transform domain energy compaction properties, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is pivotal in many image processing problems. This paper introduces a numerical approximation method for the DCT based
Double unresolved approximations to multiparton scattering amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present approximations to tree-level multiparton scattering amplitudes which are appropriate when two partons are unresolved. These approximations are required for the analytic isolation of infrared singularities of n+2 parton scattering processes contributing to the next-to-next-to-leading order corrections to n jet cross sections. In each case the colour ordered matrix elements factorise and yield a function containing the singular factors multiplying the n-parton amplitudes. When the unresolved particles are colour unconnected, the approximations are simple products of the familiar eikonal and Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions used to describe single unresolved emission. However, when the unresolved particles are colour connected the factorisation is more complicated and we introduce new and general functions to describe the triple collinear and soft/collinear limits in addition to the known double soft gluon limits of Berends and Giele. As expected the triple collinear splitting functions obey an N=1 SUSY identity. To illustrate the use of these double unresolved approximations, we have examined the singular limits of the tree-level matrix elements for e+e- →5 partons when only three partons are resolved. When integrated over the unresolved regions of phase space, these expressions will be of use in evaluating the O(αs3) corrections to the three-jet rate in electron-positron annihilation. (orig.)
$\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories
Arrizabalaga, A
2003-01-01
We discuss the method of $\\Phi$-derivable approximations in gauge theories. There, two complications arise, namely the violation of Bose symmetry in correlation functions and the gauge dependence. For the latter we argue that the error introduced by the gauge dependent terms is controlled, therefore not invalidating the method.