WorldWideScience

Sample records for approach menace terroriste

  1. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique - approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S

    2005-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  2. La Mauritanie à l’épreuve de l’islamisme et des menaces terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Choplin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En quelques semaines, la Mauritanie a été confrontée à plusieurs attaques terroristes revendiquées par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb. L’islamisme radical n’est pas nouveau dans ce pays mais le terrorisme et la violence des actes perpétrés sont quant à eux inédits. Si les courants radicaux gagnent en audience, ils ne doivent pour autant être confondus avec le terrorisme qui n’a pas d’ancrage en Mauritanie. La menace vient pour l’instant de l’extérieur.Since a few weeks, Mauritania is in front of several terrorist attacks claimed by Al-Qaïda in Maghreb. Radical Islamism is not new in this country but terrorism and violence of these acts are totally unheard. If radical tendencies grow their audience, they do not must be confused with terrorism which have not any rooting in Mauritania. For this moment, threats are coming from outside.

  3. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach; Menace terroriste, approche medicale nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Th. de [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Vidal, D. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, 38 - La Tronche (France); Renaudeau, C. [Ecole du Val de Grace, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  4. The Charlie Hebdo Terror Attack in Paris: Follow-up of French Citizens’ Terrorist Threat Perception and Its Aftermath [L’attaque Terroriste de Charlie Hebdo à Paris : Evolution temporelle de la Perception de la Menace Terroriste et de ses Conséquences auprès des Citoyens Français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pelletier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the most frightful large-scale societal threats nowadays. The January 7, 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris shattered French’s sense of security. The present research investigates French citizen’s ('N' = 160 terrorist threat perception (personal vs. collective, behavioral changes, social sharing of emotions and perceived socioemotional climate using the social stage model of collective coping with disasters (Pennebaker & Harber, 1993. This study was conducted by a questionnaire at three points of time (i.e., one week, one month and two month following the attack. The results suggest that terrorist threat perception has not decreased across time at the personal level nor at the collective level. However, the extent of social sharing of emotions and the positive socioemotional climate decreased from the initial emergency stage to the subsequent adaptation stage. Such findings point to the importance of taking temporality into account to provide better understanding of lay people’s responses to terrorism. Résumé Le terrorisme est l’une des menaces sociétales à grande échelle les plus effroyables de nos jours. L’attaque terroriste de Charlie Hebdo du 7 janvier 2015 à Paris a ébranlé le sentiment de sécurité des Français. La présente recherche examine la perception de la menace terroriste (personnelle vs. collective, les changements comportementaux, le partage social des émotions et le climat socio-émotionnel perçu auprès des citoyens français (N = 160 en se basant sur le modèle des étapes sociales de coping collectif avec les catastrophes (Pennebaker & Harber, 1993. Cette étude a été conduite par questionnaire à trois points temporels (c.-à-d., une semaine, un mois et deux mois après l’attaque. Les résultats suggèrent que la perception de la menace terroriste n’a pas diminué à travers le temps, ni au niveau personnel, ni au niveau collectif. Toutefois, l’ampleur du partage

  5. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  6. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique. Approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C

    2005-07-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  7. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  8. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  9. Glycoxidation of biological macromolecules: a critical approach to halt the menace of glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saheem; Khan, M Salman; Akhter, Firoz; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Amir; Ashraf, J M; Pandey, Ramendra Pati; Shahab, Uzma

    2014-11-01

    Glycation is the result of covalent bonding of a free amino group of biological macromolecules with a reducing sugar, which results in the formation of a Schiff base that undergoes rearrangement, dehydration and cyclization to form a more stable Amadori product. The final products of nonenzymatic glycation of biomacromolecules like DNA, proteins and lipids are known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs may be generated rapidly or over long times stimulated by distinct triggering mechanisms, thereby accounting for their roles in multiple settings and disease states. Both Schiff base and Amadori glycation products generate free radicals resulting in decline of antioxidant defense mechanisms and can damage cellular organelles and enzymes. This critical review primarily focuses on the mechanistic insight of glycation and the most probable route for the formation of glycation products and their therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, the prevention of glycation reaction using therapeutic drugs such as metformin, pyridoxamine and aminoguanidine (AG) are discussed with special emphasis on the novel concept of the bioconjugation of these drugs like, AG with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). At or above 10 mM concentration, AG is found to be toxic and therefore has serious health concerns, and the study warrants doing this novel bioconjugation of AG with GNPs. This approach might increase the efficacy of the AG at a reduced concentration with low or no toxicity. Using the concept of synthesis of GNPs with abovementioned drugs, it is assumed that toxicity of various drugs which are used at high doses can be minimized more effectively.

  10. The Phantom Menace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2013-01-01

    as a phantom menace, which asserts itself through a form of omnipresent fear, nurtured by an inherent opaqueness. As this fundamental fear progressively permeates the nomadic landscape, it engenders a recasting of mobile strategies among the nomadic pastoralist groups who inhabit the interstitial desert spaces....

  11. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  12. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  13. Lycopene powers the inhibition of glycation-induced diabetic nephropathy: a novel approach to halt the AGE-RAGE axis menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrez, Shams; Al-Shali, Khalid Zaki; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-01-01

    There are accumulating evidences suggesting that interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors (RAGEs) induces oxidative stress and subsequently encourages inflammatory reactions, thereby resulting in progressive alteration in renal architecture and function. Interventions that reduce the tissue burden of AGEs have yielded significant positive results in inhibiting the progression of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Lycopene, a carotenoid, plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress and hence might prove an efficient antiglycating agent. Current study investigates the effect of lycopene in downregulating the menace caused by ribose-induced glycation both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that treatment with lycopene decelerated the ribose induced AGE formation in HK-2 cells and in rat kidneys thereby downregulating the expression RAGE. HK-2 cells with decreased levels of RAGE showed a decline in nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) expressions. Administration of ribose not only induced hyperglycemia in Wistar rats but also developed diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, lycopene was found effective in relieving the biochemical symptoms of DN. Thus lycopene provides protection against development of diabetic nephropathy and ameliorates renal function by halting AGE-RAGE axis.

  14. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  15. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  16. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism.

  17. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  18. Profile of a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    than those questions dealing with terrorists and their methods. Explosives are used routinely and plastique has entered the terrorist’s preferred...to handle. (12:23) The female Lebanese terrorist, May Mansin, easily concealed plastique in a body cavity and proceeded to blow a hole into the side

  19. A risk-based approach to setting priorities in protecting bridges against terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maria; Lambert, James H; Mosenthal, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    This article presents an approach to the problem of terrorism risk assessment and management by adapting the framework of the risk filtering, ranking, and management method. The assessment is conducted at two levels: (1) the system level, and (2) the asset-specific level. The system-level risk assessment attempts to identify and prioritize critical infrastructures from an inventory of system assets. The definition of critical infrastructures offered by Presidential Decision Directive 63 was used to determine the set of attributes to identify critical assets--categorized according to national, regional, and local impact. An example application is demonstrated using information from the Federal Highway Administration National Bridge Inventory for the State of Virginia. Conversely, the asset-specific risk assessment performs an in-depth analysis of the threats and vulnerabilities of a specific critical infrastructure. An illustration is presented to offer some insights in risk scenario identification and prioritization, multiobjective evaluation of management options, and extreme-event analysis for critical infrastructure protection.

  20. Needs of Terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov; Konstantin G. Surnov

    2009-01-01

    This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at diff erent stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of infl uence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  1. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  2. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  3. Terrorist Gang Smashed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese authorities said recently they have broken up a terrorist ring headed by "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)" sepamusts and captured more than 10 members,seizing their self-made explosives.

  4. Will it Ever be Possible to Profile the Terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rae

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper critiques the claim that terrorists can be profiled – that is to say that terrorists possess distinguishable attributes that can be conceivably identified by an observer. In doing so, the most prominent profiling parameters - racial, gender, age, pathological, psychological and socioeconomic – are investigated. The above approaches are found to have little to no applied value in identifying terrorists from a societal population. The dominant criticisms of these methods emphasise their crude reductionism, an absence of internal and external validity, and their lack of practical application. Current evidence indicates that the profiling of terrorists is a futile venture.'

  5. Action against terrorist funding

    OpenAIRE

    Cranston, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Editorial comment on international measures to counter terrorist funding. Short commentary by Ross Cranston QC MP, Chairman of the SLAS Export Working Group on the Legal implications of the interdiction of terrorist property. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  6. Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W; Cutter, Susan L; Hardisty, Frank

    2007-12-01

    We describe a quantitative methodology to characterize the vulnerability of U.S. urban centers to terrorist attack, using a place-based vulnerability index and a database of terrorist incidents and related human casualties. Via generalized linear statistical models, we study the relationships between vulnerability and terrorist events, and find that our place-based vulnerability metric significantly describes both terrorist incidence and occurrence of human casualties from terrorist events in these urban centers. We also introduce benchmark analytic technologies from applications in toxicological risk assessment to this social risk/vulnerability paradigm, and use these to distinguish levels of high and low urban vulnerability to terrorism. It is seen that the benchmark approach translates quite flexibly from its biological roots to this social scientific archetype.

  7. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  8. Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste - internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters......Fremmedkrigere i terroristers tjeneste – internationale, europæiske og danske regler om foreign terrorist fighters...

  9. Understanding the Terrorist Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  10. Understanding the Terrorist Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Editor’s Note: While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today’s investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.

  11. On Modeling Terrorist Frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Quite recently, distance-bounding protocols received a lot of attention as they offer a good solution to thwart relay attacks. Their security models at still unstable, especially when considering terrorist fraud. This considers the case where a malicious prover would try to bypass the protocol by colluding with an adversary without leaking his credentials. Two formal models appeared recently: one due to Fischlin and Onete and another one by Boureanu, Mitrokotsa, and Vaudenay. Both were propos...

  12. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number...... of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later....

  13. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    This report summarizes techniques that use possibility theory to estimate the risk of terrorist acts. These techniques were developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as part of the National Infrastructure Simulation Analysis Center (NISAC) project. The techniques have been used to estimate the risk of various terrorist scenarios to support NISAC analyses during 2004. The techniques are based on the Logic Evolved Decision (LED) methodology developed over the past few years by Terry Bott and Steve Eisenhawer at LANL. [LED] The LED methodology involves the use of fuzzy sets, possibility theory, and approximate reasoning. LED captures the uncertainty due to vagueness and imprecision that is inherent in the fidelity of the information available for terrorist acts; probability theory cannot capture these uncertainties. This report does not address the philosophy supporting the development of nonprobabilistic approaches, and it does not discuss possibility theory in detail. The references provide a detailed discussion of these subjects. [Shafer] [Klir and Yuan] [Dubois and Prade] Suffice to say that these approaches were developed to address types of uncertainty that cannot be addressed by a probability measure. An earlier report discussed in detail the problems with using a probability measure to evaluate terrorist risk. [Darby Methodology]. Two related techniques are discussed in this report: (1) a numerical technique, and (2) a linguistic technique. The numerical technique uses traditional possibility theory applied to crisp sets, while the linguistic technique applies possibility theory to fuzzy sets. Both of these techniques as applied to terrorist risk for NISAC applications are implemented in software called PossibleRisk. The techniques implemented in PossibleRisk were developed specifically for use in estimating terrorist risk for the NISAC program. The LEDTools code can be used to perform the same linguistic evaluation as

  14. The Terrorist Event

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, Bill

    2007-01-01

    In his article "The Terrorist Event," Bill Nichols examines how the US media attempted to make meaning of the events of 9/11. How were news anchors and producers to explain an event that escaped their comprehension? Without context or historical equivalence in the US, news outlets groped for a narrative in which to frame the event even if that meant creating the meaning themselves. In their attempt to create meaning, what sorts of fetishes and fantasies did they draw-on and in turn create? Th...

  15. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Hunter, Samuel T.; Cushenbery, Lily D.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a…

  16. Terrorist Approach to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    audio , and real-time video) to capture the attention of their audiences. Advanced technology enables media outlets to incorporate B-Roll with the...Examples include 1986 interviews with Abul Abbas of the PLO and Abu Nidal (Nacos, 1998, p.62) and al Qa’ida sending audio and video messages to al...such as encryption and steganography (hiding messages within documents and images in plain sight. Cyber support such as communication, planning and

  17. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  18. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  19. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  20. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Anibal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions

  1. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweneka, Chidi Victor; Tapha-Sosseh, Ndey; Sosa, Anibal

    2009-11-19

    Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions.

  2. Modeling the Combined Terrorist-Narcotics Trafficker Threat to National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    from Corpus Christi , Texas, approached a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) informant. He was seeking the help of a Mexican drug cartel to...2004 Madrid bombers, with decentralized terrorist cells having in-house criminal capabilities, and the Taliban with coalitions between terrorist groups

  3. What makes a terrorist stop being a terrorist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Horgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Feet first”. That’s how one terrorist leader told recruits was the only way out. It makes sense. Allowing members to just walk away wouldn’t be good for the group’s image. And yet – at the same time as Islamic State parades its European jihadis in shocking beheading videos and continues to recruit aggressively around the world – terrorists do disengage all the time. Some quietly disappear. Others go public, telling their stories on TV or in autobiographies. They embrace their new identity as an “ex-“ or “former” to warn others of the dangers of involvement. We have also come to know formers through the rise of so-called de-radicalization programs. For the past decade, I’ve examined how and why terrorists walk away, and I’ve also closely examined programs aimed at helping ease that transition.

  4. Summary of a joint US-Japan study of potential approaches to reduce the attractiveness of various nuclear materials for use in a nuclear explosive device by a terrorist group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inoue, N.; Kuno, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sagara, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-49 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); Ebbinghaus, B.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box L-168, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Murphy, J.; Dalton, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave, SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Nagayama, Y. [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a joint US-Japan study to establish a mutual understanding, through scientific-based study, of potential approaches to reduce the attractiveness of various nuclear materials for use in a terrorist nuclear explosive device (NED). 4 approaches that can reduce materials attractiveness with a very high degree of effectiveness are: -) diluting HEU with natural or depleted U to an enrichment of less than 10% U-235; -) storing Pu in nuclear fuel that is not man portable and with a dose rate greater or equal to 10 Gy/h at 1 m; -) storing Pu or HEU in heavy items, i.e. not transportable, provided the removal of the Pu or HEU from the item requires a purification/processing capability; and -) converting Pu and HEU to very dilute forms (such as wastes) that, without any security barriers, would require very long acquisition times to acquire a Category I quantity of Pu or of HEU. 2 approaches that can reduce materials attractiveness with a high degree of effectiveness are: -) converting HEU-fueled research reactors into LEU-fueled research reactors or dilute HEU with natural or depleted U to an enrichment of less than 20% U-235; -) converting U/Al reactor fuel into U/Si reactor fuel. Other approaches have been assessed as moderately or totally inefficient to reduce the attractiveness of nuclear materials.

  5. Evaluation of an expedient terrorist vehicle barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, D; Lewis, P; Wattenburg, B; Mote, P

    2000-02-28

    The threat of terrorist vehicle bombs has become evident in the past few years. The explosive power that can be generated by a ''home made'' bomb carried by a standard van or moderate size truck can generate sufficient blast overpressures to cause major damage or catastrophic collapse to building structures. There are a number of means available to help prevent a successful terrorist attack on a facility. One measure consists of the gathering of intelligence that can be used to thwart an attack before it takes place. The design and retrofit of structures and structural systems which can resist blast loadings and protect occupants is another area which is currently receiving a great deal of attention by the security community. Another measure, which can be used to protect many existing facilities, is to restrict access to the facility. This option consists of keeping unauthorized vehicles as far as possible from the facility so that if a vehicle bomb does approach the facility, the distance at which the bomb is detonated will result in significant reduction in the overpressures by the time the blast wave reaches the protected structure. This paper describes a simple and efficient vehicle barrier concept that can be used to prevent unauthorized vehicle access. The feasibility study described herein consisted of a field experimental program to test the validity of the barrier concept, and demonstrated the ability of the simple barrier to effectively disable speeding vehicles.

  6. Historical and Geographical Features of Terrorist Activity in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprunchuk I.P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of terrorism as a global security. In a study of terrorism the historical and geographical approach is applied. By the beginning of the 21st century, terrorism has become a global threat to security for all countries, leading to mass casualties, economic damage and political instability. Analysis of the global historical and geographical patterns is one of the most important aspects of the study of the contemporary phenomenon of terrorism. It allows you to better understand the mechanisms of terrorist activities and identify its spatial changes over the long run. The article deals with the historical and geographical features of terrorism in the world and contains the data on the first manifestations of terrorism in various regions of the world. The first premise of terrorism was the emergence of the state, on the one hand, and the presence of a politically active population, on the other hand. The author presents the main factors of such manifestations and the basic historical stages of development of terrorism, since the 18th century. On the basis of the selected stages, the territorial changes of terrorist activities in the world are investigated. Also, the basic directions of terrorist activities, such as a separatist, radical religious, “left” radical and others are described. In compliance with the proposed stages of terrorist activity, the ratio of these directions at different times and in different regions of the world is analyzed.

  7. Understanding the Complexity of Terrorist Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fellman, Philip V

    2009-01-01

    Complexity science affords a number of novel tools for examining terrorism, particularly network analysis and NK-Boolean fitness landscapes. The following paper explores various aspects of terrorist networks which can be illuminated through applications of non-linear dynamical systems modeling to terrorist network structures. Of particular interest are some of the emergent properties of terrorist networks as typified by the 9-11 hijackers network, properties of centrality, hierarchy and distance, as well as ways in which attempts to disrupt the transmission of information through terrorist networks may be expected to produce greater or lesser levels of fitness in those organizations.

  8. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  9. US: PJAK are terrorists - Obama's Iran Overture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2......Om den amerikanske stats beslutning om at erklære den iransk-kurdiske guerillagruppe PJAK for terrorister. Udgivelsesdato: 5/2...

  10. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  11. Hatred of the System: Menacing Loners and Autonomous Cells in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, G.M.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the violent threat emerging from “menacing loners” and autonomous cells in The Netherlands is being historicized and contextualized by providing quantitative and qualitative insight into this threat and illuminating some of the most dramatic incidents. Although beyond the core purpo

  12. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  13. Combatting Commercial Terrorists: The PKK Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    wish to offend terrorists by calling them terrorists. The French and British press 13 Roy Godson and...selling drugs on the streets. Roth and Sever observe some points on the PKK’s young collaborators in the retail drug selling business: PKK often use... young , uneducated, unemployed, and anti-social.323 Most of them see working for the organization as a well-paid job. The organization also provides

  14. When Do Governments Concede to Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    which started out as a civil war and has continued 9 until today’s conflict that involves terrorists, drug cartels , and self-defense groups. What...power between the government and terrorist groups (FARC), drug cartels , and paramilitary self-defense 10 groups (AUC). It is similar to La...http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/22/world/americas/colombian- rebels-kill-19-soldiers.html Richardson, L. (2007). Britain and the IRA. In R. Art & L

  15. Lone-Actor Terrorist Target Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Lone-actor terrorist attacks have risen to the forefront of the public's consciousness in the past few years. Some of these attacks were conducted against public officials. The rise of hard-to-detect, low-tech attacks may lead to more public officials being targeted. This paper explores whether different behavioral traits are apparent within a sample of lone-actor terrorists who plotted against high-value targets (including public officials) than within a sample of lone actors who plotted against members of the public. Utilizing a unique dataset of 111 lone-actor terrorists, we test a series of hypotheses related to attack capability and operational security. The results indicate that very little differentiates those who attack high-value targets from those who attack members of the public. We conclude with a series of illustrations to theorize why this may be the case. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Use of Structures in Communication Networks to Track Membership in Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A Eiselt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper investigates possibilities to detect terrorist cells based on communications between individuals without the need for wiretapping. The advantages of such procedure are apparent: fewer (if any legal requirements, and, most importantly, the possibility to automate the surveillance. After a brief review of the pertinent literature, we offer three approaches that are designed to aid in the detection of not only terrorist cells, but also the command structures within the cells. The techniques are demonstrated by using a small illustration. The paper concludes by outlining limitations of the procedures described here.

  17. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  18. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  19. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  20. Media participation and mental health in terrorist attack survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Dyb, Grete

    2014-12-01

    Terrorism and disasters receive massive media attention, and victims are often approached by reporters. Not much is known about how terror and disaster victims perceive the contact with media and whether such experiences influence mental health. In this study, we describe how positive and negative experiences with media relate to posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions among survivors of the 2011 Utøya Island terrorist attack in Norway. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 285 survivors (47.0% female and 53.0% male) 14-15 months after the terrorist attack. Most survivors were approached by reporters (94%), and participated in media interviews (88%). The majority of survivors evaluated their media contact and participation as positive, and media participation was unrelated to PTS reactions. Survivors who found media participation distressing had more PTS reactions (quite distressing: B = 0.440, extremely distressing: B = 0.611, p = .004 in adjusted model). Perceiving media participation as distressing was slightly associated with lower levels of social support (r = -.16, p = .013), and regretting media participation was slightly associated with feeling let down (r = .18, p = .004). Reporters should take care when interviewing victims, and clinicians should be aware of media exposure as a potential additional strain on victims.

  1. Menace of E-Wastes in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, one of the most manifest indices of new age globalisation has been the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products, principally from developed countries to the developing countries otherwise known as the ‘Third World’. While waste generation is essentially a domestic problem, the issue has assumed global importance as industrialised countries continually seek convenient disposal sites outside their own shores. Despite increasing global, regional, and national legal and policy interventions to curb the menace of toxic and hazardous waste dumping, however, the problem has largely not abated. Against the backdrop of the enormous negative consequences of the transboundary movement of toxic and hazardous waste products in developing countries, and the impunity engendered by this ubiquitous practice, is it not high time that new strategies were evolved for tackling this menace? With the global proliferation of information technology continuing to escalate at an exponential rate, driven largely by the lure of exploiting the globalised info-tech market, this essay accentuates the latent dangers looming in developing countries particularly with regard to electronic wastes. Reflecting on the litany of treaties already adopted in responding to the problem of toxic and hazardous wastes, this essay attempts to highlight alternative policy and strategic initiatives against current trends.

  2. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  3. The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-01-01

    We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968–2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes. PMID:23185267

  4. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  5. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable.

  6. Terrorist financing beyond 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Loretta Napoleoni

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of counter-terrorism policies, e.g., the Patriot Act and the war in Iraq, on the financial structure of European terror networks and argues that such policies, far from defeating Jihadist activities, ended up boosting them. In response to such measures, terror finances have been skillfully restructured, the main changes being the decentralization of funding activity in Europe and in the Middle East and the declining cost of terrorist attacks.

  7. Targeting Terrorist Leaders: The Peruvian Untouchables Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Dedication The Peruvian National Police is a divisional organization82 subdivided into directorates and regions (as divisions ) that are focused on...23 Strong, 203. 24 Revista Debate, El Poder en el Perú. (Power in Peru) (Lima: DESCO, 1983 1992). 25 Max...response to the increasing terrorist attacks in Lima, a division of the State Security Directorate was created with the name of Counter Subversion Division

  8. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  9. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  10. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  11. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore...

  12. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  13. Radioactive Fallout from Terrorist Nuclear Detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R E

    2007-05-03

    Responding correctly during the first hour after a terrorist nuclear detonation is the key to reducing casualties from a low-yield surface burst, and a correct response requires an understanding of the rapidly changing dose rate from fallout. This report provides an empirical formula for dose rate as a function of time and location that can guide the response to an unexpected nuclear detonation. At least one post-detonation radiation measurement is required if the yield and other characteristics of the detonation are unknown.

  14. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  15. Disrupting Threat Finances: Using Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    homicides of U.S. citizens overseas, sabotage, and extortion by threatening the use of WMD. 4.6.2.1. Terrorist Financing Operations Section (TFOS... fraudulent travel documents and, to the extent attainable, by enhancing terrorist screening and passenger security procedures—and b) continue

  16. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a practi

  17. 22 CFR 40.32 - Terrorist activities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terrorist activities. 40.32 Section 40.32 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.32 Terrorist...

  18. 31 CFR 597.309 - Foreign terrorist organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign terrorist organization. 597.309 Section 597.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  19. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions...

  20. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  1. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model are developed for modeling the hybrid relational structure and complex operational processes, respectively. To intuitively elucidate this method, the agent based modeling is used to simulate the terrorist network and test the performance in diverse scenarios. Based on the experimental results, we show how the changes of operational environments affect the development of terrorist organization in terms of its recovery and capacity to perform future tasks. The potential strategies are also discussed, which can be used to restrain the activities of terrorists.

  2. What explains the survival of terrorist groups? Alliances and competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Phillips

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do some terrorist groups last longer than others? What does this longevity tell us about the effectiveness of terrorist organisations? This article first examines why organisational survival can be considered to be an element of organisational effectiveness. Second, the article reviews the recent literature on terrorist group longevity,including a systematic examination of ten quantitative studies on the subject. The analysis shows that certain factors are repeatedly associated with longevity, such as group size and participation in terrorist group alliances. Third, given the theoretical interest in interorganisational relationships,consideration is then given to arguments on the likely reasons terrorist group alliances and intergroup competition contribute to group longevity. Finally, some suggestions are made to move research on this topic forward.

  3. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  4. Social threat and motor resonance: when a menacing outgroup delays motor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Capellini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor resonance (MR involves the activation of matching motor representations while observing others’ actions. Recent research has shown that such a phenomenon is likely to be influenced by higher order variables such as social factors (e.g., ethnic group membership. The present study investigates whether and how the perception of a social threat elicited by an outgroup member and by contextual cues can modulate motor responses while an individual observes others’ movements. In an experimental study based on an action observation paradigm, we asked participants to provide answers through computer mouse movements (MouseTracker. We manipulated the agents’ group membership (ingroup vs. outgroup and the social valence of the objects present in a context (neutral vs. threatening to elicit social menace through contextual cues. Response times and computer mouse trajectories were recorded. The results show a higher level of MR (i.e., participants started to respond earlier and were faster at responding when observing an action performed by the ingroup members rather than by the outgroup members only when threatening objects are present in a given context. Participants seem to resonate better with their ingroup; conversely, the outgroup member movements tend to delay motor responses. Therefore, we extend prior research going beyond the general ingroup bias effect on MR and showing that the interaction between membership and contextual cues is likely to elicit threat-related stereotypes. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Social Threat and Motor Resonance: When a Menacing Outgroup Delays Motor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Roberta; Sacchi, Simona; Ricciardelli, Paola; Actis-Grosso, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Motor resonance (MR) involves the activation of matching motor representations while observing others’ actions. Recent research has shown that such a phenomenon is likely to be influenced by higher order variables such as social factors (e.g., ethnic group membership). The present study investigates whether and how the perception of a social threat elicited by an outgroup member and by contextual cues can modulate motor responses while an individual observes others’ movements. In an experimental study based on an action observation paradigm, we asked participants to provide answers through computer mouse movements (MouseTracker). We manipulated the agents’ group membership (ingroup vs. outgroup) and the social valence of the objects present in a context (neutral vs. threatening) to elicit social menace through contextual cues. Response times and computer mouse trajectories were recorded. The results show a higher level of MR (i.e., participants started to respond earlier and were faster at responding) when observing an action performed by the ingroup members rather than by the outgroup members only when threatening objects are present in a given context. Participants seem to resonate better with their ingroup; conversely, the outgroup member movements tend to delay motor responses. Therefore, we extend prior research going beyond the general ingroup bias effect on MR and showing that the interaction between membership and contextual cues is likely to elicit threat-related stereotypes. Practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27847491

  6. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  7. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    try to fill these gaps of the terrorist narcotic interactions by providing a model which could offer a reasonable solution for cutting the links...consumption. In addition to undermining economic and social development, the use of these drugs has brought misery to thousands of people and contributed...consists of nine stages: extracting the morphine from raw opium, separating the morphine solution from the water-insoluble opium components, treatment

  8. Psychological interventions for terroristic trauma: prevention, crisis management, and clinical treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist attacks combine features of a criminal assault, a mass casualty disaster and an act of war Accordingly, this article presents a model for prevention, response and recovery from the psychological impact of a terror attack. The nature of terrorism is delineated and the various psychological effects are described, including diagnostic clinical syndromes, as well as individual reactions. Interventions in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist attack include on-scene crisis intervention, short-term psychological stabilization, and longer-term psychotherapeutic approaches. Special techniques are described for individuals, families, children, and large groups of survivors and responders. Finally, the ways that mental health clinicians can serve as valuable consultants to community recovery efforts are discussed.

  9. How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors.

  10. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  11. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  12. Cross-Milieu Terrorist Collaboration: Using Game Theory to Assess the Risk of a Novel Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Gary A; Zhuang, Jun; Weerasuriya, Sitara

    2017-02-01

    This article uses a game-theoretic approach to analyze the risk of cross-milieu terrorist collaboration-the possibility that, despite marked ideological differences, extremist groups from very different milieus might align to a degree where operational collaboration against Western societies becomes possible. Based upon theoretical insights drawn from a variety of literatures, a bargaining model is constructed that reflects the various benefits and costs for terrorists' collaboration across ideological milieus. Analyzed in both sequential and simultaneous decision-making contexts and through numerical simulations, the model confirms several theoretical arguments. The most important of these is that although likely to be quite rare, successful collaboration across terrorist milieus is indeed feasible in certain circumstances. The model also highlights several structural elements that might play a larger role than previously recognized in the collaboration decision, including that the prospect of nonmaterial gains (amplification of terror and reputational boost) plays at least as important a role in the decision to collaborate as potential increased capabilities does. Numerical simulation further suggests that prospects for successful collaboration over most scenarios (including operational) increase when a large, effective Islamist terrorist organization initiates collaboration with a smaller right-wing group, as compared with the other scenarios considered. Although the small number of historical cases precludes robust statistical validation, the simulation results are supported by existing empirical evidence of collaboration between Islamists and right- or left-wing extremists. The game-theoretic approach, therefore, provides guidance regarding the circumstances under which such an unholy alliance of violent actors is likely to succeed.

  13. Survival of the Fittest: Why Terrorist Groups Endure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. Young

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Why do terrorist groups endure? This question is relevant to scholars and policy makers alike. In the past, this issue was not been addressed in a systematic fashion. Recent work investigates this question using data on transnational groups and finds that factors associated with the home country can influence the duration the group endures. Applying the theory of outbidding to terrorist group survival, we argue that strategic competition among groups predicts group duration. Using the Global Terrorism Database, we develop a dataset using the terrorist group as the unit of analysis to model the duration of group activity and thus include the largest sample of groups yet. Controlling for previous explanations of both group duration and terrorism, we find a robust effect for the impact that group competition has on terrorist group survival.

  14. Assessment of area under menace of torrents in Shivalik region of Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A. K.; Aggarwal, R. K.; Sharma, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    Torrents are causing vast area submergence and damage to life, property and infrastructure almost every year. This is the most common problem in foothills of Shivaliks, spread over the northern states of India. With the help of modern tools like GIS and remote sensing techniques, a study has been made to assess the extent of problem more accurately.Data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellites has been used for gathering the information about the area under study. The data and imageries were acquired for different northern states under Shivalik region viz. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttranchal/Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh (UT). Data were collected and analyzed with the help of Punjab Remote Sensing Centre Ludhiana and Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre Dehradun. The results shows that the area under torrents and rivers was found to be 323 sq. km in Punjab, 400 sq.km in Himachal Pradesh, 238 sq.km in Haryana, 414 sq.km in Uttar Pradesh/Uttranchal and about 140 sq.km in J and K., which may vary every year depending on the monsoon and other factors in the Shivalik region. The assessment of the magnitude of the problem provides the insight and need of reclamation of the affected land and suitable technology to control the flashy torrents, which do much damage in the rainy season and causes flood in the downstream areas. About 1500-sq. km area lies under torrents and the area affected can be up to 7,500 sq. km in the Shivaliks. This demands a development of economically viable and suitable technology to combat the menace of torrent in the region.

  15. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the Ku Klux Klan network. There is a lengthy and distressing chronicle of maiming, menacing, and, occasionally, even murder of the innocent by other...and racist American Ku Klux Klans have atrophied drastically. Once a mass movement, now but numerous cells; they have never disappeared in 150...institutions opposed to racial equality. Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Fall 2010 Christopher C. Harmon [ 48 ] Federal power has not ended the Klan or

  16. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  17. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  18. A Survey on Terrorist Network Mining: Current Trends and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Tiwari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the modernization and widespread usage of Internet, the security of the mankind has become one of the major issues today. The threat of human society from the terrorists is the challenge faced dominantly. Advancement in the technology has not only helped the common people for the growth but also these inhuman people to adversely affect the society with sophisticated techniques. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed and detected. To achieve this, the law enforcement agencies are using data mining techniques as one of the effective solution. One such technique of data mining is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways foridentifying terrorist activities.

  19. Terrorists, Geopolitics and Kenya’s Proposed Border Wall with Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon John Cannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addressing border security appears to be a plausible approach for states that suffer from terrorism. Kenya’s border wall is to keep terrorists out of Kenya. Utilizing a comparative approach, this paper explores the efficacy of border walls, particularly Kenya’s wall with Somalia. Findings show that walls rarely accomplish stated goals and have unintended consequences. In Kenya’s case, it may reignite border disputes and separate communities. The success of Kenya’s border wall is low given the high levels of corruption and the fact that walls have been demonstrated to only be as good as the people who guard them.

  20. Theoretical perspectives of terrorist enemies as networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spulak, Robert George, Jr.; Glicken, Jessica

    2005-08-01

    This perspective of terrorist enemies as networks by two distinguished associate fellows of the Joint Special Operations University (JSOU) follows as a result of its recent initiative to support USSOCOM strategic planning for the Global War on Terrorism. The paper is a manifestation of JSOU's goals for contributing products that will advance SOF strategic art and generating strategic outreach to the military, civilian, and academic communities to enrich those products. Dr. Robert Spulak and Dr. Jessica Glicken Turnley presented the findings of this paper to assembled strategic planners from USSOCOM, other combatant commands, and interagency players at the Center for Special Operations plan development conference, September 2005, in Tampa, Florida. At that meeting, the authors put forward a number of helpful planning concepts based on their professional studies in science and the humanities and their experiences in government and business. The JSOU Strategic Studies Department is pleased to facilitate the association of USSOCOM strategic planners with civilian expertise and insights that can broaden military thought and encourage planning decisions directly relevant to the changing global environment. Through JSOU's strategic outreach initiative, experts in many professional disciplines have signaled their willingness to support the Nation's counterterrorism efforts. In that spirit, JSOU is proud to commend this paper to SOF readers and appreciates the support of Dr. Spulak and Dr. Turnley.

  1. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  2. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  3. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF DISTRIBUTION OF TERRORIST THREAT IN NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beslan A. Tarchokov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our country, like the rest of the world, has been for many years, it is taking all possible measures in order to find an effective response to terrorism, which, sadly aware, has indeed become one of the main threats to all mankind, one of the most burning issues of the day.Theoretical and practical problems of the nature and spread of the modern terrorist threat in the North Caucasus are subject to careful scrutiny and a greater or lesser extent taken into account in the practice of public authorities.In recent years, in the North Caucasus region remains sufficiently high level of terrorist threats. Illegal armed groups, despite the adoption of various measures, including force action on the part of the security services and police forces, still retain the ability to recover its numerical capacity and infrastructure.Terrorist practice under religious banners is the most well-known, very widespread and prolonged in time. Increasingly growing terrorist potential, largely with religious overtones, it is formed and acutely manifested in the present time in connection with a number of negative processes characteristic of globalization.The special features that define the ability to determine the religion as an effective ideological cover acquire certain conditions extremist, including terrorist orientation, include deep rootedness of religion in the minds of the society as a certain unifying symbols as socialization factor for certain people, their ideas and actions. 

  5. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  6. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guikema, S.D., E-mail: sguikema@jhu.ed [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway); Aven, T. [Department of Industrial Economics, Risk Management and Planning, University of Stavanger (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  7. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Apostolakis, G.E. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)]. E-mail: apostola@mit.edu

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when

  8. Sub Saharan African Terrorist Groups’ use of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Bertram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent actions by French military forces in Niger and the global prominence of terrorist groups such as Al Shabaab and Boko Haram, have highlighted the growing counter terrorist focus on the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. Additionally in a post Bin Laden world and with the immanent withdrawal of coalition combat troops from Afghanistan, there is the possibility of Africa as a continent becoming the new front in the Global War on Terror ('Mben' et al., 2013. However, it is a mistake to assume that Africa’s story is uniformly one of violence and death. Vibrant cultures and a rugged entrepreneurial spirit have combined with a robust Internet backbone, to create the embryonic emergence of high tech hotspots across Africa. With rising IT literacy levels, more and more Africans are becoming connected to the information super highway on a daily basis (Graham, 2010. A tiny minority of these Africans are terrorists.

  9. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    The law enforcement agencies need up-to-the minute intelligence about terrorist threats, which makes the development of expanded and improved intelligence a pre-requisite for their success As such, the intelligence community is actively developing new technologies to facilitate the identification...... and targeting of new and emerging threats. These threats can be manifested in network-centric form of organizations, doctrines, and technologies attuned to the information age. It is a widely held belief that terrorist activities are done by dispersed organizations (like non-hierarchical organizations), small...... groups, and individuals who communicate, coordinate and conduct their campaign in a network-like manner. There is a pressing need to automatically collect data on terrorist networks, analyze such networks to find hidden relations and groups, prune datasets to locate regions of interest, detect key...

  10. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  11. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  12. Selection, Availability, and Opportunity: The Conditional Effect of Poverty on Terrorist Group Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a determinant of terrorist group participation, but existing research reveals mixed support for this relationship. Some studies find that macroeconomic decline is associated with increased production of terrorists, but micro-level research suggests terrorists have above average socioeconomic status and educational…

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  14. Terrorists and Fair Trial: The Right to a Fair Trial for Alleged Terrorists Detained in Guantánamo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ambos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into whether the right to a fair trial can be restricted with regard to alleged terrorists within the framework of the ‘war on terror’. After briefly identifying the relevant sources of this right and its content, possible restrictions are analysed. The paper elaborates, in particular, on international humanitarian law, such as the Third and Fourth Geneva Convention, and international human rights law, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man. It further deals with US constitutional law. We conclude that the right to a fair trial fully applies to alleged terrorists irrespective of the context of their detention (armed conflict or peace or the qualification of these terrorists (de facto or unlawful combatants and thus amounts to a general principle of transnational criminal law.

  15. Medical aspects of terrorist bombings - a focus on DCS and DCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, Georgi I; Kjossev, Kirien C

    2014-01-01

    Although terrorist bombings have tormented the world for a long time, currently they have reached unprecedented levels and become a continuous threat without borders, race or age. Almost all of them are caused by improvised explosive devices. The unpredictability of the terrorist bombings, leading to simultaneous generation of a large number of casualties and severe "multidimensional" blast trauma require a constant vigilance and preparedness of every hospital worldwide. Approximately 1-2.6% of all trauma patients and 7% of the combat casualties require a massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is presented in 65% of them with mortality exceeding 50%. Damage control resuscitation is a novel approach, developed in the military practice for treatment of this subgroup of trauma patients. The comparison with the conventional approach revealed mortality reduction with 40-74%, lower frequency of abdominal compartment syndrome (8% vs. 16%), sepsis (9% vs. 20%), multiorgan failure (16% vs. 37%) and a significant reduction of resuscitation volumes, both crystalloids and blood products. DCS and DCR are promising new approaches, contributing for the mortality reduction among the most severely wounded patients. Despite the lack of consensus about the optimal ratio of the blood products and the possible influence of the survival bias, we think that DCR carries survival benefit and recommend it in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

  16. Les populations de primates menacés dans la forêt de Lokoli (Bénin)

    OpenAIRE

    Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Brice SINSIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'intensité de la chasse, l'accroissement numérique des populations humaines, la destruction des habitats naturels sont autant de facteurs qui conduisent à la disparition de la faune africaine (cf les « Red Data Books » de l'UICN, 1996). Plusieurs auteurs ont déjà étudié les menaces qui pèsent sur la faune africaine et particulièrement sur les primates du Bénin (Oates, 1996a ; Grubb et al., 1999 ; Sinsin et al., 2002 ; Sinsin et Assogbadjo, 2002). Dans la présente étude, réalisée...

  17. Exploring the Current Trends and Future Prospects in Terrorist Network Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Chaurasia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s era of hi-tech technologies, criminals are easily fulfilling their inhuman goals against the mankind. Thus, the security of civilians has significantly become important. In this regard, the law-enforcement agencies are aiming to prevent future attacks. To do so, the terrorist networks are being analyzed using data mining techniques. One such technique is Social network analysis which studies terrorist networks for the identification of relationships and associations that may exist between terrorist nodes. Terrorist activities can also be detected by means of analyzing Web traffic content. This paper studies social network analysis, web traffic content and explores various ways for identifying terrorist activities.

  18. The Resiliency of Terrorist Havens: A Social Mobilization Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    unrelated 9 Sidney Tarrow and Doug McAdam, “Scale Shift in Transnational Contention,” in Donatella...Della Porta and Sidney Tarrow (eds), Transnational Protest and Global Activism, (NY: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005), 127, 130. 10Anne Marie Baylouny...thesis borrows from the concept in social mobilization theory expressed by Sidney Tarrow and Doug McAdam that transnational groups that share

  19. Systems Approach to Terrorism: Countering the Terrorist Training Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    37 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich, (Washington D.C.: Woodrow...52 Albert Bandura , “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement” in Origins of Terrorism ed. Walter Reich (Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center...Hitler?” in Mass Hate: the Global Rise of Genocide and Terror (New York , London: Plennium Press), p.165 55 Albert Bandura p.45 56 Ibid. 32 As

  20. Another Approach to Counter-Terrorism: Terrorists with Guilty Consciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    2005): 161–169. Moore , GE. Principia Ethica. Cambridge University Press, 1968. Najm, Sami M. “The Place and Function of Doubt in the Philosophies of...Routledge, 1992. Winch, Peter. Moral Integrity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1968. Wunschik, Tobias. Baader-Meinhofs Kinder: Die Zweite Generation Der RAF

  1. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  2. Understanding Terrorist Network Topologies and Their Resilience Against Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the structural position of covert (terrorist or criminal) networks. Using the secrecy versus information tradeoff characterization of covert networks it is shown that their network structures are generally not small-worlds, in contradistinction to many overt social networks

  3. 31 CFR 594.310 - Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated global terrorist; SDGT. 594.310 Section 594.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  4. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  5. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks; Haftung fuer Terrorismusschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2004-10-01

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  6. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  7. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated terrorist. 595.311 Section 595.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.311 Specially...

  8. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  9. [The hospital care of victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Assena; Nion, Nathalie; Riou, Bruno; Blandeau, Fanny; Moreau, Pilar; Guemache, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of victims of terrorist attacks in a trauma centre requires the putting in place of plans, training and simulation exercises. Previous experiences have highlighted the areas which require improvement. As exceptional health situations are unpredictable, it is essential to always be vigilant and prepared for an unforeseen event.

  10. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL MECHANISMS TO COUNTER TERRORIST THREATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Startsev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to problems arising while using economic and legal facilities of counteraction to terroristic threats in Russian Federation A complex of. key national safety maintenance matters vital in modern conditions is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial safety in interrelation with issues common to counteraction to organized and economic criminality, corruption and terrorism.

  11. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  12. The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Loewenthal, Kate M; Lewis, Christopher Alan; Amlôt, Richard; Cinnirella, Marco; Ansari, Humayan

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines the social-psychological factors often implicated in discussions of terrorist violence/martyrdom, with a particular focus on the role of religion. We offer a brief description of the psychological theories underpinning terrorist research before focusing on social-psychological factors. The roles of psychopathology, irrationality and grievance/threat are examined, followed by empirical research on the beliefs which have been associated with the perpetration and support of terrorist violence, and the social factors which foster those beliefs, including social identity, socially carried interpretations, group leadership and individual differences. Although religion is not a single, simple causal factor in terrorist violence, religious elements often feature strongly in the belief systems associated with terrorist violence, and can also feature in other important fostering factors for terrorist violence, such as the use of rhetoric. Finally, the status of lay explanations of terrorist violence, focusing on the role of religious fundamentalism is examined.

  13. FACTORS IN STRENGHTNING OF TERRORIST ACTIVITY OF “ISLAMIC STATE” GROUPING ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Aleksandrovich Lobanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available XXI century was marked by the strengthening of globalization and integration processes in whole world. This led to the fact that the international community, especially European countries, faced the number of new threats to the spread of Islamic terrorism, the most urgent of which is the activity of “Islamic State” grouping. In this context it’s important to determine the reasons of intense activity growth of IS and its influence in Europe. The article analyzes the factors, contributing to the spread of terrorism. Also it gives some recommendations, implementation of which, according to the author, could decrease the level of terrorist threat. The purpose of the research is to determine factors of growing influence of “Islamic State” and increasing number of terrorist attacks in European countries. The author concludes that IS problem is a comprehensive threat, to prevent which a number of efforts – both within the European continent and in Middle East – is required. It also requires a systematic approach and a high level of consolidation and coordination within the international community.

  14. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  15. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  16. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  17. Estimating the historical and future probabilities of large terrorist events

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Quantities with right-skewed distributions are ubiquitous in complex social systems, including political conflict, economics and social networks, and these systems sometimes produce extremely large events. For instance, the 9/11 terrorist events produced nearly 3000 fatalities, nearly six times more than the next largest event. But, was this enormous loss of life statistically unlikely given modern terrorism's historical record? Accurately estimating the probability of such an event is complicated by the large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's upper tail. We present a generic statistical algorithm for making such estimates, which combines semi-parametric models of tail behavior and a non-parametric bootstrap. Applied to a global database of terrorist events, we estimate the worldwide historical probability of observing at least one 9/11-sized or larger event since 1968 to be 11-35%. These results are robust to conditioning on global variations in economic development, domestic versus international ...

  18. Precipitating the Decline of Terrorist Groups: A Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    Act on April 30, 1971, signifming the end of the FLQ crisis ."’ 3. Post Critica Error Phase The police lid not want to break up the Viger cell because...36 . The FLQ’s Pre Critical Error Phase . .................... 37 2. The Critical Error Phase: The October Crisis ............... 45 3...organizational crisis ."" These radical innovations are a response by the terrorists to relieve the anxiety Ř|Edgar H. Schein, The Mechanisms of Channe in

  19. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The strategy is composed of three separate yet interconnected programs aimed at deterring individuals from becoming involved in extremism; promoting ...of doing something about it” (‘High Risk’ Convicted Terrorists Live in Bail Hostels in Britain, 2009).  a Russian defense minister, at a joint...community institutions. Society has important interests as well—reducing crime, promoting successful family reunification, and security employment and

  20. Illicit Networks: Targeting the Nexus Between Terrorists, Proliferators, and Narcotraffickers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    bombings in Jakarta on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in July 2009. JI has engaged in a wide spectrum of criminal activity across Southeast...ambiguous. In recent years, JI’s most visible terrorist activities—the simultaneous bombings on the Ritz Carlton and Marriott hotels in Jakarta in...JI members comprised the core of his following. Implicated in the Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta in August 2003, the Australian Embassy bombing

  1. Radiological Dispersal Device Primer: From A Terrorists Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    This section will review a real life accident that occurred in Goiania , Brazil to help illustrate the damage that could potentially occur if a RDD...occur in Goiania , Brazil in 1987 that highlights the potential effects of radiation contamination. Two scrap metal scavengers broke into an abandoned...terrorist attack, the Goiania incident provides a concrete example of the potential lethality and psychological/economic destruction of a RDD and provides

  2. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  3. Have the Mexican Drug Cartels Evolved into a Terrorist Insurgency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    for abusing Central American immigrants traveling through Mexico to get to the U.S. Frequently, they forcefully recruit the migrants to carry drugs...violence between rival drug cartels, street gangs, and the government within Mexico has created concern in both Mexico and the United States. The...literature debating whether the cartels are merely a criminal enterprise or whether the cartels represent a new terrorist insurgency in Mexico

  4. Review of Injuries from Terrorist Bombings and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    caused 1,308 deaths and 6,622 casualties within the districts of Baramulla, Poonch, Kupwara, and Srinagar and causing a total of 60,000 deaths across...uncertainties since physicians and nurses were working under austere circumstances during the days following such disasters. Considering higher than normal... district immediately after the disaster. Global Health Action 4:7196; 2011. Pyper PC Graham WJ. Analysis of terrorist injuries treated at Craigavon area

  5. Roots and Causes That Created the PKK Terrorist Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    can meet even with [Abdullah] Öcalan.”2 But what kinds of political, military and social policies are likely to be necessary to allow this...but also by the European Union and the United States. Yet despite the prolonged history and scale of its violence, the PKK is still an enigma . The...terrorism. Once more, one can understand that unsolved democratic, social and economic problems in Turkey will create new terrorist organizations or

  6. Terrorist Networks, Money Laundering Schemes, and Nation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    2000). He states that people continually “generate and test hypotheses about their worlds.” This innate trait is suggested to be a mechanism that...acts/attacks; pop.: 10,180,000)  From Relative Stability to Instability  Cote d’Ivoire (31; pop.: 18,900,000)  Chad (40; pop.: 10,330,000...state, and subsequent human network system as a whole. Previous points being made, and in light of their functional character traits of terrorist

  7. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  8. Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    sniper rifles and their accessories and advanced ammunition. For those weapons, only awareness and the precautions taken by security forces can...Qa’idat AI-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) al-Fatah Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Liberation Tigers of...a small terrorist cell that had to raise operational funds on its own. 14 For additional discussion of counterstrategies, see Jackson, Chalk, et al

  9. Probabilistic Ontology Architecture for a Terrorist Identification Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    participate in multiple organizations (some of which may be associated with terrorism) or have multiple friends and relatives (some of whom may...which captures multiple attributes for each individual. Ontological engineering is performed on this KB to create the Terrorist Identification...certainty of the conclusion (an amputee is Human). isA isComposedOf Probabilistic Ontology Defined A probabilistic ontology is an explicit, formal

  10. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    alleged Al Qaeda operatives offered the first firm indication of a link between the terrorist network and drug trafficking”- Liz Sly, “Opium Cash Fuels... Jensen were convicted for their role in a $25 million dollar weapons-for-drugs deal to provide material support for Autodefensas Unidos de Colombia...organization. Ruiz received a life sentence for his role in the drugs for weapons plot, Puerta and Jensen received 15 and 14 years respectively.40

  11. Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    media and the Internet to compensate for asymmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to keep generating new generations of jihadist terrorists. This...inter- personal media such as mobile phones, iPods , WiFi, etc. and the World Wide Web. The fusion of interpersonal communication and mass...public relations campaign. Their skillful use of the mass media and the Internet to compensate for symmetrical disadvantages has enabled them to

  12. A data-stream classification system for investigating terrorist threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexia; Dettman, Joshua; Gottschalk, Jeffrey; Kotson, Michael; Vuksani, Era; Yu, Tamara

    2016-05-01

    The role of cyber forensics in criminal investigations has greatly increased in recent years due to the wealth of data that is collected and available to investigators. Physical forensics has also experienced a data volume and fidelity revolution due to advances in methods for DNA and trace evidence analysis. Key to extracting insight is the ability to correlate across multi-modal data, which depends critically on identifying a touch-point connecting the separate data streams. Separate data sources may be connected because they refer to the same individual, entity or event. In this paper we present a data source classification system tailored to facilitate the investigation of potential terrorist activity. This taxonomy is structured to illuminate the defining characteristics of a particular terrorist effort and designed to guide reporting to decision makers that is complete, concise, and evidence-based. The classification system has been validated and empirically utilized in the forensic analysis of a simulated terrorist activity. Next-generation analysts can use this schema to label and correlate across existing data streams, assess which critical information may be missing from the data, and identify options for collecting additional data streams to fill information gaps.

  13. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  14. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  15. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-01-01

    Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are ...

  16. We Bomb, Therefore We Are: The Evolution of Terrorist Group Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 1994 Author...Revolutionary Cell and Palestinian PFLP operation that was led by the international terrorist "Carlos." Urbano . 26 terrorist network. but does imply some...violence. In order to retain the media’s and the public’s attention, a terrorist group continually must raise "Interview with Urbano ," in Urban

  17. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    terrorists have clearly exhibited psychopathy (see Glossary). For example, in April 1986 Nezar Hindawi, a freelance Syrian-funded Jordanian terrorist and...exhibit signs of psychopathy or other mental illness are deselected in the interest of group survival. Terrorist groups need members whose behavior...appears to be normal and who would not arouse suspicion. A member who exhibits traits of psychopathy or any noticeable degree of mental illness would

  18. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des habitats naturels sur la faune menacée du Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy-Kinkony, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Hanitriniaina Andriamasimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Mahavavy-Kinkony Wetland Complex (MKWC assesses the impacts of habitat change on the resident globally threatened fauna. Located in Boeny Region, northwest Madagascar, the Complex encompasses a range of habitats including freshwater lakes, rivers, marshes, mangrove forests, and deciduous forest. Spatial modelling and analysis tools were used to (i identify the important habitats for selected, threatened fauna, (ii assess their change from 1950 to 2005, (iii detect the causes of change, (iv simulate changes to 2050 and (v evaluate the impacts of change. The approach for prioritising potential habitats for threatened species used ecological science techniques assisted by the decision support software Marxan. Nineteen species were analysed: nine birds, three primates, three fish, three bats and one reptile. Based on knowledge of local land use, supervised classification of Landsat images from 2005 was used to classify the land use of the Complex. Simulations of land use change to 2050 were carried out based on the Land Change Modeler module in Idrisi Andes with the neural network algorithm. Changes in land use at site level have occurred over time but they are not significant. However, reductions in the extent of reed marshes at Lake Kinkony and forests at Tsiombikibo and Marofandroboka directly threaten the species that depend on these habitats. Long term change monitoring is recommended for the Mahavavy Delta, in order to evaluate the predictions through time. The future change of Andohaomby forest is of great concern and conservation actions are recommended as a high priority. Abnormal physicochemical properties were detected in lake Kinkony due to erosion of the four watersheds to the south, therefore an anti-erosion management plan is required for these watersheds. Among the species of global conservation concern, Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri, Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus and dambabe (Paretroplus dambabe are

  19. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  20. The Clinical Threat Assessment of the Lone-Actor Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Genzman, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    The Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol (TRAP-18) is a structured professional judgment instrument for the assessment of individuals who present a concern for lone-actor terrorism. It consists of eight proximal warning behaviors and 10 distal characteristics. Previous research has demonstrated its interrater reliability and some concurrent and postdictive validity. In this article, TRAP-18 is retrospectively applied to the case of US Army psychiatrist and jihadist Malik Nidal Hasan, who committed a mass murder at Fort Hood, Texas in 2009. The strengths and limitations of TRAP-18 as a structured professional judgment instrument for mental health clinicians are discussed, and clinical risk management suggestions are made.

  1. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  2. Generational Changes in Terrorist Movements: The Turkish Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    THE TURKISH CASE * Sabri Sayari * July 1985 DTlC CELECTE AUG 6 1986 LU F Z b -n approved 111 d111d its 44 86 8 5 056 Sabri. Sayar - * ~ % GENERATIONAL...become involved in terrorist groups through family ties, as in the case of Army Captain Orhan Savasci who was Cayan’s brother-in-law. Others, such as...with the TLP, Cayan emerged as one of the central figures of the DEV-GENC. By 1970, Cayan had left b hind his promising student career at the university

  3. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  4. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.105 Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task...

  5. Kidnapping by Terrorist Groups, 1970-2010: Is Ideological Orientation Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J. F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether a terrorist group's ideology has a meaningful impact on its involvement in kidnapping. On a global level, incident data (1970-2010) indicate that in the past decade the number of kidnappings by terrorist groups has increased, while Muslim extremists have replaced left-wing/Marxist revolutionaries as the world's…

  6. The Effect of Terrorist Incidents on the Occupational Attitude of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how many terrorist incidents affected the teachers' occupational attitude by the variables of gender, marital status, birthplace, the term of employment and occupational status with "the effect of terrorist incidents on the occupational attitude of the teacher" scale. In this study, "descriptive scanning…

  7. Help-Seeking Behaviours of Adolescents in Relation to Terrorist Attacks: The Perceptions of Israeli Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima; Kelman, Talia

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism poses a challenge for children and adolescents as well as parents. For many years, Israeli citizens have been exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks. The present article is aimed at revealing the reactions of Israeli parents when facing terrorist attacks and their perceptions regarding the help-seeking behaviours of their…

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of September 10, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National...

  9. Exploring the Development and Dismantling of Equivalence Classes Involving Terrorist Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Zlomke, Kimberly R.; Robinson, Ashton

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes 2 studies that present a conceptual interpretation and experimental findings involving the developing and dismantling of equivalence classes consisting of terrorist stimuli. In the first study, 8 United States citizen participants were trained to match nonterrorist stimuli to American and terrorist images. Afterwards,…

  10. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50 U.S.C....

  11. 78 FR 56579 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 10, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-22406 Filed 9-11... Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act, 50...

  12. 31 CFR 595.408 - Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated terrorists. 595.408 Section 595.408 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 595.408 Charitable contributions to specially designated terrorists. (a) Unless... as food, clothing or medicine, may be made to or for the benefit of a specially designated...

  13. 77 FR 56515 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-22708 Filed 9-11-12; 2:15 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Notice of September 11, 2012--Continuation of the National... the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent with section 202(d) of...

  14. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  15. Exploring the Structure and Task Dynamics of Terrorist Organizations Using Agent Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Terrorist Networks, Agent Based Modeling, 2004 Madrid Attacks, Backcasting , Computational Organization Simulation 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...be understood in order to apply effective policies and practices to safeguard citizens, assets, and interests. For decades, terrorist cells have

  16. Islamic State and Its Attitude to the Terrorist Attacks on the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Tichý

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is both to analyze the importance of the terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure and industry for strategy of militant terrorist organization Islamic State against the background of the influence of Islam and to describe a specific example and manifestations of the terrorist activities focused on energy sector in the Middle East and North Africa. In the theoretical level, the article is based on the concept of terrorist attack on energy sector and relation between energy and Sunni Islam. In methodological level, the article is based on the case study method framing terrorist attacks of Islamic State on energy industry and infrastructure in Iraq, Syria and Libya.

  17. The Influence of Charismatic Authority on Operational Strategies and Attack Outcomes of Terrorist Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Hofmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the historical and contemporary prevalence of charismatic terrorist leaders, there has been very little empirical examination of the relationship between charismatic forms of authority and the strategic operation of terrorist groups. In response to this gap in knowledge, this study seeks to investigate if charismatic authority has a real-world impact on strategic choices and attack outcomes of terrorist groups. Using a theoretical framework meant to help measure charisma in terrorist organizations, this study quantitatively examines how differing levels of the presence of charismatic authority contributes to the choice in operational tactics (e.g., weapon and target choices and the results of attack outcomes (e.g., success rates, lethality within a sample of thirty international terrorist groups. In the concluding section, relevant findings, policy recommendations, study limitations, and areas for future research are discussed.

  18. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  19. Killing Range: Explaining Lethality Variance within a Terrorist Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Gill, Paul; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level.

  20. Bush v. Bin Laden: Effect of State Emotion on Perceived Threat is Mediated by Emotion Towards the Threat Agent (Bush vs. Ben Laden: l’Effet de l’Emotion etat sur la Menace Percue est Mediatisees par l’Emotion vis-a-vis de l’Agent Menacant)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Oshin.Vartanian@drdc-rddc.gc .ca. REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE PSYCHOLOGIE SOCIALE 2010 N° 1 terrorism Mots-ellis Perception de menace, perception de risque... PSYCHOLOGIE SOCIALE 2010 N° 1 • The Present Research We sought to extend the investigation of the effect of emotion on threat-related judgments in...terrorism domain. REVUE INTERNATIONAlE DE PSYCHOlOGIE SOCIAlE 2010 N" 1 Method Participants A sample of 120 (45 male and 75 female) University of

  1. Handbook of computational approaches to counterterrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Subrahmanian, VS

    2012-01-01

    Terrorist groups throughout the world have been studied primarily through the use of social science methods. However, major advances in IT during the past decade have led to significant new ways of studying terrorist groups, making forecasts, learning models of their behaviour, and shaping policies about their behaviour. Handbook of Computational Approaches to Counterterrorism provides the first in-depth look at how advanced mathematics and modern computing technology is shaping the study of terrorist groups. This book includes contributions from world experts in the field, and presents extens

  2. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  3. Remediation following a CBRN terrorist attack : domestic and international perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The risks of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) agents in terrorist attacks is well recognized. Serious measures must be in place to respond to terrorist attacks that involve these agents, including cleanup of affected buildings, machinery, land, water and air. This paper describes what is expected from the science community in the development of adequate, reliable and economical decontamination methods and equipment. It also discusses improved detection methods and adequate personal protection. Cleanup after a terrorist attack has much in common with the cleanup of contaminated sites or dealing with the consequences of industrial accidents, particularly as most potential chemical terror agents are represented by toxic industrial chemicals. The major needs of organizations involved in cleanup procedures were reviewed. Issues concerning first responders, assessment of situations, information collecting and the detection of possible chemical, biological and radiological agents were discussed. The development of generic decontamination procedures and equipment was suggested, with reference to the fact that the spectrum of CBRN weapons is very broad. In addition, the development of detection systems and instruments capable of analyzing a broad range of agents was also seen as desirable. New generation instruments such as Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) detectors were reviewed. Guidelines for cleanup procedures and remediation efforts were examined. It was also noted that there is relatively little information available to predict the behaviour of potential agents of CBRN terrorism in a complex urban environment. By studying different complex threat scenarios, scientists, first responders and other parties can achieve a better understanding of how to optimize the deployment of their resources. Mechanical, physiochemical and biological methods of decontamination were evaluated. Issues concerning waste disposal were discussed. It was noted that the

  4. Restorative Justice in Terrorist Victimisations: Comparative Implications: Introduction (Justicia Restaurativa en el Caso de Victimizaciones Terroristas: Implicaciones Comparativas: Introducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Varona

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This issue is focused on the application of restorative justice to terrorist victimisations. Both concepts (restorative justice and terrorist victimisations are controversial ones in social science and society. We decided to approach them from a concrete programme on restorative encounters developed in the Basque Country in 2011 and 2012. This programme targeted ex-members of ETA, and direct and indirect victims. Este número se centra en la aplicación de la justicia restaurativa a las victimizaciones terroristas. Ambos conceptos (el de justicia restaurativa y el de victimizaciones terroristas resultan controvertidos en las ciencias sociales y en la sociedad. Decidimos acercarnos a ellos desde un programa concreto de encuentros restaurativos, desarrollado en el País Vasco en los años 2011 y 2012. Este programa estaba dirigido a ex miembros de ETA y a algunas víctimas directas e indirectas.

  5. Framework for Research on Children’s Reactions to Disasters and Terrorist Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical work and research relative to child mental health during and following disaster are especially challenging due to the complex child maturational processes and family and social contexts of children’s lives. The effects of disasters and terrorist events on children and adolescents necessitate diligent and responsible preparation and implementation of research endeavors. Disasters present numerous practical and methodological barriers that may influence the selection of participants, timing of assessments, and constructs being investigated. This article describes an efficient approach to guide both novice and experienced researchers as they prepare to conduct disaster research involving children. The approach is based on five fundamental research questions: “Why?, Who?, When?, What?, and How?” Addressing each of the “four Ws” will assist researchers in determining “How” to construct and implement a study from start to finish. A simple diagram of the five questions guides the reader through the components involved in studying children’s reactions to disasters. The use of this approach is illustrated with examples from disaster mental health studies in children, thus simultaneously providing a review of the literature. PMID:23034149

  6. The Dynamics of the Creation, Evolution, and Disappearance of Terrorist Internet Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ricardo Torres-Soriano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the organizational nature of the threat posed by jihadi terrorism, supplying quantitative and qualitative data on the dynamics behind the creation, evolution, and disappearance of the main jihadi Internet forums during the period 2008–2012. An analysis of the origins and functions of the forums, their links with terrorist organizations, their internal structures, and the processes accounting for their stability in cyberspace shows that far from representinga horizontal structure where the main actors are a network of followers, the terrorist presence on the Internet is in fact a hierarchical organization in which intervention by formal terrorist organizations plays a crucial role.

  7. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  8. BOOK REVIEW--Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luc Carnus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations by Artur Beifuss and Francesco Trivini Bellini, Merrell Publishers, London, 2013, 336 pages, ISBN–978–1858946016, reviewed by Christian Luc Carnus

  9. The Psychological Development of the Terrorist Mind Set: Pertinence in the Sentencing Phase of Capital Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Dawn Culpepper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews past and current scholarly literature about the psychological development of the terrorist mind set with a special focus on how adverse life experiences early in one’s lifetime negatively impacts the normal psychological development. Information that pertains to childhood trauma, social psychological factors, psycho-social causes, and psycho-cultural foundations that play a role in the development of terrorist beliefs and behaviors are explored. This paper also reviews several theories that attempt to explain terrorism; a few from a social and cultural perspective, as a constellation of terrorism research scholars suggest that the development of terrorist behavior is in every way contextual. The lives of two known terrorists, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Ted Kaczynski, are analyzed to illustrate how the psychological, social, and cultural factors that make up their backgrounds were applied in the sentencing (mitigation phases of their trials resulting in the death penalty being replaced with a life sentence for both. 

  10. MINIMIZING THE VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLIES TO NATURAL AND TERRORIST THREATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that drinking water utilities may be vulnerable to attacks by terrorists. In the US the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection has concluded the US drinking water utilities are vulnerable to physical, cyber and biological terroris...

  11. From Terrorist to Persona: Para-Social Interaction and the ETA Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Ophir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The great virtues of the Internet - ease of access, lack of regulation, vast potential audiences, and fast flow of information, among others - have been exploited by terrorist groups. Consequently, the Internet has become a useful and effective platform for terrorist organizations and their supporters. Applying para-social relationships theory, this study examines the ways terrorist groups utilize the Internet to gain sympathy and support for their appeals and goals. The case of ETA’s website (ETA - Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization, dedicated to Basque prisoners imprisoned in Ireland and fighting extradition to Spain, is used as an illustrative example of the applicability of the para-social theorem. The various tactics adopted for establishing and promoting para-social relationships between media characters and the audiences as revealed in Basque terrorist video clips on YouTube are analyzed.  

  12. BOOK REVIEW--Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luc Carnus

    2016-01-01

    Book review of Branding Terror: The Logotypes and Iconography of Insurgent Groups and Terrorist Organizations by Artur Beifuss and Francesco Trivini Bellini, Merrell Publishers, London, 2013, 336 pages, ISBN–978–1858946016, reviewed by Christian Luc Carnus

  13. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder of Florida State (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincide with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder shows that terrorist attacks against the U.S. have affecte...

  14. Terrorist Group Dynamics Through the Lens of the Tigantourine Assault in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian terrorist assault in January 2013 that was carried out by Mokhtar Belmokhtar and his “Battalion of Blood” activists against a BP-Norwegian-Algerian-Japanese gas facility in In Amenas, Algeria, is worth considering as it provides a rare glimpse into several key dimensions of terrorist group dynamics that are important for scholars and counter- terrorism practitioners to understand.

  15. Maintaining the Legal High Ground: The Legal Implications of Using Armed Force to Combat Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    2001, also demonstrated the codependent relationship between the Taliban and Usama Bin Laden’s organization. “Bin Laden could not operate his...STRIKES ON TERRORISTS In leading the campaign against terrorism, we are forging new, productive international relationships and redefining existing... relationship between the target (or lack there of) and the terrorist act was unclear. And, the failure to support the claim that the plant produced chemical

  16. Major depressive disorder following terrorist attacks: A systematic review of prevalence, course and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of psychological disorders for people exposed. This review aimed to systematically assess the current evidence on major depressive disorder (MDD) after terrorist attacks. Methods A systematic review was performed. Studies included assessed the impact of human-made, intentional, terrorist attacks in direct victims and/or persons in general population and evaluated MDD based on diagnostic criteria. Results A total of 567 reports were identified, 11 of which were eligible for this review: 6 carried out with direct victims, 4 with persons in general population, and 1 with victims and general population. The reviewed literature suggests that the risk of MDD ranges between 20 and 30% in direct victims and between 4 and 10% in the general population in the first few months after terrorist attacks. Characteristics that tend to increase risk of MDD after a terrorist attack are female gender, having experienced more stressful situations before or after the attack, peritraumatic reactions during the attack, loss of psychosocial resources, and low social support. The course of MDD after terrorist attacks is less clear due to the scarcity of longitudinal studies. Conclusions Methodological limitations in the literature of this field are considered and potentially important areas for future research such as the assessment of the course of MDD, the study of correlates of MDD or the comorbidity between MDD and other mental health problems are discussed. PMID:21627850

  17. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  18. Terrorist Attacks Escalate in Frequency and Fatalities Preceding Highly Lethal Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Sibley, Chris G.; Schimel, Jeff; Webber, David

    2014-01-01

    Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates–both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks–leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database) showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack. PMID:24755753

  19. The Italian Red Brigades and the structure and dynamics of terrorist groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2010-06-01

    One of the problems in dealing with terrorism is that we have virtually no access to individual terrorists; only their actions are visible. The founders of the Italian terrorist group, the Red Brigades, on the other hand, have written about their experiences and have exhaustively explained their motivations. The author's premise is that these autobiographies and her interviews with several of the group's members give us access to the unconscious processes involved in the formation and operation of the group. After terrorist attacks, it is natural to ask whether the terrorists' capacity for collective violence is an indication of personal pathology. This paper argues that the relevant pathology in the terrorist enterprise is not that of the individual but that of the group. Relying on the theories of groups of Freud (1921), Bion (1961), Anzieu (1984) and Kaes (2007), the author argues that psychoanalytic theory is essential to understanding the motivations and actions of violent groups which otherwise remain obscure. Although the discussion has been confined to one terrorist group, the author hopes that it can also be useful for understanding the unconscious dynamics of other groups structured around an ideology which mandates the destruction of human life.

  20. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment.

  1. Treatment of the mangled lower extremity after a terrorist blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, Michael J; Smith, Jeffrey M; Gould, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist bombings, with resultant blast injuries, have been increasing in frequency during the past 30 years. Injury to the musculoskeletal system is common in victims who survive such attacks. Substantial injury to the limbs may occur through several different mechanisms, each of which may affect prognosis and alter the treatment algorithm. An analysis of the available literature on terrorism and blast events revealed that resource use of the treating medical facility is high during the initial hours after a blast attack, but usually is manageable. A resource management protocol was developed to organize the treatment of limb salvage into four phases. This management protocol may improve the medical facility's ability to manage system resources while treating patients with severe blast injuries. The decision of whether to salvage or proceed with limb amputation is one of the most difficult in orthopaedic trauma. A basic education in the mechanisms of blast damage, a methodical approach to resuscitation, and mangled extremity treatment, likely can improve surgical success.

  2. Suburban Bliss or Disillusionment - Why Do Terrorists Quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van der Heide

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the explanatory value of two theories of desistance – the cessation of criminal behavior – in explaining why 27 individuals left the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq (ISIS. The article focuses specifically on jihadists that turned away from ISIS after March 2011, asking why individuals desist from ISIS and choose to leave the caliphate. A dataset of 27 narratives of desistance was analysed to answer the question to what extent desistance from ISIS by jihadists can be explained by the Laub & Sampson’s life course theory and by Altier, Thorogughood & Horgan’s model of push and pull factors. The primary pathways for desistance are coded according to the two theories. The results show that of the 27 individuals, the majority desisted from the caliphate because of their perception of the excessive use of force by ISIS and their inability to cope with the effects. A minority desisted because of their perception of alternative options outside the terrorist group or because of important life events that happened ‘at home’. Thus, the article concludes that the push and pull factors model is valid in the explanation of desistance from the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq whereas life course theory does not hold explanatory value

  3. Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %, and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %. There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% – vehicles, 9,5% – buses, 6,3% - rail covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.

  4. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahlan, D.J.

    1989-04-18

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism. 6 figs.

  5. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2012-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based on the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria of PTSD among highly exposed populations such as those living or working within close proximity to the World Trade Center (WTC) and the Pentagon in New York City and Washington, DC, respectively, and first responders, including rescue, cleaning, and recovery workers. The large body of research conducted after the 9/11 attacks in the past decade suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons with high exposure to 9/11 was substantial. PTSD that was 9/11-related was associated with a wide range of correlates, including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, loss of life of significant others, and social support factors. Few studies used longitudinal study design or clinical assessments, and no studies reported findings beyond six years post-9/11, thus hindering documentation of the long-term course of confirmed PTSD. Future directions for research are discussed. PMID:21823772

  7. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S.

  8. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.).

  9. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swahlan, David J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  10. Intuitive visualization of the intelligence for the run-down of terrorist wire-pullers

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the terrorist attack is a time-critical task. The investigators have a limited time window to diagnose the organizational background of the terrorists, to run down and arrest the wire-pullers, and to take an action to prevent or eradicate the terrorist attack. The intuitive interface to visualize the intelligence data set stimulates the investigators' experience and knowledge, and aids them in decision-making for an immediately effective action. This paper presents a computational method to analyze the intelligence data set on the collective actions of the perpetrators of the attack, and to visualize it into the form of a social network diagram which predicts the positions where the wire-pullers conceals themselves.

  11. Angry at the unjust, scared of the powerful: emotional responses to terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Maitner, Angela T

    2013-08-01

    The threat of terrorist attacks motivates emotional reactions that elicit functional behavioral responses to characteristics of a threatening group. We argue that the more the group is seen as unjust, the more anger arises, whereas the more it is seen as powerful, the more fear arises. In Experiment 1, British participants read about terrorist groups with varied levels of injustice and power. As expected, the manipulation of injustice increased anger, and power increased fear. Anger and fear predicted offensive and defensive reactions. Experiment 2 used a representative sample of U.S. residents and again found distinct effects of an injustice manipulation on anger, and a power manipulation on fear. Anger was a primary motivator of support for offensive and defensive measures in both experiments. Willingness to negotiate was reduced with more injustice and anger, but increased with more outgroup power and fear. These findings have implications on public reactions to terrorist organizations.

  12. Would-Be Warriors: Incidents of Jihadist Terrorist Radicalization in the United States Since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sporadic terrorist attacks in the United States, as did remnants of the Ku Klux Klan .2 Some of these groups clearly benefited from the support of...Communist Party or the Ku Klux Klan did not work with the tiny, more- fluid terrorist gangs of the 1970s. Domestic intel- ligence also operated under

  13. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  14. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 13, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-1106 Filed 1-14-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Notice of January 13, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive...

  15. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 19, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-1316 Filed 1-19-12; 2:00 pm] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process...

  16. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order....

  17. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, January 20, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-1400 Filed 1-21-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  18. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... 17, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-01296 Filed 1-18-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  19. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-09-24

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required.

  20. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  1. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    2007-01-01

      - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers...... to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter...... of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  2. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  3. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sir David Omand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining terrorist risks: the actions of greedy market-makers and incompetent bankers in the recent past is doing much more damage to our national welfare and national security than terrorism today.

  4. UN Targeted Terrorist Sanctions and the Rule of Law: The UKs Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Stevens

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the effect of instigating United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR’s in relation to assets freezing of those suspected of being involved in terrorist activity. It will discuss the decision by the UK Supreme Court in the leading judgment and the subsequent government’s responses concerning the introduction into the UK of UNSCR’s by means of secondary legislation in relation to Parliamentary supremacy. The main UK case under discussion will be 'R v A (& others'. This case found that the freezing of assets of those suspected of terrorist activity in the UK, in compliance with various UNSC resolutions was ultra vires

  5. 家庭暴力中性胁迫行为的影响因素研究%Sexual menace in family violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻超; 毋嫘; 洪炜

    2013-01-01

    目的:从生态理论的角度,探讨影响家庭暴力中性胁迫行为的影响因素.方法:采用分层、整群、方便抽样的方法,在新疆地区对900例18 ~65岁有过婚恋经历的人群采用一般情况调查表、简版冲突策略量表(CTS2)、人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4+)进行调查.研究因素采用logistic回归分析.结果:经单因素和多因素logistic回归分析显示,家庭暴力中的性胁迫行为的影响因素有伴侣婚外恋可能性、人格因素、童年负性经历、个体性别角色观念、对伴侣行为控制和经济控制.结论:伴侣婚外恋可能性、人格因素、童年负性经历、个体性别角色观念、对伴侣行为控制和经济控制是家庭暴力中出现性胁迫行为的主要危险因素.%Objectives:To investigate the factors influencing sexual menace in family violence from the perspective of ecology.Methods:We selected 900 people who had extramarital affairs aged 18 to 65 in Xinjiang.Methods of stratification,cluster and sampling were adopted to conduct a self-designed questionnaire for general information,the brief Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (cts2),PPS (perceived stress scales) and PDQ-4 + (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 +).Results:Single and multiple factors logistic regression analysis showed the related factors were extramarital affairs,negative experience in childhood,individual' s perception of gender,personality,behavior control and economic control.Conclusions:The main factors influencing sexual menace in family violence are extramarital affairs,negative experience in childhood,individual' s perception of gender,personality,behavior control and economic control.

  6. Estimating the Importance of Terrorists in a Terror Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhajj, Ahmed; Elsheikh, Abdallah; Addam, Omar; Alzohbi, Mohamad; Zarour, Omar; Aksaç, Alper; Öztürk, Orkun; Özyer, Tansel; Ridley, Mick; Alhajj, Reda

    While criminals may start their activities at individual level, the same is in general not true for terrorists who are mostly organized in well established networks. The effectiveness of a terror network could be realized by watching many factors, including the volume of activities accomplished by its members, the capabilities of its members to hide, and the ability of the network to grow and to maintain its influence even after the loss of some members, even leaders. Social network analysis, data mining and machine learning techniques could play important role in measuring the effectiveness of a network in general and in particular a terror network in support of the work presented in this chapter. We present a framework that employs clustering, frequent pattern mining and some social network analysis measures to determine the effectiveness of a network. The clustering and frequent pattern mining techniques start with the adjacency matrix of the network. For clustering, we utilize entries in the table by considering each row as an object and each column as a feature. Thus features of a network member are his/her direct neighbors. We maintain the weight of links in case of weighted network links. For frequent pattern mining, we consider each row of the adjacency matrix as a transaction and each column as an item. Further, we map entries into a 0/1 scale such that every entry whose value is greater than zero is assigned the value one; entries keep the value zero otherwise. This way we can apply frequent pattern mining algorithms to determine the most influential members in a network as well as the effect of removing some members or even links between members of a network. We also investigate the effect of adding some links between members. The target is to study how the various members in the network change role as the network evolves. This is measured by applying some social network analysis measures on the network at each stage during the development. We report

  7. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field.

  8. The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    reconnaissance, with a team sent to survey, plan, and prepare for the attack with help from local dissi- ______________ 104“El Silencio de las Armas...Ha’aretz, June 21, 2001. 104 The Dynamic Terrorist Threat “El Silencio de las Armas,” Cambio, August 14, 2000. Sobelman, Daniel, “Hizbullah Lends Its

  9. Result of Generalization: Bearing the Consequences of Imprecisely Designating Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Implications of Terrorist Lists On Diplomacy and Peacebuilding in Nepal”, Praxis : The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 26 (2011): 40. 50 designation...Peacebuilding in Nepal.” Praxis : The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 26 (2011): 38-59. Gupta, Dipak K. Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence

  10. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  11. There and back again: The study of mental disorder and terrorist involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2017-04-01

    For the past 40 years, researchers studied the relationship between mental disorder and terrorist involvement. The literature developed in 4 paradigms, each of which differs in terms of their empirical evidence, the specific mental disorders studied, and their conceptualizations of terrorist involvement. These paradigms have not, however, witnessed linear and incremental improvements upon 1 another. Although 1 paradigm has generally tended to dominate a temporal period, many false assumptions and incorrect interpretations of earlier work permeate into today's discourse. This article provides a history of the study of mental disorders and the terrorist. First, we briefly outline the core fundamental principles of the first 2 paradigms, The article then outlines the core arguments produced by the seminal reviews conducted in Paradigm 3. We highlight how these findings were consistently misinterpreted in subsequent citations. We then highlight recent innovations in the study of terrorism and mental disorder since the various influential literature reviews of 1997-2005. We conclude by outlining how future research in this area may improve in the coming years by broadening our understanding of both terrorist involvement and psychopathology away from simple dichotomous thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Social Network Analysis: A case study of the Islamist terrorist network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Social Network Analysis is a compilation of methods used to identify and analyze patterns in social network systems. This article serves as a primer on foundational social network concepts and analyses and builds a case study on the global Islamist terrorist network to illustrate the use and usefulness of these methods. The Islamist terrorist network is a system composed of multiple terrorist organizations that are socially connected and work toward the same goals. This research utilizes traditional social network, as well as small-world, and scale-free analyses to characterize this system on individual, network and systemic levels. Leaders in the network are identified based on their positions in the social network and the network structure is categorized. Finally, two vital nodes in the network are removed and this version of the network is compared with the previous version to make implications of strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. The Islamist terrorist network structure is found to be a resilient and efficient structure, even with important social nodes removed. Implications for counterterrorism are given from the results of each analysis.

  13. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  14. 77 FR 67733 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 12947

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Unblocking of One Specially Designated Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 12947 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  15. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  16. 76 FR 16855 - Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Unblocking of One Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. A New Forensic Picture Polygraph Technique for Terrorist and Crime Deception System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, R. H. Brian; Axton, JoAnn; Gold, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Forensic Terrorist Detection System called Pinocchio Assessment Profile (PAP) employs standard issue polygraphs for a non-verbal picture technique originated as a biofeedback careers interest instrument. The system can be integrated readily into airport screening protocols. However, the method does not rely on questioning or foreign language…

  18. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  19. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions...

  20. Ku Klux Rising: Toward an Understanding of American Right Wing Terrorist Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    theories which presuppose terrorist behavior stems from antisocial personality disorders—primarily psychopathy and sociopathy.73 Cooper and Pearce...this project, the terms psychopath and sociopath will be used interchangeably. Although psychopathy deals more with an individual’s psychological...similarities between the two. So, with apologies to psychologists and sociologists who view the two as separate entities, the terms psychopathy and

  1. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  2. Prends soin du métro. Le contrôle-soin, forme émergente des régulations et menaces souterraines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jouffe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Le métro de Santiago a subi une dégradation significative de ses conditions de transport du fait de son intégration au Transantiago, le réseau de bus urbains. L’opérateur du métro a donné beaucoup de visibilité à ses dispositifs de contrôle des nouvelles masses d’usagers : barrières optimisées, signalétique omniprésente, agents démultipliés, etc. L’étude du discours officiel de l’entreprise et surtout l’observation ethnographique de ces dispositifs révèlent que les modalités de contrôle ont elles-mêmes évoluées. En plus de la menace légale exercée contre les étrangers et de la régulation des flux par une discipline des corps, un contrôle-soin s’exerce sur une population à protéger : la population qui bénéficie du soin de l’opérateur lui est redevable d’un contre-soin. Le contrôle-soin constitue non seulement une modalité émergente de contrôle mais aussi la forme générale du contrôle dans le métro de Santiago.

  3. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public security, public areas and ensuring public safety. In the study, the author used scientific methods (hypothesis, analysis, synthesis, deduction, and induction, special used historical, legal and technical, interdisciplinary, comparative legal, system and other methods of scientific knowledge. The author researches of the problems of qualification of crimes related to the terrorist organization and community participation in it are discussed in detail. The article analyzes the modern jurisprudence on the application of Article 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The author examines the conditions of qualification criminal groups as a terrorist or terrorist organization community. The author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve the legal regulation of criminal responsibility for the commission of terrorist-related crimes. So, the author proposes to supplement the dispositions of article 205.4 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicating that the terrorist community a stable group of persons can be considered, united not only in Russia, but also in other states as well as international organizations, concerned other grounds specified in Art. 205.4 of the Criminal Code. The author considers it necessary to clarify the question of qualification of crimes under Art. 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the Resolution of the Plenum of the Russian

  4. 体育恐怖袭击事件探析%Analysis of Sports Terrorist Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松

    2014-01-01

    通过对体育赛事中发生的恐怖袭击事件进行梳理,探析重大体育恐怖袭击事件发生的特征与深层次原因,发现:政治霸权与政治纷争是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的本质原因;体育赛事的高影响度是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的主要原因;不同体育文明冲突与意识形态是体育恐怖袭击事件发生的重要原因。提出预防和消除体育恐怖袭击事件的对策:全球共同努力建立公正合理的国际政治经济新秩序;发挥体育推动世界和平共处与社会和谐发展的功能;加强大型体育赛事的安保措施。%Through the terrorist attacks on sporting events to sort out, characteristic of major sporting events of the terrorist attacks and the deep-seated reasons, found that:political hegemony and political strife is the essential rea-son for sporting events of the terrorist attacks;High Impact sporting events is the main reason sports terrorist attacks;the clash of civilizations and ideologies of different sports is an important cause of sports terrorist attacks occurred. Proposed to prevent and eliminate terrorist attacks coun-termeasures sports:a global effort to establish a fair and rational new international political and economic order;play sports to promote peaceful coexistence and harmoni-ous social development of the world functions;strengthen security measures of major sports events.

  5. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

  6. Disrupting Threat Finances: Utilization of Financial Information to Disrupt Terrorist Organization in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Affairs, “The State Department Role in Combating the Financing of Terrorism,” 4 April 2006, Available from http://www.state.gov/e/ eeb /rls/rm/2006/ 64109... EEB ) has primary responsibility for international coalition building.99 In addition, DOS has several other bureaus and offices that manage various...programs and activities that help combat terrorist financing.100 EEB : EEB maintains the leadership role in the IA effort to combat terrorist financing

  7. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  8. L'inégalité des territoires insulaires de la Caraïbe face aux menaces volcaniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lesales

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Les îles de la Caraïbe orientale sont particulièrement exposées aux éruptions volcaniques. L’ensemble des Petites Antilles comprend en effet une vingtaine de volcans actifs, aux styles éruptifs parmi les plus dangereux et destructeurs. La définition de facteurs de vulnérabilité autorise des comparaisons et un classement des îles en fonction de leur niveau d’exposition. Cette approche permet d’attirer l’attention sur la nécessité d’une gestion proactive des risques volcaniques en contexte insulaireThe Eastern Caribbean islands are particularly exposed to volcanic eruptions. The Lesser Antilles arc indeed includes a score of active volcanoes, whose eruptive styles are among the most dangerous and destructive. The definition of vulnerability factors leads to some comparisons and a classification of the islands according to their level of exposure. This approach draws the attention to the imperative need for a proactive management of the volcanic risks in this insular context.

  9. ‘Let the Punishment Match the Offence’: Determining Sentences for Australian Terrorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola McGarrity

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, 38 men have been charged with terrorism offences in Australia. Twenty-six have been convicted. The article commences with an overview of the factual circumstances leading to these convictions. This provides important background for the following discussion of a largely unexplored issue in Australian anti-terrorism law and policy, namely, the difficulties faced by the Australian courts in adapting traditional sentencing principles to the (for the most part, preparatory terrorism offences enacted by the Commonwealth Parliament after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Of particular interest are how the courts determine the objective seriousness of these offences and the respective weight placed upon deterrence (both specific and general and the rehabilitation of convicted terrorists.

  10. Optimizing topological cascade resilience based on the structure of terrorist networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gutfraind

    Full Text Available Complex socioeconomic networks such as information, finance and even terrorist networks need resilience to cascades--to prevent the failure of a single node from causing a far-reaching domino effect. We show that terrorist and guerrilla networks are uniquely cascade-resilient while maintaining high efficiency, but they become more vulnerable beyond a certain threshold. We also introduce an optimization method for constructing networks with high passive cascade resilience. The optimal networks are found to be based on cells, where each cell has a star topology. Counterintuitively, we find that there are conditions where networks should not be modified to stop cascades because doing so would come at a disproportionate loss of efficiency. Implementation of these findings can lead to more cascade-resilient networks in many diverse areas.

  11. Experiences from coordinating research after the 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refsdal, Nils O

    2014-01-01

    This brief report presents some of the lessons learned from coordinating research in which people directly affected by terrorist attacks in Norway in 2011 are taking part. After the terrorist attacks, it was decided to establish a national coordinating function in order to protect those who were affected when they participate in research. By gathering key stakeholders, it is possible to avoid duplication of research through practical measures such as information sharing, facilitating cooperation, and working toward sharing of data. In addition, a coordinating function provides a platform for working to increase the impact of the research among practitioners and policy makers, and inform the general public. The conclusions are that coordination should be interdisciplinary, that it is important to plan for the sharing and reuse of data, and that both the research community and the research infrastructure should take steps to improve preparedness when disaster inevitably strikes again.

  12. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz García-Vera, María; Sanz, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article was aimed at systematically reviewing the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of terrorist attacks. Electronic and hand searches of the literature identified 35 studies addressing PTSD prevalence based on validated diagnostic interviews. Overall, in the year after terrorist attacks, 33% to 39% of direct victims developed PTSD, whereas the percentage of indirect victims with PTSD was lower (4% in the affected community, 5%-6% among emergency, rescue, and recovery workers, and 17%-29% among relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims), but nonetheless above the prevalence in the general population. With the passing of time, a significant reduction of PTSD can be expected in the affected community and in the emergency and rescue personnel, but not in the injured victims, in the relatives and friends of the injured or killed victims, and in nontraditional, more vulnerable disaster workers. The implications of these results for the psychological treatment of terrorism victims are discussed.

  13. Case Studies in Exploiting Terrorist Group Divisions with Disinformation and Divisive/Black Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Garner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Counterterrorism operations should be exploiting the divisions and infighting of terrorist groups.  The overall goal should be to make fewer mistakes than the jihadis, help increase inter-group and intra-group tension, and further their disconnection from the wider public. This paper argues that strategic psychological operations (PSYOP that focus on exploiting rifts in leadership, differences in strategic planning, and ethnic, national and tribal differences within and among terrorist groups could be an integral part of overall counterterrorism efforts. Using three case studies, chosen because of the attention given to them in the international community and the illuminating group and leadership characteristics that can be found in many other jihadist organisations, the paper illustrates that PSYOP that expand on the existing framework could be very effective in countering the jihadist threat.

  14. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  15. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  16. Optimizing Topological Cascade Resilience Based on the Structure of Terrorist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfraind, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Complex socioeconomic networks such as information, finance and even terrorist networks need resilience to cascades - to prevent the failure of a single node from causing a far-reaching domino effect. We show that terrorist and guerrilla networks are uniquely cascade-resilient while maintaining high efficiency, but they become more vulnerable beyond a certain threshold. We also introduce an optimization method for constructing networks with high passive cascade resilience. The optimal networks are found to be based on cells, where each cell has a star topology. Counterintuitively, we find that there are conditions where networks should not be modified to stop cascades because doing so would come at a disproportionate loss of efficiency. Implementation of these findings can lead to more cascade-resilient networks in many diverse areas. PMID:21085710

  17. The quest for significance model of radicalization: implications for the management of terrorist detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michelle; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2014-01-01

    Radicalization and its culmination in terrorism represent a grave threat to the security and stability of the world. A related challenge is effective management of extremists who are detained in prison facilities. The major aim of this article is to review the significance quest model of radicalization and its implications for management of terrorist detainees. First, we review the significance quest model, which elaborates on the roles of motivation, ideology, and social processes in radicalization. Secondly, we explore the implications of the model in relation to the risks of prison radicalization. Finally, we analyze the model's implications for deradicalization strategies and review preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program targeting components of the significance quest. Based on this evidence, we argue that the psychology of radicalization provides compelling reason for the inclusion of deradicalization efforts as an essential component of the management of terrorist detainees.

  18. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect: Preconditions, Causes, and Predictive Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    sighted, as a youth he attended a school for the blind, where his behavior was “dominating, manipulative, bullying , and sometimes violent.”80 These...which were the ultimate manifestation of WME terrorism, merged two prior terrorist innovations: airline hijackings and suicide bombings. The... suicide attacks in defense of Islam and permitted the targeting of Western civilians to reciprocate the killing of Muslims by Western governments

  19. Internet Posting of Chemical "Worst Case" Scenarios: A Roadmap for Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-10

    cal personnel into crisis areas. Panic spreads as vaccines and antibiotics run short— and then run out. The killer is a hybrid of smallpox and the...groups, religious fanatics, and assorted crazies eager to launch a major attack on the civilized world—preferably on U.S. territory. Walter Laqueur...terrorists possess political objectives, whether Basque independence, Kash- miri separatism, or Palestinian Marxism. Neither crazy nor stupid, they

  20. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    OpenAIRE

    Sir David Omand

    2012-01-01

    The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining te...

  1. Decomposing violence: terrorist murder in the twentieth century in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of murder in the United States (1900-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, alternation in power, social, and political unrest overseas as wars, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in the country. The cyclical com...

  2. Terrorism As a Psychological Operation: A Comparative Analysis of the Zionist and the Palestinian Terrorist Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    political communication : Martha Crenshaw, "How Terrorists Think: What Psychology Can Contribute to Understanding Terrorism," In Lawrence Howard (ed...methods of political communication . All considered, Walter’s explanation of the process of terror imagines an authoritarian state, which uses violence... Political Communication : The Relationship between Controller and the Controlled," In P. Wilkinson and A.M. Stewart (eds.) Contemporari Research on

  3. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  4. Investigative Data Mining Toolkit: A Software Prototype for Visualizing, Analyzing and Destabilizing Terrorist Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    None of these studies used advanced data mining technologies that have been applied widely in other domains such as finance , marketing, and business to...different kinds of criminal networks, for example in financing terrorists by illegal diamond and drug trafficking. Recently, computer scientists have...Complex Networks can help in developing Strategy against Terrorism, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20, 69-75 (2004) [28] Bali Night Club Bombing

  5. Jemaah Islamiyah: Reevaluating the Most Dangerous Terrorist Threat in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    targets,” “small bombings in bars, cafes or nightclubs frequented by Westerners in Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore, Philippines...9 while they were exiled in Malaysia . From inception to early 2000, the two established and developed JI into a coherent terrorist network aimed at...country.41 In the midst of losses in members and resources as a result of counterterrorism (CT) operations in Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines

  6. The Study of New Religious Movements and the Process of Radicalization in Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    persona ; (2) moderating the psychological identification of followers; (3) negotiating the routinization of charisma; and (4) achieving new successes. In...des formes réelles ou même relatives de privation. Au dire de deux sociologues bien connus dans le domaine de la religion, les cultes qui ont bien ...quand ils se tournent vers la violence et la socialisation des nouveaux membres de groupes terroristes. 6) Croyances apocalyptiques : Bien qu’en

  7. Countering Terrorist Financing: A Case Study of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    FINANCING: A CASE STUDY OF THE KURDISTAN WORKERS’ PARTY (PKK) by Mehmet A. Kanmaz December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Victoria Clement...DATES COVERED December 20 14 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS COUNTERING TERRORIST FINANCING: A CASE STUDY OF THE KURDISTAN ...on a specific tetTorist organization, the Kurdistan Workers ’ Party (PKK), which has been a problem in Turkey for over 30 years. The study

  8. David, Charles-Philippe et la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand (éds : Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces, nouvelles politiques, Quebec : Fides la Presse, 315 p, annexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Groc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Remmm couvrant essentiellement le monde arabe et musulman, le livre Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces et nouvelles politiques dont nous faisons ici le compte-rendu, nous interpelle moins dans le fourmillement de considérations militaires, stratégiques, balistiques extrêmement techniques qu'en fonction de la prémisse à partir de laquelle est faite cette réévaluation de la sécurité, à savoir l'aire musulmane mais aussi l'islam. L'objet global de ce livre, réalisé par toute une équipe ...

  9. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  10. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  11. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  12. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse. Keywords: Media discourse analysis, Norway terrorist attacks, Islam, Western media

  13. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks.

  14. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  15. Striking at the Underbelly: Influencing Would-Be Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    of environment, emotions towards others, motivation for actions, personality in general and behavior as a consequence of interpersonal relationships...that my economic circumstances were not good. They … exploited it. … They approached me with warmth that I later understood to be false.”57 C

  16. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A.; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  17. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  18. The Evolving Terrorist Threat to Southeast Asia. A Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    pitted longtime CPP secretary general Jose Maria Sison (an ardent supporter of Maoist principles) against so-called “insurrectionist-line” cadres...Jose Maria Sison, remains in self-imposed exile in the Netherlands. Most of the CPP-NPA’s international activities are coor- dinated through the...term counter-radicalization (as opposed to deradicalization). To this end, the agency has emphasized a matrix-based approach to monitoring Isla - mist

  19. Counterinsurgency Meets Soft Power: An Alternative Approach to Deterring Terrorist Recruitment in Mindanao

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    operative in Southeast Asia. According to Rohan Gunaratna, an Islamic terrorism expert, Al-Ghozi was a Javanese who worked as an explosives trainer in...explosives to attack embassies in Singapore and Indonesia . On 14 July 2003, Al-Ghozi escaped from a high security facility in Manila, along with two...Nye further supports this decline in American soft power by stating that, “In Indonesia , the world’s largest Islamic nation, three quarters of the

  20. The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoroff, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of available theories and data regarding the psychology of terrorism. Data and theoretical material were gathered from the world's unclassified literature. Multiple theories and some demographic data have been published, but very few controlled empirical studies have been conducted investigating the…

  1. Nuclear power - menace or miracle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porritt, J.; Gittus, J.

    1988-04-01

    The main points of the anti-nuclear lobby are put by the Director of Friends of the Earth. These are on its failure to provide cheaper electricity, reactor safety (the Chernobyl accident is cited), on the problems of radioactive waste disposal and on the public preference for a non-nuclear energy programme. Coal is seen as able to provide most of the United Kingdom's energy needs until the 22nd century. Long-term solutions to the energy and environmental problems are energy conservation and renewable energy sources. The pro-nuclear case is made by the Director of Communication and Information at the UK Atomic Energy Authority. This is that renewable energy sources will not be viable for another 30 years or so and, anyway, do not solve all the environmental problems. The choice of energy is thus coal or nuclear. Coal gives rise to acid rain and, as it is in limited supply, is too valuable simply to burn. Nuclear power can provide the energy economically and safely. The accident at Chernobyl is not possible in the UK. The amount of high level nuclear waste generated is small and measures for its disposal will be taken. The levels of radiation due to the nuclear power industry are small compared with natural radiation levels, and have not been shown to cause higher than normal levels of leukaemia or cancer. (U.K.).

  2. The Menace of Environmental Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    TheMenaceofEnvironmentalPollutionBystaffreporterDINGMOTENSofthousandsofdeadfishfloatonthesurfaceofGuanqiaoLakeinWuhan,capital...

  3. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  5. [And if it happened to children? Adapting medical care during terrorist attacks with multiple pediatric victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Séguin, L; Lodé, N; Orliaguet, G; Chamorro, E; Kerroué, F; Lorge, C; Moreira, A

    2017-03-01

    In light of the recent terrorist attacks in Europe, we need to reconsider the organization of rescue and medical management and plan for an attack involving multiple pediatric victims. To ensure quick surgical management, but also to minimize risk for on-site teams (direct threats from secondary terrorist attacks targeting deployed emergency services), it is crucial to evacuate patients in a swift but orderly fashion. Children are vulnerable targets in terrorist attacks. Their anatomical and physiological characteristics make it likely that pediatric victims will suffer more brain injuries and require more, often advanced, airway management. Care of multiple pediatric victims would also prove to be a difficult emotional challenge. Civilian medical teams have adapted the military-medicine principles of damage control in their medical practice using the MARCHE algorithm (Massive hemorrhage, Airway, Respiration [breathing], Circulation, Head/Hypothermia, Evacuation). They have also learned to adapt the level of care to the level of safety at the scene. Prehospital damage control principles should now be tailored to the treatment of pediatric patients in extraordinary circumstances. Priorities are given to hemorrhage control and preventing the lethal triad (coagulopathy, hypothermia, and acidosis). Managing hemorrhagic shock involves quickly controlling external bleeding (tourniquets, hemostatic dressing), using small volumes for fluid resuscitation (10-20ml/kg of normal saline), quickly introducing a vasopressor (noradrenaline 0.1μg/kg/min then titrate) after one or two fluid boluses, and using tranexamic acid (15mg/kg over 10min for loading dose, maximum 1g over 10min). Prehospital resources specifically dedicated to children are limited, and it is therefore important that everyone be trained and prepared for a scene with multiple pediatric patients.

  6. Derivation of models for nuclear weapon terrorist arming and detonation risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A A

    1998-03-01

    This report investigates "use control" for the on-site arming and detonation, by terrorists, of stored weapon systems. We investigate both components of weapon "use control", which we define as: (1) weapon "use denial" * that we model as a probability, Pj (denial), that represents the chances that terrorists attempting to arm a type j weapon will commit a non-recoverable error, and (2) weapon "use delay" that we model as a random variable, Tj , that represents the arming delay imposed by the use control features of a type j weapon, before detonation can occur. Using information pertaining to the physical security system at a storage site, the postulated terrorist attack force size, and simulated combat engagement outcomes, we formulate the frequency, fj , and probability, P(dj ), of on-site detonation, for generic weapon types j. We derive a model that disjoins the performance of site physical security, from that for weapon use control, if the use control random variable Tj has a Uniform or histogram distribution. This is an especially significant result where most complex distributions can be adequately approximated with a histogram. Hence, we can conduct combat simulations to obtain the physical security performance of a specific storage site independent of the use control features associated with specific weapon types that are stored, or might be stored, at the site. In turn, we can obtain the use control performance for various weapon types, independent of where they are stored and the physical security systems surrounding them. Our models can then mathematically combine physical security performance and weapon use control performance for any combination of storage facility and weapon type.

  7. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  8. An assessment of the terrorist threat to use a nuclear or radiological device in an attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingshott, B.F. [Grand Valley State University, 275C DeVos Center, 401 West Fulton Street, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 (United States)]. E-mail: kingshob@gvsu.edu

    2006-07-01

    This paper will discuss terrorism from the perspective of a terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear material to build weapons and how security of radiological material world wide will minimise the risk of such devices being used. It will discuss the need to improve security at nuclear waste processing and storage sites and the adequacy of current security. It will also discuss the phenomenon of suicide attacks by the bomb carriers and the role of the media in informing and educating the general public of the consequences should such a device containing nuclear material be detonated. (author)

  9. ABOUT MODELLING OF COMPLEX NETWORKS WITH APPLICATIONS TO TERRORIST GROUP MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Penzar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on available data on various organisations and networks, the article explores some key properties of the structure of a terrorist organisation. Analytical focus is on lower levels of organisational hierarchy, where network structure with exponential distribution of the number of links among network nodes is clearly visible. Such networks tend to grow organically, are very efficient in information diffusion, and are robust regarding stochastic failures and targeted attacks. These network features are illustrated by recent example based on network data about September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington.

  10. Stochastic nanopore sensors for the detection of terrorist agents: Current status and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua; Zhao Qitao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Guan Xiyun, E-mail: xguan@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-08-24

    Nanopore stochastic sensor works by monitoring the ionic current modulations induced by the passage of analytes of interest through a single pore, which can be obtained from a biological ion channel by self-assembly or artificially fabricated in a solid-state membrane. In this minireview, we overview the use of biological nanopores and artificial nanopores for the detection of terrorist agents including explosives, organophosphorus nerve agents, nitrogen mustards, organoarsenic compounds, toxins, and viruses. We also discuss the current challenge in the development of deployable nanopore sensors for real-world applications.

  11. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services.

  12. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  13. The Treatment of Images in 11-M Terrorist Attacks. Terrorism and Violence in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Torres Romay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to analyze the pictures publishing in the Spanish and international newspapers before the Madrid terrorist attack, March, 11. With this research we get some ideas about freedom speech limits: the respect of the privacy and, in special, the respect of the pain. At the same time, we´ll remark the importance of the photography in the press and their communication power. For this research we used the March, 11 and 12 newspapers of most important Spanish editors and the digital edition of international press.

  14. Research on Risk Assessment Model of Universities' Information Security Based on Menace Analysis%基于单威胁分析的高校综合信息安全风险评估方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健; 吉久明; 孙济庆; 李楠

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of information construction in colleges and universities, information security risk assessment is im-perative. This paper presents a universities' information security risk assessment model based on Markov method and menace analysis. By using Markov, Delphi collective discussion and the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP), the probability of occurrence of the threat, the property of the consequences of the threat, property values and their weights are arrived at, then menace index is calculated. The menace index is then used to rank risks involved, thus provides a scientific basis for developing appropriate information security risk management strategy in universities. And with a focus on the effects of the initial probability value selected by different methods on the final result, the comparative analysis conducted finds a significant impact on the final result by the initial probability.%  依据资产、脆弱性、威胁等风险评估基本要素,提出一种基于Markov方法、以威胁为核心的高校信息安全风险评估模型。通过运用Markov,德尔菲集体讨论法,层次分析法等方法得到威胁发生的概率、威胁的后果属性、属性值及其权重,进而计算出威胁指数。利用威胁指数对风险进行排序,为制定有针对性的高校信息安全风险管理策略提供科学的依据。并着重对不同方法选取的初始概率值对最终结果影响进行了比较分析,发现初始概率对最终的结果影响很大。

  15. The relationship between terrorist activities and cases of malaria in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey, 1984-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ilhan; Egri, Mucahit; Celbis, Osman; Toprak, Sadik; Ozag, Kadir

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cases of malaria are related to terrorist activities that have occurred in the eastern and south-eastern regions of Turkey. Some of the determinants related to malaria have been investigated using a national dataset for 11 provinces located in these regions of Turkey. In these regions, both terrorist activity and cases of malaria were common from 1984 to 1998. A multiple regression technique was used to identify the variables that are significantly associated with cases of malaria. Annual incidence of malaria was chosen as the dependent variable along with three independent (explanatory) variables: annual number of terrorist incidences, people per healthcare technician and number of thick blood films per 100,000 people. Based on this analysis, it is determined that the annual number of terrorist incidences has been associated with the annual number of malaria cases in these regions of Turkey since the beginning of terrorist activity in 1984.

  16. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security.

  17. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  18. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder and exposure to trauma reminders after a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Kristin A; Jensen, Tine K; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Dyb, Grete

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to systematically describe the type and frequency of trauma reminders reported after a terrorist attack and (b) to examine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. A total of 285 survivors (M age = 22.2, SD = 4.3, 53% males) of the 2011 massacre on Utøya Island, Norway, were interviewed face to face 14-15 months after the terror. Participants were asked how often they had experienced a range of different trauma reminders in the past month and which was most distressing. Current posttraumatic stress reactions were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. In all, 33.3% of the survivors reported having experienced 1 or more trauma reminders often/very often in the past month. Auditory reminders were most frequently encountered and were reported to be the most distressing, especially sudden and sharp noises. Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was significantly associated with frequency of exposure to trauma reminders. The findings suggest that trauma reminders are common among survivors of a terrorist attack almost 1.5 years after the trauma and that PTSD is strongly related to the frequency of exposure to reminders. It is important that clinicians are aware of the significant role trauma reminders may play in maintaining PTSD and help trauma survivors recognize and manage reminders.

  20. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  1. Hitting a Moving Target: A Strategic Tool for Analyzing Terrorist Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Ken; Ishisoko, Noriko; Trounce, Milana; Bernard, Kenneth

    The subject of terrorism risk can be confusing for both the general public and for those responsible for protecting us from attack. Relatively minor terrorist threats are often conflated with much more serious ones, in part because it is hard to quantify either intent or technical ability to carry out an attack. Plotting threats on a "potential mass casualties" versus "ease of obtainment or production" matrix creates some order out of a seemingly endless array of worldwide threats, and it highlights those threats that are in need of more urgent attention. The specific threats on this 2x2 matrix can fall into one or multiple quadrants, which can be qualitatively described as "most dangerous," "dangerous but difficult," "worrisome," and "persistent terror." By placing threats into these quadrants and illustrating movement within and between them, the matrix can help (1) visualize and parse a diverse set of threats, (2) view how threats have changed over time and judge the efficacy of current countermeasures, and (3) evaluate the merit of future actions and investments. Having a dynamic matrix that can visually map the comparative risk of terrorist threat events in toto and that can help us monitor the effectiveness of present and future resource investments can add intellectual rigor to some of the most difficult and daunting decisions pertaining to our nation's safety and security.

  2. A decision framework for managing risk to airports from terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Cha, Eun J; Ellingwood, Bruce R

    2015-02-01

    This article presents an asset-level security risk management framework to assist stakeholders of critical assets with allocating limited budgets for enhancing their safety and security against terrorist attack. The proposed framework models the security system of an asset, considers various threat scenarios, and models the sequential decision framework of attackers during the attack. Its novel contributions are the introduction of the notion of partial neutralization of attackers by defenders, estimation of total loss from successful, partially successful, and unsuccessful actions of attackers at various stages of an attack, and inclusion of the effects of these losses on the choices made by terrorists at various stages of the attack. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example dealing with security risk management of a U.S. commercial airport, in which a set of plausible threat scenarios and risk mitigation options are considered. It is found that a combination of providing blast-resistant cargo containers and a video surveillance system on the airport perimeter fence is the best option based on minimum expected life-cycle cost considering a 10-year service period.

  3. A project to develop restoration methods for buildings and facilities after a terrorist attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). River Road Environmental Technology Centre; Volchek, K.; Hornof, M.; Boudreau, L.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Best, M. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Garbutt, M.; Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K. [Health Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Haslip, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A multi-agent project was initiated to review site restoration after a terrorist attack. The objective was to acquire and compile information on all known restoration procedures for buildings, exteriors of buildings, their interior contents, and adjacent areas such as parking lots, lawns and vehicles. All procedures were then tested and validated. Restoration procedures included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction/deposition of the contaminant, cleaning material and contaminated debris resulting from the terrorist act. This research and development project considered chemical, biological and nuclear contamination with the intent to develop methods to decontaminate and restore buildings after a chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) attack. Ideas were collected from work conducted around the world. The efficacy of best candidates was tested along with all selected chemical target items. The project also involved the preparation of procedures for decontamination and restoration. Ultimately, a tradeoff decision basis will be developed to provide information on abandonment and quarantine versus cleanup. The study revealed that there are several technologies that can be used for the decontamination of structures and equipment after acts of terrorism, however, no one technique will work for all contaminants on all surfaces. The selection of a decontamination method depends on the contaminant, the surface being decontaminated and economic, social and health factors. The amount of waste generated by decontamination is a major feasibility factor. 25 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Male fetal loss in the U.S. following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The secondary sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male birth) reportedly declines following natural disasters, pollution events, and economic collapse. It remains unclear whether this decline results from an excess of male fetal loss or reduced male conceptions. The literature also does not converge as to whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 induced "communal bereavement", or the widespread feeling of distress among persons who never met those directly involved in the attacks. We test the communal bereavement hypothesis among gravid women by examining whether male fetal deaths rose above expected levels in the US following September 11, 2001. Methods We apply interrupted time-series methods to all fetal deaths at or greater than the 20th week of gestation in the US from 1996 to 2002. Time-series methods control for trends, seasonality, and other forms of autocorrelation that could induce spurious associations. Results Results support the hypothesis in that the fetal death sex ratio (i.e., the odds of a male fetal death) increased above its expected value in September 2001. Additional analysis of the secondary sex ratio indirectly supports that the terrorist attacks may have threatened the gestation of male more than female fetuses. Conclusions Societal responses to events such as September 11, 2001 do not appear confined only to persons who have ever met the deceased. The fetal death sex ratio in the US population may serve as a sentinel indicator of the degree to which pregnant women react to population stressors. PMID:20500812

  5. Psychological consequences of terrorist attacks: prevalence and predictors of mental health problems in Pakistani emergency responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Saiqa; Ehring, Thomas; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-05-15

    Earlier research showing moderate to high prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental health problems in emergency personnel has mostly been carried out in Western countries. Data from non-Western countries are largely lacking. The current study aimed to gather evidence on the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in N=125 Pakistani emergency workers, most of whom (n=100; 80%) had been exposed to terrorist attacks. Fifteen percent of participants showed clinically relevant levels of PTSD, and 11-16% of participants reported heightened levels of anxiety or depression. Neither the experience of terrorist attacks per se nor the severity of the attack experienced was related to symptom severities. However, symptom levels of PTSD were related to a number of predictor variables, including subjective threat, peritraumatic dissociation, past traumas, rumination, and avoidant coping. Only a few variables were predictive of levels of anxiety and depression. In sum, a substantial subgroup of emergency workers experienced mental health problems, and prevalences were in the high range of those reported in earlier studies focusing on emergency personnel in Western countries.

  6. State and local levels of preparedness for terrorist incidents : the current and sobering U.S. picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.M.; Scott-Dimenna, D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An increasing number of professional organizations and foundations have surveyed components of the United States readiness programs concerning preparedness for terrorist attacks. This paper reviews the results of research conducted in 2002 and compares them with subsequent studies, demonstrating a gap between desired and current states of readiness. Weaknesses at the local, federal and state levels were discussed. Results from local needs and preparedness surveys were examined, including details and summaries of surveys sent to representatives within all states and territories. Significant gaps still remained in protecting the public from biological and chemical attacks. Cut-backs and a lack of resources were identified as contributing to a lack of local preparedness. In addition, emergency responders were not receiving appropriate training. An independent task force reported that less than 10 per cent of fire departments in the United States had the resources, training and equipment needed to respond to a building collapse. It was noted that less than one-quarter of the United States are able to respond 24 hours a day to reports from hospitals of possible victims of biological or chemical attacks. Bioterrorism preparedness still lacks strategic direction, well-defined priorities and appropriate levels of resources to match needs. In addition, although facilities have been identified as risk management program sites, local responders remain unprepared for threats and many local fire and police departments have not been informed of specific plant hazards or information regarding exact chemical hazards. It was concluded that as the United States approaches its fourth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, there is is much yet to be done to improve the level of preparedness in cities and towns across the country. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Terrorist bombing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ami; Kluger, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that differ from those of conventional trauma. The clinical implications of terror bombing, in treatment dilemmas in the multidimensional injury, ancillary evaluation and handling of terror bombing mass casualty event are highlighted. All this leads to the conclusion that thorough medical preparedness to cope with this new epidemic is required, and that understanding of detonation and blast dynamics and how they correlate with the injury patterns is pivotal for revision of current mass casualty protocols. PMID:17101058

  8. Terrorist bombing

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger Yoram; Mayo Ami

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Bombings and explosion incidents directed against innocent civilians are the primary instrument of global terror. In the present review we highlight the major observations and lessons learned from these events. Five mechanisms of blast injury are outlined and the different type of injury that they cause is described. Indeed, the consequences of terror bombings differ from those of non-terrorism trauma in severity and complexity of injury, and constitute a new class of casualties that...

  9. Terrorisme, terroriste

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The word "terrorism" was inventend to describe the policy of the French republic after the French revolution and was claimed by the Republican Themselves. Today "terrorism" is used in the rhetoric of power to present an adversary as "absolute evil". The word is reserved to non official groups unable to battle professional armies and so it is discarded when the question is tu judge the acts of those armies. The result is that in today's violent conflict, only the weakest can bel labeled "terro...

  10. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  11. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    pleasure boats, and offshore oil platforms . No matter where a potential terrorists looks, targets are plentiful. Beyond venue-specific target lists...National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce (NLTEC), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2002. Self-Selection Biases in the Internet

  12. Applying the Israeli Practice of Reconstruction Following a Terrorist Attack as a Model for Cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) A component of the Israeli counter-terrorism policy includes a strategic choreographed response to restore and...includes a strategic choreographed response to restore and reconstruct physical damage caused by a terrorist attack with the goal of removing all markings

  13. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ercan, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted. PMID:27879941

  14. 31 CFR 597.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions involving blocked assets or funds of foreign terrorist organizations or their agents. 597.201 Section 597.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  16. 48 CFR 252.209-7001 - Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure of ownership or control by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7001 Section 252.209-7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  17. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  18. 78 FR 59751 - Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Badruddin Haqqani as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended In accordance with section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001, as amended (``the Order''), I...

  19. Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists (by Jeffrey Kahn, University of Michigan Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ginsburg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11, migration-related security measures, including a growing reliance on watch-lists, have limited the right to travel. Jeffrey Kahn’s book, Mrs. Shipley’s Ghost: The Right to Travel and Terrorist Watchlists, examines the legal and policy questions raised by prohibitions on travel by US citizens. 

  20. 75 FR 2920 - Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designations of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; In the Matter of the Designation of: al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Also Known as al-Qa'ida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Also Known as Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat...

  1. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's...

  2. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  3. 78 FR 45011 - Designation of Bulut Yayla, AKA: Samet Ince as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Designation of Bulut Yayla, AKA: Samet Ince as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant to Section 1(b) of Executive Order 13224, as Amended Acting under the authority of and in accordance with section...

  4. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  5. 76 FR 39408 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-030 Use of the Terrorist Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    .../FBI-019 Terrorist Screening Records System of Records (August 22, 2007, 72 FR 47073) Exemptions... System of Records (August 22, 2007, 72 FR 47073) in order to automate and simplify the current method for... (May 19, 2010, 75 FR 28046); (2) TSA, Secure Flight Program: DHS/TSA-019 Secure Flight Records...

  6. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  7. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism.

  8. 网络暴恐音视频管控研究%Study of Management Control to Violent Terrorist Network Audio and Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红军

    2015-01-01

    Terrorists use network wantonIy spread vioIent terrorist audio and video, has become the root of muItipIe vioIent terrorist activities, with serious sociaI harm. Crack down on propagation of vioIent terrorist network audio and video, is an important and ef ective means to curb vioIent terrorist crime. The articIe introduces the characteristics of vioIent terrorist network audio and video, anaIysis the probIems of the management and controI, propose the coping strategy of vioIent terrorist network audio and video.%恐怖分子利用网络大肆传播暴恐音视频,已成为暴恐活动多发频发的根源性问题,具有严重的社会危害性。严厉打击暴恐音视频的传播行为,是遏制暴恐犯罪的重要有效手段。文章介绍网络传播暴恐音视频的特点,分析了网络暴恐音视频管控面临的问题,提出了打击网络暴恐音视频的应对策略。

  9. Terrorist Financing: Fund Raising and Fund Transfer%论恐怖融资的资金筹集与资金转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文俊

    2012-01-01

    打击恐怖融资对于国际反恐斗争意义重大。本文从资金筹集与资金转移角度系统分析了恐怖融资活动。恐怖融资的资金筹集包括从合法来源筹集资金、从犯罪收益获取资金以及政权支持处获得资金;恐怖融资的资金转移主要有通过正规金融体系、利用贸易部门和现金运送三种方式。%Counter terrorist financing plays a significant role in international counter-terrorist activity. The article systematically analyzes the fund raising and fund transfer of terrorist financing. Terrorist organizations raise fund from legitimate sources, including the abuse of charitable entities or legitimate businesses or self-financing by the terrorists themselves. Terrorists also derive fund from a variety of criminal activities, or from state support. Terrorists use a wide variety of methods to move money, including the financial sector, the physical movement of cash by couriers, and the movement of goods through the trade system

  10. Introduction: 9/11. The Socio-Political consequences of terrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier especial explora las consecuencias socio-políticas de los ataques terroristas. Los primeros dos artículos examinan el impacto que los eventos del 11 de septiembre de 2001 han tenido sobre los discursos culturales en el mundo occidental. ¿Cúal es la reacción de las democracias al ataque terrorista? Tras los ataques del 11 de septiembre la mayoría de la población hubiera esperado que el gobierno pasara a desarrollar leyes que restringieran las libertades individuales y dieran a las autoridades amplios poderes para rastrear los terroristas y sus acólitos. Los siguientes dos artículos examinan las diferentes formas en que el 11 de septiembre han influenciado la política exterior americana contemporánea. En el último artículo William Messner y Carlos Yordan observan las reacciones estadounidenses a los ataques del 11 de septiembre y la implantación del Consejo de Seguridad para lograr un nuevo sistema global anti-terrorista.Palabras clave: 11/S, Estados Unidos, consecuencias socio-políticas, discursos políticos, Política de Seguridad americana contemporánea.___________________________ABSTRACT:This special issue explores the sociopolitical consequences of terrorist attacks. The first two articles examine the impact the events of 11 September 2009(9/11 had on cultural discourses in the West. What are democracies’ reactions to a terrorists attack? Following the 9/11 attacks, most people would expect the government to pass legislation that would restrict individual liberties and give the authorities wide powers to track terrorists and its supporters. Then, the next two articles examine the different ways the 9/11 attacks influenced contemporary American foreign policy. In the last article, William Messmer and Carlos Yordan look at the United Nations’ reactions to the 9/11 attacks and the Security Council’s establishment of new global counter-terrorism system.Keywords: 9/11; USA; United Nations; sociopolitical

  11. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  12. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained.

  13. PTSD and Depression Among Museum Workers After the March 18 Bardo Museum Terrorist Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Chennoufi, Leila; Cheour, Mejda

    2017-02-07

    On March 18, 2015, two gunmen attacked the Bardo museum in Tunis, Tunisia, killing 23 foreign tourists. We assessed PTSD and depression symptoms 4-6 weeks after the event among museum workers, in relation to sociodemographic factors and social support, and we analysed the determinants and predictor factors of PTSD and depression symptoms among the participants. Our findings indicated that 68.6% of the respondents had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cutoff point (IER-S scores >33), and 40.6% reported severe levels of depressive symptoms (DASS-depression scores >20). Male and female participants did not significantly differ in terms of their symptom severities. Low social support was the best predictor of PTSD and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that interventions designed to reinforce ties within social networks may be particularly helpful for victims in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.

  14. Suicide Bombers in Israel: Their Motivations, Characteristics, and Prior Activity in Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sela-Shayovitz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics of suicide bombers as reflected in the Israeli press during the Second Intifada in Israel. The analysis aims to determine whether there were significant differences in the characteristics of suicide bombers with religious motives versus those with nationalist motives. The findings reveal that gender, education level, and organizational affiliation correlated significantly with motives for carrying out suicide attacks. Most of the suicide bombers with religious motives were men with elementary education. In addition, the results show that most of the suicide bombers who were affiliated with the Hamas organization acted out of religious motives. No significant differences were found between suicide bombers with religious and those with nationalist motives with regard to age, marital status, and prior activity in terrorist organizations.

  15. Construction of War Discourse on International News Agencies: Case Study Terrorist attacks November 13th 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel TORRES-TOUKOUMIDIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes warmongering rhetoric presented by international agencies Reuters, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera and Associated Press (AP of the information related to the terrorist attacks in Paris on November 13th, 2015 for 15 days after the event. We have started from a quantitative and qualitative analysis of 550 information units using the software MAXQDA (v. 11.0.11. Subsequently, the semantic criteria of media discourse: functionality, significance and direction of the goal was applied on the selected sample. The results demonstrate the prevailing demonization of Islam, the exaltation of fear and panic in the discursive construction and it highlighted the spectacle of the information as a communicative strategy on the rhetorical guidance.

  16. Energy markets, US energy policy, and the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis A. Sosa; Daniel J. Desnyder [Colorado School of Mines (USA). Division of Economics and Business, Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 reinvigorated the debate over US energy policy initiated by the publication of the National Energy Policy Report (NEPR) of May 2001. US policymakers were aware of the importance of diversification and market risk management, but judged an expansion of domestic production could insulate the US from price shocks. The attacks called attention to the high petroleum intensity of the American economy, led to increases in costs associated with doing business in the oil patch, highlighted the fundamental security problem inherent in oil markets, and probably stymied a nascent recovery. Global energy markets were rattled but not rocked - a result of the preexisting economic downturn and determined market intervention. A review of the changes in US energy strategy since 11 September 2001 suggests cool heads blocked an emotional, short-run policy response and are instead working to diversify America's energy supply portfolio.

  17. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  18. The effects of collective anger and fear on policy support in response to terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeshin

    2016-01-01

    Both correlational and experimental studies examined how perceived emotional responses of the majority of Americans to 9/11 affect individuals' support for government counter-terrorism policies (i.e., military intervention, anti-immigration, restricting civil liberties). Study 1 found associations between perceived collective emotions (i.e., anger, fear) and individuals' own corresponding emotions and those between perceived collective anger and counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated the associations of collective anger with policy support. Using experimental manipulations, Study 2 showed that collective anger had a significant effect on individuals' own anger and one significant and two marginal effects on counter-terrorism policy support. Individuals' own anger mediated one of the marginal effects of collective anger on policy support. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of terrorist threat.

  19. THE NETWORKS IN TOURISM: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic world in which tourism companies act today is in a continuous changing process. The most important factor of these changes is the globalization of their environment, both in economic, social, natural and cultural aspects. The tourism companies can benefit from the opportunities brought by globalization, but also could be menaced by the new context. How could react the companies to these changes in order to create and maintain long term competitive advantage for their business? In the present paper we make a literature review of the new tourism companies´ business approach: the networks - a result and/or a reason for exploiting the opportunities or, on the contrary, for keeping their actual position on the market. It’s a qualitative approach and the research methods used are analyses, synthesis, abstraction, which are considered the most appropriate to achieve the objective of the paper.

  20. Can Music Therapy be an answer to the terrorist question? - A Singaporean Music Therapist’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng Ng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the possibility of Music Therapy being one of the creative responses to the terrorist question within the Singapore context. A general background to the Music Therapy scene in Singapore, and a brief overview of Singapore’s multi-ethnic history and response to terrorist threats are presented. Singapore is a multi-religious society with various ethnic groups living together in her short independent history. In 2001, Singapore was the target of planned attacks by Jemaah Islamiyah (JI members who were Singaporeans. (JI is one of several radical militant groups with close ties with Al-Qaeda. The application of Music Therapy in countering terrorism is explored - in terms of increasing community resilience, responding in times of crisis, as well as incorporating Music Therapy in detainee rehabilitation. Challenges relating to the implementation of crisis intervention using Music Therapy, and its implications in detainee rehabilitation are briefly discussed.

  1. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  2. Dosage of the intensity of terrorist acts in countries where the phenomenon is endogenous. The Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gabriela Rodríguez Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, terrorism -except in outstanding cases- has not opted for a single way to execute its plans. Often it has developed various types of action with the passage of time and changing of technologies. This has constituted a systematic execution of crime; however, not all countries that faced the phenomenon have been consistent in dosage and rating of it. This dosage is related to the intensity in the execution of terrorist actions, also it is related to the implementation of an alarm to avoid the materialization of the act as well as the construction of an action protocol by the state security forces so that this can be avoided. This protocol allows us to know and repel terrorist activity underway.

  3. Mediating the social and psychological impacts of terrorist attacks: the role of risk perception and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon; Krieger, Kristian

    2007-06-01

    The public's understanding of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related issues and their likely actions following a CBRN incident is an issue of great concern, as public psychological and behavioural responses will help determine subsequent morbidity and mortality rates. This paper explores the role of effective government communication with the public and its role in mediating the social and psychological impact of terrorist attacks. We examine the importance of effective communication in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a terrorist attack and explore the impact of risk perceptions in determining the success or failure of risk communication strategies. This includes the examination of the role of fear as a health risk, and the identification of factors relevant to public trust in risk communication. Finally, an investigation of the type of information desired by members of the public leads the authors to make risk communication recommendations targeted at the promotion of more adaptive behaviours in response to CBRN attacks.

  4. 基于互联网的恐怖融资研究%Study on Internet Terrorist Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文俊

    2012-01-01

    On the web, the terrorists raise funds from the direct supporters, or use charitable entities or electric businesses, or derive funds from a variety of criminal activities. Terrorists use a wide variety of methods to move money through internet, including the internet banks, online banks and other online financial services, the internet substitutes bank, and the electric communication.%互联网的恐怖资金筹集包括直接吸引资金、利用慈善组织或者电子商务以及网上犯罪的非法获利。利用互联网的恐怖资金筹集主要通过网络银行与在线银行业务和其它在线金融服务、基于互联网的银行业替代物以及电子通讯。

  5. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  6. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack; Ejercicio de emergencia radiologica ocasionada por un atentado terrorista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rrcana@sede.ar.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  7. How do we combine science and regulations for decision making following a terrorist incident involving radioactive materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, John W; Ford, John R

    2009-11-01

    Approaches to safety regulations-particularly radiation safety regulations-must be founded on the very best science possible. However, radiation safety regulations always lag behind the science for a number of reasons. First, the normal scientific process of peer-review, debate, and confirmation must ensure that the conclusions are indeed correct, the implications of the research are fully understood, and a consensus has been established. Second, in the U.S., there is a well-established, all-inclusive political process that leads to changes in radiation safety regulations. This process can take a very long time, as was demonstrated when the process was initiated to change the Code of Federal Regulations more than 20 y ago in response to International Commission on Radiation Protection Publication 26 and other recommendations. Currently, we find ourselves in a situation where the possibility of a terrorist radiological attack may occur and where the existing body of regulations provides very little guidance. Many international and national bodies, including several federal agencies, have provided recommendations on the appropriate levels of exposure for first-responders and first-receivers, as well as for the general public. However, some agencies provide guidelines based on very conservative dose limits which are not appropriate in situations where there is a substantial chance for the loss of lives and critical infrastructure. It is important that an emergency response is not hampered by overly cautious guidelines or regulations. In a number of exercises the impact of disparate guidelines and training in radiological situations has highlighted the need for clear reasonable limits that maximize the benefit from an emergency response and for any cleanup after the incident. This presentation will focus first on the federal infrastructure established to respond to radiological accidents and incidents. It will review briefly the major recommendations, both

  8. Understanding the Form, Function, and Logic of Clandestine Insurgent and Terrorist Networks: The First Step in Effective Counternetwork Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    to produce • clandestine propaganda Hospital and veterinary clinics that can be used for after hours surgery • of critically wounded insurgents Shop...of Social and Organizational Systems ( CASOS ), June 21, 2002), 101 Clandestine Insurgent and Terrorist Networks http://www.casos.cs.cmu.edu... CASOS ), June 21, 2002), http://www.casos.cs.cmu. edu/publications/ papers/CASOSConf_2002_Day1.pdf [accessed November 22, 2008],13-16. As defined on

  9. Dosage of the intensity of terrorist acts in countries where the phenomenon is endogenous. The Colombian case

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Gabriela Rodríguez Morales

    2015-01-01

    Historically, terrorism -except in outstanding cases- has not opted for a single way to execute its plans. Often it has developed various types of action with the passage of time and changing of technologies. This has constituted a systematic execution of crime; however, not all countries that faced the phenomenon have been consistent in dosage and rating of it. This dosage is related to the intensity in the execution of terrorist actions, also it is related to the implementation of an alarm ...

  10. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002, and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355 participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

  11. 恐怖活动的象征性标识--以巴黎恐袭案为例%Symbolic Signs of Terrorist Acts:the Case of Terrorist Attacks in Paris as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友龙

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] More and more symbolic signs are displayed in terrorist acts. By analyzing symbolic signs, we can better understand terrorism and grasp rules of terrorist acts, and then take measures of intelligence warning and prevention accordingly. [ Method/Process] Using symbolic communication theory of terrorism, terrorist acts are viewed as the special symbolic violence act with the purpose of information communication. From symbolic signs we can get the implicit information. [ Result/Conclusion] In the case of terrorist attacks in Paris, through many symbolic signs terrorists passed the important information, like religious doctrine of terrorism, op-position to secular life and clash of civilizations etc. The use of symbolic signs in the future will be more extensive, needs more attention and prevention.%[目的/意义]恐怖活动中呈现出越来越多的象征性标识,研究象征性标识将有助于我们更好地理解恐怖主义,掌握恐怖活动的规律,从而进行有针对性的情报预警与防范。[方法/过程]运用恐怖主义的象征性沟通理论,将恐怖活动看作以信息沟通为目的、具有特殊象征性的暴力行为,通过分析恐怖活动的象征性标识来揭示其传递的隐含信息。[结果/结论]巴黎系列恐怖袭击案件中的象征性标识,传递出恐怖主义的教义信仰、反世俗生活方式、文明冲突等重要信息。象征性标识的运用在未来将更加广泛,应加以关注与防范。

  12. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up.

  13. METHOD OF FORMING AND ASSESSMENT OF READINESS OF SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every year pirates attack hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. So, by the end of 2014 violent actions of the pirates have undergone more than 5,000 sailors. In 2015, the pirates attacked 246 vessels they had captured 15 ships and 271 of a sailor. While one sailor was killed and 14 wounded. The economic damage from pirates was tens of billions of dollars. For these reasons, the fight against piracy and Maritime terrorism becomes a major concern of the world community. In today's complex for a variety of reasons conditions, convoy of transport ships warships for the passage of areas endangered by pirates is considered the most effective and reliable means of coping with the corsairs of the XXI century, precluding the capture of the ship and its crew. At the same time, the training of personnel to solve specific problems impeding reoperate requires performing the whole complex of preparatory measures, including psychological and physical training of sailors for the upcoming action of a dangerous nature. The article reveals the content of the methodology of forming and evaluating the readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea represents a set of methods, forms and means of pedagogical influence with the purpose of providing soldiers pedagogical assistance in the development of military-professional activities, standards of behavior and support in preparation for military service in the areas endangered by pirates; the development of military-professional competence; the full realization of personal potential of specialist fleet

  14. Holy Terror, Batman! Frank Miller’s Dark Knight and the Superhero as Hardboiled Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Croci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceived in the late thirties as “bold humanist response to Depression-era fears of runaway scientific advance and soulless industrialism” (Morrison 2012, 6, the superhero has flourished as one of the most resilient archetypes of American popular culture. This essay analyses the literary and cultural contaminations that have engendered an unprecedented revision of the paradigm since the 1980s. In particular, it will take into account three graphic novels by American cartoonist Frank Miller (1957 - , one of leading figures of the mainstream comics renaissance, whose ideas have indelibly influenced the artistic development of both medium and genre. The Dark Knight Returns (1986, The Dark Knight Strikes Again (2002 and Holy Terror (2011 constitute an ideal Batman trilogy that charts the character’s evolution as political counterpoint to the perceived crisis of American identity. In this regard, Reaganism and 9/11 are polarized as historical discontinuities triggering the need for a new kind of a criminal (superhero. It will be in fact demonstrated how the novels hybridise the latent generic links to hardboiled pulp novels (R. Chandler, D. Hammet with narrative and aesthetics elements appropriated from the culturally-received concepts of terrorism and terrorists. This fruitful contamination on the one hand “play[s] with reader assumptions about genre” (Baetens and Frey 2015, 46, while on the other hand deconstructs the ideological underpinnings of the archetype, as the moral dichotomy and the alienation of justice from the law.

  15. [FEATURES OF PTSD IN THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE ANTI-TERRORIST OPERATION--UKRAINIAN SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyash, M N; Khudenko, L I

    2014-12-01

    The article gives information about the results of research of characteristics of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the participants of the anti-terrorist operation (ATO), and refugees. Drawn attention to the fact that the demonstration took place in the study of PTSD patients, in the form of the following options: invasion (penetration); avoiding (displacement); hyperactivation. In the study took part 71 serviceman (69 men and 2 women) aged from 22 to 35 years (average age 26,2 years) that have closed traumatic brain injury , in the form of a brain concussions, contusions and suffered on PTSD (main group), studies conducted in 3-6 months after received closed traumatic brain injury. In the group of comparison included 37 patients (34 women and 3 men) aged 27-42 years (average age 32,2 years) that have had PTSD. In a group that included military personnel, in which in addition to PTSD, the clinical picture had existing consequences of craniocerebral injury observed in asthenic symptom complex--27 patients (38.1%); the anxious-phobic--in 19 patients (26.7%); hysterical--in 8 patients (11.3%); a depressive--in 17 patients (23.9%). In a group of patients and refugees from the ATO was: asthenic symptom complex--in 12 patients (32.4%), the anxious-phobic--in 11 patients (29.7%), hysterical--in 6 patients (16.2%), a depressive--in 8 patients (21.7%).

  16. A terrorist bomb blast, a real challenge for any tertiary care health provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Katyal, Surabhi

    2014-01-01

    Multiple casualties and the complex set of injuries in survivors of a terrorist bomb blast poses a real challenge to health care providers. We are presenting three such cases, first case suffered a fracture of both bone lower limb bilaterally along with head injury (foreign bodies were impacted in the scalp and brain parenchyma). Following primary resuscitation, patient shifted to operation theatre after a quick computerized tomography scan and external fixator applied in general anesthesia using the rapid sequence induction. No active neurosurgical intervention was done. As this patient had acute post-traumatic stress response, he was subjected to low pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (pressure of 1.5 ATA for 60 min a day for 10 days) and group counseling. He had good recovery except one lost a limb because of extensive neurovascular damage due to blast. Second case had much more extensive damage involving multiple organ systems. He had blast lung, big cerebrovascular hemorrhage along with gut perforation. Despite best possible surgical and intensive care interventions, patent developed multiple organ failure and unfortunately we lost our patient. Third case was of a right sided globe rupture resulted from blast induced flying foreign bodies. After primary survey and initial resuscitation evisceration done for the damaged eye and patient later on discharged with necessary instruction (including warning signs) for follow-up. PMID:25886231

  17. Shedding Some Light on RFID Distance Bounding Protocols and Terrorist Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, J M E; van der Lubbe, Jan C A

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, researchers have focused on designing secure and efficient RFID authentication protocols. The vast majority of these protocols assume proximity between readers and tags due to the limited range of the radio channel. However, in real scenarios, an intruder can be located between the prover (tag) and the verifier (reader) and trick the latter into thinking that the prover is in close proximity. This attack is globally known as a relay attack, a kind that includes others such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist attacks. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising countermeasure to hinder relay attacks. Several protocols have been proposed in the last years, but vulnerabilities of major or minor relevance have been identified in all of them. In 2008, Kim et al. [10] proposed a new distance bounding protocol with the objective of being the best one in terms of security, privacy, tag computational overhead and fault tolerance - as claimed by their authors. The study of this rec...

  18. Pathological personality development after the Chornobyl disaster and the anti terrorist operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K M; Gresko, M V

    2016-12-01

    Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done. The neuropsychiatric clinical and psychometric methods as General Health Questionnaire, GHQ 28; Eysenck Personality Inventory, EPI; method of personality diag nostic by H. Schmischek - K. Leongard, and modified social psychological questionnaire (Joint Study Project 1993) - «dangers questionnaire» were used.

  19. Environment Canada's emergency response program and terrorist related events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P.; Goldthorp, M.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, significant steps were taken by the federal government to improve its ability to face a terrorist-related event. The provision of scientific and technical support by numerous research centres and laboratory facilities plays a part in meeting this requirement. From the beginning, the Emergencies Science and Technology Division (ESTD), on behalf of the Environmental Technology Centre of Environment Canada, has participated in this effort. The role played by ESTD as part of the federal government's response plan was described in this paper. Specifically, the presentation provides a synopsis of Environment Canada's emergency response program with the emphasis placed squarely on the scientific and technical support program. The tasks completed and those scheduled for the upcoming year were highlighted. Two programs were discussed regarding the completed tasks, namely: a program to select and acquire portable instruments for on-site detection of hazardous materials, and a program to develop state-of-the-art rapid laboratory analysis techniques for hazardous chemicals. The upcoming year will be devoted to investigating methods to decontaminate and restore the infrastructure following an incident. Federal government departments are working in partnership with the private sector in this endeavour. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household income and employment-related exposures, we applied Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods for spatially-aggregated data. We, we found that distance from the World Trade Center site in the post-attack time period was associated with increased risk of anxiety-related diagnoses. In the months following the attack, each two mile increment in distance closer to the World Trade Center site was associated with a seven percent increase in anxiety-related diagnoses in the population. No similar association was found during a similar time period in the year prior to the attacks. We conclude that spatial variables help more fully describe post-terrorism psychiatric risk and may help explain discrepancies in the existing literature about these attacks. These methods hold promise for the characterization of disease risk where spatial patterning of ecologic-level exposures and outcomes merits consideration. PMID:20079543

  1. Identification With Terrorist Victims of the Washington, DC Sniper Attacks: Posttraumatic Stress and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Ursano, Robert J; Benevides, K Nikki; Fullerton, Carol S

    2016-02-01

    In October 2002, a series of sniper attacks in the Washington, DC area left 10 people dead and 3 wounded. We examined the association between identification with terrorist victims and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants were 1,238 residents of the Washington, DC area (ages 18-90 years; M = 41.73, SD = 12.56) who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and items pertaining to identification with attack victims approximately 3 weeks following the first sniper shooting. We examined 3 types of identification with the victims: (a) as like oneself, (b) as like a friend, and (c) as like a family member. The relationships of identification to posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were examined using linear regression analyses. Greater total identification was associated with more posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < .001, and B = 0.44, p < .001, respectively), after adjusting for demographics. Those who specifically identified with the victims as either self (B = 0.24, p < .001), friend (B = 0.30, p < .001), or family member (B = 0.27, p < .001) reported more PTSD symptoms (n = 1,101). Identifying with victims as like a friend or family member, but not as like oneself, was associated with increased depressive symptoms (B = 0.61, p < .001, and B = 0.45, p = .01, respectively; n = 1,222). Presence and type of identification play a differential role in psychological and behavioral responses during traumatic events.

  2. A Game-Theoretical Model to Improve Process Plant Protection from Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laobing; Reniers, Genserik

    2016-12-01

    The New York City 9/11 terrorist attacks urged people from academia as well as from industry to pay more attention to operational security research. The required focus in this type of research is human intention. Unlike safety-related accidents, security-related accidents have a deliberate nature, and one has to face intelligent adversaries with characteristics that traditional probabilistic risk assessment techniques are not capable of dealing with. In recent years, the mathematical tool of game theory, being capable to handle intelligent players, has been used in a variety of ways in terrorism risk assessment. In this article, we analyze the general intrusion detection system in process plants, and propose a game-theoretical model for security management in such plants. Players in our model are assumed to be rational and they play the game with complete information. Both the pure strategy and the mixed strategy solutions are explored and explained. We illustrate our model by an illustrative case, and find that in our case, no pure strategy but, instead, a mixed strategy Nash equilibrium exists.

  3. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience.

  4. The 9/11 terrorist attack and posttraumatic stress disorder revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Bohnert, Kipling M; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-08-01

    Research published in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack reported elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the US population (4.3%-17.0%), attributable to indirect exposure through the media. We use data from a national survey conducted in 2004 to 2005 (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2) (n = 34,653). The list of traumatic events covered in the survey included indirect exposure to 9/11 through media coverage. Respondents who endorsed more than 1 traumatic event were asked to single out "the worst event" they had ever experienced. The worst event (or the only event) was the index event for diagnosing PTSD. Indirect experience of 9/11 had the lowest PTSD risk of all the traumatic events in the list, 1.3%. In the subset that endorsed only 9/11 indirect exposure (n = 3981), the PTSD risk was 0.3%. Of the total sample, 0.7% experienced PTSD in relation to indirect 9/11. Explanations for the lower estimates are discussed.

  5. A public health approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhui Kamaldeep S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very recent acts of terrorism in the UK were perpetrated by 'homegrown', well educated young people, rather than by foreign Islamist groups; consequently, a process of violent radicalization was proposed to explain how ordinary people were recruited and persuaded to sacrifice their lives. Discussion Counterterrorism approaches grounded in the criminal justice system have not prevented violent radicalization. Indeed there is some evidence that these approaches may have encouraged membership of radical groups by not recognizing Muslim communities as allies, citizens, victims of terrorism, and victims of discrimination, but only as suspect communities who were then further alienated. Informed by public health research and practice, a new approach is proposed to target populations vulnerable to recruitment, rather than rely only on research of well known terrorist groups and individual perpetrators of terrorist acts. Conclusions This paper proposes public health research and practice to guard against violent radicalization.

  6. 基于网络信息隐性挖掘技术的恐怖人员定位%The Method of Terrorists Location Based on Network Information Hidden Mining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志伟

    2014-01-01

    Terrorist people send terrorist information in the network, the network node based on terrorist information sources to realize accurate positioning to the terrorist.Terrorist people send terrorist information normal attribute is different, disguise the strong.Using traditional information mining methods for horror personnel positioning, the terrorist information inherent in disguise, to terrorist information mining accurately, which reduces the terrorist personnel positioning accuracy.For this, put forward a network based on clustering algorithm in the terrorist information mining method.Screening of the horrors of the valuable information in the network information characteristics, so as to provide the basis for terrorist information mining.Using clustering algorithms, clustering characteristics of all terrorist information processing, can realize the network of information mining of terror, finally realizes the localization to the terrorist.The experimental results show that the terrorist in the use of the method for network information mining, can realize accurate positioning to the terrorist.%恐怖人员在网络中发送恐怖信息时,根据恐怖信息来源的网络节点能够实现对恐怖人员的准确定位。恐怖人员发送恐怖信息与正常信息的属性不同,伪装性较强。利用传统的恐怖信息挖掘方法进行恐怖人员定位时,固有的恐怖信息被伪装,难以进行恐怖信息的准确挖掘,造成恐怖人员定位准确性降低。为此,提出一种基于聚类算法的网络中恐怖信息挖掘方法。在网络信息中筛选有价值的恐怖信息特征,从而为恐怖信息挖掘提供依据。利用聚类算法,对所有恐怖信息特征进行聚类处理,能够实现对网络中恐怖信息的挖掘,最终实现了对恐怖人员的定位。实验结果表明,利用该方法进行网络中恐怖信息挖掘,能够实现对恐怖人员的准确定位。

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in support of a chemical terrorist event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, J.R.; D' Agostino, P.A.; Chenier, C.L. [Defence R and D Canada Suffield, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Chemical warfare (CW) agents are considered to be any chemicals which, through their chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals. In Canada, the probability of a CW terrorist attack is low despite the catastrophic consequences that would result from such an attack. The three levels of government would be responding to such an event. CW agent response training for all levels of government is offered at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Appropriate samples must be collected for analysis in a laboratory, as such an event would lead to a criminal investigation. Research into new methods for the identification of CW agents is being conducted by the analytical laboratory at Defence R and D Canada-Suffield. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are being used extensively to separate and characterize CW agents in organic extracts. In the case of aqueous samples, another method might be more appropriate, since additional sample handling is required before GC-MS analysis can be performed. Minimal sample handling is required when using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) for direct analysis of CW agents. The authors demonstrated the use of LC-ESI-MS for analyzing CW agents and their hydrolysis products in aqueous samples. For the analysis of nerve agents and phosphonic acids in soil, comparable or superior results to organic extraction and GC-MS were obtained for aqueous extractions followed by LC-ESI-MS. The combination of GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS for the analysis of mustard related compounds in soil extracts from a former mustard storage area showed that the two methods are complementary in this situation. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  9. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  10. Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracer Studies to Support Risk Assessment Modeling of Critical Infrastructure Subjected to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry M.; Heiser, John H.; Watson, Tom; Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., “urban canyons”. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City’s (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving

  11. [Prospective study of post-traumatic stress in victims of terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehel, L; Duchet, C; Paterniti, S; Consoli, S M; Guelfi, J D

    2001-01-01

    In 1995-96 several terrorist attacks struck Paris. After that, the French government decided to optimize the service claimed to treat psychological repercussions of attacks victims. For this reason we need to better understand the psychopathology developing after these traumatic events in order to adjust the various steps of the treatment. In December 1996, a terrorist attack occurred in a Paris subway. Medical and medico-psychological teams intervened immediately on the site to help victims. Among 115 victims, 4 persons died and 35 were seriously injured. The aim of our study was to evaluate the psychological impact among a population of terrorist attacks victims by a prospective study and to identify predictive factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We evaluated PTSD rates at 6 and 18 months, the relationship between coping style and PTSD, and whether PTSD increased health care utilization. Two follow up evaluations were performed in the 6th and 7th month respectively, by means of self-questionnaires sent by mail. Among 115 victims of the bombing attack occurred in December 1996, the 111 survivors were asked to participate to the study. The subjects who accepted and could use French questionnaires were considered eligible for the inclusion: the main criteria of the Watson's PTSD Inventory for the specific post-traumatic symptoms were used; the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire was used to measure the general psychopathology; to identify coping styles we used the questionnaire "Ways of Coping Check List" of Vitaliano at 6 months and the "Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS)" by Endler at 18 months; a small questionnaire was proposed to evaluate injuries, hospitalization and specific treatment immediately or after the event. Among 70 subjects who accepted to participate, 56 (33 females) could be evaluated at 6 months and 32 (14 females) subjects at 18th months. The mean age at 6 months was 38.4 years: 41% of participants met PTSD

  12. Futurs antérieurs et précédents uchroniques : l’anti-utopie comme conjuration de la menace future perfect and counterfactual precedents: Dystopia as a way to thwart threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Claisse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionnellement traitée dans la continuité générique de l’utopie dont elle ne serait que l’inversion critique, l’anti-utopie est ici caractérisée comme cas particulier d’une posture critique plus générale, à travers les concepts de « futur antérieur » et de « précédent uchronique ». Relevant d’une logique de l’alerte, un futur antérieur en diffère par ses modalités temporelles ainsi que par son recours à la fiction : le futur dystopique est proposé comme déjà survenu, dans l’actualité du présent de narration, par un acte paradoxal de conjuration lequel vise à faire advenir la menace dans l’espace de représentation du destinataire pour mieux en empêcher la réalisation. Les exemples traités relèvent du dossier des nouvelles technologies de surveillance et de contrôle social, dont les acteurs ont déployé, ces vingt dernières années, une intense activité de mise à jour de leurs repères critiques et de leurs capacités d’anticipation. L’analyse en termes de futur antérieur permet de comprendre le basculement de configuration à l’œuvre : Big Brother fait désormais figure de « précédent uchronique » en regard de la nouvelle menace que ferait peser l’avènement des « sociétés de contrôle ». L’homologie de fonctionnement entre ces dispositifs fictionnels souligne leur double dimension cognitive (l’articulation entre le réel et les mondes possibles portés par l’anticipation et pragmatique (le réengagement d’un avenir par la communauté politique à laquelle s’adresse le futur antérieur. Au terme du parcours, la fiction apparaît comme un mode de connaissance et une prise sur le monde.Traditionally regarded as a mere critical inversion of utopia, dystopia will be characterized here as an instance of a more general critical posture, through the concepts of ‘future perfect’ and ‘counterfactual precedent’. The future perfect belongs to, but differs

  13. 恐怖主义犯罪的心理学分析%A Psychological Analysis of Terrorist Crimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若龙; 李志鹏

    2016-01-01

    Terrorist crimes,which may generate the emotion of fear and insecurity among most people in society, are criminal activities that are implemented by means of terrorist violence and usually with certain political and religious purposes.Terrorism crimes have special psychological features,including paranoia,consciousness of obsession,deviation of emotions,irascibility,emotional deficiency,tough and cruel mind,and particular group and behavior characteristics.Prevention of,crack down on,terrorist crimes are possible by correcting mistaken cognition and emotional deficiency of particular groups and individuals.%恐怖主义犯罪是以恐怖的暴力手段实施的,有一定的政治和宗教目的的,使社会中不特定多数人产生心理恐惧和不安全感的犯罪活动。恐怖主义犯罪有其特殊的心理特征,表现为犯罪主体恐怖分子认知上的偏执,意识痴迷,归因偏差;情绪、情感上的仇恨心理,易激惹性,情感缺失;意志上的坚韧性和残忍性;此外还有一定的群体特征和行为特征。可以通过纠正错误认知、弥补情感缺失和加强重点人群的防范等方面有效地防范和打击恐怖主义犯罪。

  14. La yihad en Francia, la presencia del terrorismo islamista y la lucha contra esta amenaza en territorio francés/Jihad in France, the presence of islamist terrorism and the fight against this menace in french territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Rodrigo Luelmo (Francia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El terrorismo islamista de carácter yihadista y salafista, liderado por la red Al-Qaeda, y que pretende imponer una interpretación ultrarrigorista y fundamentalista del Islam y que ya ha perpetrado multitud de ataques en el mundo musulmán y en Occidente, supone el mayor desafío para la seguridad nacional francesa. Para luchar contra esta amenaza, Francia pretende utilizar únicamente los medios que proporciona el Estado de Derecho y para ello dispone de una serie de instrumentos policiales y jurídico-legales que describiremos en nuestro artículo. La República Francesa también considera que es necesario defender la democracia y la libertad utilizando la transparencia, manteniendo informados a los ciudadanos para contar con su colaboración y apoyo y, sobre todo, dar la “batalla de las ideas” para vencer a los terroristas a largo plazo. Islamist Jihadist and Salafist terrorism, leaded by the network Al-Qaeda, which pretends to impose a very conservative and fundamentalist viewpoint of Islam, and which has committed a lot of terrorist attacks against Muslim and West countries, is actually the most important challenge for French national security. In order to fight against this threat, France only wants to use all the options provided by the rule of law; for this, French Government has some means such as police forces and justice and laws that we will describe in this article. French Republic considers that the openness is necessary to defend freedom and democracy, that is it, to have public opinion informed to get their support and collaboration, and above all, to do the “battle of ideas” to defeat terrorists as a long-term objective.

  15. Tenant reaction patterns to the threat of a terrorist attack after September 11, 2001, in downtown Chicago office market

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Dermisi

    2005-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) spread the fear of other terrorist attacks targeting downtown office buildings across other major U.S. cities. Among them, Chicago owners and tenants were even more concerned because of the concentration of corporate headquarters and the site of the tallest office building in the U.S. This paper studies the tenant reactions in response to the 9/11 attacks in three locations within the Chicago’s downtown office market, comparing the before and after 9/11...

  16. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL, CRIMINOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERSONALITY OF EXTREMIST, TERRORIST, ENGAGED IN PROPAGANDA AMONG THE YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. KHARZINOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals: socio-psychological criminological characteristics of personality advocate extremism and terrorism. The focus of the author focuses on specific moral, psychological, spiritual and moral values of the extremist, terrorist propagandizing extremism and terrorism. The purpose of writing this article is to review the socio-psychological, criminological characteristics of persons advocating extremism and terrorism. Criminologists point out that the identity of the perpetrator is characterized by the following data: socio-biological, demographic, criminal law, moral-psychological sphere of life and social relationships. Analysis of the sociobiological data allows you to note that the most active promoters of the involvement of young people in extremist and terrorist activities are males. Extremists propagandists are people who are characterized by the special moral and psychological qualities: 1 a fanatical adherence to an ideology promoted; 2 Group fanaticism and narcissism; 3 the group nature of the action; 4 radicalism, which is expressed in the form of violence and intimidation. [3] Unlike other extremism and terrorism are criminal acts carried out in order to implement some ideas. In this regard, it must be assumed that the moral-psychological features of extremists and terrorists based on the ideology of extremism and terrorism, which are reflected in its specificity, emotional and mental health, ways of perception and attitude towards the outside world, on the interaction between its inner and outer world. Involving youth in terrorist and extremist activities, they realize that they are on offense and even to death, but they do not stop, because they are fans of radical Islam. Representatives of nontraditional radical trend of Islam is peculiar to the religious fanaticism that borders on physical and spiritual violence.

  17. Computer modelling for risk assessment of emergency situations and terrorist attacks during transportation using methods of fuzzy set theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosterev, V.V.; Boliatko, V.V.; Gusev, S.M.; Panin, M.P. [MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Averkin, A.N. [CC RAS, Moscox (Russian Federation)

    1998-07-01

    Computer software for risk assessment of transportation of important freight has been developed. It incorporates models of transport accidents, including terrorist attacks. These models use, among the others, input data of cartographic character. Geographic information system technology and electronic maps of a geographic area are involved as an instrument for handling this kind of data. Fuzzy set theory methods as well as standard methods of probability theory have been used for quantitative risk assessment. Fuzzy algebraic operations and their computer realization are discussed. Risk assessment for one particular route of railway transportation is given as an example. (author)

  18. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event.

  19. NDM-1- or OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonising Polish tourists following a terrorist attack in Tunis, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, R; Bojarska, K; Baraniak, A; Literacka, E; Herda, M; Żabicka, D; Guzek, A; Półgrabia, M; Hryniewicz, W; Gniadkowski, M

    2015-06-11

    We describe the introduction of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 and Escherichia coli ST410, and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae ST101 strains to Poland by two patients transported to the country after hospitalisation in Tunisia. The patients had gunshot wounds following the terrorist attack in the Bardo National Museum in Tunis in March 2015. Our report reinforces the need for microbiological screening of patients returning from travel on admission to healthcare institutions, especially following hospitalisation in countries where carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic.

  20. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities.

  1. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...... for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental...

  2. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used

  3. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  4. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger

  5. Fear of Terrorism in New York After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: Implications for Emergency Mental Health and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the public’s response to future terrorist attacks, we surveyed 1,001 New Yorkers in the community one year after the September 11 attacks. Overall, New Yorkers were very concerned about future terrorist attacks and also concerned about attacks involving biological or nuclear weapons. In addition, while most New Yorkers reported that if a biological or nuclear attack occurred they would evaluate available information before evacuating, a significant number reported they would immediately evacuate, regardless of police or public health communications to the contrary. The level of public concern was significantly higher on all measures among New York City and Long Island residents (downstate) compared to the rest of the state. A model predicting higher fear of terrorism indicated that downstate residents, women, those 45 to 64 years old, African Americans and Hispanics, those with less education/income, and those more likely to flee, were more fearful of future attacks. In addition, making disaster preparations and carefully evaluating emergency information also predicted a higher level of fear as well. A second model predicting who would flee suggested that those more likely to evaluate available information were less likely to immediately evacuate, while those with a higher fear of future attacks were more likely to flee the area. Given these findings and the possibility of future attacks, mental health professionals need to be more involved in preparedness efforts, especially related to the psychological impact of attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. PMID:14730761

  6. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  7. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants; Genehmigungsrechtliche Fragen terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-07-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [German] Das allgemeine Risiko von terroristischen Anschlaegen auf Kernkraftwerke ist durch die Ereignisse vom 11. September 2001 wieder verstaerkt in das Bewusstsein der Oeffentlichkeit getreten. Die verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen und die atomgesetzliche Einordnung der Risiken von terroristischen Angriffen auf kerntechnische Anlagen bleiben jedoch in der aktuellen Diskussion weithin ungeklaert. Der Beitrag unternimmt es daher, die verfassungs- und verwaltungsrechtliche Bedeutung der Risiken terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke in atomrechtlichen Genehmigungsverfahren zu untersuchen. (orig./CB)

  8. Short and intermediate economic impacts of a terrorist-initiated loss of electric power: case study of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.; Mantell, N.; Lahr, M.; Felder, F. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Edward J. Bloustein School; Zimmerman, R. [New York University (United States). Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service

    2007-01-15

    The economic impacts of potential terrorist attacks on the New Jersey electric power system are examined using a regional econometric model. The magnitude and duration of the effects vary by type of business and income measure. We assume damage is done during in the summer 2005 quarter, a peak period for energy use. The state economy recovers within a year, if we assume that economic activity is restored in the next time period. However, if the attacks prompt an absolute of loss of activity due to firm relocation, closing, and geographical changes in expansion plans, then the economy does not fully recover by the year 2010. Hence, the electrical power system's resiliency to damage is the key to the extent and duration of any economic consequences of a terrorist attack, at least in New Jersey. The policy implication is that the costs and benefits of making the electric power system more resilient to plausible attacks should be weighed and that the restorative capacity of the system should be strengthened. (author)

  9. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2016-12-23

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism.

  10. A Proteomic Approach for Identification of Bacteria Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry Combined With a Translatome Database and Statistical Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    developed algorithm for filtering of search results have been tested with Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli microorganisms. This approach allowed...biological origin including viruses, bacteria and toxins play a crucial role in a proper response to unintentional or terrorist caused outbreaks of... thuringiensis , B. subtilis and a bacterial mixture combined with a new data processing algorithm, which includes SEQUEST, allows for relatively fast

  11. 77 FR 58203 - In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of the Haqqani Network Also Known as HQN as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative Record assembled in this...

  12. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  13. 77 FR 4082 - Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act In the Matter of the Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, aka...

  14. 48 CFR 252.209-7004 - Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontracting with firms that are owned or controlled by the government of a terrorist country. 252.209-7004 Section 252.209-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...

  15. 75 FR 78336 - Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Review of the Designation of Gama'a al-Islamiyya, (IG and Other Aliases); as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative Record assembled in this...

  16. Correlation and Fracture: Prevention and Control of Money Laundering in Terrorist Financing%关联与阻断:恐怖融资中洗钱犯罪之防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧明

    2012-01-01

    恐怖活动依赖于经济支撑,而在恐怖融资中,洗钱犯罪与恐怖活动犯罪具有极强的关联性.在防控恐怖融资的法网日趋严密的情状下,须廓清洗钱和恐怖融资之间竞合与分离的关系,从而通过建立涉恐资产冻结机制、继续高压打击洗钱罪的上游犯罪、强化对反恐融资和反洗钱人员的宣传培训等措施,阻断恐怖组织和恐怖分子的融资渠道.%Terrorist activities greatly depend on financial support. In terrorist financing, money laundering and terrorist activities are highly correlated. In the situation when the criminal law for prevention and control of terrorist financing is more and more complete, the relations between money laundering and terrorist financing,like overlapping and separating,should be clarified,so as to cut off the financing channels of terrorist organizations and terrorists by establishing the asset freezing mechanism to freeze suspected fund involved in terrorism,cracking down the upper crimes of money laundering and strengthening the training of counter-terrorism financing anti-money laundering personnels,etc.

  17. La menace sans visage : Images de l’ennemi dans la presse britannique à la suite des attentats du 11 septembre 2001 The Making of the Enemy in the British Press in the Aftermath of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Villate-Compton

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available When President Bush, along with most of the English speaking media, talked about “war” in the aftermath of the World Trade Center attacks on 9/11/2001, he opened up the way for an array of representations of a multi-faceted enemy, which soon became a focus for fear. Any conflict carries with it the temptation to simplify. Despite repeated warnings against equating terrorists with the Muslim population, some sections of the British press have tended to generalise and to foster irrational fears. The cartoons and photographs of the daily British press in the three months after the attacks show that, often, beyond the precise identification of a culprit, the Other (the foreigner marked by a difference, the Muslim and his religious and cultural practices ends up representing the enemy. Similarly, any extremist, from Osama Bin Laden to the imam of Finsbury Park mosque in London, becomes the spokesman for the entire Muslim community, a community that is silent and yet suspect.

  18. Dengue vaccine: come let's fight the menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Singh, Inderjeet; Verma, Madhur; Gupta, Vikas; Kumari, Sneh

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue has a global distribution, the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia region together with Western Pacific region bears nearly 75% of the current global disease burden. Globally, the societal burden has been estimated to be approximately 528 to 1300 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million to populations in endemic regions Dengue is believed to infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide a year with half a million life-threatening infections requiring hospitalization, resulting in approximately 12,500 to 25,000 deaths. Despite being known for decades and nearly half the world's population is at risk for infection with as many as 100 million cases occurring annually, the pitiable state is that we still have no antiviral drugs to treat it and no vaccines to prevent it. In recent years, however, the development of dengue vaccines has accelerated dramatically in tandem with the burgeoning dengue problem with a rejuvenated vigour. However, recent progress in molecular-based vaccine strategies, as well as a renewed commitment by the World Health Organization (WHO) to co-ordinate global efforts on vaccine development, finally provides hope that control of this serious disease may be at hand. Today, several vaccines are in various stages of advanced development, with clinical trials currently underway on 5 candidate vaccines. Trials in the most advanced stages are showing encouraging preliminary data, and the leading candidate could be licensed as early as 2015.

  19. Coming to grips with the landmine menace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Asea of sunflowers lay beneath a blood-red sun, the golden yellow blossoms exuding warmthagainst the scarlet background. Early summer sunlight, beautiful and brilliant, baked the border area in Southwest China

  20. Fast Food Blamed as Menace to Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinYoung; 梅晓明

    2004-01-01

    肥胖是心脏病、糖尿病、癌症和其他各种疾病的诱因,它正日益成为世界上公共卫生健康的最严重威胁。调查显示快餐是造成人们肥胖的因素之一,因此食品公司有可能步烟草公司后尘,成为人们诉讼和政府调控的下一个目标。

  1. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: The Phantom Menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinthakis, Nikolaos; Abdulkareem, Nada; Farag, Mohamed; Gorog, Diana A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 66-year-old lady with chest pain, without dynamic 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and normal serial troponin. Coronary angiography revealed a linear filing defect in the first obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex artery indicating coronary artery dissection, with superadded thrombus. She was managed medically with dual antiplatelet therapy and has responded well. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of cardiac chest pain, which can be missed without coronary angiography. Unlike most other lesions in patients with unstable symptoms, where coronary intervention with stenting is recommended, patients with SCAD generally fare better with conservative measures than with intervention, unless there is hemodynamic instability. PMID:28197295

  3. 500 emplois menacés

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Around 1000 staff in total, demonstrated at CERN today, to protest against radical measures proposed by CERN management. CERN needs to find around 850 million CHF to supplement the budget of the LHC project (2 pages).

  4. Internet Radicalization: Actual Threat or Phantom Menace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    morphine of ideas—self-induced at initiation, but involuntary once hooked. In correlation with this picture, juveniles have been identified at risk...network that she ultimately sought to assist. 5. Mohammed Hassan Khalid: Mohammed Hassan Khalid was radicalized as a juvenile and is believed to be...Sulejah Hadzovic Betim Kaziu and Sulejah Hadzovic came from Muslim families and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Kaziu was convicted and sentenced to

  5. Computer Modeling of Violent Intent: A Content Analysis Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Mcgrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.

    2014-01-03

    We present a computational approach to modeling the intent of a communication source representing a group or an individual to engage in violent behavior. Our aim is to identify and rank aspects of radical rhetoric that are endogenously related to violent intent to predict the potential for violence as encoded in written or spoken language. We use correlations between contentious rhetoric and the propensity for violent behavior found in documents from radical terrorist and non-terrorist groups and individuals to train and evaluate models of violent intent. We then apply these models to unseen instances of linguistic behavior to detect signs of contention that have a positive correlation with violent intent factors. Of particular interest is the application of violent intent models to social media, such as Twitter, that have proved to serve as effective channels in furthering sociopolitical change.

  6. Preventing Lone Wolf Terrorism: some CT Approaches Addressed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the epistemological and phenomenological difficulties associated with the concept of lone wolf terrorism, a number of possible counter-terrorist approaches are discussed. Lone operator terrorist acts should be considered ‘black swan’ occurrences that are almost impossible to categorize or systematize, let alone forecast. Thus, not the profile of the perpetrator, but the modus operandi offer clues for a better response to this particular threat. Furthermore, almost all lone operators do display a degree of commitment to, and identification with, extremist movements – providing leads for preventing new rounds of radicalization within this potential group of sympathizers or followers. With the apparent increase of Islamist lone wolf terrorism and fears for right-wing extremists wanting to follow the example of the Norwegian mass murderer A.B. Breivik, new questions need to be posed, addressing the role of virtual communities with which lone operators identify themselves. 

  7. Frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia and migrant in the American online media on the example of New York Times (NYT and Washington Post (WP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urevna Marina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia, which then grow into migrant-phobia. In the study, the author came to the conclusion that the frame "terrorist attacks in Paris" is widely used in political technologies in the United States. It was also found that in order to justify harsh statements with respect to the policy of the Muslims used substitute frames, such as "terrorist" and "Muslim". At the same time with such a substitution of concepts Islamophobia has become more broad framework and became migrant-phobia.

  8. Risk Acceptability and Cost-Effectiveness of Protective Measures Against Terrorist Threats to Built Infrastructure Considering Multiple Threat Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Decisions are often needed about the need and/or extent of prolective measures against explosive blast lpads on built jnfrastructure.A decision support analysis considers fatality risks and cost-effecfjveness of protective measures expressed in terms of expected cost spenl on risk reduction per life saved for terrorisf threats to infrastructure.The analysis is applicable to any ilem of in frastructure.but in this paper is applied to casualties arising from building facade glazing damage.Risks may be compared with risk acceptance crite ria in the form of quantitative safety goais.The risk acceptability and cost-effectiveness of protective measures includes cost of fhe protective measures,attack probability,reduction in risk due to protective measures,probability of fatality conditional on successful terrorist attack and number of exposed individuals.

  9. King has no clothes: The role of the military in responding to a terrorist chemical/biological attack. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, J.L.

    1996-06-14

    The United States has begun a program of counterproliferation in order to preempt the use of WMD by such elements, however, the ability to respond to the terrorist employment of biological/chemical weapons is absent. Given the structure, capability and technical expertise in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of Defense (DoD) will be tasked to conduct the response to such an incident. The geographical Commander in Chief (CINC) and the appointed Joint Task Force (JTF) commander will ultimately be assigned the response mission. Planning, training and coordination is required to develop a force capable of responding in a timely and coordinated manner.

  10. Trends in Terrorist Activity and Dynamics in Diyala province, Iraq, during the Iraqi Governmental Transition, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Greenwald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explores the evolution of the Iraqi insurgency in the dynamic strategic environment between 2004 and 2006. In these three years, insurgents in Iraq sought to exploit terrorism as a tactic to induce fear and advance their regional and political agenda in the volatile Iraqi province of Diyala. Their geopolitical agenda was primarily aimed towards derailing the interim political process and reconciliation efforts throughout Iraq. This article draws its analytical conclusions from quantitative data of terroristic incidents, focusing on insurgents' tactics, targeting of victims, and areas of activity. It examines trends of insurgent activity between 2004 and 2006 as well as the evolution of their strategy against the Iraqi Government and its people.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  12. PEDAGOGICAL DESIGNING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF READINESS OF MILITARY SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, in accordance with the decision of the UN, warships of the coalition of states, which includes the Russian Federation, carry out tasks for the protection of navigation and for escorting ships in the areas endangered by pirates of the oceans. Training ships of the Navy to perform tasks of combat duty in the areas of increased activity of pirates to ensure the safety of navigation of civil transport vessels not only involves the decision of problems of staffing the crew with necessary staff, logistical support, and targeted development of the high readiness of the sailors to successful implementation of such specific combat missions. This kind of organizing and educational activities should be organized based on the experience of pedagogical designing of the military-pedagogical process. Instructional design is an objective necessity of development of subjects of military-pedagogical and educational activities of the projective imagination, thinking, efficient way of doing it. The author considers the instructional design of formation of readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea as an innovative phenomenon that connects pedagogical theory and innovative practice aimed at comprehensive training of the personnel of the fighting ships for the upcoming operation. The article explains target program of development of readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea. The author's target program contains six separate and interrelated modules, which will allow crew members to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to create a high level of preparedness for the forthcoming military - professional activity in the sea

  13. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  14. Interaction of nerve agent antidotes with cholinergic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, O; Tobin, G; Kumar, U K; Binder, J; Proska, J; Jun, D; Fusek, J; Kuca, K

    2010-01-01

    The poisoning with organophosphorus compounds represents a life threatening danger especially in the time of terroristic menace. No universal antidote has been developed yet and other therapeutic approaches not related to reactivation of acetylcholinesterase are being investigated. This review describes the main features of the cholinergic system, cholinergic receptors, cholinesterases and their inhibitors. It also focuses on the organophosphorus nerve agents, their properties, effects and a large part describes various possibilities in treatments, mainly traditional oxime therapies based on reactivation of AChE. Furthermore, non-cholinesterase coupled antidotal effects of the oximes are thoroughly discussed. These antidotal effects principally include oxime interactions with muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  15. Working Together to Address Terrorist Threats and Build a New Middle East of Peace, Tolerance and Self-Advancement——Speech at the 19th Eurasian Economic Summit on “Terrorism and the Refugee Issue”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Mr.Chairman,Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,It is a great honor for me to share thoughts and ideas with all participants on Working Together to Address Terrorist Threats and Build a New Middle East of Peace,Tolerance and Self-Advancement.The situation in the Middle East region is serious.Differences among nations,religious sects and ethnic groups aggravate one another.Wars and conflicts,terrorist threats,migrant

  16. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gallagher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the police is then analysed with particular aspects of reporting identified, primarily the activity the subject was undertaking, with sub-analysis of ethnicity of subjects and premises cited. The influence of the media is also considered. The conclusions centre on the prevalence of Asian subjects in the reporting, an apparent lack of minority reporters and the nature of the public implications concerning terrorist activity as opposed to overt expressions of the nature of suspicions.

  17. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Dynamics and Structures of Terrorist Threats in Southeast Asia, Held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Marriot , and Australian Embassy bombings in Indonesia, law enforccement officers neglected intelligence – that provided to them from outside forces...a number of arrests and trial of perpetrators of the Bali and Marriot Hotel bombings since the late 2002 as mentioned elsewhere in this paper...individuals and groups that later also carry out violent and terrorist activities including Marriot and Kuningan bombings in Jakarta. A clearer

  18. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the pol...

  19. Analysis of the Use of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles in Conjunction with Manned Aircraft to Counter Active Terrorists in Rough Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF UNMANNED COMBAT AERIAL VEHICLES IN CONJUNCTION...conditions are other issues that must be overcome. Because of their technical capabilities and longer flight times, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles ...countering terrorists and preventing them from attacking military forces. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Border security, Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

  20. Long-Term Memory for the Terrorist Attack of September 11: Flashbulb Memories, Event Memories, and the Factors that Influence Their Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lustig, Cindy; Lyle, Keith B.; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2009-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from 7 U.S. cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, 1 week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas…

  1. The Lack of Women s Rights in Regions that Harbor Al Qaeda: How the Marginalization of Women May Impact Terrorist Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Women May Impact Terrorist Production 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) LCDR Leigh C...The latter portion of this chapter addresses ways a society dehumanizes women as well as the exposure of dehumanization to youth. Social networks...specifically, the lack of women’s empowerment , civic voice, and education. The aforementioned importance of the status of women from the Club de Madrid

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  3. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2016-12-29

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  4. The Art of War and Chinese Anti-terrorist Strategy%《孙子兵法》与我国防恐战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新伟

    2012-01-01

    《孙子兵法》作为兵学经典,包含了丰富的军事思想。其中,“兵者,国之大事”、“不战而屈人之兵”、“兵无选锋,日北”、“预交诸侯”等对于从战略层次上做好防恐工作、加强反恐斗争、应对我国日趋严重的恐怖活动具有重要的借鉴意义。%As military classics, The Art of War contains rich military thoughts, such as "War is the important matter of a country. ","Subduing the enemy without war. ","Without elite vanguard units, the war fails. ", and "making friends with dukes or princes". These thoughts have great reference significance for doing anti-terrorist job well,strengthening anti-terrorist fighting, and dealing with increasingly serious terrorist activities in the strategic level in China.

  5. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRYANT, RICHARD A.; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals. PMID:21991280

  6. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanchi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  7. NOMINATION PECULIARITIES OF SUBJECT OF TERRORIST ACTS IN FRENCH NEWSPAPER (ON BASIS OF NEWSPAPERS «LE FIGARO» AND «LIBÉRATION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Khiminetc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of terrorism is becoming increasingly important in the world. In addition to adopting the necessary security measures, it is also required to study the problem in the most comprehensive way. The current study will allow to present the cumulative knowledge of terrorism and to consider it in a more detailed way. With the help of component analysis and contextual meanings of a word "terrorism", as well as frame analysis of the concepts of "terrorism", key components of its meaning are identified. Based on these results we study the development of the concept "terrorism". The analysis of lexicographical sources shows that firstly "terrorism" appeared in the XVIII century and referred to violent acts of the revolutionaries. However, modern interpretation of the meanings is substantially different from the first one. The analysis of dictionary definitions helps to create a total view on this phenomenon and to define its basic components. With the help of cognitive semantic analysis we modeled the frame, which is presented as a mental structure, showing the body of knowledge about terrorism. Further we carried out a semantic analysis of the nominations which describe the subject of terrorist acts in the role of patient, such as a terrorist, an Islamist, a jihadist, etc. The material of the study is based on the articles of the French newspaper “Le Figaro” and “Libération” published in the first month since the beginning of counter-terrorist operation "Serval", which took place on theterritoryofMali. 

  8. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals.

  9. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms among 3,271 civilian survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Neria, Yuval; Brackbill, Robert M; Pulliam, Paul; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-01

    Although the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in US history, there is little extant research documenting the attacks' consequences among those most directly affected, that is, persons who were in the World Trade Center towers. Data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2-3 years after the attacks ascertained the prevalence of long-term, disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 3,271 civilians who evacuated World Trade Center towers 1 and 2. Overall, 95.6% of survivors reported at least 1 current posttraumatic stress symptom. The authors estimated the probable rate of PTSD at 15.0% by using the PTSD Checklist. Women and minorities were at an increased risk of PTSD. A strong inverse relation with annual income was observed. Five characteristics of direct exposure to the terrorist attacks independently predicted PTSD: being on a high floor in the towers, initiating evacuation late, being caught in the dust cloud that resulted from the tower collapses, personally witnessing horror, and sustaining an injury. Working for an employer that sustained fatalities also increased risk. Each addition of an experience of direct exposure resulted in a 2-fold increase in the risk of PTSD (odds ratio = 2.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.84, 2.36). Identification of these risk factors may be useful when screening survivors of large-scale terrorist events for long-term psychological sequelae.

  10. 炭疽恐怖袭击直接经济损失评估方法%Assessment methods of direct economic losses from anthrax terrorist attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斗; 祖正虎; 徐致靖; 许晴; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    以炭疽杆菌芽孢气溶胶恐怖袭击为例,对城市地区遭受非传染性生物剂攻击的直接经济损失评估方法进行研究.将经济损失分为死亡损失、医疗损失、环境洗消、经济活动停顿4个方面构建评估模型,最后以北京某商业区为例,对遭受炭疽杆菌芽孢气溶胶恐怖袭击的经济损失进行计算和分析.相关评估方法可以对生物恐怖袭击后政府资源调配、经济援助等决策提供支持和依据.%The assessment methods of direct economic losses were studied for non-infectious biological agent attacks in urban areas using Bacillus anthracis spores aerosol terrorist attacks as an example. Economic losses, involving human death, medical expenses, environmental decontamination and interruption of economic activities were modeled by taking a commercial district in Beijing , which was assumed to have been attacked by terrorists equipped with Bacillus anthracis spores aerosol. The results of calculation and analysis can assist the government in resource deployment and financial assistance should similar terrorist attacks occur.

  11. Research on Risk Evaluation Model of Urban Terrorist Attacks%城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险评估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滑腾飞; 白玲; 刘大庆

    2016-01-01

    自美国“9·11”事件发生以来,全球恐怖主义活动日益频繁,已成为21世纪城市所面临的重大安全问题。目前,对城市恐怖主义的研究也变得越来越紧要。本文以模糊层次分析法为基础,构建城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险评估模型,分析城市遭恐怖袭击的可能程度,得到我国15个大城市遭受恐怖袭击的风险排序,并用专题图展示。%Since 9· 11 events, global terrorism have become increasingly frequent , have become a major security issues facing cities in the 21st century.Currently, the study of urban terrorism has become more and more critical .In this paper, based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process , terrorist attacks on the city to build a risk assessment model to analyse the extent possible terrorist attacks in the cit -y.Detailed analysis of 15 major cities by the national terrorist attacks risk ranking , and with thematic maps show .

  12. Biting the Hand that Feeds You: The Abuse of Islamic Charities by Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    152 William C. Nagel , "The Law Enforcement Approach to Combating Terrorism: An Analysis of US Policy" (M.A...discrimination; defending human and civil rights secured by law; and combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency .43 In regards to...terms, becoming part of the crime scene.103 This has led to the French 98 Angenendt and Center for

  13. Towards a strategic approach to special events management in the post-9/11 world

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, G. B.

    2005-01-01

    CHDS State/Local This thesis reviews background related to counterterrorism and law enforcement planning for major special events and it identifies some of the strategic issues that have emerged in special events management since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. It focuses on the subjective and objective components of the systems currently used by DHS and the FBI to categorize and resource special events, and it evaluates whether the current approach to major event planning ...

  14. On Legislation of Terrorist Crime in China%我国恐怖主义犯罪立法问题探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宇

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, terrorist crime which has been rampant in Xinjiang, Xizang, Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan and other parts of China becomes more and more diversified, transregional, networked and professional. Meanwhile, the brutal crime often causes heavy casualties and serious economic losses, which severely destroys the social order and stability and makes people live in a terrifying atmosphere.On the other hand, the legislation of ter-rorist crime in China is still imperfect at present, and since only some scattered articles of criminal law can be ap-plied to terrorist crime, a complete legal system hasn't been formed.That's the reason why legislation cannot play an active role in governing, punishing and preventing terrorist crime in China now.In view of this serious situation, we can learn from the mature and advanced regulations and practice of overseas countries or international treaties to improve Chinese criminal law system about fighting terrorist crime.%近年来,我国新疆、西藏、青海、甘肃、云南等地区恐怖主义犯罪猖獗,恐怖主义犯罪呈现出多元化、犯罪范围跨境化、犯罪手段网络化和专业化等特点。残暴的犯罪手段往往造成重大人员伤亡和财产损失,严重破坏社会秩序与稳定,造成恐慌的氛围。我国对恐怖主义的犯罪立法存在不足和空白,立法条文散见刑法各个条文,尚未形成完整的法律体系,对于当前境内发生的恐怖主义犯罪未能从法律层面进行较好的规制、惩戒与预防。因此,借鉴域外立法及国际条约等成熟先进的规定和做法,对我国恐怖主义犯罪刑事立法提出完善建议是十分必要的。

  15. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  16. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  17. On the Path of Election and Martyrdom: Some Psychic Mechanisms Involved in the Anders Behring Breivik's Determination as a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    On 22 July 2011, the Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out two attacks in Oslo that cost the lives of 77 people, injured many others, and plunged the entire Norwegian nation into mourning. When he was arrested, Breivik presented himself as a member of the Knights Templar, whose mission is to defend the Christian Western world. He considers that he has sacrificed himself by his actions for his people and says that he has prepared himself for martyrdom. In analysing Breivik's words and writings, this article attempts to identify the thought mechanisms involved in Breivik's idea of election (megalomania) and martyrology. It highlights the importance of a mechanism of "return to the sender," whereby Breivik returns the reproaches directed at him by an agency of judgment (ego ideal or superegoic object). It emphasizes the existence of a "burning desire" and yearning (Sehnsucht) for this same persecuting superegoic object, an object that Breivik constantly wants to find again, even if in death. Taking into consideration Searles's hypothesis that the sense of being persecuted is a defence against the impossibility of mourning, and also H. Blum's hypothesis that persecutory feelings are indicative of fears of a "regressive loss of object constancy," the different psychic mechanisms and modes of functioning underlying Breivik's terrorist determination are related here to what we know about his affective development and infantile relationships.

  18. Occupational Practitioner’s Role in the Management of a Crisis: Lessons Learned from the Paris November 2015 Terrorist Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Huynh Tuong, Alice; Coninx, Pierre; Baer, Michel; Loeb, Thomas; Despréaux, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In massive catastrophic events, occupational health practitioners are more and more frequently involved in the management of such situations. We aim to describe the multiple aspects of the role that occupational health practitioners might play, by focusing on the recent example of the Paris terrorist attack of November 2015. During and after the Paris attack, occupational practitioners, in collaboration with emergency and security professionals, were involved in psychological care, assembling information, follow-up, return-to-work, and improving in-company safety plans. Based on this experience and other industrial disasters, we distinguish three phases: the critical phase, the post-critical phase, and the anticipation phase. In the critical phase, the occupational practitioner cares for patients before the emergency professionals take charge, initiates the psychological management, and may also play an organizational role for company health aspects. In the post-critical phase, he or she would be involved in monitoring those affected by the events and participate in preventing, to the extent possible, posttraumatic stress disorder, helping victims in the return-to-work process, and improving procedures and organizing drills. In addition to their usual work of primary prevention, occupational practitioners should endeavor to improve preparedness in the anticipation phase, by taking part in contingency planning, training in first aid, and defining immediately applicable protocols. In conclusion, recent events have highlighted the essential role of occupational health services in anticipation of a crisis, management during the crisis, and follow-up. PMID:27703965

  19. Detecting terrorist nuclear weapons at sea: The 10th door problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D R

    2008-09-15

    While screening commercial cargo containers for the possible presence of WMD is important and necessary smugglers have successfully exploited the many other vehicles transporting cargo into the US including medium and small vessels at sea. These vessels provide a venue that is currently not screened and widely used. Physics limits that make screening of large vessels prohibitive impractical do not prohibit effective screening of the smaller vessels. While passive radiation detection is probably ineffective at sea active interrogation may provide a successful approach. The physics limits of active interrogation of ships at sea from standoff platforms are discussed. Autonomous platforms that could carry interrogation systems at sea, both airborne and submersible, are summarized and their utilization discussed. An R&D program to investigate the limits of this approach to screening ships at sea is indicated and limitations estimated.

  20. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering al Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Mexico : Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, 1983; Rodolfo Cardenal, Historia de una Esperanza: Vida de Rutilio...1986, p. 125). 63 CHAPTER FOUR Politics and the FMLN in El Salvador In a solemn ceremony in Mexico City’s Chapultepec Castle, represen- tatives of El...21 In addition, the leaders of four major countries— Spain, Colombia, Mexico , and Venezuela—approached the United Nations for assistance in reaching

  1. Fusion Nodes: The Next Step in Combating the Global Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    which matured during this highly romanticized operation. The nodal approach encompassing the Escobar affair would be expanded to encompass a much...operational art behind that strike was a multidisciplined intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) endeavor coupled with agile SOF that...Editor), 451-481. Washington DC: Center for the Study of the Presidency, 2008. Sun Tzu. The Art of War. trans. Griffith, Samuel B. London: Oxford

  2. The economic impacts of the September 11 terrorist attacks: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois; Asay, Gary [University of Southern California

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a bottom-up approach that focuses on behavioral responses in estimating the total economic impacts of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. The estimation includes several new features. First, is the collection of data on the relocation of firms displaced by the attack, the major source of resilience in muting the direct impacts of the event. Second, is a new estimate of the major source of impacts off-site -- the ensuing decline of air travel and related tourism in the U.S. due to the social amplification of the fear of terrorism. Third, the estimation is performed for the first time using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis, including a new approach to reflecting the direct effects of external shocks. This modeling framework has many advantages in this application, such as the ability to include behavioral responses of individual businesses and households, to incorporate features of inherent and adaptive resilience at the level of the individual decision maker and the market, and to gauge quantity and price interaction effects across sectors of the regional and national economies. We find that the total business interruption losses from the WTC attacks on the U.S. economy were only slightly over $100 billion, or less than 1.0% of Gross Domestic Product. The impacts were only a loss of $14 billion of Gross Regional Product for the New York Metropolitan Area.

  3. On Criminal Sanction System and Its Improvement on Terrorist Activity Crimes%论我国恐怖活动犯罪刑法制裁体系及其完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秉志; 商浩文

    2015-01-01

    恐怖活动犯罪是当下中国的重大现实问题之一。我国现行惩治恐怖活动犯罪的刑法制裁体系特点是从严从重惩治恐怖活动犯罪,侧重于打击有组织的恐怖活动,注重对恐怖活动犯罪的经济制裁,并且以普通的刑事罪名抗制恐怖活动的实行行为。完善我国恐怖活动刑法制裁体系,应进一步发挥宽严相济刑事政策的功效,完善刑法典中恐怖活动犯罪的罪名体系,增设独立的“恐怖行为罪”,并适时依据有关国际公约增设相关特别恐怖活动罪名;协调刑法与反恐怖法的关系,二者相互配合,共同打击恐怖活动犯罪。%The terrorist activity and crime is one of the most important social practical issues. The present criminal sanc⁃tion system against terrorism activity crimes focuses on taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously. We emphasize particularly on striking organized terrorist crimes, cracking down on terrorist crimes with economic mea⁃sures, and accusing terrorism activity crimes by ordinary criminal imputation. We should perfect accusation system in criminal law about terrorist activities, establishing separate"terrorist criminalities", paying attention to carry out tem⁃pering justice with mercy, while taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously, and adding special terrorist activity criminalities according to related international conventions. We should coordinate the anti-terrorism law and criminal law, so as to crack down the terrorist crimes.

  4. [Terrorists' target World Cup 2006: disaster medicine on the sidelines?! Aspects of hospital disaster planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidringer, J W; Ansorg, J; Ulrich, B C; Polonius, M-J; Domres, B D

    2004-09-01

    Focussing on possible mass casualty situations during events such as the soccer world championship in 2006, the Professional Board of Surgeons in Germany and the German Society for Surgery canvassed surgeons-in-chief in the last quarter of 2003 concerning disaster plans for hospitals. The rate of returned questionnaires amounted to 26% covering the following areas of interest: plans-ready to use, known by the employees as well as by the rescue coordination center, performance of exercises, and concepts on decontamination and detoxification. Based on past numbers of casualties during soccer disasters, an excursus into details also includes a description of an approach to reduce the danger of bottleneck effects at doors. A preliminary concept based on the upcoming system for funding hospitals in Germany and including new partnerships is outlined, succeeded by some hopefully helpful hints for a web-based hospital disaster plan.

  5. Escalation, timing and severity of insurgent and terrorist events: Toward a unified theory of future threats

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Neil F

    2011-01-01

    I present a unified discussion of several recently published results concerning the escalation, timing and severity of violent events in human conflicts and global terrorism, and set them in the wider context of real-world and cyber-based collective violence and illicit activity. I point out how the borders distinguishing between such activities are becoming increasingly blurred in practice -- from insurgency, terrorism, criminal gangs and cyberwars, through to the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings and London riots. I review the robust empirical patterns that have been found, and summarize a minimal mechanistic model which can explain these patterns. I also explain why this mechanistic approach, which is inspired by non-equilibrium statistical physics, fits naturally within the framework of recent ideas within the social science literature concerning analytical sociology. In passing, I flag the fundamental flaws in each of the recent critiques which have surfaced concerning the robustness of these results and the re...

  6. Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Mehta, Panna; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Hovey, Joseph D; Geers, Andrew L; Charak, Ruby; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Elhai, Jon D

    2014-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.

  7. Politics of Feminine Abuse: Political Oppression and Masculine Obstinacy in Doris Lessing’s The Good Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Lalbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the male-dominated world of Doris Lessing’s novel The Good Terrorist. Alice Mellings, the protagonist of the novel, is a political activist whose reliance on male figures in the story—the leaders of a subdivision of a political party—ends in disillusionment and frustration. Looking at this novel from a socialist feminist point of view, Alice Mellings is found to be a minor member, exploited and abused, who has to follow the orders and instructions of her inept superiors—all male. While Alice is the one who guarantees the continuation of activism (doing all kinds of jobs needed to keep the squat alive, she is never allowed to have a role in decision making. She is a member whose identity is defined by male superiors and is considered as a half-human whose services are to be enjoyed only. However, the findings of this study prove Alice as one who has her own voice at the end. The novel’s closing is marked with an engendered New Woman who is aware of the political abuse and whose independent unbound identity stands much higher than the political oppression and masculine obstinacy that had imprisoned her for so long. She is a different woman at the end; one who knows her power, believes in it and decides to fight and not to surrender. And this is a new consciousness that Lessing raises: discover your feminine power, have a firm belief in it and use it to win. Keywords: Abusive politics, female subjugation, female exploitation, New Woman, socialist

  8. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  9. "Second class loss": political culture as a recovery barrier--the families of terrorist casualties' struggle for national honors, recognition, and belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Udi

    2014-01-01

    Israeli families of terrorist victims have undertaken initiatives to include their dearest in the national pantheon. The objections opposed the penetration of "second-class loss" into the symbolic closure of heroic national bereavement. The "hierarchy of bereavement" is examined through the lens of political culture organized around the veneration held for the army fallen and their families, which has symbolic as well as rehabilitative outcomes. Families of civilian terror victims claims for similar status and treatment had to frame their loss as national in the eyes of the social policy. The article claimed linkage between collective memory and rehabilitation.

  10. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos CHRISTOFIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only short-lived effects since the market rebound was fairly quick. Of the sectorial indices, the tourist industry is found to be more adversely affected by these events.

  11. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001 (Internal Post Box 360), Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The approximately 23.7 wt% {sup 240}Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the {sup 239}Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. {sup 240}Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% {sup 238}Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% {sup 238}Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating {sup 237}Np to {sup 238}Pu are also reported. However, these

  12. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endara, Skye M; Ryan, Margaret AK; Sevick, Carter J; Conlin, Ava Marie S; Macera, Caroline A; Smith, Tyler C

    2009-01-01

    Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002). We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes. PMID:19619310

  13. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  14. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  15. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following a Chemical Terrorist Attack: Decision Criteria for Multipathway Exposure Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Dolislager, Fredrick; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Love, Adam H.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21399674

  16. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination. PMID:21390292

  17. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  18. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following a chemical terrorist attack: Decision criteria for multipathway exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  19. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  20. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    ranging from a small cell of a few individuals to a major organization that sup- ports al Qaeda’s goals but is not directly controlled by al Qaeda. The...Boveri ANFO ammonium nitrate and fuel oil CBRN chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear CI critical infrastructure DFAT Department of Foreign...refer to any militant jihadist entity, ranging from a small cell of a few individuals to a major organization that supports al Qaeda’s goals but is not

  1. Foreign Terrorist Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-06

    Familiar Road Map to Terror,” Associated Press, Dec. 18, 2001. Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Name(s). Armed Islamic Group, GIA Goals and Objectives. GIA...known as La Violencia (1948-1958).390 The violence ended in 1958 with a reconciliation between key parties in the government. Meanwhile, landless

  2. On Deceiving Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Bertolt Brecht , and Harold Laski were deceived by these kombinatsiya; in turn, they deceived their audiences with idealistic opinions and stories that...deception too has played an important role. Time and again, creative leaders have relied on stratagems in order to gain an advantage: to gain or...

  3. Terrorist Group Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Germany. Leadership Rudolph Raabe, Sonia Suder, Christian Gauger, Rudolf Schindler, Sabine Eckle. Other Names Revolutionaere Zellen, Rote Zora...through Jaime Guillot Lara, a Colombian drug smuggler, although no further operations of this type are known to have occurred. Since 1984, there have been...Attempted to assassinate Minister of Government Jaime Castro as he drove to work. July 1986 - Stole 1.6 million pesos from a bank in Bogota, wounding

  4. Combatting the Terrorist Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    hostage negotiators. The ASI is essential for personnel management of these specially trained soldiers. There is no other way to track their proper...Arson, recruiting station, flew York City. California 12 Jul 80 Arson, recruiting station, San Francisco . Berlin 4 Sep 80 Damage to uniforms and

  5. Terrorist tactics in taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Under the catching title given above G.B. MONTEITH, Queensland Museum, has written an editorial in the Austr. Entom. Soc. News Bull. 21 (1985) 66—69, which has been copied in the Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newsletter 44 (1985) with a comment by A. KANIS (CANB). Although it mainly concerns Australian herpetologists, many readers of the Flora Malesiana Bulletin will not have these journals available, so a short summary of its contents seemed to be in place, to give the situation a broader audience....

  6. Pursuing Terrorists Or Resources?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The U.S.Africa Command goes into operation in Europe amid a firestorm of contention U.S.President George W.Bush announced plans to set up an Africa Command in February.Preparations have since been in full swing.A slew of officials from the U.S.State and Defense departments have visited African countries in the hope of determining a loca- tion for the Africa Command’s headquarters.

  7. Terrorist tactics in taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Under the catching title given above G.B. MONTEITH, Queensland Museum, has written an editorial in the Austr. Entom. Soc. News Bull. 21 (1985) 66—69, which has been copied in the Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newsletter 44 (1985) with a comment by A. KANIS (CANB). Although it mainly concerns Australian her

  8. Terrorists across the Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Terror (Washington, D. C. and Stanford California: AEI- Hoover, 1975). 8 Charles R. Costanzo, "Terrorism: Past and Present," (Air Command and Staff...Subcommittee on Europe and Subcommittee on International Terrorism, in which members of the United Kingdom’s parliament attended, Representative Wexler ...comment on the success in Yemen, noted specialist in Yemeni Affairs, Charles Schmitz of the Jamestown Foundation, stated, “Yemeni goals are long-term

  9. Leftist Terrorist Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    instead of outcasts. (3:14). Frantz Fanon , the psychologist from Martinique who became the ideologist of the Algerian revolution of the 1950’s provides...that the Panther leaders derived their attitudes of guerrilla warfare and revolution principally from Frantz Fanon who 78 insisted that racism and...to Fanon . A catharsis can be found in violence. The Cleaver faction felt that Fanon’s ideology justified their revolutionary mood and assured them of

  10. Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organizations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deeply engrained nature of social media in modern life have provided ease of access to information and speed of use within almost every aspect of a person’s life. These same benefit are also available to terrorists and their organizations. The same technology that allows for a globalized world to interact without regard for distance or physical location is also utilized, exploited and adapted to by terrorist organizations to conduct operations, reach candidates and ensure organizational longevity. This article takes the position of observer of these advancements with the end goal of informing counter-violent extremism strategists of the advances that terrorist groups have already made in digital technology; and where the priority of intervention strategies should be aimed. Further, this is intended to guide policy makers to embrace and utilize digital technologies as a mechanism to carry counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism interventions through the same digital potential and reach the same audiences as terrorist organizations. What appears strongly apparent is that social media will not abate from its intrinsic position graphed into daily life. This means that counter-terrorism, counter-radicalization and counter-violent extremism strategies must take up the same technology in order to effectively discredit and nullify extremist groups – a digital problem needs a digital solution.

  11. 基于兰彻斯特混合律的反恐数学模型研究%Research on Models of Forecasting Anti-terrorist Combat Based on Lanchester Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 吴帅; 王公宝

    2012-01-01

    针对影响反恐作战效能的主要因素,基于兰彻斯特理论初步建立了用于预测反恐作战胜负的数学模型,并结合算例对模型进行了分析及应用。本模型能够很好地反映实际情况,具有较好的实用性,而且简单易行,容易推广。%Under the circumstances of considering the main factors of the effectiveness of anti-terrorist combat,a mathematical model on the basis of basic ideas of Lanchester equation was built to forecast anti-terrorist combat.The paper analyzed the mathematical model with an example of anti-terrorist combat.The results indicate that the model is effective and simple in forecasting anti-terrorist combat.

  12. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Thoresen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective: This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method: Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465 was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716 were 19% and 30%. Results: Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions: The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related

  13. The day Norway cried: Proximity and distress in Norwegian citizens following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks in Oslo and on Utøya Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Background Terrorism may create fear and stress reactions not only in the direct victims, but also in the general population. Objective This study investigated emotional responses in the Norwegian population following the 22nd July 2011 terrorist attacks. We hypothesized that Oslo residents would report a higher level of fear responses compared with people living outside Oslo and that proximity would be associated with early distress and later post-traumatic stress reactions. Method Representative samples were drawn from the Norwegian Population Registry. Telephone interviews were conducted 4–5 months after the attacks. The response rate for the Oslo sample (N=465) was 24% of the total sample, and 43% of those who were actually reached by phone and asked to participate. Corresponding figures for the sample living outside Oslo (N=716) were 19% and 30%. Results Our results show strong immediate emotional responses, particularly sadness and a feeling of unreality, in both samples. Jumpiness and other fear responses were significantly higher among Oslo residents. Current level of risk perception was low 4–5 months after the attacks; however, a significant minority reported to feel less safe than before. Geographical and psychological proximity were associated with early emotional responses. Psychological proximity was significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions, while measures of geographical proximity were not. Immediate emotional responses, first-week reactions, and first-week jumpiness were uniquely and significantly associated with post-traumatic stress reactions. Post-traumatic stress reactions were elevated in ethnic minorities. Conclusions The terrorist attacks seem to have had a significant effect on the Norwegian population, creating sadness and insecurity, at least in the short term. Proximity to the terrorist attacks was strongly associated with distress in the population, and early distress was strongly related to later post

  14. La tasca legislativa del Consell d'Europa davant la utilització d'Internet amb finalitats terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Chicharro Lázaro

    2009-12-01

    , posades en conjunció, permetran fer front a aquests comportaments delictius: la Convenció sobre Cibercrim de l'any 2001 i la Convenció per a la Prevenció del Terrorisme de l'any 2005. L'adaptació de la legislació interna a aquests instruments proporcionarà als estats una cobertura adequada per a perseguir els crims associats a l'ús d'Internet amb fins terroristes.

  15. Interroger la pertinence du critère d'irrégularité dans la définition de la figure de terroriste

    OpenAIRE

    Missoffe, Prune

    2016-01-01

    L'adoption le 24 juillet 2015 de la loi sur le renseignement suite aux attentats de janvier, la qualification par le président français des attentats de novembre comme « acte de guerre […] commis par une armée terroriste, Daech, une armée jihadiste, contre la France » (Déclaration du président français à l'issue du Conseil de défense, publié le 14 novembre 2015), la déclaration d'un état d'urgence et la suspension de l'application de la Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme suite à ces ...

  16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms, PTSD, and risk factors among lower Manhattan residents 2-3 years after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGrande, Laura; Perrin, Megan A; Thorpe, Lorna E; Thalji, Lisa; Murphy, Joseph; Wu, David; Farfel, Mark; Brackbill, Robert M

    2008-06-01

    Manhattan residents living near the World Trade Center may have been particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. In 2003-2004, the authors administered the PTSD Checklist to 11,037 adults who lived south of Canal Street in New York City on 9/11. The prevalence of probable PTSD was 12.6% and associated with older age, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, low education and income, and divorce. Injury, witnessing horror, and dust cloud exposure on 9/11 increased risk for chronic PTSD. Postdisaster risk factors included evacuation and rescue and recovery work. The results indicate that PTSD is a continued health problem in the local community. The relationship between socioeconomic status and PTSD suggests services must target marginalized populations. Followup is necessary on the course and long-term consequences of PTSD.

  17. Les sources de financement légal et illégal des groupes terroristes d´aujourd´hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Sánchez Medero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on analysera comment sont financés dans le monde actuel les groupesterroristes, comment font-ils pour transférer cet argent et quelles sont les mesures qu’ona adopté pour prévoir et bloquer ces sources de financement légal et illégal. Peut-être,ce point est l’un de moins étudiés par les spécialistes en la matière, mais il s’avère d’importancevitale, puis que les organisations terroristes, comme les autres organisations,ont besoin d’une série de ressources pour être maintenues et pour développer leursactivités; il s’ensuit qu’il est fondamental de connaître comme on finance ces groupespour pouvoir les combattre et leur mettre limite.

  18. Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11: Flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Cuc, Alexandru; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Lyle, Keith B.; Lustig, Cindy; Mather, Mara; Meksin, Robert; Mitchell, Karen J.; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Simons, Jon S.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2010-01-01

    More than 3,000 individuals from seven US cities reported on their memories of learning of the terrorist attacks of September 11, as well as details about the attack, one week, 11 months, and/or 35 months after the assault. Some studies of flashbulb memories examining long-term retention show slowing in the rate of forgetting after a year, whereas others demonstrate accelerated forgetting. The present paper indicates that (1) the rate of forgetting for flashbulb memories and event memory (memory for details about the event itself) slows after a year, (2) the strong emotional reactions elicited by flashbulb events are remembered poorly, worse than non-emotional features such as where and from whom one learned of the attack, and (3) the content of flashbulb and event memories stabilizes after a year. The results are discussed in terms of community memory practices. PMID:19397377

  19. ‘The Good Terrorist(s’? Interrogating Gender and Violence in Ann Devlin’s ‘Naming the Names’ and Anna Burns’ No Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McCann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the depiction of IRA female volunteers in Ann Devlin’s “Naming the Names” (1986 and Anna Burns’ No Bones (2001 and to consider the relationship established between gender and violence in these texts. I investigate the extent to which the female terrorists portrayed conform to the “mother, monster, whore” paradigm identified by Laura Sjoberg and Caron Gentry (2007 in their study of women’s violence in global politics and consider what differences, if any, are established with these characters’ male counterparts. The ways in which both authors destabilise traditional gender stereotypes is also explored, as is the question of whether these texts might be considered as feminist fictions.

  20. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  1. What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crises? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Tugade, Michele M.; Waugh, Christian E.; Larkin, Gregory R.

    2009-01-01

    Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks— gratitude, interest, love, and so forth—fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping. PMID:12585810

  2. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed.

  3. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects.

  4. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  5. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other

  6. A Bayesian sequential processor approach to spectroscopic portal system decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, K; Candy, J; Breitfeller, E; Guidry, B; Manatt, D; Gosnell, T; Chambers, D

    2007-07-31

    The development of faster more reliable techniques to detect radioactive contraband in a portal type scenario is an extremely important problem especially in this era of constant terrorist threats. Towards this goal the development of a model-based, Bayesian sequential data processor for the detection problem is discussed. In the sequential processor each datum (detector energy deposit and pulse arrival time) is used to update the posterior probability distribution over the space of model parameters. The nature of the sequential processor approach is that a detection is produced as soon as it is statistically justified by the data rather than waiting for a fixed counting interval before any analysis is performed. In this paper the Bayesian model-based approach, physics and signal processing models and decision functions are discussed along with the first results of our research.

  7. 地铁应对恐怖袭击时的人流模型及其建筑安全设计%Design of subway passenger flow model and its architectural safety when terrorist attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋华

    2013-01-01

      地铁作为一种高风险建筑设施,面临着各种形式的恐怖威胁。文中分析了可能威胁到地铁运营安全的爆炸、生化及放射性袭击、纵火等主要恐怖活动,并从地铁设计、现行地铁设计规范、制度管理、设备设施等方面,给出了地铁应对恐怖袭击的解决方案。%  As a kind of high risk building facilities, subway is faced with various terroristic threats. Some terrorist activities which could threaten the subway operation safety are analyzed, such as explosion, bio-chemical and radioactive attack, and arson. The solution to the terrorist attack is provided on subway design, current design specifications, systematic management and Equipment and facilities.

  8. Considerations about the Current Situation of Public Security Anti-terrorist Intelligence Work%当前形势下公安反恐情报工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙; 黄力

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays anti-terrorism intelligence has become an important premise and guarantee to carry out effective anti-terrorism work. Through studying the changing trends and characteristics of the terrorist activity in our country under the current situation, and drawing lessons from America's related experiences of anti-terrorist intelligence work, this paper points out that China's public security intelligence department should broaden the intelligence collecting channel, standardize anti-terrorism work stem, eliminate the obstacles to share the anti-terrorism information, and strengthen the training of anti-terrorism personnel to enhance the level of public security anti-terrorist intelligence work.%反恐情报是现今有效开展反恐工作的重要前提和保障. 通过研究当前形势下我国恐怖主义活动的变化趋势和特点,借鉴美国反恐情报工作的相关经验,指出我国公安情报部门应拓宽反恐情报搜集渠道,规范反恐情报工作制度,消除反恐情报共享障碍,加强反恐情报人员培养力度,以此提升公安反恐情报工作水平.

  9. Programme Sahamalaza-Iles Radama de l’AEECL : étude et conservation des espèces menacées d’extinction de lémuriens dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar AEECL’s Sahamalaza-Iles Radama Program: study and conservation of threatened species of lemurs in north-west of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dumoulin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’AEECL, Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, est un consortium de parcs zoologiques et d’universités européennes mettant en commun leurs connaissances et leurs efforts en faveur de projets de recherche et de protection des lémuriens menacés d’extinction de Madagascar depuis plus de trente ans. Pour ce faire, l’AEECL mène ou finance des études afin d’améliorer les connaissances scientifiques concernant les lémuriens. Ces informations sont indispensables pour mettre en place les mesures concrètes adaptées pour protéger ces animaux. Ses travaux ont notamment aidé à la reconnaissance de la péninsule de Sahamalaza en tant que réserve de biosphère de l’UNESCO, en 2001 et à la création du parc national Sahamalaza-Iles Radama, en 2007, principal site de recherches menées par l’association. De plus l’AEECL met un point d’honneur à impliquer la population locale. Des associations communautaires locales ont été créées dans les villages de quatre communes. Elles ont le pouvoir de gérer les ressources naturelles de leur juridiction de façon durable.The European Association for the Study and Conservation of Lemurs (Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, AEECL is a consortium of European zoological gardens and universities who have joined forces to carry out conservation and research projects for Madagascar’s highly endangered lemurs since more than 30 years. AEECL implements or finances various different research projects to improve the scientific knowledge of lemurs. Information is essential to be able to develop comprehensive conservation and management plans to protect these animals. The work of AEECL has led to the implementation of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Sahamalaza in 2001 and to the creation of the Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park in 2007. In addition to the research, AEECL is carrying out a community-based natural resource

  10. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  11. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probability sample of U.S. adults (N = 931). Searching for meaning at 2 months post-9/11 was predicted by demographics and high acute stress response. In contrast, finding meaning was predicted primarily by demographics and specific early coping strategies. Whereas searching for meaning predicted greater posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms across the following 2 years, finding meaning predicted lower PTS symptoms, even after controlling for pre-9/11 mental health, exposure to 9/11, and acute stress response. Mediation analyses suggest that finding meaning supported adjustment by reducing fears of future terrorism. Results highlight the role of meaning in adjustment following collective traumas that shatter people’s fundamental assumptions about security and invulnerability. PMID:18729704

  12. BusWorld: an analog pilot test of a virtual environment designed to treat posttraumatic stress disorder originating from a terrorist suicide bomb attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josman, Naomi; Reisberg, Ayelet; Weiss, Patrice L; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Hoffman, Hunter G

    2008-12-01

    Exposure therapy treatment can lead to large reductions in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is designed to facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. During VRE therapy, patients go into an immersive computer-generated environment (go back to the scene of the traumatic event) to help them gain access to their memories of the traumatic event, change unhealthy thought patterns, gradually habituate to their anxiety, and reduce the intensity of associated emotions. The therapist's ability to manipulate the amount of anxiety experienced by the client during therapy is an important element of successful exposure therapy. Using a within-subjects design, 30 asymptomatic volunteers each experienced four levels of a virtual world depicting a terrorist bus bombing, designed to be increasingly distressful. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean subjective units of discomfort scores (SUDS) of the four levels, and several planned paired comparisons showed significantly higher SUDS ratings with higher simulation levels. Results suggest that sound may play an important role in successful elicitation of emotional responses during VRE. The results of this analog study provide initial validation of the potential of BusWorld to provide graded exposure for individuals suffering from PTSD originating from suicide bus bombings. Future research exploring whether VR exposure therapy with BusWorld can reduce PTSD in clinical patients is warranted.

  13. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two.

  14. FINANCING TERRORISM: FROM OFFSHORE COMPANIES TO THE CHARITY PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently living to its edges, menaced at each corner by environmental changes, terrorist attacks, civil wars or biological weapons let loose. With the emerging of the Islamic State and other terrorist cells the entire world under the peaceful globalization sphere questions its security. The paper aims to focus on detailing the most modern ways of financing terrorism, including through tax haven offshore companies, and the charity paradox. Charity institutions, several banks and even Non-Profit Organizations go hand in hand with a full range of felonies, from money laundering to narcotic traffic, humans trafficking, organized crime, arms dealing and terrorist attacks. The paper aims to offer pertinent solutions to tax havens and light legislation in order to prevent terrorist groups and cells from becoming an extensively rich and potent menace to global and state security.

  15. The phantom menace of city in graphic novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stanič

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphic novels are a type of narrative, in which series of images are complemented with spoken words, thoughts of the depicted persons or additional explanatory descriptions next to the images, below them or in the images themselves. The text and images augment each other. The narrative is read and observed. The subject of the article is the representation of city in graphic novels and the depiction of city as the setting of stories, whatever their genre.

  16. Oxidative stress and stress signaling: menace of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loren E WOLD; Asli F CEYLAN-ISIK; Jun REN

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the diabetic population and is currently one of the leading causes of death in the United States and other industrialized countries. The health care expenses associated with cardiovascular disease are staggering, reaching more than US$350 billion in 2003. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high fat/cholesterol levels,alcoholism, smoking, genetics, environmental factors and hypertension, which are commonly used to gauge an individual's risk of cardiovascular disease and to track their progress during therapy. Most recently, these factors have become important in the early prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and breakdown by endogenous antioxidants, has been implicated in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes-associated heart dysfunction (diabetic cardiomyopathy). Antioxidant therapy has shown promise in preventing the development of diabetic heart complications. This review focuses on recent advances in oxidative stress theory and antioxidant therapy in diabetic cardiomyopathy, with an emphasis on the stress signaling pathways hypothesized to be involved. Many of these stress signaling pathways lead to activation of reactive oxygen species, major players in the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  17. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Anibal; Tapha-Sosseh Ndey; Nweneka Chidi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a le...

  18. Biotechnology and the new right: neoconservatism's red menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jonathan D; Berger, Sam

    2007-10-01

    Although the neoconservative movement has come to dominate American conservatism, this movement has its origins in the old Marxist Left. Communists in their younger days, as the founders of neoconservatism, inverted Marxist doctrine by arguing that moral values and not economic forces were the primary movers of history. Yet the neoconservative critique of biotechnology still borrows heavily from Karl Marx and owes more to the German philosopher Martin Heidegger than to the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith. Loath to identify these sources--or perhaps unaware of them--neoconservatives do not acknowledge these intellectual underpinnings or their implications. Thus, in the final analysis, their critique is incoherent and even internally inconsistent. By not acknowledging and embracing their intellectual roots, neoconservatives are left with a deeply ambivalent and often confused view of biotechnology and the society that gives rise to it.

  19. Hospital-physician joint ventures: new, menacing IRS stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, R S

    1992-02-01

    To summarize, legitimate joint ventures between hospitals and members of their medical staffs to improve and increase the health care services and facilities available to the community are still possible without jeopardizing exemption. However, in joint ventures, and ultimately, in most other hospital-physician relationships, any time financial benefits are to be conferred upon physicians by the exempt hospital in which they practice, the hospital must be able to justify those benefits on the basis of benefits flowing directly to the community, and not indirectly through the increased referrals and admissions that the hospital expects to obtain.

  20. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.