WorldWideScience

Sample records for approach menace terroriste

  1. La Mauritanie à l’épreuve de l’islamisme et des menaces terroristes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Choplin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En quelques semaines, la Mauritanie a été confrontée à plusieurs attaques terroristes revendiquées par Al-Qaïda au Maghreb. L’islamisme radical n’est pas nouveau dans ce pays mais le terrorisme et la violence des actes perpétrés sont quant à eux inédits. Si les courants radicaux gagnent en audience, ils ne doivent pour autant être confondus avec le terrorisme qui n’a pas d’ancrage en Mauritanie. La menace vient pour l’instant de l’extérieur.Since a few weeks, Mauritania is in front of several terrorist attacks claimed by Al-Qaïda in Maghreb. Radical Islamism is not new in this country but terrorism and violence of these acts are totally unheard. If radical tendencies grow their audience, they do not must be confused with terrorism which have not any rooting in Mauritania. For this moment, threats are coming from outside.

  2. A Sociospatial Approach to Understanding Terrorist Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    Terrorist networks operate in hybrid space where activities in social and geographic spaces are necessary for logistics and security. The Islamist terrorist network is analyzed as a sociospatial system using social network analysis, Geographic Information Science (GISc), and novel techniques designed for hybrid space analyses. This research focuses on identifying distance and sociospatial dependencies within the terrorist network. A methodology for analyzing sociospatial systems is developed and results lead to a greater understanding of terrorist network structures and activities. Distance and sociospatial dependencies are shown to exist for the Islamist terrorist network structure. These findings are discordant with recent literature that focuses on terrorist network tendencies toward decentralization in the information age. In this research, the Islamist terrorist network is theorized to use multiple structures of hierarchical and decentralized organization for effectiveness, efficiency, and resilience. Implications for counterterrorism policy and strategies are given.

  3. Evolution of Terrorist Network using Clustered approach: A Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    In the paper we present a cluster based approach for terrorist network evolution. We have applied hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach to 9/11 case study. We show that, how individual actors who are initially isolated from each other are converted in small clusters and result in a fully...... evolved network. This method of network evolution can help intelligence security analysts to understand the structure of the network....

  4. Disrupting Terrorist Networks — A Dynamic Fitness Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Philip V.; Clemens, Jonathan P.; Wright, Roxana; Post, Jonathan Vos; Dadmun, Matthew

    The study of terrorist networks as well as the study of how to impede their successful functioning has been the topic of considerable attention since the odious event of the 2001 World Trade Center disaster. While serious students of terrorism were indeed engaged in the subject prior to this time, a far more general concern has arisen subsequently. Nonetheless, much of the subject remains shrouded in obscurity, not the least because of difficulties with language and the representation or translation of names, and the inherent complexity and ambiguity of the subject matter.

  5. Practical Approaches to Addressing the Evolving Perception of Terrorist Threats to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and subsequent events has effected perceptions of the terrorist threat to the U.S. in general, and nuclear power plants in particular. These concerns have given rise to calls by government and private organizations for reevaluations of both the nature of the threat and protection against it. This paper suggests a general framework for a balanced approach to these reevaluations and highlights some practical and cost effective approaches for improving nuclear power plant safeguards protection. (authors)

  6. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  7. Correspondence between images of terrorists and preferred approaches to counterterrorism: the moderating role of ideological orientations.

    OpenAIRE

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined the moderating effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on the relationship between terrorist images (soldiers vs. criminals) and preference for counterterrorist actions (military aggression vs. criminal prosecution). Study 1 indicated that the perception of Al-Qaeda terrorists as soldiers was related to preference for military counterterrorism, especially among people high in social dominance orientation. The relationship between the percep...

  8. A data fusion approach to indications and warnings of terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, David; Schaefer, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Indications and Warning (I&W) of terrorist attacks, particularly IED attacks, require detection of networks of agents and patterns of behavior. Social Network Analysis tries to detect a network; activity analysis tries to detect anomalous activities. This work builds on both to detect elements of an activity model of terrorist attack activity - the agents, resources, networks, and behaviors. The activity model is expressed as RDF triples statements where the tuple positions are elements or subsets of a formal ontology for activity models. The advantage of a model is that elements are interdependent and evidence for or against one will influence others so that there is a multiplier effect. The advantage of the formality is that detection could occur hierarchically, that is, at different levels of abstraction. The model matching is expressed as a likelihood ratio between input text and the model triples. The likelihood ratio is designed to be analogous to track correlation likelihood ratios common in JDL fusion level 1. This required development of a semantic distance metric for positive and null hypotheses as well as for complex objects. The metric uses the Web 1Terabype database of one to five gram frequencies for priors. This size requires the use of big data technologies so a Hadoop cluster is used in conjunction with OpenNLP natural language and Mahout clustering software. Distributed data fusion Map Reduce jobs distribute parts of the data fusion problem to the Hadoop nodes. For the purposes of this initial testing, open source models and text inputs of similar complexity to terrorist events were used as surrogates for the intended counter-terrorist application.

  9. Computational social network modeling of terrorist recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-10-01

    The Seldon terrorist model represents a multi-disciplinary approach to developing organization software for the study of terrorist recruitment and group formation. The need to incorporate aspects of social science added a significant contribution to the vision of the resulting Seldon toolkit. The unique addition of and abstract agent category provided a means for capturing social concepts like cliques, mosque, etc. in a manner that represents their social conceptualization and not simply as a physical or economical institution. This paper provides an overview of the Seldon terrorist model developed to study the formation of cliques, which are used as the major recruitment entity for terrorist organizations.

  10. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism. PMID:25600017

  11. Needs of Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sh. Tkhostov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the motives of the terrorist activity. It analyzes psychological mechanisms of basic human needs that are implemented at different stages of involvement in terrorist organizations. The authors also discuss the causes of psychological attractiveness / desirability of terrorism in the context of influence of modern technologies on the dynamics of norm and pathology standards.

  12. Political tolerance and coming to psychological closure following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J; Bauman, Christopher W; Mullen, Elizabeth

    2004-06-01

    This study tested hypotheses generated from an integrative model of political tolerance that derived hypotheses from a number of different social psychological theories (e.g., appraisal tendency theory, intergroup emotion theory, and value protection models) to explain political tolerance following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. A national field study (N = 550) found that immediate post attack anger and fear had different implications for political tolerance 4 months later. The effects of anger on political tolerance were mediated through moral outrage and outgroup derogation, whereas the effects of fear on political tolerance were mediated through personal threat, ingroup enhancement, and value affirmation. Value affirmation led to increased political tolerance, whereas moral outrage, outgroup derogation, ingroup enhancement, and personal threat led to decreased political tolerance. Value affirmation, moral outrage, and outgroup derogation also facilitated post-9/11 psychological closure and increased psychological closure led to greater political tolerance. PMID:15155038

  13. Childhood Obesity: A New Menace

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Maria L.; Lea S Eiland

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...

  14. Terrorist transgressions: exploring the gendered representations of the terrorist

    OpenAIRE

    Malvern, Sue; Koureas, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The primary aim of the Terrorist Transgressions network which is presented here was to analyse the myths inscribed in images of the terrorist and identify how agency is attributed to representation through invocations and inversions of gender stereotypes. Although terrorism, its contexts, histories and forms, has been the focus of intense academic activity in recent years, especially in the fields of politics and international relations, cultural representations of the terrorist hav...

  15. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  16. Malevolent Creativity in Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, P.; Horgan, J; HUNTER, S.; Cushenbery, L.

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist organizations are both imitative and innovative in character. While the drivers of imitation have been extensively modeled using concepts such as contagion and diffusion, creativity and innovation remain relatively underdeveloped ideas in the context of terrorist behavior. This article seeks to redress this deficiency by presenting a conceptual framework with which we can understand the complex nature and multiple drivers of creativity and innovation within terrorist organizations. ...

  17. Cyberspace and Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einav Yogev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cyberspace as a primary warfare arena between enemies or hostile nations has always been fertile ground for fantasy and lurid scenes on the silver screen. However, cyberspace is rapidly becoming a genuine central arena for future wars and hostile actions undertaken by various types of adversaries. These may include terrorist organizations, although until now they have relied primarily on physical violence to promote their own goals and those of their sponsors. In light of such threats, many nations in the West have in recent years established special authorities to use innovative technological means to prepare for war-like actions against strategic infrastructure targets. This essay focuses on an analysis of the factors that are likely to make terrorist organizations use cyber tools to perpetrate attacks on critical infrastructures of sovereign institutions and symbols, commercial and industrial infrastructures and systems, and public civilian targets. In addition, it examines the question of whether the threat is actual and imminent, or whether it is a far-fetched possibility that surfaces from time to time in the general discourse on the subject.

  18. Public Opinion and Terrorist Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the dimensions of public opinion relevant for supporting terrorism and their relationship with terrorist attacks. We link the 2007 PEW survey data on justification of suicide terrorism and opinions in 16 countries of the Middle East, Africa and Asia on nine regional powers to the NCTC data on international terrorist incidents between 2004 and 2008. We find that justification of suicide terrorism and unfavorable opinion on regional powers are correlated with the occurrence o...

  19. The fight against terrorist financing

    OpenAIRE

    Clunan, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    According to a well-informed former participant, the effort to combat terrorists' access to financial resources has been "the most successful part" of the global community's counterterrorism endeavor since the al Qaeda 11 September 2001 attacks on the United States. Genuine success, however, hinges on U.S. ability to successfully frame terrorist financing as a collective action problem, both internally, to overcome interagency rivalries, and internationally, to overcome the benefits of free-...

  20. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash; Bieliauskas, Arunas [Institute of Energy, Joint Research Center of the European Commission, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events - among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability. (author)

  1. Terrorist targeting and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudden, short-term disruptions seriously endangering energy security can be triggered by a variety of events-among them attacks by terrorists. This study investigates terrorist attack practices against energy infrastructures and discusses how we may understand them. Our results indicate that attacks against energy infrastructures are comparatively few. Also, we find no strong connection between the ideologies of various terrorist groups and their proclivity to attack. In addition, the highly disproportionate number of attacks in a handful of countries highlights the strong geographic concentration of attacks. To explain these findings, we analyze terrorist targeting incentives including intimidation levels, symbolism, attack feasibility, and concerns for stakeholders. We argue that terrorists in general have comparatively few incentives to attack energy supply infrastructures based on our assessment of these factors. Moreover, higher levels of terrorist incidents in states more prone to internal violent conflict may suggest stronger incentives to attack energy infrastructures. When outlining energy security policies, the low frequency of worldwide attacks coupled with the high concentration of attacks in certain unstable countries should be taken into consideration. Energy importing countries could benefit from developing strategies to increase stability in key energy supply and/or transit countries facing risks of internal instability.

  2. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  3. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  4. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  5. Ecological Strategy to Prevent Vulture Menace to Aircraft in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    Vultures are sincere scavengers. Though seen with disgust, they work silently as effective biological incinerators of nature by feeding and digesting the diseased and rotten animal carcasses. Vultures are shifting their natural habitat and proliferating unnaturally in the cities because of encroachment of forest, unplanned industrialisation, urbanisation, and uncivilised way of life prevailing in the society. Hence, the problem of vulture menace to aircraft has arisen. Vulture strikes to airc...

  6. Crisis and shifting Households Menace below the poverty line

    OpenAIRE

    Taliánová, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The main task of my bachor thesis: Crisis and shifting Households Menace below the poverty line is to analyse changes in households financial potential with a link to uneployment development, minimum salary rate, inflation increase in times of economic crises. I go into a detail in identification of risk of poverty rate and material deprivation of Czech hoseholds compared to member states of European Union in my analyses. Especialy for Czech Republic are made detailed analyses for households ...

  7. The Timing of Terrorist Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of a...

  8. Ultimate nightmare: what if terrorists go nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing numbers of contenders in the international nuclear arms race are seen to be an enabling factor in favor of terrorist access to nuclear weapons. This article gives an overview of studies and literature which postulate a nuclear terrorist incident. Louis Rene Beres, a political scientist, lists some factors which give credence to the hypotheses: easy access to nuclear materials, ready availability of weapons resources, terrorist willingness for self-sacrifice, cooperation among terrorist groups, and a general international tolerance of terrorism. Nearly all experts and commentators agree that nuclear reactors constitute the prime terrorist targets of the future. 90 references

  9. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  10. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  11. Human rights against anti-terrorist laws

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Friðgeir Ísaksson

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I will try to answer the question: Are human rights in the UK in jeopardy because of the nation’s increasing anti-terrorist laws? I will focus on the UK, how anti-terrorist laws have been implemented and how they have been used in the UK after the events of the terrorist attacks on 9/11. I chose the UK because of its long tradition of anti-terrorist laws since their dealings with the IRA in the last few decades of the last century. I wanted to take a look at different count...

  12. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  13. Ecological Strategy to Prevent Vulture Menace to Aircraft in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Singh

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Vultures are sincere scavengers. Though seen with disgust, they work silently as effective biological incinerators of nature by feeding and digesting the diseased and rotten animal carcasses. Vultures are shifting their natural habitat and proliferating unnaturally in the cities because of encroachment of forest, unplanned industrialisation, urbanisation, and uncivilised way of life prevailing in the society. Hence, the problem of vulture menace to aircraft has arisen. Vulture strikes to aircraft can be minimised by promptly lifting the dead animals/carcasses from different parts of the city to the permanent feeding ground, which should be out of buffer zone area and away from the flying path. and simultaneously discouraging the illegal skinning, specially in the vicinity of aerodrome. In this paper, an ecological solution of the vulture strike to aircraft is highlighted.

  14. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  15. Chapitre 6. L’utilisation de la lutte anti-terroriste dans la politique étrangère chinoise : entre opportunités et défis à venir1

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Ce chapitre présente quatre domaines de la vision chinoise sur le terrorisme, à savoir la définition officielle de la lutte anti-terroriste en Chine et sa différence avec celles des États-Unis ; le cas de la menace terroriste dans la région du Xinjiang ; la relation entre la lutte anti-terroriste et la politique étrangère chinoise notamment dans le cadre des réponses apportées aux attentats du 11 septembre et la participation de la Chine à l’Organisation de Coopération de Shanghai (OCS) ; et ...

  16. 化学恐怖威胁源特征研究%Research on Characteristics of Chemical Terrorism Menaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉波; 李铁虎; 杨林松

    2011-01-01

    化学武器的使用形态最早可以追溯到公元前431年斯巴达人向雅典人投射的沥青和硫磺混合抛射物.两次世界大战期间,氯气、芥子气等攻击手段在战场上被大规模使用.1995年东京地铁沙林事件发生后,化学武器作为一种非常规的恐怖袭击形式引发广泛关注.化学恐怖威胁源是关乎化学恐怖袭击的元要素,把握其特征对于防范、处置化学恐怖事件及建设反化学恐怖技术能力具有重要意义.本文在概述化学恐怖威胁源谱系基础上,梳理出化学恐怖威胁源从低级到高级、从军用到“非战”、传统与非传统共存并用等多元发展特点及相关使用特征.%The employment of chemical weapons could be traced back to 431 BC when Spartan attacked on Athenian with the mixture of asphalt and sulfur. During the Two World Wars, chlorine gas and mustard gas were used massively on the battlefield. After the Tokyo sarin incident,chemical weapon,as an unconventional means of terror, was widely concerned. Chemical terrorism menaces being the primary elements for chemical terror attack, mastering their characteristics was of great significance for preventing and dealing with chemical terrorist incidents as well as building capability of counter-chemical terrorism. This paper summarized the pedigree in chemical terrorism menaces, and discussed their development characteristics such as from the low class towards the high class, from military purpose to "non-war" ,as well as coexistence of traditional and nontraditional means.

  17. Liability for damage caused by terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, one of the questions raised was about the potential liability of the operator of a nuclear power plant for damage sustained by a third party as a result of a comparable terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant. Internationally, this situation is regulated by the Convention on Third-Party Liability in Nuclear Power, the so-called Paris Liability Convention, of 1960, 1964, 1982. Among other things, that Convention excludes liability in cases directly resulting form 'actions of armed conflict..'. The problem arises, among other things, from the absence of an internationally acknowledged definition of terrorism or terrorist attack, and from the idea that, according to the Paris Convention, the legal entities assumed to be involved in such actions are states and weapons. National and international agreements and laws about the liability of the operator of nuclear facility for damage to third parties as a result of terrorist actions are analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  18. Intelligence Constraints on Terrorist Network Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    Since 9/11, the western intelligence and law enforcement services have managed to interdict the great majority of planned attacks against their home countries. Network analysis shows that there are important intelligence constraints on the number and complexity of terrorist plots. If two many terrorists are involved in plots at a given time, a tipping point is reached whereby it becomes progressively easier for the dots to be joined and for the conspirators to be arrested, and for the aggregate evidence to secure convictions. Implications of this analysis are presented for the campaign to win hearts and minds.

  19. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  20. Evaluation of Terrorist Interest in Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 11, 2001, intelligence gathered from Al Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, and the ensuing terrorist activities, indicates nuclear material security concerns are valid. This paper reviews available information on sealed radioactive sources thought to be of interest to terrorists, and then examines typical wastes generated during environmental management activities to compare their comparative 'attractiveness' for terrorist diversion. Sealed radioactive sources have been evaluated in numerous studies to assess their security and attractiveness for use as a terrorist weapon. The studies conclude that tens of thousands of curies in sealed radioactive sources are available for potential use in a terrorist attack. This risk is mitigated by international efforts to find lost and abandoned sources and bring them under adequate security. However, radioactive waste has not received the same level of scrutiny to ensure security. This paper summarizes the activity and nature of radioactive sources potentially available to international terrorists. The paper then estimates radiation doses from use of radioactive sources as well as typical environmental restoration or decontamination and decommissioning wastes in a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) attack. These calculated doses indicate that radioactive wastes are, as expected, much less of a health risk than radioactive sources. The difference in radiation doses from wastes used in an RDD are four to nine orders of magnitude less than from sealed sources. We then review the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) definition of 'dangerous source' in an adjusted comparison to common radioactive waste shipments generated in environmental management activities. The highest waste dispersion was found to meet only category 1-3.2 of the five step IAEA scale. A category '3' source by the IAEA standard 'is extremely unlikely, to cause injury to a person in the immediate vicinity'. The obvious conclusion of the

  1. Malaysia and Singapore's terrorist rehabilitation programs : learning and adapting to terrorist threats

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The central question of this thesis examines how Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore learned and adapted successful terrorist disengagement programs and policies; through their unique and non-military rehabilitation programs. The methodology is a comparative case study analysis of Malaysia and Singapore. In order to understand how the countries of Malaya/Malaysia and Singapore adapted a colonial-era counter-insurgency program to disengage Communist Terrorists into a program that now rehabilitates r...

  2. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan)

    OpenAIRE

    Maghfur Maghfur; Siti mumun Muniroh

    2013-01-01

    Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-su...

  3. Hatred of the System: Menacing Loners and Autonomous Cells in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, G.M.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the violent threat emerging from “menacing loners” and autonomous cells in The Netherlands is being historicized and contextualized by providing quantitative and qualitative insight into this threat and illuminating some of the most dramatic incidents. Although beyond the core purpo

  4. Trying Al Qaeda: Bringing Terrorists to Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Bell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were attacked, the United States embarked on a mission to bring those responsible for the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 to justice. A tremendous effort ensued to find and capture the individuals who were responsible or associated with these events. Many of the individuals who were captured have remained imprisoned for an indefinite amount of time due to the political debate regarding what is the most appropriate venue to try suspecgts arrested and charged with acts of terrorism. The choices come down to trial either by a trial by a Military Commission or a U.S. Federal District Court. There are unique challenges for effective prosecution in both venues. Which venue the Obama Administration will deem appropriate to try the terrorists captured by the former administration remains uncertain at this point in time.

  5. The developmental dynamics of terrorist organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available We identify robust statistical patterns in the frequency and severity of violent attacks by terrorist organizations as they grow and age. Using group-level static and dynamic analyses of terrorist events worldwide from 1968-2008 and a simulation model of organizational dynamics, we show that the production of violent events tends to accelerate with increasing size and experience. This coupling of frequency, experience and size arises from a fundamental positive feedback loop in which attacks lead to growth which leads to increased production of new attacks. In contrast, event severity is independent of both size and experience. Thus larger, more experienced organizations are more deadly because they attack more frequently, not because their attacks are more deadly, and large events are equally likely to come from large and small organizations. These results hold across political ideologies and time, suggesting that the frequency and severity of terrorism may be constrained by fundamental processes.

  6. Terrorist financing beyond 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Loretta Napoleoni

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of counter-terrorism policies, e.g., the Patriot Act and the war in Iraq, on the financial structure of European terror networks and argues that such policies, far from defeating Jihadist activities, ended up boosting them. In response to such measures, terror finances have been skillfully restructured, the main changes being the decentralization of funding activity in Europe and in the Middle East and the declining cost of terrorist attacks.

  7. Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Haigner, Stefan; Schneider, Friedrich; Wakolbinger, Florian

    2012-01-01

    International policy standards in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing are set forth by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations on Anti-money laundering (AML)/Combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) policies. While those standards are very high and require, for example, financial businesses to strictly pursue the "know your customer principle", countries compliance with the standards is low. In putting efforts in increasing compliance and harmonizing en...

  8. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  9. Appeasing Nihilists? Some Economic Thoughts on Reducing Terrorist Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Schnellenbach

    2005-01-01

    Recent contributions to the economics of terrorism have given contradicting recommendations for campaigning against terrorism, from the proposal to deprive terrorists of their resources to the proposal of raising the opportunity costs of terrorism by increasing the wealth of the affected regions. Within a simple framework which differentiates between the decision to become an active terrorist and the decision to support terrorists and which allows for reciprocal reactions to anti- terrorism p...

  10. Feu bactérien: Tirer tous les registres en cas de menace

    OpenAIRE

    Schärer, Hans-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Il est dans notre pays depuis 1989, depuis lors surtout en Suisse orientale et centrale – le feu bactérien menace chaque année les cultures de fruits. Il semble qu’on doive apprendre à vivre avec cette maladie bactérienne, mais le peut-on? État des lieux pour l’arboriculture fruitière biologique.

  11. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  12. Dynamical Adaptation in Terrorist Cells/Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    followers etc. In this research we analyze and predict the most likely role a particular node can adapt once a member of the network is either killed or caught. The adaptation is based on computing Bayes posteriori probability of each node and the level of the said node in the network structure.......Typical terrorist cells/networks have dynamical structure as they evolve or adapt to changes which may occur due to capturing or killing of a member of the cell/network. Analytical measures in graph theory like degree centrality, betweenness and closeness centralities are very common and have long...

  13. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  14. In Their Own Words? Methodological Considerations in the Analysis of Terrorist Autobiographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Altier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of terrorism literature in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, there remain several methodological challenges to studying certain aspects of terrorism. This is perhaps most evident in attempts to uncover the attitudes, motivations, and intentions of individuals engaged in violent extremism and how they are sometimes expressed in problematic behavior. Such challenges invariably stem from the fact that terrorists and the organizations to which they belong represent clandestine populations engaged in illegal activity. Unsurprisingly, these qualities make it difficult for the researcher to identify and locate willing subjects of study—let alone a representative sample. In this research note, we suggest the systematic analysis of terrorist autobiographies offers a promising means of investigating difficult-to-study areas of terrorism-related phenomena. Investigation of autobiographical accounts not only offers additional data points for the study of individual psychological issues, but also provides valuable perspectives on the internal structures, processes, and dynamics of terrorist organizations more broadly. Moreover, given most autobiographies cover critical events and personal experiences across the life course, they provide a unique lens into how terrorists perceive their world and insight into their decision-making processes. We support our advocacy of this approach by highlighting its methodological strengths and shortcomings.

  15. `Googling' Terrorists: Are Northern Irish Terrorists Visible on Internet Search Engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P.

    In this chapter, the analysis suggests that Northern Irish terrorists are not visible on Web search engines when net users employ conventional Internet search techniques. Editors of mass media organisations traditionally have had the ability to decide whether a terrorist atrocity is `newsworthy,' controlling the `oxygen' supply that sustains all forms of terrorism. This process, also known as `gatekeeping,' is often influenced by the norms of social responsibility, or alternatively, with regard to the interests of the advertisers and corporate sponsors that sustain mass media organisations. The analysis presented in this chapter suggests that Internet search engines can also be characterised as `gatekeepers,' albeit without the ability to shape the content of Websites before it reaches net users. Instead, Internet search engines give priority retrieval to certain Websites within their directory, pointing net users towards these Websites rather than others on the Internet. Net users are more likely to click on links to the more `visible' Websites on Internet search engine directories, these sites invariably being the highest `ranked' in response to a particular search query. A number of factors including the design of the Website and the number of links to external sites determine the `visibility' of a Website on Internet search engines. The study suggests that Northern Irish terrorists and their sympathisers are unlikely to achieve a greater degree of `visibility' online than they enjoy in the conventional mass media through the perpetration of atrocities. Although these groups may have a greater degree of freedom on the Internet to publicise their ideologies, they are still likely to be speaking to the converted or members of the press. Although it is easier to locate Northern Irish terrorist organisations on Internet search engines by linking in via ideology, ideological description searches, such as `Irish Republican' and `Ulster Loyalist,' are more likely to

  16. Who sets the Agenda: The Author or the Terrorist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Definitions of terrorism. Terorism in the 1980s, i.e. taking hostages and exploding bombs outside the US. UNA-bomber and Oklahoma bomber. Relations between author and terrorist in and outside USA before 9/11. Relations between terrorist and press. President Bush's rhetoric and various reactions to...

  17. Israeli Adolescents' Coping Strategies in Relation to Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Moshe; Amram, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to terrorism seriously threatens the well-being of children and adolescents. Israeli citizens have witnessed massive ongoing terrorist attacks during the last few years. The present research, conducted among 330 Israeli adolescents, examined coping strategies in relation to terrorist attacks. We found that adolescents utilize more…

  18. Family Therapy of Terroristic Trauma: Psychological Syndromes and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Reviews pertinent literature on terroristic trauma and combines this information with the author's experience in treating adults, children, and family victims and survivors of recent terrorist attacks. Describes the psychological syndromes resulting from terrorism and discusses the relevant individual and family therapy modalities for treating…

  19. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.

    2002-05-01

    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  20. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  1. Categorizing terrorist entities listed by the European Union according to terrorist groups’ underlying motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Rothenberger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available States and international organizations have compiled lists of a great variety of terrorist groups. The current European Union list includes 44 entities. This study analyzes the underlying motives of the terrorist organizations named in this list. In order to understand the groups’ motivations and consequently be able to advise on methods of countering them with communication strategies, we employ a three-item typology provided by Waldmann (2001. The results show that only five of the 44 groups were religiously motivated to commit terrorism. Most of the groups (n=20 had nationalist-separatist motives, and 19 groups displayed social-revolutionary motives. Based on the respective motives, differing counter-terrorism strategies are proposed, e.g., developing rhetorical counter-narratives that address and reduce the groups’ motivational and identity-generating characteristics.

  2. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of the program — has been interpreted by many as further evidence of a strategic divide concerning American and European efforts to thwart terrorism.  This research will investigate the dramatic changes to the American anti-terrorist finance regime after 9/11, and will demonstrate that the European reluctance to cooperate with this program represents a fundamental disagreement concerning the prioritization of privacy rights rather than an unwillingness to take the steps necessary to combat the financing of terror.

  3. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  4. Tracking terrorist finances: The SWIFT program and the American Anti-Terrorist Finance Regime

    OpenAIRE

    David Bruce Bulloch

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the political and legislative history of a formerly classified anti-terrorist finance program initiated in the days after 9/11 that subpoenaed millions of financial records from the Belgian-based Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) without the knowledge of European authorities.  The European outrage in response to its public disclosure in 2006 — and the subsequent struggle to generate support for the continuation of t...

  5. How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Bertram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the potential to de-radicalize a terrorist, and if so how could this be achieved? The article also outlines the distinction between de-radicalization, counter-radicalization and disengagement. In order to understand the potential of de-radicalization techniques, research examines the factors that might lead to initial radicalization. The strategy of some state-based de-radicalization programs, particularly the Saudi Arabian de-radicalization program are examined and the importance of unique tailoring in these programs is identified. The relevance of ideology and life skill training within de-radicalization programs is also examined. The extensive impact that information communication technology has had on radicalization is also addressed and following on, the potential for de-radicalization and counter-radicalization through information communication platforms is also discussed. The importance of an accurate and appropriately delivered counter-narrative message is examined and the value of such a counter-narrative is discussed in terms of it possibly planting the seed of question in a terrorist, which may eventually support the terrorist questioning of terrorist group ideology. Highly relevant to the future de-radicalization of an ‘in organisation’ terrorist is the issue of how states might manage the potential return of terrorists who are known to be overseas and whether the best solution is or is not to prevent the terrorist from returning to a home-country, which is examined within. It could be presumed that a terrorist who is returning to a home-country may face some term of incarceration, as an extension of this issue that states must address, the effect that incarceration might have on a terrorist is also examined. The discussions in this article are relevant to policy-makers, de-radicalization program designers and security sector actors.

  6. A model of cyclical terrorist murder in Colombia, 1950-2004. Forecasts 2005-2019

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper continues a research born in 1993 as a consequence of the growing concern regarding the escalation of violence in Colombia; its objective is to create an econometric model capable of forecasting the path of terrorist murder under different policy options and helping the country in the design of state policy drawing the lineaments for reaching the pacification of the country. I claim that the approach presented here is the only way of creating an econometric model for ter...

  7. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rettberg, Jill Walker; Gajjala, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines images and words shared on the Twitter hashtag #refugeesNOTwelcome to understand the portrayal of male Syrian refugees in a post-9/11 context where the Middle-Eastern male is often primarily cast as a potential terrorist. Queer theorist Jasbir Puar (2007) and Middle- East scholar Paul Amar (2011) provide us with a theoretical approach to make sense of the contradictions we see emerging in this social media context.

  8. The analysis of criminal and terrorist organisations as social network structures: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Mainas, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    The need to tackle organised crime and terrorism threats indicates, among other things, the importance of analysing efficiently and effectively the patterns of criminal ties. Social network analysis (SNA) offers conceptual frameworks, techniques and software tools to measure and visualise empirical networks of any kind. The aim of this study was to test, examine and consider the usefulness of SNA as a principal approach for the analysis and investigation of criminal and terrorist organisation...

  9. Two Models for Semi-Supervised Terrorist Group Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Fatih; Erdem, Zeki; Bowerman, Chris

    Since discovery of organization structure of offender groups leads the investigation to terrorist cells or organized crime groups, detecting covert networks from crime data are important to crime investigation. Two models, GDM and OGDM, which are based on another representation model - OGRM are developed and tested on nine terrorist groups. GDM, which is basically depending on police arrest data and “caught together” information and OGDM, which uses a feature matching on year-wise offender components from arrest and demographics data, performed well on terrorist groups, but OGDM produced high precision with low recall values. OGDM uses a terror crime modus operandi ontology which enabled matching of similar crimes.

  10. THE MENACE OF THE UNKNOWN: RE-READING HAROLD PINTER’S THE BIRTHDAY PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Baghira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the two world wars men were unable to come out of its horrors and disillusionment. The war which was glorified sooner brings forth total confusion and disorderly situation which none can avoid. This era therefore gives birth to a number of dramatists who constructs The Theatre of Absurd. Pinter’s early plays are often been attributed as ‘comedy of menace’ due to their superficial fun, and inherent menacing, verbal violence, erotic fantasy, obsession jealousy, family hatred and mental disturbance in terms of wordless language. Language plays an important part in constructing the meaning of any text; it simultaneously can voice or silence any issues it is dealing with. Pinter problematizes the use of language in his several plays. His dramas often involve strong conflicts among ambivalent characters who struggle for verbal and territorial dominance and for their own versions of the past. My intention in this paper is to identify how the motif of menace is actualized through verbal violence, uncertain past of characters and sudden, unexpected drop from a comic surface to an underlying seriousness and uncanny.

  11. Preventing nuclear terrorism: responses to terrorist grievances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US is vulnerable to nuclear terrorism, despite the presence of physical security and other measures. Although these measures are important, they are insufficient to prevent or deter terrorism. What, then, is the answer? The author feels it lies in a hitherto neglected dimension of terrorism: its underlying political grievances. The principal grievance that potential terrorists have against the US concerns misguided elements of US foreign policy. These elements are moving the US on a seemingly inexorable collision course with terrorism and, more than likely, with nuclear terrorism. The US represents a serious threat to many people and groups who feel directly the effects of a foreign policy mired in strident anti-Sovietism: opponents of the US-NATO Euromissile deployments, populations seeking to secure their human rights from repressive regimes supported by the US, and governments seeking self-determination but embattled by insurgents backed by US arms, equipment, and advisers. In many cases, the US foreign policy stance in one country has aroused suspicion and anger within the region as a whole. The collision course need not be inevitable. The US can take a number of steps in the political arena that would greatly reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism

  12. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism...

  13. Agent Based Modeling on Organizational Dynamics of Terrorist Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Li; Duoyong Sun; Renqi Zhu; Ze Li

    2015-01-01

    Modeling organizational dynamics of terrorist network is a critical issue in computational analysis of terrorism research. The first step for effective counterterrorism and strategic intervention is to investigate how the terrorists operate with the relational network and what affects the performance. In this paper, we investigate the organizational dynamics by employing a computational experimentation methodology. The hierarchical cellular network model and the organizational dynamics model ...

  14. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect, Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohammed M.; Rasmussen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public display, distribution unlimited "On October 6-7, 2011, experts gathered for a workshop at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland to discuss the factors that both facilitate and hinder terrorist innovations. This workshop is part of a two-year Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) sponsored research project that aims to shed light on the preconditions, causes, and predictive indicators associated with terrorist innovation in weapons of mass effect (WMEs). Organized joi...

  15. Can counter-terrorist internment ever be legitimate ?

    OpenAIRE

    de Londras, F.

    2011-01-01

    Counter-terrorist internment is generally rejected as illegitimate from a human rights perspective. However, while the practice of counter-terrorist internment has long resulted in the infringement of human rights, this article argues that the concept of internment holds some potential for legitimacy. This potential can only be realized if four legitimacy factors are fully embraced and complied with: public justificatory deliberation, non-discrimination, meaningful review, and effective tempo...

  16. The body of the terrorist in contemporary cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Finnerty, Paraic; Duggan, R

    2007-01-01

    This article will explore the presentation of the body of the terrorist in a range of British and American films with a particular emphasis on how these films combine political and romantic plotlines. As part of a broad consideration of how the terrorist is presented, this essay will concentrate in particular on Cal (1984), The Crying Game (1992), The Dancer Upstairs (2002) and The Quiet American (2002). Rather than fully engage with the more complex discourse of politics, often these films a...

  17. Why Terrorists Overestimate the Odds of Victory 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Abrahms

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is puzzling behavior for political scientists. On one hand, terrorist attacks generally hail from the politically aggrieved. On the other hand, a growing body of scholarship finds the tactic politically counterproductive. Unlike guerrilla attacks on military targets, terrorist attacks on civilian targets lower the odds of governments making  concessions. This article proposes and tests a psychological theory to account for why militant groups engage in terrorism, given the political costs of attacking civilians.

  18. Money, media and the anti-politics of terrorist finance

    OpenAIRE

    Goede, Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article offers a critical analysis of the anti-politics of terrorist finance, understood as the particularly depoliticized governing practices enabled in its name. The article conceptualizes 'terrorist finance' not as an unproblematic reality which has elicited a state response, but as a practice of government that works through a number of political or discursive moves. The article begins with an examination of the media battles over the names, numbers and definition...

  19. Controversies of Conversions: The Potential Terrorist Threat of European Converts to Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika G. Bartoszewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarising some findings from a doctoral dissertation discusses European converts to Islam. It explores the conditions under which conversion leads to radicalisation and terrorist violence; it analyses recrudescent concomitances of causal mechanisms of this phenomenon. Furthermore, it explores possible pathways existing between conversion, radicalisation and terrorist violence; identifies key variables pertaining to causal pathways and processes; provides hypotheses regarding the radicalisation pathways, and establishes a typology that can serve as a basis for further studies. By dispelling stereotypes on European New Muslims (ENM this research note offers a new, contextual approach to the issue under consideration. In doing so it invites the reader to reconsider the concepts of “convert”, “radicalisation” and “potential”- concepts crucial for questioning the widely expressed assumptions that European converts to Islam are a homogenous “risk group” and a security threat.

  20. Forensic Analysis of Terrorist Counter-Financing to Combat Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drame, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toler, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The single greatest threat to U.S. homeland security remains the proliferation of nuclear weapons, especially among terrorists and other non-state actors who are not governed by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the most important tools for combating terrorism among such rogue actors is counter-financing. Without funding, terrorists cannot acquire, maintain, or deploy nuclear weapons. According to the official report of the 9/11 Commission, counter-financing could have prevented the attacks of September 11, 2001. Unfortunately, no single country can defeat global terrorism. Successful counter-financing requires significant international cooperation. Since 2001, the United States and the European Union, despite vastly different approaches to intelligence gathering, have shared information through the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP). That shared information allows authorities to trace suspicious transactions, identify culprits, and map out global terrorist networks. The TFTP successfully thwarted a 2011 plot to assassinate the Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the U.S. and multiple threats during the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; it also aided in the investigation of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing. That program is necessary but not sufficient. To strengthen our ability to detect and disrupt terrorist plotting and prevent nuclear proliferation, we must expand and coordinate two additional transnational measures: (1) the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT), a standardized global messaging network for financial institutions to quickly, accurately, and securely send and receive money transfer instructions, and (2) International Bank Account Numbers (IBAN) to identify individual accounts involved in international transactions. Both initiatives were incompletely adopted in the wake of 9/11, but most global banks use one or neither. More fully implementing and coordinating these two systems would allow for coherent information

  1. Le nom des lieux à la Martinique : un patrimoine identitaire menacé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Huyghues-Belrose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A la Martinique, les noms les plus anciens et les mieux conservés sont ceux qui ont été précocement fixés par la cartographie et par l’administration, non par la mémoire populaire. En conséquence, lorsque le cartographe supprime un nom de lieu, celui-ci disparaît ; mais lorsqu’il le déforme, le transforme ou même renomme le lieu, c’est une composante du passé et de l’identité territoriale qu’il soumet à une logique étrangère, qu’il colonise en quelque sorte. Si l’ensemble de la population martiniquaise éprouve de l’intérêt pour l’origine et le sens des noms de lieux, il apparaît cependant qu’elle n’a pas conscience de l’importance identitaire de la toponymie ni des dangers qui la menacent.In Martinique, the oldest and best preserved place names are those who have been fixed early by cartographers and state officers, not by folk remembrance. Consequently, when the map maker cancels a place name, transforms it or even gives it a new name, he actually subjects the territorial identity to a foreign reasoning, he colonizes the toponym one could say. While the whole Martinique people is interested by place names origin and meaning, it does not seem to have a clear conscience of what giving and using a name involve for self identity, nor what dangers are menacing the toponyms of Martinique.

  2. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  3. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  4. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  5. Is ALARP applicable to the management of terrorist risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss the applicability of the as low as reasonable practicable (ALARP) principle to terrorist risk management. ALARP is a commonly used framework for managing risk due to non-intelligent threats, but terrorism introduces difficult issues, both technically and socially. In particular, the probability of a terrorist attack is difficult to define, terrorist threats are adaptive, and some terrorist risk management actions raise issues of loss of civil liberties not raised by risk management measures for other types of risk. We discuss these issues and their implications for risk management. After showing how ALARP is used to manage the risk from other hazards in different economic sectors, we discuss both the benefits and difficulties associated with extending the ALARP framework for terrorist risk analysis. We conclude that the ALARP framework can be modified to make it appropriate for risk management for adaptive risks, provided that care is taken to explicitly consider adaptive reallocation of risk in response to risk management actions, to account for perceived or actual loss of civil liberties resulting from risk management actions, and to consider the difficulties associated with using probability to measure uncertainty in adversary actions.

  6. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures

  7. Analysis of Al-Qaeda Terrorist Attacks to Investigate Rational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Hepworth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the collective rationality of traditional terrorist groups; this study seeks to expand this and apply collective rationality to Islamic terrorist groups. A series of statistical analyses were conducted on terrorist attacks carried out by Al-Qaeda and affiliated terrorist organization; these were then compared to two more conventional terrorist groups: the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. When viewed through the context of the groups’ various motivations and objectives, the results of these analyses demonstrates collective rationality for those terrorist groups examined. 

  8. Influence of Terrorist Activities on Financial Markets: Evidence from KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bashir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of terrorist activities taking place in Pakistan on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange for the period of 01/2005 to 12/2010 using the GARCH & GARCH- EVT to identify the relationship between these two variables, the study establishes that the terrorist activities adversely affect the financial markets and in case of KSE, it is highly significant relation. Reason for the negative relationship exists because of the foremost increase in number of terrorism attacks in Pakistan.

  9. Is Reaction to Terrorist Attacks a Localised Phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Law

    2011-01-01

    Research found that the terrorist attack of 9/11 was associated with a temporary decline in US Arab and Muslim men’s weekly earnings and real wages of around 9 to 11 per cent. This has been interpreted as an increase in discrimination against those groups following the attack. However, other evidence shows that in Sweden the terrorist attack did not change Middle East immigrants’ job-searching behavior because of increased discrimination from employers. A possible explanation is that, since 9...

  10. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    ), small groups, and individuals who communicate, coordinate and conduct their campaign in a network-like manner. There is a pressing need to automatically collect data on terrorist networks, analyze such networks to find hidden relations and groups, prune datasets to locate regions of interest, detect key...... measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need to...... of the networks involved in those tragic events....

  11. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily oper...

  12. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  13. Les effets des réputations d'infériorité intellectuelle sur les performances académiques : une menace de l'identité

    OpenAIRE

    Max, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Cette thèse visait à étudier les effets des réputations d'infériorité intellectuelle sur les performances académiques via une menace de l'identité à deux niveaux d'analyse distincts, l'un individuel, l'autre groupal. Dans le cadre des théories de la menace de l'identité (Steele, Spencer, & Aronson, 2002), nous avons présenté dans un premier temps une menace de l'identité sociale : la menace du stéréotype (Steele & Aronson, 1995). Nous avons étudié l'un des médiateurs de ce phénomène : les but...

  14. A Novel Approach for Recognized & Overcrowding of Terrorist Websites

    OpenAIRE

    PROF. G.A.PATIL

    2013-01-01

    The extremists mainly utilize the Internet to enhance their nformation operations surrounding propaganda, communication, and psychological warfare. Islamic militant organizations, such as Al Quaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, etc., have been intensively utilizing the Internet to disseminate their anti-Western, anti-Israel propaganda, provide training materials to their supporters, plan their operations, and raise funds by selling goods through their Web sites; limit our experiential understanding of t...

  15. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  16. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code).

  17. The Terrorist War against Islam: Clarifying Academic Confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Since the terrorist atrocities of September 11, 2001, Westerners have been challenged to understand the ideological and theological concepts, derived from Islam, that motivated the actions of Al-Qaida on that day and in other attacks before and since. Differences in taxonomy have proven to be a major issue. In the author's view, it is insufficient…

  18. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  19. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  20. Speculative security: the politics of pursuing terrorist monies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Goede

    2012-01-01

    Since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, finance and security have become joined in new ways to produce particular targets of state surveillance. In Speculative Security, Marieke de Goede describes how previously unscrutinized practices such as donations and remittances, especially across nat

  1. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Nur Asiyah; Nailatin Fauziyah; Siti Khorriyatul Khotimah; Soffy Balgies

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitativ...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process Presidential Documents Other... Terrorists Who Threaten to Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  3. Scottish Campaign to Resist the Atomic Menace annual report 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a year which saw the Scottish Campaign to Resist the Atomic Menace (SCRAM) Safe Energy journal reach its 15th birthday, the Earth Summit in Rio was amongst the most important events. Though this historic international meeting failed to live up to the expectations of many, it was a step in the right direction. The activities of the many non-governmental organisations was particularly encouraging, and their continuing work on climate change in particular could be vital. The nuclear industry persists in claiming green credentials, but it has not had a good year. For SCRAM, founded to oppose the Torness nuclear power station, the Public Inquiry in December into Scottish Nuclear's plans for a dry store was of particular significance. Our pragmatic decision not to oppose the scheme did not go unnoticed. We were happy to provide registered objectors with information, including our report on dry storage. Having reached a landmark of fifteen years continuous publication, Safe Energy continues to be well received by a readership which includes concerned individuals, campaigners, politicians, environmentalists, government agencies, the media and the nuclear industry. SCRAM's main role is dissemination of information, and the journal is our main vehicle. We aim to deal with complex issues in a readable way, and are encouraged that such a broad range of people find it of use. (author)

  4. Women Behind Terrorists (Religiousity, Self Adaptation and Husband-Wife Relationship within Suspected Terrorists Family in Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghfur Maghfur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women and their religiosity are questioned along with the proliferation of conflict, violence, and religion-based riots which allegedly involving ‘husband’  suspected  terrorists. This article discusses the religiosity of the wives, the adjustment of wives of suspected terrorists against psychological and social burden, and the patterns of marital relations of terrorist suspects in Pekalongan-Central Java. The result of this phenomenological study revealed that the religiosity of terrorist-suspects’ wives are more dominant is exclusive patterned- if it is compared to moderate or inclusive ones. In terms of adjustment, the wives are just accept the fate and tend to be indifferent to the activities of their husbands. The wives also nullifying the public’s negative perception and judgment, but some are closed to the social interaction. While the pattern of relationships that were frequently built tent to be more owner property and head-complement in characteristics. Wives are positioned as husband’s complement for all activities in the fields of social, religious and political.

  5. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  6. External dosimetry in the aftermath of a radiological terrorist event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews external dosimetry in emergency preparedness planning for a potential terrorist release of radioactive material in a densely populated area. The radiation dose received by response workers and members of the public is needed to understand health risks. The existing framework for dosimetry of routinely occupationally exposed workers is not directly applicable to all emergency workers who would respond to a radiological terrorist event. Emergency preparedness plans incorporate various old and new dosimetry technologies, including quartz fibre electrets, electronic dosemeters, personnel badges and wallet cards. Environmental monitoring and dose calculations are the usual methods for determining public dose. However, during the late-phase response, after removable contamination has been eliminated, it may be easier and more straightforward to provide individual dosimetry for members of the public who may be moving through a city with varying contamination areas. Doing so could allow resumption of normal activities earlier and promote confidence in reusing the site. (authors)

  7. Estimating the historical and future probabilities of large terrorist events

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Quantities with right-skewed distributions are ubiquitous in complex social systems, including political conflict, economics and social networks, and these systems sometimes produce extremely large events. For instance, the 9/11 terrorist events produced nearly 3000 fatalities, nearly six times more than the next largest event. But, was this enormous loss of life statistically unlikely given modern terrorism's historical record? Accurately estimating the probability of such an event is complicated by the large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's upper tail. We present a generic statistical algorithm for making such estimates, which combines semi-parametric models of tail behavior and a non-parametric bootstrap. Applied to a global database of terrorist events, we estimate the worldwide historical probability of observing at least one 9/11-sized or larger event since 1968 to be 11-35%. These results are robust to conditioning on global variations in economic development, domestic versus international ...

  8. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  9. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  10. Overview of the terrorist threat to international peace and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution deals with the implications of terrorism for international peace and security and the escalation to mass terrorism. The topics covered are: impact of the latest terrorist events on the United States, impact on the international community; illegitimacy of terrorism; need for global action; the role of the united Nations; the crucial role for disarmament and counter-proliferation activities, especially in finding means of enhancing the security of materials that could easily be misused

  11. Foreign Aid Designed to Diminish Terrorist Atrocities can Increase Them

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Mandler, M.

    2004-01-01

    A domestic power faces an enemy and commits terrorist atrocities to increase the liklihood of victory. A foreign patron can grant aid to the power but prefers fewer or no atrocities. The domestic power responds by acquiescing in the creation of uncontrollable paramilitaries that commit even more atrocities. Once the paramilitaries are set up, aid flows and the atrocity level is high. Now suppose the foreign patron is uncertin whether the domextic power can control the paramilitaries. At a poo...

  12. Foreign Aid Designed to Diminish Terrorist Atrocities can Increase Them

    OpenAIRE

    Mandler, Michael; Spagat, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A domestic power faces an enemy and commits terrorist atrocities to increase the likelihood of victory. A foreign patron can grant aid to the power but prefers fewer or no atrocities. The domestic power responds by acquiescing in the creation of uncontrollable paramilitaries that commit even more atrocities. Once the paramilitaries are set up, aid flows and the atrocity level is high. Now suppose the foreign patron is uncertain whether the domestic power can control the paramilitaries. At a p...

  13. The Lord’s Resistance Army: an African Terrorist Group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The years since 9/11 have been characterised by the increasing threat of terrorist action in the  Middle East and South Asia. Yet Sub-Saharan Africa was has also become a region of concern. In 1998, it had been the scene of two Al-Qaeda attacks against US embassies; besides Africa is home to large Muslim populations. Since 9/11 African violent non-state groups unrelated to Al- Qaeda or to the wider Islamist movement have been recast as terrorist organisations. These groups primarily operate in conflict zones, an area of research that traditionally has not been the main focus of Terrorism Studies. Protagonists have at various times been called freedom fighters, rebels, warlords, insurgents or simply violent gangs. This article looks at the most notorious of African groups – the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA. It argues that some groups like the LRA have been recast as terrorist organisations not because of a change in their activities but due to a change in the geo-strategic environment they found themselves in the post-9/11 period. The LRA’s ideology and tactics will be judged against a broad definition of terrorism in order to test whether the group can, in an objective way, be called a terrorist organisation. It is concluded that the LRA is too ambiguous an organisation to be simply labelled in such a way. It is also suggested that the terrorism label has in fact been an obstacle to attempts to end successfully a confrontation that is now going into its 24th year. 

  14. Infrasonoc fluidic oscillator for use in anti-terrorist warfare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Smyk, E.

    Southampton: WIT Press, 2015 - (Brebbia, C.; Garzia, F.; Poljak, D.), s. 179-189 ISBN 978-1-84564-928-9. ISSN 1746-4498. [Safety and Security Engineering /6./. Opatija (HR), 06.05.2015-08.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anti-terrorist warfare * synthetic jet * impinging jet * infrasonoics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  15. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  16. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  17. Combating the terrorist use of mass destruction weapons, particularly nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks of mass destruction weapons vary and also forms of damages resulting therefrom. While the effects of nuclear weapons are focused, sudden and comprehensive, the chemical weapons have limited impacts relatively unless used intensively severe prejudice to the element of surprise, and thus impaired the efficacy of their influences,especially that they affect exceptionally the individuals in the area of injury and biological weapons do not announce themselves except through their effect that appears later than the time of use as they affect exceptionally the organisms in the area of injury.The mass destruction weapons have turned from being a purely military means in the early twentieth century and have now become the means of violence against governments and countries that they should prepare themselves for and respond in ways of successful and effective countermeasures. Despite the fact that the acquisition of mass destruction weapons can be considered as a priority objective, which terrorist groups and organizations steadily seek but their accessibility is flanked by a lot of difficulties. Addressing the risk of further spread of nuclear weapons, and especially after doubling the power of those high-risk weapons, the international community has an approach to take a number of arrangements that complement each other to control and resist nuclear proliferation, either for the states or for terrorist groups.

  18. Menace du stéréotype et performance motivationnelle : le cas des demandeurs d’emploi

    OpenAIRE

    Dagot, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article traite des conséquences de la menace du stéréotype sur certains processus motivationnels. Le contexte empirique est celui de certains dispositifs d’insertion professionnelle : en l’occurrence les plans locaux pour l’insertion et l’emploi (PLIE). Ces dispositifs ont pour particularité de proposer à leurs bénéficiaires un accompagnement sur les volets sociaux et professionnels de l’insertion. Les résultats montrent que les parcours d’insertion qui sont construits essentiellement aut...

  19. Phenomena of instability along the valley of the Gulch Las Perdices and their menace for Guayabetal town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the valley of the gulch Las Perdices are frequent the slips. These slips have been come presenting in the permeable and porous colluviums that are on the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that act as waterproof barrier to the flow. The deforestation, abundant precipitation and accented topographical slope, they are considered as the main causes of uncertainty in the area in study. The reforestation and the drainage are fundamental to minimize the menaces for slips, especially in the sector bordering to the lagoon or the hydrant for the Guayabetal aqueduct. The original hydrant was destroyed soon after the slips that affect the place, being this the reason so that the water consumed at the moment is characterized to be cloudy with a high concentration of silts, phenomenon this that is accentuated in the winter times. This problem will be continued presenting while slips exist in the high part and the municipal aqueduct is continued supplying of the waters of the gulch Las Perdices. The sector bordering to the lagoon is the most critical in these moments, so that a quick water movement could originate an avalanche that would affect so much to the civil works as to the inhabitants of the oriental sector of Guayabetal. In this area, it is recommended to begin with preventive measured urgency and correctives, in order to reduce the menace for flood and slips

  20. Biting the hand that feeds you abuse of Islamic charities by terrorist organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Reddan, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Since September 12, 2001, countering terrorist financing has been one of the many major fronts used in the war on terrorism. Outside of monitoring communications through high technology, the next most important task for intelligence-gathering entities against terrorist organizations is to learn how they raise, store, and move money in the financing of their operations. Although there are many conduits that a terrorist can choose from when...

  1. Power, value, and the individual exchange: towards an improved conceptualization of terrorist finance

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Timothy Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis finds that the term ‘terrorist financing’ is a misnomer in that much of the activity encompassed by that term involves neither terrorism nor money. Instead, terrorist financing more accurately refers either to the flow of economic and material value to ‘terrorist’ actors or specific material expressions of support to ‘terrorism,’ however that contested term is defined. This finding not only directly challenges the dominant ways terrorist finance is now conceptualized, but also p...

  2. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-01-01

    Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are ...

  3. Compatible or incompatible?: Intelligence and human rights in terrorist trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article focuses on the special criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorism-related court cases in Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since 9/11 and the terror attacks in London and Madrid, both gathering intelligence as well as the prosecution of suspects of terrorist crimes have become strategic tools in countering terrorism. By reviewing the special procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials, their compatibility with human rights standards, including the right to fair trial, is discussed. Among others concerns include: the extent to which disclosure is made possible and to who. The differences in criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorist trials raise questions when intelligence information origins from a third state, in which different regulations with regard to disclosure of information apply.

  4. KAMEDO Report 90: terrorist attacks in Madrid, Spain, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Roger; Ehrlin, Ylva; Forsberg, Rebecca; Rüter, Anders; Soest, Vivian; Vikström, Tore; Ortenwall, Per; Brändström, Helge

    2007-01-01

    This is a descriptive study of the medical responses to the bombings by terrorists in Madrid on 11 March 2004. The nature of the event, the human damage, and the responses are described. It describes the: (1) nature and operations associated with the alarm; (2) assignment of responding units and personnel; (3) establishment and operations of casualty collection points; (4) medical transport and distribution of injured victims; (5) prioritization and command; (6) hospital care; (7) psychosocial care; (8) identification of the dead; and (9) police investigation and actions. Each of these descriptions is discussed in terms of what currently is known and the implications for future planning, preparedness, and response. PMID:17894223

  5. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Martínez Pastor; Clara Simón

    2015-01-01

    The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S.) and 11/04/2004 (Spain). The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04...

  6. Cultural Memory of Sorrow in Advertising after the Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Martínez Pastor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this research study is to do a comparative research to investigate the perception of sorrow in the advertising in the press after the terrorist attacks: 11/09/2001 (U.S. and 11/04/2004 (Spain. The general hypothesis considers that there are similar perceptions of the sorrow towards the ads although there are cultural differences. On a computer program the subject was shown these images about announcement advertisement published in the press after the 09/11 and 11/04 in a random order and was asked different questions that explored their perception and attitudes with regard to these advertisements

  7. Libye : la conversion d'un " État terroriste "

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Luis

    2004-01-01

    [Libya: the conversion of a “terrorist state”] Libya’s spectacular return to the international scene, confirmed by the U.N.’s lifting of sanctions in September 2003, is rooted in the convergence of security and oil interests. For Libya, economic and political strife have made normalization a necessity. For the United States and the United Kingdom, given the chaos reigning in Iraq, Libya now looks like an Arab country that might offer new perspectives in oil supplies and assurances of secur...

  8. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  9. A utilitarian argument against torture interrogation of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Jean Maria

    2004-07-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710

  10. Terrorist Decision-Making: Insights from Economics and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Shapiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist groups repeatedly take actions that are ultimately politically counter-productive. Sometimes these are the result of deliberate calculations that happen to be mistaken - Al-Qaeda’s decision to conduct the 9/11 attacks is the most obvious example of an ultimately self-defeating operation. Sometimes they reflect the challenges groups face in controlling their operatives: Al-Qaeda in Iraq’s excessive public violence against other Sunni organisations stand out. At other times they appear to steer difficult political waters quite effectively despite of deep internal divisions—Hamas is the exemplar here. This article reviews recent developments in the literature on terrorist decision-making in economics and political science. Overall, tremendous advances have been made in the last 10 years, but much work remains to be done. In particular, it is  argued that the literature needs to do better at testing its theories in inferentially credible ways and at considering terrorism as one tactical option among many for opposition political groups.

  11. Terrorist threat to nuclear facilities and the role of the public in countering them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The general public is an important stakeholder whose vital interests are consistent both with the prevention of terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure and appropriate mitigation of the consequences of any such attack. Terrorist attacks can easily bring about systemic disasters characterized by a series of uncertain, interconnected and disruptive events that would affect the population at large as well as a wide range of societal institutions. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon just as potential victim s or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor to better nuclear security throughout all stages of any potential incident. By getting the public on board and recognizing it as an important stakeholder, a meaningful risk communication strategy and other relevant arrangements must be developed and implemented in pursuance of five interrelated objectives: 1. Reach a common risk assessment enabling the public to be educated and prepared. 2. Encourage a well-informed and well-motivated public to contribute to a healthy nuclear security culture not only at the nuclear plant and associated units but also nationally. 3. Build up public vigilance, persuading citizens to cooperate more closely with law enforcement. 4. Reduce the immediate and long-term physical and psychological impact of a terrorist incident by fencing off panic, boosting morale, maintaining credibility, and providing guidance. 5. Integrate acts of nuclear terrorism into the general scheme of All-Hazards approach. The success of this public focused campaign would depend on its ability to develop a balanced and realistic understanding of the risk and the relationship between safety and security as two sides of the same process which is trouble-free operation of the nuclear power infrastructure under any conceivable circumstances. To this end, it is imperative to use as many public channels as possible, reaching groups that differ educationally

  12. Mediating the female terrorist: Patricia Hearst and the containment of the feminist terrorist threat in the United States in the 1970s

    OpenAIRE

    Third, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In January 1976, the trial of Patricia Campbell Hearst caused a Western media sensation. Representing the culmination of her spectacular kidnapping and conversion to the terrorist cause of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA), Hearst was on trial for her participation in the Hibernia National Bank robbery almost two years earlier. As of the commencement of the trial, the story of the heiress-come-female-terrorist had been captivating Western media audiences for two years. This article analyse...

  13. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  14. 75 FR 55659 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., September 10, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-22988 Filed 9-10-10; 1:30 pm] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Notice of September 10, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist..., 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks Consistent...

  15. The meaning of collective terrorist threat : Understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Co

  16. Guarding nuclear reactors and materials from terrorists and thieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The September 11 attacks were a wake-up call alerting us to the need to strengthen standards for protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear material from theft and sabotage, the subject of possible revisions to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. The May 2001 Final Report of the Experts convened to consider amending this Convention did not make recommendations for stronger standards for physical protection though they did recommend extending the Convention to domestic use, storage and transport and to sabotage as well as theft. Data collected confidentially by the Stanford physical protection project shows great variation from country to country on what threats countries actually protect against, and what protection they actually provide. For example, some countries do not perceive any threat that their weapons-usable material may be stolen by insiders for sale to terrorists, or that it may be stolen by the terrorists themselves. The May 2001 Final Report also opposed any form of international oversight for physical protection, thus permitting parties to continue to ignore standards established by the Convention or recommended by the INFCIRC/225. In light of the September 11 attacks, we urge amendment of the Convention to provide some form of cooperative oversight, some basic minimum standards for protection and some requirement to take INFCIRC/225 recommendations into account. Pending such an amendment going into force, we urge immediate action to comply with the new fundamental principles for physical protection approved by the Board of Governors. We also urge an upgrading of INFCIRC/225 and institution of some form of cooperative international oversight for national physical protection programs. (author)

  17. 77 FR 3065 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0... National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On... acts of violence committed by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace...

  18. The Current Legal Framework of the Use of Force against Terrorist Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra PERISIC

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Events that took place on 9/11, when symbols of American nation were destroyed by hijacked civilian airplanes, raised the issue of the effectiveness of the currently existing legal framework which regulates terrorist activities. Prior to that event, dealing with terrorist activities was mostly regulated by conventions, many of which were ratified by no more than couple of states. However, it became questionable whether these instruments are sufficient to fight terrorists who are not only immune to a threat of sanctions, but are even ready to sacrifice their lives. After the attacks took place, the United States launched against Afghanistan an armed action, ending up in a more than a decade long occupation, holding Taliban regime responsible for the attacks undertaken by Al-Qaida. The United States response to the 9/11 raised an important question: what is the legal response to terrorist attacks? This article explores the current legal framework of the use of force in response to terrorist attacks, especially with regard to distinguishing terrorist acts which are attributable to a certain state, from those which are undertaken by a terrorist group, not associated with any particular state.

  19. Training, SEVIS, and NSEERS will they stop terrorists from entering the U.S.?

    OpenAIRE

    Bugarin, Darwina S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to commit attacks against the U.S. homeland, terrorists must enter the country. Stopping their entry is key to preventing attacks. The 9/11 Commission's Staff Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, identified pre-9/11 gaps/weaknesses in U.S. immigration, visa, customs, and border security systems. This thesis will consider the implementation of the 9/11 Commission's key recommendations for immigration: 1) provide...

  20. Stéréotypes d’incompétence : les conséquences professionnelles d’une menace sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnot, Virginie; Rastoul-Migne, Emmanuelle Neuville et Claire

    2012-01-01

    L’existence de stéréotypes qui promeuvent l’incompétence de certains groupes sociaux peut conduire leurs cibles à adopter des comportements qui confirment la mauvaise réputation de leur groupe. Deux dynamiques sont exposées pour expliquer les effets délétères de ces stéréotypes dans le parcours professionnel des individus cibles : l’une repose sur l’intériorisation des stéréotypes, l’autre sur l’effet de menace du stéréotype. Dans les deux cas, ces stéréotypes posent une menace sociale et par...

  1. What we need to know ...and when. Educating the public about nuclear terrorist risks can help raise levels of security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power infrastructures could be the target of terrorist acts of theft, sabotage, unauthorized access or other malicious acts given their radiological and chemical content and potential for building weapons. Attacks on its major components, including fuel production, reactors, waste handling, and reprocessing facilities, would lead to serious consequences-even if there is little or no damage to a nuclear power plant itself and other related structures. Public fear of nuclear radiation, in combination with a possibly massive resultant blackout and other aggravating factors, could create significant distress and panic. In other words, successful terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure can easily bring about systemic disaster. Systemic risks impact society on a large scale and their effects may spread much further from the original hazardous source. Those risks widely affect systems that society depends on, such as health, transport, environment, telecommunications. Their consequences may be technical, social, environmental, psychological and economic and involve different stakeholders. In this context, however, one important stakeholder has been under-appreciated, under-utilized and somewhat misunderstood: the general public. The nuclear power infrastructure must learn how to efficiently communicate to the public and develop better options for public risk communication that relate to deliberate attacks or accidents. The public is also a challenging stockholder because citizens are deeply split regarding the acceptability and value of nuclear power generation and tend to express their feelings emotionally. However, there is growing recognition that because of skyrocketing oil prices and evidence of the greenhouse effect, nuclear power may be approaching renaissance. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon only as potential victims or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor for better nuclear security throughout

  2. Hidden Markov Models for the Activity Profile of Terrorist Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Vasanthan; Tartakovsky, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this work is on developing models for the activity profile of a terrorist group, detecting sudden spurts and downfalls in this profile, and in general, tracking it over a period of time. Toward this goal, a d-state hidden Markov model (HMM) that captures the latent states underlying the dynamics of the group and thus its activity profile is developed. The simplest setting of d = 2 corresponds to the case where the dynamics are coarsely quantized as Active and Inactive, respectively. Two strategies for spurt detection and tracking are developed here: a model-independent strategy that uses the exponential weighted moving-average (EWMA) filter to track the strength of the group as measured by the number of attacks perpetrated by it, and a state estimation strategy that exploits the underlying HMM structure. The EWMA strategy is robust to modeling uncertainties and errors, and tracks persistent changes (changes that last for a sufficiently long duration) in the strength of the group. On the othe...

  3. Fandoriana - 3 : terrorist-gossudarstvennik protiv terrorista-revoljutsionera / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilm "Riiginõunik" Boriss Akunini romaani järgi : režissöör Filipp Jankovski. Fandorini osas Oleg Menshikov, terrorist Grin - Konstantin Habenski, krahv Pozharski - Nikita Mihhalkov : Venemaa 2005

  4. The human body as a terrorist weapon: hunger strikes and suicide bombers

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Marcello; Dingley, James

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that a major factor in terrorist acts is an appeal to the actor's own community at an emotional and symbolic level, through acts of sacrifice, particularly self-sacrifice. Although other aims also exist, a prime concern is to recall the actor's home audience to the struggle, because the actor regards himself as acting on their behalf. This utilizes the imagery and symbolism of traditional religion, implying a strong communal and non-material impetus to terrorist acts, rath...

  5. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder of Florida State (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincide with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder shows that terrorist attacks against the U.S. have affecte...

  6. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder in the State of Ohio. (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder warns that terrorist attacks against the U....

  7. Southern Thai Insurgency and the Prospect for International Terrorist Group Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Brannon, III, Bradford M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the cause of the southern Thailand insurgency and the possibility that international terrorist groups have become involved in it. The insurgency began as an ethnic struggle by Malay Muslims for independence from predominantly Buddhist Thailand. But with the advent of the global war on terrorism, some scholars believe it has become an increasingly religious one. They fear that if the insurgency has become Islamist, it will attract support from international terrorist group...

  8. Failures of imagination: terrorist incident response in the context of crisis management

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, New York in September 2001, the focus on terrorism and the ability of society and organisations to withstand such incidents has sharpened considerably. At the same time, business continuity and dealing with crises have moved to the forefront of organisations' awareness, not least due to improved regulatory requirements and guidelines. However, this thesis contends that the current methodological framework for responding to terrorist i...

  9. Terrorist profiling as a Counterinsurgency Strategy: Applying the Concept to Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of terrorism is fundamentally psychological. Similarly, psychological profiling is widely accepted in detecting crimes in both law enforcement operations and the study of criminology. However, there is a need to transfer its appearance from old traditional criminal environment to the context of counterterrorism. This research argues that most prevalent method of interrogating suspects to achieve distinction between guilty and innocent is to establish a set of psychological attributes and factors. This paper proposes that terrorist's profiling is value-added intelligence that may add a new dimension in counterterrorism to identify the individual behind a terrorist act. It is important to constructs a terrorist profile before designing a paradigm that should determine the probability of terroristic trends within the individual as well as certain perceptible qualities with which an observed suspect can be likened to. This article proposes a personality-guided model of interrogation with different categories to steer clear of oversimplified thinking about individual terrorist or groups. The objective is to adapt the style and content of questioning to obtain a clear overall picture of the suspect's knowledge with appropriate interviewing and interrogation methods. This profiling will provide thorough understanding of the ideology that drives terrorism and more awareness of the likely means and likely targets used by terrorists. This paper is a shift in direction – focusing rather on the development of evidence-based methods that could lead to an effective counterinsurgency strategy and the extraction of innocent's involvement in the terrorism.

  10. Terrorist attacks escalate in frequency and fatalities preceding highly lethal attacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Martens

    Full Text Available Highly lethal terrorist attacks, which we define as those killing 21 or more people, account for 50% of the total number of people killed in all terrorist attacks combined, yet comprise only 3.5% of terrorist attacks. Given the disproportionate influence of these incidents, uncovering systematic patterns in attacks that precede and anticipate these highly lethal attacks may be of value for understanding attacks that exact a heavy toll on life. Here we examined whether the activity of terrorist groups escalates--both in the number of people killed per attack and in the frequency of attacks--leading up to highly lethal attacks. Analyses of terrorist attacks drawn from a state-of-the-art international terrorism database (The Global Terrorism Database showed evidence for both types of escalation leading up to highly lethal attacks, though complexities to the patterns emerged as well. These patterns of escalation do not emerge among terrorist groups that never commit a highly lethal attack.

  11. Narratives from caregivers of children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan: issues of health, culture, and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna; Scrimin, Sara; Capello, Fabia

    2007-04-01

    Acts of terrorism have an extremely negative impact on the mental health of children and families. The school siege in Beslan, Russia, in 2004, represents a particularly traumatizing event as it was directed specifically at children and involved the entire community. This qualitative study aims to: (a) examine caregiver reactions to the terrorist attack in Beslan as reported 3 months after the traumatic event; (b) determine the extent to which indigenous cultural values and religious belief systems play a role in Beslan's caregivers' reactions to such event; and (c) identify variables that may function as sources of resilience to caregivers. A convenience sample of 17 primary caregivers from Beslan with at least one child who survived the school siege were asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Narratives generated from the interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a thematic approach; nine major themes were identified. Caregivers' concerns centered on children's physical and psychological well-being, the reorganization of family life, and the disruption of community ties. Cultural values of pride, heroism, courage, and revenge emerged as relevant aspects shaping caregivers' reactions to the traumatic event. Possible sources of resilience included the willingness to return to normality, social support, and the reaffirmation of positive, culturally shared values in face of the perceived threat of future terrorist attacks. Findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications on the effects of trauma on children and families as well as interventions with highly traumatized populations in diverse cultural settings. PMID:17257726

  12. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des habitats naturels sur la faune menacée du Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy-Kinkony, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rado Hanitriniaina Andriamasimanana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Mahavavy-Kinkony Wetland Complex (MKWC assesses the impacts of habitat change on the resident globally threatened fauna. Located in Boeny Region, northwest Madagascar, the Complex encompasses a range of habitats including freshwater lakes, rivers, marshes, mangrove forests, and deciduous forest. Spatial modelling and analysis tools were used to (i identify the important habitats for selected, threatened fauna, (ii assess their change from 1950 to 2005, (iii detect the causes of change, (iv simulate changes to 2050 and (v evaluate the impacts of change. The approach for prioritising potential habitats for threatened species used ecological science techniques assisted by the decision support software Marxan. Nineteen species were analysed: nine birds, three primates, three fish, three bats and one reptile. Based on knowledge of local land use, supervised classification of Landsat images from 2005 was used to classify the land use of the Complex. Simulations of land use change to 2050 were carried out based on the Land Change Modeler module in Idrisi Andes with the neural network algorithm. Changes in land use at site level have occurred over time but they are not significant. However, reductions in the extent of reed marshes at Lake Kinkony and forests at Tsiombikibo and Marofandroboka directly threaten the species that depend on these habitats. Long term change monitoring is recommended for the Mahavavy Delta, in order to evaluate the predictions through time. The future change of Andohaomby forest is of great concern and conservation actions are recommended as a high priority. Abnormal physicochemical properties were detected in lake Kinkony due to erosion of the four watersheds to the south, therefore an anti-erosion management plan is required for these watersheds. Among the species of global conservation concern, Sakalava rail (Amaurornis olivieri, Crowned sifaka (Propithecus coronatus and dambabe (Paretroplus dambabe are

  13. Toxicology of organophosphorus compounds in view of an increasing terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Wille, Timo; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC), prohibiting the development, production, storage and use of chemical weapons by 192 nations and the ban of highly toxic OP pesticides, especially class I pesticides according to the WHO classification, by many countries constitutes a great success of the international community. However, the increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents new challenges to our societies. Almost seven decades of research on organophosphorus compound (OP) toxicology was mainly focused on a small number of OP nerve agents despite the fact that a huge number of OP analogues, many of these agents having comparable toxicity to classical nerve agents, were synthesized and published. Only limited physicochemical, toxicological and medical information on nerve agent analogues is available in the open literature. This implies potential gaps of our capabilities to detect, to decontaminate and to treat patients if nerve agent analogues are disseminated and may result in inadequate effectiveness of newly developed countermeasures. In summary, our societies may face new, up to now disregarded, threats by toxic OP which calls for increased awareness and appropriate preparedness of military and civilian CBRN defense, a broader approach for new physical and medical countermeasures and an integrated system of effective detection, decontamination, physical protection and treatment. PMID:27349770

  14. The Role of Effectiveness and Efficiency in the European Union's Counterterrorism Policy: The Case of Terrorist Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Brzoska, Michael

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy to counter terrorist financing is marked by uncertainty about causes and consequences. The paper addresses the role of evaluations of the effectiveness and efficiency of counter terrorist financing policies performed by international standard setting organizations in such a policy environment. It is found that assessments of effectiveness have shaped counter terrorist financing, but partially in a way biased towards their extension without strong evidence of their effect...

  15. Mobile system for radiation reconnaissance after terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-timed radiation reconnaissance aimed at identifying a source of radiation contamination and drawing up a contamination map represents an important and complex problem, the solution of which allows for the reduction of the irradiation dose, the implementation of decontamination works, and finally minimizing the consequences of a terrorist attack. New opportunities for operational gathering of radiation contamination data and corresponding space coordinates can be associated with the development of mobile systems which provide measurements of ionizing radiation dose rate and corresponding space coordinates, and subsequent transferral to the crisis centre server where these data are processed and used for mapping radiation contamination. In such a way, the data obtained on radiation contamination could be incorporated in a timely manner as input data to computer models, describing the dispersion of radionuclides in an environment that makes it possible not only to forecast the development of a situation but to define necessary protection measures for mitigating and localizing the consequences. The mobile reconnaissance system was developed as a prototype of such a solution, based on a cellular terminal such as the Nokia 12i (Teltonika BoxGPS). A Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine space coordinates. A Russian BDMG device measured the dose rate of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent data were transferred to the server of the crisis centre of the Nuclear Safety Institute of RAS (IBRAE). The main operation regime involved setting the GPRS connection, transferring data, and switching off the connection. A change of the operation regime can be produced via SMS commands from the crisis centre's terminal or with the help of a cellular phone. When a connection is not available, the data are aggregated in memory and transferred to the server when the connection channel arises. A few data transfer protocols, including FTP and HTTP/HTTPS, are provided

  16. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed. PMID:20587476

  17. Handbook of computational approaches to counterterrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Subrahmanian, VS

    2012-01-01

    Terrorist groups throughout the world have been studied primarily through the use of social science methods. However, major advances in IT during the past decade have led to significant new ways of studying terrorist groups, making forecasts, learning models of their behaviour, and shaping policies about their behaviour. Handbook of Computational Approaches to Counterterrorism provides the first in-depth look at how advanced mathematics and modern computing technology is shaping the study of terrorist groups. This book includes contributions from world experts in the field, and presents extens

  18. Risks to emergency medical responders at terrorist incidents: a narrative review of the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Julian; Rehn, Marius; Lossius, Hans Morten; Lockey, David

    2014-01-01

    As the threat of international terrorism rises, there is an increasing requirement to provide evidence-based information and training for the emergency personnel who will respond to terrorist incidents. Current major incident training advises that emergency responders prioritize their own personal safety above that of the 'scene and survivors'. However, there is limited information available on the nature of these threats and how they may be accurately evaluated. This study reviews the published medical literature to identify the hazards experienced by emergency responders who have attended previous terrorist incidents. A PubMed literature search identified 10,894 articles on the subject of 'terrorism', and there was a dramatic increase in publications after the 9/11 attacks in 2001. There is heterogeneity in the focus and quality of this literature, and 307 articles addressing the subject of scene safety were assessed for information regarding the threats encountered at terrorist incidents. These articles demonstrate that emergency responders have been exposed to both direct terrorist threats and environmental scene hazards, including airborne particles, structural collapse, fire, and psychological stress. The emphasis of training and preparedness for terrorist incidents has been primarily on the direct threats, but the published literature suggests that the dominant causes of mortality and morbidity in responders after such incidents are the indirect environmental hazards. If the medical response to terrorist incidents is to be based on evidence rather than anecdote, analysis of the current literature should be incorporated into major incident training, and consistent collection of key data from future incidents is required. PMID:25323086

  19. Vulnerability to terrorist attacks in European electricity decarbonisation scenarios: Comparing renewable electricity imports to gas imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decarbonised future European electricity system must remain secure: reliable electricity supply is a prerequisite for the functioning of modern society. Scenarios like Desertec, which partially rely on solar power imports from the Middle East and North Africa, may be attractive for decarbonisation, but raise concerns about terrorists interrupting supply by attacking the long, unprotected transmission lines in the Sahara. In this paper, I develop new methods and assess the European vulnerability to terrorist attacks in the Desertec scenario. I compare this to the vulnerability of today's system and a decarbonisation scenario in which Europe relies on gas imports for electricity generation. I show that the vulnerability of both gas and electricity imports is low, but electricity imports are more vulnerable than gas imports, due to their technical characteristics. Gas outages (and, potentially, resulting blackouts) are the very unlikely consequence even of very high-number attacks against the gas import system, whereas short blackouts are the potential consequence of a few attacks against the import electricity lines. As the impacts of all except extreme attacks are limited, terrorists cannot attack energy infrastructure and cause spectacular, fear-creating outages. Both gas and electricity import infrastructure are thus unattractive and unlikely terrorist targets. - Highlights: • A comparison of terrorism risks of importing solar power and gas for power generation. • Both scenarios show low vulnerability to terrorist attacks. • Within low vulnerabilities, gas imports are less vulnerable than electricity imports. • Causing spectacular, large and long outages is very difficult for attacker. • The attractiveness of gas and power import infrastructure as terrorist target is low

  20. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  1. Warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces mainly the research status and developing focuses of warning of and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incidents and discusses the system and technology of warning and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist incident. The system of warning and response of nuclear and radiation incident is comprised of information acquirement and management, analysis and decision-making, and emergency response. The system is based on threat evaluation. The content and technology of the system is analyzed in the paper, in particular the importance of information flow, such as information collection, estimation, release and so on. (author)

  2. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB)

  3. Solving the counter-terrorist puzzle after the El Masri verdict and Smilkovci terrorist attack: legal and strategic considerations for the South East European intelligence community

    OpenAIRE

    Hadji-Janev, Metodi

    2014-01-01

    Both anecdotal and empirical evidences confirm that the complex political, ethnic and religious dynamics in the region of South East Europe (SEE) create the perfect environment for radical groups and individuals affiliated with Al Qaeda and its goals. Supported by their strategic western partners and allies SEE countries have seriously considered threats from modern terrorism. Hence, active involvement in the global counter-terrorist efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq and intelligence cooperatio...

  4. Scientific and technical aspects of the mitigation of possible consequences of the use of a radioactive source in a terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key factors which determine the potential threat of ionizing radiation sources (IRSs) in terrorist attacks are the abundance of such sources in various fields (industry, agriculture, medicine, independent power sources) and the problems of registering, licensing, regulating, monitoring and preventing the illegal transport of these sources. These problems are not completely solved, especially in non-nuclear industries. The relative simplicity of production of 'dirty bombs' and of the means and methods of their transport are also contributing factors. A large number of 'orphan sources' are constantly being found (38 cases in 1997-2001) and there is a high level of IRS theft (50 cases in the same five years); these figures confirm the real difficulties in organizing the registering and monitoring of radiation sources. The situation in other industrially developed countries is nearly the same. In the United States of America, for example, up to 200 radioactive sources are lost annually. The following directions are pointed out for counteraction and mitigation of the possible consequences of radiological terrorist attacks: (1) Systems analysis of the practical experience of reacting to radiological accidents and mitigation of their consequences, so that recommendations on effective countermeasures in the event of radiological terrorist attacks can be given; (2) Development of scientific approaches and means for realistic analysis of possible scenarios and for predicting the scale of consequences of radiological terrorist attacks; (3) Development of a concept for organization of a system of national and international expert scientific and technical support for response to acts of radiological terrorism; Analysis of possible causes of incorrect estimation of the indirect (psychological, social, economic) consequences of radiological terrorism by society, and development of commendations for mitigation of radiophobia; (5) Analysis of the availability of various

  5. 76 FR 3007 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998,...

  6. 75 FR 3845 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by... persons, including Usama bin Laden, who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. Because...

  7. 78 FR 4303 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process On January 23, 1995, by Executive Order... by foreign terrorists who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On August 20, 1998, by... persons who threaten to disrupt the Middle East peace process. On February 16, 2005, by Executive...

  8. Elements of the terrorism reviewed through instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlate Dimovski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a global threat to all countries regardless their social, economic and religious setting. For the realization of their activities, terrorists use different models. As funds for realization of the terrorist act they use different types of weapons, mainly firearms. Terrorist organizations that practice modern forms of terrorism also use weapons of mass destruction. According to that, they improve the ways of getting funds for the realization of the terrorist acts, its internal organization and the ways of practicing terrorism. In this article, we will give a brief overview of the instrumentum operandi, organizational setup and phases of realization of the terrorist act, with special emphasis on the situation in the Republic of Macedonia.

  9. Endosulfan: a hidden menace

    OpenAIRE

    Coloso, Relicardo M.

    2003-01-01

    A clean and healthy environment is paramount to human existence. While pesticide use has successfully sustained agricultural and food production in our lifetime as well as safeguarded human health by controlling insect pests, it has also caused many tragedies including population declines in our wildlife, fatalities in workers exposed to pesticides in its manufacture and use, and the increasing incidence of dreaded human illnesses such as cancer. A delicate balance should be achieved to mitig...

  10. The Phantom Menace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vium, Christian

    2013-01-01

    that armed insurgencies and the emergence of nebulous assemblages such as the AQIM (Al-Qaeda Organisation in the Islamic Maghreb), must be analysed as constitutive elements in a complex convergent crisis which is currently undermining local livelihoods in multiple ways. In Mauritania and much of the Saharan...... and Sahelian regions, crisis has become chronic, and while people exhibit tremendous capacities to anticipate the uncertain and navigate a disequilibrated natural and political environment in general, a new kind of protracted fear is spreading. This article establishes how the AQIM is enacted locally...

  11. Fighting the waterborne menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Although only around 400 cases are reported annually to the U.K.'s Health Protection Agency (HPA), climate change, and thus warmer cold water supplies entering hospitals, the bacterium's apparent ability to mutate, and the considerable challenge of properly monitoring, and successfully identifying and addressing, all potential infection sources on a large hospital estate mean an increasing risk of hospital patients acquiring the potentially deadly waterborne infection, Legionnaires' disease. This was the warning from a top U.K. microbiologist at a recent "waterborne infection masterclass" organised by specialist water filtration product supplier Pall Medical in Antwerp. Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:20364631

  12. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  13. Ranking Terrorists in Networks : A Sensitivity Analysis of Al Qaeda’s 9/11 Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husslage, B.G.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Burg, T.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Lindelauf, R.

    2014-01-01

    All over the world intelligence services are collecting data concerning possible terrorist threats. This information is usually transformed into network structures in which the nodes represent the individuals in the data set and the links possible connections between these individuals. Unfortunately

  14. Iraagi väitel tuleb iga teine terrorist Süüriast / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Bagdadis elurajooni turul hukkus enesetapurünnakus 130 inimest. Iraagi kõrge valitsusametniku sõnul tuleb 50% terrorist üle Süüria piiri. Iraagi peaminister Nuri al-Maliki arvamus. Vt. samas: Mässulised leiavad tuge internetist

  15. Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Sandra K.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the terrorist attacks on children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders. These children may be adversely affected in a number of ways including inattentiveness, increased restlessness, crying, sleeplessness, use of profanity, and even inappropriate laughter. Several suggestions are offered to…

  16. 76 FR 56631 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, September 9, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-23609 Filed 9-12-11; 11:15 am] Billing... With Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...-- #0;The President ] Notice of September 9, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect...

  17. NEOLIBERAL WORLD ECONOMIC AS SOURCE OF THE GLOBAL TERRORIST CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.В. МІКІЧУРОВА

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  In article is analysed formation, development and legal bases of modern international relations, are determined main social-economic reasons of the spreading the international terrorism which induced by neoliberal approach to international economic cooperation.

  18. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public security, public areas and ensuring public safety. In the study, the author used scientific methods (hypothesis, analysis, synthesis, deduction, and induction, special used historical, legal and technical, interdisciplinary, comparative legal, system and other methods of scientific knowledge. The author researches of the problems of qualification of crimes related to the terrorist organization and community participation in it are discussed in detail. The article analyzes the modern jurisprudence on the application of Article 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The author examines the conditions of qualification criminal groups as a terrorist or terrorist organization community. The author comes to the conclusion about the need to improve the legal regulation of criminal responsibility for the commission of terrorist-related crimes. So, the author proposes to supplement the dispositions of article 205.4 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation indicating that the terrorist community a stable group of persons can be considered, united not only in Russia, but also in other states as well as international organizations, concerned other grounds specified in Art. 205.4 of the Criminal Code. The author considers it necessary to clarify the question of qualification of crimes under Art. 205.4 and 205.5 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in the Resolution of the Plenum of the Russian

  19. Transporting nuclear wastes from energy production sites: What can terrorists do and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent discussions in the United States and among NATO allies have debated the vulnerability of nuclear waste shipments, their transports, and the engineered packaging they transport within to terrorist attack. These debates generally focus on the regulatory and engineered controls necessary to protect such shipments, but in the post-September 11, 2001 reality of a potential mass suicide attack using asymmetrical weapons and tactics, can the underlying 'safe' assumptions of regulators and security personnel be questioned? This paper will offer a history of the debates surrounding how safe such shipments from energy faculties are to dedicated terrorist attack and then focus on recent research that looks at several transportation related scenarios that may bring into question heretofore un-assessed vulnerabilities for highway and railway transports, routes, and cargoes of highly radioactive wastes that come from such energy production sites. (author)

  20. The process of institutionalising the EU’s anti-terrorist policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies the perspective of historical institutionalism to the empirical analysis of the motors and characteristics of the institutionalisation process of the European Union’s anti-terrorist policies. Based on a theoretical model developed by Stone Sweet, Sandholtz and Fligstein, this contribution critically analyses the impact of external crises in the form of a series of terrorist attacks on the emergence of antiterrorism as an sphere of European governance. The article also examines political developments and key institutions, studies the role of policy entrepreneurs during this period and compares the importance of “revolutionary” and “evolutionist” perspectives to our understanding of the process of institutional change in this field.

  1. Terrorist Groups: Using Internet and Social Media for Disseminating Ideas. New Tools for Promoting Political Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane ROTHENBERGER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the essential problems of our times. Most commonly, terrorist organizations have their origins in social movements that presume that they cannot reach their goal of promoting political change other than through violence. This paper deals with the use of the Internet, and especially social media, by terroristgroups. Social media seem to be an essential part in the groups'strategic communication concepts. They do not only use it for the groups' internal organization but mainly for the dissemination of ideas to a broader public. If the government wants to counteract terrorist movements, it also has to counteract their use of socialmedia. Therefore, theoretical concepts of terrorism as communication, PR and propaganda will be presented as well as results of case studies in order to show the interconnectedness of terrorism and social media.

  2. Management of medical and psychosocial consequences of a radiological or nuclear terrorist event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical, psychological, and social consequences of a terrorist event involving the release of ionizing radiation will differ significantly from attacks with 'classical' explosives. Victims of a detonation of a 'dirty bomb' or a nuclear device can actually or allegedly absorb various doses of radiation and should be viewed as radiologically contaminated patients. Hence, both first responders and medical personnel should behave and act accordingly. General rules, guidelines, and procedures are described that should be implemented at all levels of medical management from the on-site emergency care until admittance to and treatment of the victims at a specialist hospital ward. The causes, manifestations and management of psychosocial sequelae of radiological terrorist incidents are also discussed. (author)

  3. Offensive Counterterrorism Targeted killing in eliminating terrorist target: the case of the USA and Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio Matos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the "global terrorism project", some States have adopted offensive counterterrorism measures which, though within national strategies on security and defense, contemplate the use of military power and the use of lethal force against non-state actors - individuals, groups or terrorist organizations - beyond their national borders. Reformulating the security paradigm has led, in these cases, to policies against terrorism. This is the case of targeted killing - the killing of selected targets - by the USA and Israel. Targeted killing actions - using essentially but not only drones - in Pakistan and Yemen by the American administration, a well as the Israeli response to Palestinian terrorism, are under heated debate in terms of their efficiency and legality. Thus, this paper aims to not only provide an analytical framework on this theme but also analyze the scope and impact of these counter terrorist strategies by the two countries.

  4. Prison radicalization in county jails: disrupting terrorist acts through information sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Prisons have long been recognized as an environment ripe for radicalization. In some cases, individuals radicalized while in prison have later committed acts of terrorism. While many countries employ deradicalization programs in their prisons, the United States relies on the timely reporting of terrorism-related intelligence from prison officials, in hopes of disrupting the terroristic acts. In 2011, California Governor Jerry Brown ena...

  5. A study of life-meaning orientations and levels of terrorist threat experience in three generations

    OpenAIRE

    Buzykina Y.S.; Konstantinov V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a brief review of concepts of informational violence in mass media, post-traumatic stress disorder as a delayed psychological effects of terrorism, and life-meaning orientations. We describe the results of a study of life-meaning orientations and experience of terrorist threat in different age groups. Nowadays the problem of life-meaning orientations is of particular importance in the context of the ongoing social and economic changes and dramatically increasing number of...

  6. Cycles of violence, and terrorist attacks index for the State of Washington.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of per capita murder in the State of Washington. (1933-2005). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks to the U.S. The estimated cyclical component of murder warns tha...

  7. Control of a Terrorist Network: Lessons from the 9/11 Commission Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mayntz, R.

    2006-01-01

    The 567-page 9=11 Commission Report traces the actions of the Al Qaeda terrorists that led up to the 9=11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and describes in detail the counter-terrorism activities of the organizations and offices in the American security community, focusing on the missed opportunities to prevent the attack. A careful analysis of the report permits us to identify the organizational, managerial, and cognitive preconditions of successful prevention. The analysi...

  8. The terrorist threat to the UK in the post–9/11 decade

    OpenAIRE

    Sir David Omand

    2012-01-01

    The overall task for this special issue is to assess the emergency response to terrorism, in particular the threat posed by violent jihadist terrorism. Clearly, planning for emergency responses will have value against other threats and hazards, so it will be difficult to separate out the arrangements made to deal specifically with the aftermath of terrorist attacks, and those to meet other emergencies, for example major natural disasters. A sense of proportion is also needed when examining te...

  9. Suppressing Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Supporting Principled Humanitarian Action: A Provisional Framework for Analyzing State Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burniske, Jessica; Lewis, Dustin Andrew; Modirzadeh, Naz Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, reports suggested that a surge of foreign jihadists were participating in armed conflicts in Syria, Iraq, and elsewhere. The United Nations Security Council responded by imposing in Resolution 2178 (2014) an array of obligations on member states to counter the threat posed by “foreign terrorist fighters” (FTFs). In the intervening year, those states have taken a range of actions — though at various speeds and with varying levels of commitment — to implement the FTF obligations impose...

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Gold, Joel; Bucuvalas, Michael; Kilpatrick, Dean; Stuber, Jennifer; Vlahov, David

    2002-01-01

    Estimates of acute mental health symptoms in the general population after disasters are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in residents of Manhattan 5–8 weeks after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. We used random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults living in Manhattan below 110th Street. Participants were interviewed about prior life events, personal characteristics, exposure to the events of Septe...

  11. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  12. Jewish terrorist activities and the British government in Palestine, 1939-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    From 1939 to 1947 two Jewish terrorist organizations, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Lohamei Herut Israel (known to Jews by its Hebrew acronym, Lehi, and to the British as "The Stern Gang") challenged Britain's rule over Palestine. Those eight years began with the publication of the White Paper in May 1939 and ended in September 1947 with the decision taken by the British Government to surrender its League of Nations Mandate and withdraw from Palestine. This thesis examine...

  13. Is magnetic resonance imaging safe for patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshed, Iris; Kushnir, Tamar; Shabshin, Noga; Konen, Eli (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv Univ., Tel Aviv (Israel)), e-mail: iris.eshed@sheba.health.gov.il

    2010-03-15

    Background: Increasing numbers of military confrontations and terrorist attacks have led to increasing reports of retained metal fragments among patients referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The potential hazard of retained metal fragments for patients undergoing MRI has been studied among patients with retained metal fragments from domestic violence but not from combat and terrorist attacks. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety of MRI in patients with subcutaneous warfare-metal fragments. Material and Methods: 10,322 consecutive metal screening forms of patients scheduled for 1.5 Tesla (T) MR examination were retrospectively reviewed. All patients reported to have retained metal fragments were contacted by telephone and asked to describe the event in which they were exposed to the fragments and for any adverse sequelae or sensations during and after MRI. Their radiographs were evaluated for the number and size of the fragments. The data were analyzed for correlations between these factors. Results: Seven of the 24 patients who reported retained metal fragments were excluded, since there was no validating evidence of their presence. Fragments in the remaining 17 patients (18 MRI examinations) were inflicted by military or terrorist attacks that occurred 2-39 years prior to the MRI. The fragment size ranged between 1 and 10 mm. One patient reported a superficial migration of a 10-mm fragment after MRI. No other adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Conducting 1.5T MRI examinations is safe in patients with retained metal fragments from combat and terrorist attacks not in the vicinity of vital organs. However, caution is advised.

  14. The (hidden) financial flows of terrorist organizations: A literature review and some preliminary empirical results

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich G. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the financial means of international (mostly Islamistic) terror organizations are analysed. First, some short remarks about the organization of international terror organizations are made. Second and in a much more detailed way a literature review is provided about the financing of terrorist and organized crime organizations, their sources and the various methods they use. Third, a first attempt is made to estimate the financial means of terror organizations with the help of a l...

  15. Risk assessment due to terrorist actions on public transportation networks : a case study in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, João M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed in collaboration with one of the largest Public Transportation Operator in Portugal and addresses the problem of risk assessment due to terrorist actions involving explosions at different levels. First, a region of the Operator is selected. The elements in the Operator's network with the highest associated risk are highlighted for each threat using the COUNTERACT guidelines. Subsequently, from the group of elements with the highest associated ris...

  16. Decomposing violence: terrorist murder in the twentieth century in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the time series of murder in the United States (1900-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, alternation in power, social, and political unrest overseas as wars, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in the country. The cyclical com...

  17. A strategic analysis of the origins of international terrorist attacks on aviation and the British responses

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Omar

    1997-01-01

    This research examines the effects on Great Britain of international terrorist attacks on aviation. The methodology is utilitarian. It is also eclectic, drawing upon scholarly and operational sources. The first objective was factual: to establish the origins of international attacks on aviation, their effects on Great Britain, and the British responses. It found that the attacks were a "blocked tactic!' product of the Palestine conflict. They had neither political nor economic ...

  18. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism. PMID:23390971

  19. Sizing up the threat: the envisioned physical formidability of terrorists tracks their leaders' failures and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2013-04-01

    Victory in modern intergroup conflict derives from complex factors, including weaponry, economic resources, tactical outcomes, and leadership. We hypothesize that the mind summarizes such factors into simple metaphorical representations of physical size and strength, concrete dimensions that have determined the outcome of combat throughout both ontogenetic and phylogenetic experience. This model predicts that in the aftermath of tactical victories (e.g., killing an enemy leader), members of defeated groups will be conceptualized as less physically formidable. Conversely, reminders that groups possess effective leadership should lead their members to be envisioned as more physically formidable. Consonant with these predictions, in both an opportunistic study conducted immediately after Osama bin Laden's death was announced (Study 1) and a follow-up experiment conducted approximately a year later (Study 2), Americans for whom the killing was salient estimated a purported Islamic terrorist to be physically smaller/weaker. In Studies 3 and 4, primes of victorious terrorist leaders led to inflated estimates of terrorists' physical attributes. These findings elucidate how the mind represents contemporary military power, and may help to explain how even largely symbolic victories can influence reasoning about campaigns of coalitional aggression. PMID:23333835

  20. The Representation of Islam in Western Media: The Coverage of Norway Terrorist Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Alghamdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undeniably mass media have become the primary source of information and communication for the majority of, if not all, members of modern societies. The nature of the information thus communicated and the manner in which it is dispensed through media certainly have a profound influence on people’s perceptions of the world around them. The relation between the media, on one hand, and culture, social life, and politics on the other, is an interesting one in which media fulfills dual functions, reflecting and also shaping issues occurring within these three domains (Bell & Garrett, 1998. In the initial media coverage of the 2011 Norway terrorist attacks, some western media authors, inaccurately and unjustly, held Muslims and Islamic groups as being responsible for the attacks. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, this study seeks to ascertain how language was manipulated in this coverage of the terrorist attacks in order to give expression to blind prejudice against Islam and Muslims. As findings of the analyses reveal, the tones of allegation in these articles and reports differed dramatically from one article to another ranging from tones of mere suspicion to those of overt accusation. The varying degrees of uncertainty or assertion of the authors’ statements were reflected in the varied linguistic forms and devices used within the discourse.Keywords: Media discourse analysis, Norway terrorist attacks, Islam, Western media

  1. Children's Mental Health in the Context of Terrorist Attacks, Ongoing Threats, and Possibilities of Future Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Bry, Laura J; Poznanski, Bridget; Golik, Alejandra M

    2016-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the field has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of terrorism and its impacts on affected youth. It is now well established that a significant proportion of exposed youth show elevated PTSD symptoms in the months following a terrorist attack. In more recent years, research has expanded beyond confirming our understanding of the association between direct terrorism exposure and child PTSD symptoms by elucidating (a) links between terrorism exposure and non-PTSD clinical outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, substance use), (b) individual differences associated with divergent patterns of risk and resilience, (c) the clinical correlates of media-based contact with terrorism, (d) clinical outcomes associated with exposure to recurrent terrorist attacks, and (e) exposure to extended contexts of uncertainty and the possibilities of future terrorism. Researchers studying the effects of terrorism and political violence on youth have increasingly examined a much broader range of regions in the world, affording needed opportunities to consider the generalizability of prior findings to youth living in different political contexts, in less developed regions of the world, and/or in regions with different rates of recurrent terrorism. In order to understand and, in turn, best meet the clinical needs of the majority of terrorism-affected youth across the globe, more targeted research on exposed youth is needed in developing regions of the world and regions enduring more recurrent terrorist attacks. PMID:27423458

  2. Guerilla Warfare & Law Enforcement: Combating the 21st Century Terrorist Cell within the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Richard Hughbank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both domestic and international terrorist organizations employ guerrilla warfare tactics, techniques, and procedures. Thus, the ability to identify and defeat the members of these organizations, cripple their infrastructures, and disrupt their financial resources lies in the understanding of modern guerrilla warfare as it develops in the twenty-first century within the United States.3 The forms of asymmetric warfare4 adopted by domestic and international terrorist groups alike is no longer intended to gain simple media exposure or governmental manipulation; they want to make an overpowering impact by causing massive loss of life and severe damage to infrastructure and are often motivated by religious imperatives and political goals. As terrorism analyst Stephen Flynn has observed, "Throughout the 20th century [Americans] were able to treat national security as essentially an out-of-body experience. When confronted by threats, [America] dealt with them on the turf of our allies or our adversaries. Aside from the occasional disaster and heinous crime, civilian life [in the United States] has been virtually terror-free." With the turn of the twenty-first century, terrorist operations have become more prevalent in the United States and are taking shape in the form of modern guerrilla warfare, thus creating new challenges for federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. After reviewing the origin and nature of these challenges, this article will offer some suggestions for countering guerilla warfare in the United States.

  3. The Internet information infrastructure: Terrorist tool or architecture for information defense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadner, S.; Turpen, E. [Aquila Technologies Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rees, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Internet is a culmination of information age technologies and an agent of change. As with any infrastructure, dependency upon the so-called global information infrastructure creates vulnerabilities. Moreover, unlike physical infrastructures, the Internet is a multi-use technology. While information technologies, such as the Internet, can be utilized as a tool of terror, these same technologies can facilitate the implementation of solutions to mitigate the threat. In this vein, this paper analyzes the multifaceted nature of the Internet information infrastructure and argues that policymakers should concentrate on the solutions it provides rather than the vulnerabilities it creates. Minimizing risks and realizing possibilities in the information age will require institutional activities that translate, exploit and convert information technologies into positive solutions. What follows is a discussion of the Internet information infrastructure as it relates to increasing vulnerabilities and positive potential. The following four applications of the Internet will be addressed: as the infrastructure for information competence; as a terrorist tool; as the terrorist`s target; and as an architecture for rapid response.

  4. Stock Market Reaction to Terrorist Attacks: Empirical Evidence from a Front Line State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Suleman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The world financial markets have reacted in a highly consistent pattern to the incident of 9/11 in the United States, suicide blasts at night clubs at Bali in 2002, the Madrid and London train bombings in 2004-2005 and a series of continuous blasts and suicide attacks in Pakistan. In this study, we examined the effect of terrorist attack news on returns and volatility for the Karachi Stock Exchange. We employ the EGARCH model proposed by Engle and Ng (1993as it allows good and bad news to have a different impact on volatility. Our results indicate that terrorist attack news has negative impact on the returns of all the sector indices. However, news of these events increased the volatility of KSE100 index and financial sector index. Further it is concluded that the results of oil and gas, and industry are not statistically significant in response to terrorist attack news, indicating that such type of news does not affect the volatility of these two sectors. Moreover, volatility asymmetry is negative in all of the sectors including KSE100 confirming leverage effect.

  5. Using the Beveridge & Nelson decomposition of economic time series for pointing out the occurrence of terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    This paper continues my research program on violence and terrorism started 15 years ago. It presents in the first part through empirical exercises, the suitability of The Beveridge and Nelson decomposition of economic time series for pointing out the occurrence of terrorist attacks. It presents the simulation results of the hypothetical case of U.S., and Colombia experiencing, additional, and first three terrorist attacks similar to 9/11, 2001: for the U.S. additional attacks are simulated oc...

  6. How Fear Played a Role in Response to Terrorist Attacks In Five Different Countries: USA, Spain, England, Norway and France

    OpenAIRE

    Sunna Sasha Larosiliere 1991

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of fear and anxiety on politics in five Western countries in the aftermath of terrorist attacks in the first two decades of the 21st century. With the transformation of terrorist incidents into major media and social spectacles in the contemporary world, it has become necessary to understand how the perceived threat of violent terrorism affects those who believe they are threatened. This thesis explores how public fear and anxiety play into democratic politics, b...

  7. Terrorist murder, cycles of violence, and attacks index for the City of Philadelphia during the last two centuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-sorzano, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    I apply the Beveridge-Nelson business cycle decomposition method to the reconstructed time series of murder of the City of Philadelphia (1826-2004). Separating out “permanent” from “cyclical” murder, I hypothesize that the cyclical part coincides with documented waves of organized crime, internal tensions, breakdowns in social order, crime legislation, social, and political unrest, and recently with the periodic terrorist attacks in to the United States. The estimated cyclical terrorist mur...

  8. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious mea...

  9. Revolutionary Peacemaking: Using a Critical Pedagogy Approach for Peacemaking with "Terrorists"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Steven; McLaren, Peter; Nocella, Anthony J., II

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors note that peacemaking is based on working and dialoguing with radicals and militants, a point which many academics, government, and law enforcement agencies so easily forget. They aim to show that revolutionaries often have legitimate goals, needs, and demands which, if not addressed and respected, can prompt them to…

  10. Conservation et utilisation durable des ressources génétiques des mil, sorgho, niébé et sésame menacées de disparition au Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Issaka Magha, Mahamadou

    2013-01-01

    Après un rappel historique sur la construction du projet « Conservation et utilisation durable des ressources génétiques des mil, sorgho, niébé et sésame menacées de disparition au Niger », l’auteur nous fait une description de ce projet. Dans un premier temps, l’importance des quatre espèces est soulignée, puis suit un état des lieux en ce qui concerne la diversité de ces quatre cultures. Les menaces qui pèsent sur cette diversité sont décrites et l’auteur développe les conséquences de la pe...

  11. 家庭暴力中性胁迫行为的影响因素研究%Sexual menace in family violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻超; 毋嫘; 洪炜

    2013-01-01

    目的:从生态理论的角度,探讨影响家庭暴力中性胁迫行为的影响因素.方法:采用分层、整群、方便抽样的方法,在新疆地区对900例18 ~65岁有过婚恋经历的人群采用一般情况调查表、简版冲突策略量表(CTS2)、人格诊断问卷(PDQ-4+)进行调查.研究因素采用logistic回归分析.结果:经单因素和多因素logistic回归分析显示,家庭暴力中的性胁迫行为的影响因素有伴侣婚外恋可能性、人格因素、童年负性经历、个体性别角色观念、对伴侣行为控制和经济控制.结论:伴侣婚外恋可能性、人格因素、童年负性经历、个体性别角色观念、对伴侣行为控制和经济控制是家庭暴力中出现性胁迫行为的主要危险因素.%Objectives:To investigate the factors influencing sexual menace in family violence from the perspective of ecology.Methods:We selected 900 people who had extramarital affairs aged 18 to 65 in Xinjiang.Methods of stratification,cluster and sampling were adopted to conduct a self-designed questionnaire for general information,the brief Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (cts2),PPS (perceived stress scales) and PDQ-4 + (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 +).Results:Single and multiple factors logistic regression analysis showed the related factors were extramarital affairs,negative experience in childhood,individual' s perception of gender,personality,behavior control and economic control.Conclusions:The main factors influencing sexual menace in family violence are extramarital affairs,negative experience in childhood,individual' s perception of gender,personality,behavior control and economic control.

  12. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Richard A; EKASAWIN, SUPARAT; CHAKRABHAND, SOMCHAI; SUWANMITRI, SOAWALUK; DUANGCHUN, ORAWAN; CHANTALUCKWONG, THANANET

    2011-01-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accom...

  13. The Nation That Cried Lone Wolf : A Data-Driven Analysis of Individual Terrorists in the United States Since 9/11

    OpenAIRE

    Eby, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Lone-wolf terrorist attacks have occurred in the United States throughout the countrys history. Attempted attacks from individual terrorists unaffiliated with terrorist groups may be becoming more prevalent. Both the general public and government officials acknowledge the presence and importance of these attacks; however, relatively little literature exists on the subject compared to group terrorism. Much of the information on lone wol...

  14. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Kim, Yonsu; Lubens, Pauline; Singh, Amrita; Snowden, Lonnie; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children's emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999-2003; N = 127,200 visits). Findings in California indicate an 8.7% increase of children's emergency mental health visits statistically attributable to 9/11. Non-Hispanic white more than African American children account for this acute rise in emergency services. PMID:25573077

  15. Emergency Mental Health Services for Children After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, TA; Y. Kim; Lubens, P; Singh, A.; Snowden, L; Chakravarthy, B

    2016-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Much literature documents elevated psychiatric symptoms among adults after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11). We, however, know of no research in children that examines emergency mental health services following 9/11. We test whether children’s emergency services for crisis mental health care rose above expected values in September 2001. We applied time-series methods to California Medicaid claims (1999–2003; N = 127,200 visit...

  16. CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR ORGANIZING TERRORIST COMMUNITY AND PARTICIPATION IN IT AS A DIRECTION NATIONAL SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Z. K. KONDRATENKO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a comprehensive scientific understanding of the criminal responsibility for a terrorist organization and community participation in it as the directions of national security. To achieve this goal the author was raised a number of scientific tasks, in particular the study of certain provisions of the National Security Strategy, the main threats to the state and public security of the Russian Federation, the main directions of ensuring state and public ...

  17. Terror i tvillingtårnene – dystopi og ironi? 9/11 i Darlah og En terrorist i senga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lersbryggen Mørk, Kjersti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Terror in the Twin Towers – dystopia and irony? 9/11 in Darlah and En terrorist i senga. Through globalization of our media society, children as well as adults are endlessly exposed to information and images from all over the world. In Norway, signs of the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers in USA on September 11th 2001 are now to be found in literature for children and young adults. With globalization theory and post-colonial theory I will examine how two novels present global challenges in general and 9/11 in particular. What does globalization mean for the construction of identity? Who are “we”, and who are “the others”? The novel for young adults, Darlah – 172 timer på månen [Darlah – 172 hours on the moon] (2008 by Johan Harstad, is a dystopia where 9/11 points forward to a full scale catastrophe for humanity. En terrorist i senga [There's a terrorist in my bed] (2008, a novel for children by Endre Lund Eriksen, makes explicit references to 9/11 – but with playfulness and ironic revelation of xenophobia. Both books use aliens from outer space as “the other”, but where Darlah presents a pessimistic view of our global future, En terrorist i senga is optimistic on behalf of the humankind.

  18. A Comparative View of Terrorist Acts and Legislative Measures Countering this Phenomenon in Albania and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirime Çukaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist acts have been a worrisome phenomenon for all nations. Paradoxically, although states have been conscious about the danger of this phenomenon, there is no definition of terrorist acts so far. States have been skeptical and they have not agreed that the judgment of these criminal offences be performed by international jurisdictions, thus opting for the domestic jurisdiction. Nevertheless, states have lacked the willingness to establish joint criminal policies and find efficacious means to combat these terrorist acts. One of these efficacious means has been the seizure and confiscation of licit and illicit assets possessed by terrorist groups. This is the focus of this short study, which will be inclusive by viewing this topic under the general framework of international acts, our domestic legislation, as well as the American one. This paper aims at presenting the legislative measures taken by the Albanian state to meet international requirements. It endeavors to provide arguments why all licit and illicit assets associated with terrorist acts are seized and confiscated. Special attention is paid to the way these assets are administered. Moreover, this study tries to analyze the achievements and problems in Albania, as well as provide conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Menace(s) du stéréotype et perception de soi : Comment modérer l'impact des réputations négatives sur les membres des groupes stéréotypés ? Le cas des femmes et des Noirs de France

    OpenAIRE

    Ka, Racky

    2013-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur la menace du stéréotype (Steele & Aronson, 1995) qui correspond à la crainte qu'un individu, appartenant à un groupe négativement stéréotypé, peut ressentir lorsqu'il risque de confirmer, par sa performance ou son comportement, le stéréotype négatif associé à son groupe. Cette crainte, en retour, le mènerait involontairement à confirmer le stéréotype. Trois objectifs guident ce travail : (1) Nous proposons d'examiner le rôle de la perception de soi (i.e., en tant qu'indi...

  20. Development of SRM 2907 trace terrorist explosives simulants for the detection of Semtex and triacetone triperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrehan, William; Moore, Stephanie; Hancock, Diane

    2011-12-01

    Effective and accurate detection of trace explosives is crucial in the effort to thwart terrorist explosives attacks. A National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) has been developed for the evaluation of trace explosives detectors that sample by collection of residue particles using swiping or air filtration. SRM 2907 Trace Terrorist Explosives Simulants consists of two materials individually simulating the residues of the plastic explosive Semtex [for pentaerytritol tetranitrate (PETN)] and the improvised explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Unique challenges were encountered in the development of these materials, including the selection of suitable inert substrates, material preparation, thermal stability testing, and analytical method development. Two independent analytical methods based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and mass spectrometric detection, LC-UV and LC/MS, respectively, were developed and used to certify the mass fractions of PETN and TATP. These materials were further evaluated for their suitability on a field swipe-sampled trace explosives detectors based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). PMID:22004378

  1. iWEDS-An Intelligent Explosive Detection and Terrorist Tracking System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Hariharan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is one of the greatest threats to national security nowadays. Military or police forces are not sufficient to prevent these activities. In the year 2009 India faced one of the biggest terrorist attacks in Mumbai. According to the report published by Times of India, more than 600 people have been killed and several hundreds of people ravaged in various terrorist attacks in India in the last 6 years. The main problem behind this massacre is the group which is acting behind this who already know the ineffectiveness of our security systems. Even now we are following traditional metal detection doors and hand held metal detectors. No autonomous system is being used by any security forces in India till now. The main problem with the traditional systems is their bulkiness so that the intruder can easily bypass the security mechanism by following an alternate path. Here we are proposing a highly effective wireless sensor network solution; intelligent Wireless Explosive Detection System (iWEDS to tackle this problem. The sensors are organized in such a manner that it has been embedded with the road reflectors, so that nobody even knows about the security system and no one can bypass it. Other key advantages are: these systems are low powered, fully automated and can support real-time tracking. Though iWEDS can perform automated operation we are proposing it only for assisting the police and military forces.

  2. Radiological preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Cold War, every information about weapons of mass destruction was treated as top secret, regardless of whether the information concerned friend or foe. The most serious threat in our post Cold War era are terrorist radiological dispersal devices. Dirty nukes are what you may choose to build if you're unable to create a real nuclear bomb, i.e. one whose explosion is based on a nuclear reaction. A dirty bomb is a conventional explosive salted with radioactive isotopes in order to spew out that nuclear material and contaminate a wide area. The military usefulness of such devices have always been in dispute. In fact, the TNT in such a bomb may still be more dangerous than the nuclear material. Its destructive power would really depend on the size of the conventional bomb, and the volume and nature of nuclear material. This paper addresses the possibilities of decontamination and preparedness in the case of a terrorist attack or accident.(author)

  3. The need to counter extremist terrorist manifestations in society and in the penal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazberov P.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for inter-agency work to minimize the extremist-terrorist activities in the community. The problem of the psychology of extremism and terrorism are increasingly in the spotlight representatives of various scientific disciplines. First of all, there is no single legal science in all respects understanding of phenomena such as extremism and terrorism, their classification and evaluation, although a number of positive examples in this respect international cooperation is present. According to current data provided by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as the Moscow Bureau for Human Rights, extremism is a real threat to the national security of the Russian Federation. From the data of law enforcement should be the fact that most of the crimes of extremist and terrorist nature committed by persons of young age, the consciousness of which are susceptible to nationalist propaganda. A significant increase in informal youth movements extremist-nationalist orientation. The problem of expansion of extremism is also relevant for the penitentiary system of modern society. The very fact that a significant number of prisoners serving sentences for extremism and terrorism, illustrates the need for them special psychological and educational work

  4. Reflection in phraseological neology of traumatic historical events connected with the terrorist threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorobogatova Taisiya Ivanovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of phraseological units - neologisms which are associated with such traumatic historical events, as the implementation of terrorist acts. Particular emphasis is placed on the description of English, Russian and French phraseological units that have introduced the memory of the terrorist threat in the XX-XXI centuries.: Eng. That’s so 10th September (lit. today September 10, fig: Do not worry ahead of time about nothing; Rus. мочить в сортире (descriptor: беспощадно расправиться; фр. le prince s’est mari, le m chant est mort, c’est une semaine Walt Disney (lit. prince married the villain died, week Walt Disney; descriptor: Idyll, g n ration Bataclan (lit. Bataklan generation; descriptor: young people age of the victims who died in the “Bataklane”, i.e. young people aged 25-35. Phraseology description of new, emerging units is one of the most important problems in theoretical linguistics, namely: to illustrate and confirm the fact that the phrasebook body of a single national language is the result of the two memories - historical and linguistic. At the same time important to consider such a significant factor that determines the specificity of the national phraseological fund as memory selectivity in general and historical memory in particular.

  5. A study on the trend of international radioactive material regulation since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Qaeda and other terrorist groups have tried to obtain the radioactive material which could be used to make a dirty bomb, and their documents relating to dirty bombs were found in the January 2003. International communities especially, the United States has made efforts to improve infrastructure of radiation regulation and security of radioactive material for protecting its people from radiological attacks. This study examines the likelihood of radiological terrorism and the radiological dispersal devices which could be used by determined terrorists, and the trend of international communities to respond it through improvement on radiation regulation and security

  6. State and local levels of preparedness for terrorist incidents : the current and sobering U.S. picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, G. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health; Scott, C.M.; Scott-Dimenna, D. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    An increasing number of professional organizations and foundations have surveyed components of the United States readiness programs concerning preparedness for terrorist attacks. This paper reviews the results of research conducted in 2002 and compares them with subsequent studies, demonstrating a gap between desired and current states of readiness. Weaknesses at the local, federal and state levels were discussed. Results from local needs and preparedness surveys were examined, including details and summaries of surveys sent to representatives within all states and territories. Significant gaps still remained in protecting the public from biological and chemical attacks. Cut-backs and a lack of resources were identified as contributing to a lack of local preparedness. In addition, emergency responders were not receiving appropriate training. An independent task force reported that less than 10 per cent of fire departments in the United States had the resources, training and equipment needed to respond to a building collapse. It was noted that less than one-quarter of the United States are able to respond 24 hours a day to reports from hospitals of possible victims of biological or chemical attacks. Bioterrorism preparedness still lacks strategic direction, well-defined priorities and appropriate levels of resources to match needs. In addition, although facilities have been identified as risk management program sites, local responders remain unprepared for threats and many local fire and police departments have not been informed of specific plant hazards or information regarding exact chemical hazards. It was concluded that as the United States approaches its fourth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, there is is much yet to be done to improve the level of preparedness in cities and towns across the country. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. A Study of Direct and Indirect Costs Resulting from a Radiological Attack by Terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An uncontrolled release of radioactivity caused by a terrorist attack is expected to result in an - incident of national significance - and have the potential consequence of a significant economic impact. The magnitude of the economic impact and the range of impacted entities are somewhat controversial. This paper will discuss the elements and methodology that comprise the buildup of an estimate for a specific critical infrastructure. The radiological attack event was studied by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to estimate the health and economic impacts of a radionuclide attack. The cost estimate was based on response actions outlined in the DHS National Response Plan and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents. A response plan was developed to support the options for the estimate. Several response and cleanup options were evaluated to determine a range of potential costs. It is the breakdown of the cost elements and their relative size that is discussed in this paper. The first step in the estimating process was the development of the terrorist attack characteristics that were to be estimated. Example response timelines were developed to determine what immediate operational response actions are possible to mitigate the attack consequences. Based on the attack assumptions, costs were estimated for a number of response and remediation options that may be employed. Finally, each parameter was evaluated to account for the range of values possible and its effect on the total cost. Cost estimates were based on data from standard references, internet searches on specific subjects, and information from recent terrorist activities. These costs were broken down into Micro-economic Level Costs (primarily associated with Medical Treatment, Remediation, and Business Interruption) and Macroeconomic Level Costs (primarily associated with the value of life lost

  8. Terrorist threat and perceived Islamic support for terrorist attacks as predictors of personal and institutional out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies: evidence from 9 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Doosje; A. Zimmermann; B. Küpper; A. Zick; R. Meertens

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, research has shown that subtle and blatant prejudices are important predictors of out-group discrimination and support for anti-immigration policies. The present paper shows that, when controlling for these types of prejudices and for political conservatism, terrorist threat and perce

  9. War on Terror: Fantasy and Fiction Behind the Mythology of Terrorist Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Fatih A. Abdel Salam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentary evidence shows that the series of financial crackdowns initiated since 9/11 have had virtually no impact on terrorism. This is because these efforts are based on a fundamental misconception on how terrorism works. The financial warriors’ predisposition to stereotypes about “Arabs and their money” allowed unsubstantiated rumours–such as Bin Laden’s personal fortune of $300 million–to become established as facts. This study exposes the extent to which Washington policymakers simply transposed the template for the war on drugs on to the war on terror, despite the fact that terrorism is not a profit–driven enterprise. The collateral damage inflicted on organisations like Al-Barakaat, the Somali remittance network, wrongly accused of channeling money to the terrorists, and others are counter-productive as they dent the image of the US in the Muslim world.

  10. A case study of conspiracy theories about Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack

    CERN Document Server

    Golo, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    The results of the public opinion poll performed in January 2015, just after the terrorist attack on the French satirical weekly magazine Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris, when 17 people were killed, showed that a significant number of French citizens held conspiratorial beliefs about it (17 %). This gave reason to an alternative analysis of public opinion, presented in this paper. We collected 990 on-line articles mentioning Charlie Hebdo from Le Monde web site (one of the leading French news agencies), and looked at the ones that contained words related with conspiracy (in French: `complot', `conspiration' or `conjuration'). Then we analyzed the readers response, performing a semantic analysis of the 16490 comments posted on-line as reaction to the above articles. We identified 2 attempts to launch a conspiratorial rumour. A more recent Le Monde article, which reflects on those early conspiratorial attempts from a rational perspective, and the commentary thereon, showed that the readers hav...

  11. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity. PMID:23205002

  12. Chronic thought suppression and posttraumatic symptoms: data from the Madrid March 11, 2004 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Hervás, Gonzalo; Pérez-Sales, Pau

    2008-12-01

    Although a considerable number of people either witnessed directly or in the mass media the traumatic scenes of the terrorist attack that took place on March 11th, 2004 in Madrid, only a fraction of Madrid citizens developed posttraumatic symptoms. In this study, posttraumatic stress-related symptoms, degree of exposure, coping strategies related to the attack, and chronic attempts to avoid intrusive thoughts (i.e., thought suppression) were assessed in a general population Madrid sample (N=503) 2-3 weeks after the attacks. Our results showed that participants with higher scores in chronic thought suppression exhibited higher levels of PTSD symptoms. Higher scores in chronic thought suppression also correlated positively with the use of avoidant coping strategies after the attacks. We discuss the possible common roots of avoidance of intrusive thoughts and avoidant coping strategies and the implications of this relationship for the emergence of stress-related symptoms as well as for public health policies. PMID:18329844

  13. Non-terrorist suicidal death by oral explosion: A rare case from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Jamebaseer Masiuddin; Farooqui, Anjum Ara Jamebaseer; Mukherjee, Bimbisar Bikas; Manjhi, Shiv Narayan

    2016-07-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives are rare. Their occurrence depends on both the availability of materials and the victim's expertise in handling explosive material. We report here a rare case from India of non-terrorist suicidal death involving explosives. The victim was around 25 years old, a blaster by occupation. He committed suicide by detonating dynamite in his mouth. The materials he used to operate this explosion were found near his body at the crime scene. There was characteristic bilateral symmetrical laceration around the oral cavity. Considering all the facts of the case in relation to history, location, nature, distribution and extent of injuries and recovered material at crime scene enables the cause and manner of death to be ascertained. PMID:26113544

  14. 77 FR 54944 - Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Designation of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's Liberation Army of Nepal Also Known as CPN(M) as a...

  15. Americans Respond Politically to 9/11: Understanding the Impact of the Terrorist Attacks and Their Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Leonie; Feldman, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks have had profound effect on U.S. domestic and foreign security policy, leading to several expensive wars and the erosion of civil liberties (under the USA PATRIOT Act). We review evidence on political reactions to the 9/11 attacks and conclude that subjective reactions to terrorism played an important role in shaping…

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature among Highly Exposed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neria, Yuval; Digrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly…

  17. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  18. The effect of the September 11 terrorist attacks on suicide and deliberate self-harm : A time trend study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, AW; Neeleman, J

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates may be affected by world news. Our objective was to investigate the possible impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, on suicidal behavior in the Netherlands. There was evidence of an increase in rates of suicide and deliberate self-harm in the weeks immediately following

  19. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  20. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs and Behaviours in Relation to Children's Coping with the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.; Thompson, Julie A.; Parker, Alison E.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2008-01-01

    To assess relationships between parental socialization of emotion and children's coping following an intensely emotional event, parents' beliefs and behaviours regarding emotion and children's coping strategies were investigated after a set of terrorist attacks. Parents (n = 51) filled out the Parents' Beliefs about Negative Emotions questionnaire…

  1. Detection of Hidden Hostile/Terrorist Groups in Harsh Territories by Using Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is the greatest threat to national security and cannot be defeated by conventional military force alone. In critical areas such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Turkey, regular forces cannot reach these hostile/terrorist groups, the instigators of terrorism. These groups have a clear understanding of the relative ineffectiveness of counter-guerrilla operations and rely on guerrilla warfare to avoid major combat as their primary means of continuing the conflict with the governmental structures. In Internal Security Operations, detection of terrorist and hostile groups in their hiding places such as caves, lairs, etc. can only be achieved by professionally trained people such as Special Forces or intelligence units with the necessary experience and tools suitable for collecting accurate information in these often harsh, rugged and mountainous countries. To assist these forces, commercial micro-sensors with wireless interfaces could be utilized to study and monitor a variety of phenomena and environments from a certain distance for military purposes. In order to locate hidden terrorist groups and enable more effective use of conventional military resources, this paper proposes an active remote sensing model implanted into animals capable of living in these environments. By using these mobile sensor devices, improving communications for data transfer from the source, and developing better ways to monitor and detect threats, terrorist ability to carry out attacks can be severely disrupted.

  2. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  3. Prolonged exposure and virtual reality-enhanced imaginal exposure for PTSD following a terrorist bulldozer attack: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Sara A; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Tamar Weiss, Patrice L; Avitzour, Sara; Josman, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    In this case study, virtual reality was used to augment imaginal exposure in a protocol based on prolonged exposure. A 29-year-old male patient developed posttraumatic stress disorder after surviving a deadly terrorist bulldozer attack on two civilian buses and several cars in Jerusalem; the traumas witnessed by the survivor included a decapitation. The crowded bus in which the patient was riding was pushed over onto its side by the terrorist, injuring, trapping, and terrifying the passengers and causing gasoline to leak. Guided by his therapist, the patient entered an immersive computer-generated virtual world to go "back" to the scene of the traumatic event to help him gain access to his memories of the event, process and reduce the intensity of the emotions (fear/anger) associated with his pathological memories, and change unhealthy thought patterns. Traumatic memories of childhood abuse and traumatic memories of the bulldozer terrorist attack were treated using imaginal exposure while the patient was in the virtual environment BusWorld. The patient showed large posttreatment reductions in PTSD symptoms, and his Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores dropped from 79 pretreatment to zero immediately posttreatment, and CAPS was still at zero 6 months later. Although case studies are inconclusive by nature, these encouraging preliminary results suggest that further exploration of the use of virtual reality during modified prolonged exposure for PTSD is warranted. As terrorist attacks increase in frequency and severity worldwide, research is needed on how to minimize the psychological consequences of terrorism. PMID:20528299

  4. Valuing Public Goods: The Life Satisfaction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S.; Luechinger, Simon; Stutzer, Alois

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to elicit people�s preferences for public goods, namely the life satisfaction approach. Reported subjective well-being data are used to directly evaluate utility consequences of public goods. The strengths of this approach are compared to traditional approaches and identification issues are addressed. Moreover, it is applied to estimate utility losses caused by terrorist activities in France, the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Terrorism in these countr...

  5. David, Charles-Philippe et la Chaire Raoul-Dandurand (éds : Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces, nouvelles politiques, Quebec : Fides la Presse, 315 p, annexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Groc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La Remmm couvrant essentiellement le monde arabe et musulman, le livre Repenser la sécurité, nouvelles menaces et nouvelles politiques dont nous faisons ici le compte-rendu, nous interpelle moins dans le fourmillement de considérations militaires, stratégiques, balistiques extrêmement techniques qu'en fonction de la prémisse à partir de laquelle est faite cette réévaluation de la sécurité, à savoir l'aire musulmane mais aussi l'islam. L'objet global de ce livre, réalisé par toute une équipe ...

  6. Terrorist Financing: Fund Raising and Fund Transfer%论恐怖融资的资金筹集与资金转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文俊

    2012-01-01

    打击恐怖融资对于国际反恐斗争意义重大。本文从资金筹集与资金转移角度系统分析了恐怖融资活动。恐怖融资的资金筹集包括从合法来源筹集资金、从犯罪收益获取资金以及政权支持处获得资金;恐怖融资的资金转移主要有通过正规金融体系、利用贸易部门和现金运送三种方式。%Counter terrorist financing plays a significant role in international counter-terrorist activity. The article systematically analyzes the fund raising and fund transfer of terrorist financing. Terrorist organizations raise fund from legitimate sources, including the abuse of charitable entities or legitimate businesses or self-financing by the terrorists themselves. Terrorists also derive fund from a variety of criminal activities, or from state support. Terrorists use a wide variety of methods to move money, including the financial sector, the physical movement of cash by couriers, and the movement of goods through the trade system

  7. Practising of radiological emergency caused by a terrorist attack; Ejercicio de emergencia radiologica ocasionada por un atentado terrorista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racana, R.; Terrado, C. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rrcana@sede.ar.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    After the events of September 11, 2001 terrorist working has become an important factor in the forecasts to adopt in the face of the possibility of confronting different radiological emergencies. The not wanted events of exposure to ionizing radiations can take place by flaws of systems or accidents, or also by criminal voluntary actions. These malevolent actions can include attacks or sabotages in nuclear plants, detonation of manufactured nuclear devices or acquired under ground, robbery of radioactive sources to manufacture the calls dirty bombs or to cause damage, panic or threats. In the scenarios in that the radiological emergency is voluntarily provoked the moment and place of the attack are chosen by the aggressors, therefore the ionizing radiations will be in not prepared atmospheres neither equipped to the effect. This increases the confusion, the panic and the damage not only caused by the radiation effects but also by the uncertainty and consequent reactions. To diminish the effects of this type of threats it is necessary to make forecasts and to train the personnel that it can be direct or indirectly involved. During 2005, an exercise in which it was outlined the robbery by part of a group command of a source of Co 60 of 5000 Ci that it was transported to make a decanting in a medical center of The Pampa county, Argentina. It was about a cabinet exercise, planned and executed jointly among the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Secretary of Interior Safety, in which participated the professionals of the nuclear area that by law are the responsible ones of coordinating the actions in the event of an emergency of this type, and the safety forces that depend of the Secretary of Interior Safety, Federal and Provincial Policemen, Naval Prefecture and National Gendarmerie. The exercise last one day during which 9 main situations were approached that were unchained after having produced the attack and initial robbery. For each situation it was checked the

  8. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  9. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  10. Labor Shortage: Menace or Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jon

    1988-01-01

    There are many uncertainties about the magnitude and nature of labor shortages. Data needed to identify and quantify shortages are not available from national statistical offices so most of what is known comes from employer reports. (JOW)

  11. The GATT: Menace or ally?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's free-trade interests seem to be bent on expanding their commercial powers even if that means jeopardizing any conflicting environmental laws. This paper presents an overview of the linked economic/environmental of GATT, ranging from species protection to hazardous waste management. Included is a discussion of the possibilities of energy related technology transfers between countries such as solar photovoltaic cells. The key example used is the Tuna-Dolphin agreement shortcomings. Suggestions of how GATT can work with the environment in a wide variety of ways

  12. The lasting Soviet nuclear menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the unsafe conditions of the nuclear power industry in the countries of the former Soviet Union. Because of lack of efficient power generation, the old first generation Chernobyl-type reactors are being upgraded or new ones are being constructed. The operators themselves are also unsafe, with lack of training and poor working conditions. Improving energy efficiency would be more cost effective than constructing new nuclear plants. This could be achieved by such measures as installing boiler controls, thermostats, and meters; by retrofitting factories; by raising the price of electricity to encourage conservation; by repairing leaking natural gas pipelines; and by building gas-fired power plants. These changes are not likely to come about soon however

  13. Social integration buffers stress in New York police after the 9/11 terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Ralf; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Cone, James E

    2014-01-01

    Being socially integrated is regarded as a protective factor enabling people to cope with adversity. The stress-buffering effect reflects an interaction between stress and a social coping resource factor on subsequent outcomes. This study, based on 2943 police officers, examines mental health outcomes among officers who responded to the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The Wave 1 data collection took place between September 2003 and November 2004 with a follow-up study (Wave 2) conducted from November 2006 through December 2007. A moderated mediation model was specified that uses event exposure as a distal predictor, earlier stress response as a mediator, and later stress response as an outcome, and social integration as a moderator of this relationship. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed, and moderation occurred at two stages. First, there was a multiplicative relationship between exposure levels and social integration: The higher the exposure level, the more stress responses occur, but this effect was buffered by a high level of social integration. Second, Wave 1 stress interacted with social integration on Wave 2 stress: The more the police officers were socially integrated, the lower the Wave 2 stress, which happened in a synergistic manner. The findings contribute to the understanding of mediating and moderating mechanisms that result in health outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder or resilience. PMID:23768128

  14. Shedding Some Light on RFID Distance Bounding Protocols and Terrorist Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, J M E; van der Lubbe, Jan C A

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, researchers have focused on designing secure and efficient RFID authentication protocols. The vast majority of these protocols assume proximity between readers and tags due to the limited range of the radio channel. However, in real scenarios, an intruder can be located between the prover (tag) and the verifier (reader) and trick the latter into thinking that the prover is in close proximity. This attack is globally known as a relay attack, a kind that includes others such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist attacks. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising countermeasure to hinder relay attacks. Several protocols have been proposed in the last years, but vulnerabilities of major or minor relevance have been identified in all of them. In 2008, Kim et al. [10] proposed a new distance bounding protocol with the objective of being the best one in terms of security, privacy, tag computational overhead and fault tolerance - as claimed by their authors. The study of this rec...

  15. METHOD OF FORMING AND ASSESSMENT OF READINESS OF SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every year pirates attack hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. So, by the end of 2014 violent actions of the pirates have undergone more than 5,000 sailors. In 2015, the pirates attacked 246 vessels they had captured 15 ships and 271 of a sailor. While one sailor was killed and 14 wounded. The economic damage from pirates was tens of billions of dollars. For these reasons, the fight against piracy and Maritime terrorism becomes a major concern of the world community. In today's complex for a variety of reasons conditions, convoy of transport ships warships for the passage of areas endangered by pirates is considered the most effective and reliable means of coping with the corsairs of the XXI century, precluding the capture of the ship and its crew. At the same time, the training of personnel to solve specific problems impeding reoperate requires performing the whole complex of preparatory measures, including psychological and physical training of sailors for the upcoming action of a dangerous nature. The article reveals the content of the methodology of forming and evaluating the readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea represents a set of methods, forms and means of pedagogical influence with the purpose of providing soldiers pedagogical assistance in the development of military-professional activities, standards of behavior and support in preparation for military service in the areas endangered by pirates; the development of military-professional competence; the full realization of personal potential of specialist fleet

  16. Cooperative international arrangements: prevention of nuclear terrorism and the extradition and prosecution of terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering the problems associated with prosecuting and punishing nuclear terrorists, it is noted that nuclear terrorism per se is not currently a crime under international law. To be sure, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material would probably cover any act of nuclear terrorism that involved nuclear material used for peaceful purposes. However, nuclear material used for military purposes or military nuclear reactors is outside the scope of the convention. US legislation implementing the convention goes beyond its terms in this respect and covers crimes involving nuclear material for nonpeaceful purposes if the offense is committed within US territorial, special maritime, special territorial, or special aircraft jurisdiction or if the offense is committed by nationals of the US. The author feels an effort should be made, under the auspices of the United Nations, to conclude a convention that would define nuclear terrorism, declare it a crime under international law, and obligate state parties to extradite or prosecute those who commit the crime. Such a convention would fill the large gap in the coverage of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

  17. Stronger controls needed to prevent terrorist 'dirty bombs'. Vienna conference urges better security, surveillance and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on Security of Radioactive Sources was held from 10 to 13 March 2003 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham presided over the Conference, which was co-sponsored by the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the United States of America and hosted by the Government of Austria. It was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the European Commission, the World Customs Organization, the International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO-Interpol) and the European Police Office (Europol). Over seven hundred delegates from more than 120 countries gathering in Vienna called today for stronger national and international security over radioactive sources, especially those that could be used to produce a terrorist 'dirty bomb'. 'High-risk radioactive sources that are not under secure and regulated control, including so-called orphan sources, raise serious security and safety concerns', the International Conference on Security of Radioactive Sources concluded. 'Effective national infrastructures for the safe and secure management of vulnerable and dangerous radioactive sources are essential for ensuring the long-term security and control of such sources'

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: A Review of the Literature Among Highly Exposed Populations

    OpenAIRE

    NERIA, YUVAL; DiGrande, Laura; Adams, Ben G.

    2011-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks were unprecedented in their magnitude and aftermath. In the wake of the attacks, researchers reported a wide range of mental and physical health outcomes, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) the one most commonly studied. In this review, we aim to assess the evidence about PTSD among highly exposed populations in the first 10 years after the 9/11 attacks. We performed a systematic review. Eligible studies included original reports based o...

  19. On the jurisprudential significance of the emergent state practice concerning foreign nationals merely suspected of involvement with terrorist offences

    OpenAIRE

    Chigara, B

    2009-01-01

    Copyright @ 2009 Intersentia. This article examines emergent state practice of European States concerning foreign nationals that are merely suspected but not charged with involvement with terrorist offences, including deportation to destinations where they risk torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment – usually their own country of origin, contrary to the foremost rules of international human rights law. The article attempts a rule of law analysis with a view to evaluating the...

  20. The (Hidden) Financial Flows of Terrorist and Organized Crime Organizations: A Literature Review and Some Preliminary Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    The financial means of international terror and organized crime organizations are analysed. First, some short remarks about the organization of international terror organizations are made. Second and in a much more detailed way a literature review is provided about the financing of terrorist and organized crime organizations, their sources and the various methods they use. Third, an attempt is made to estimate the financial means of terror organizations with the help of a latent estimation ap...

  1. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety) threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Thr...

  2. Values Following a Major Terrorist Incident: Finnish Adolescent and Student Values Before and After September 11, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, R; Verkasalo, M.; Bezmenova, I

    2006-01-01

    The horrific terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, left an indelible mark on perceptions of security and threat across the world. This paper uses Schwartz’s (1992) value circumplex model to examine value change across matched high school and university student samples in Finland, questioned before and after the World Trade Center (WTC) and associated attacks. In Study 1 (N5419), security values of adolescents were higher the day following the WTC atta...

  3. In Conversation with Mubin Shaikh: From Salafi Jihadist to Undercover Agent inside the "Toronto 18" Terrorist Group

    OpenAIRE

    Bonino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This interview with former undercover agent Mubin Shaikh can help academics and security practitioners understand the key role played and the challenges faced by covert human intelligence sources within domestic terrorist groups. The interview highlights the identity crisis, the personal factors, and the allure of jihadi militancy that initially drove Shaikh to join a Salafi jihadist group. It investigates Shaikh’s process of disengagement from the Salafi jihadist belief system and his redisc...

  4. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002, and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355 participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

  5. Operation the laboratory for NBC protection and bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with NBC weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to develop efficacy of Operation the Laboratory for NBC protection and Bio monitoring in the case of terrorist attack with chemical weapons. When is necessary quickly, adeptly Operation and unambiguous confirmation about use chemical warfare agent, the Laboratory must be ready and qualified for reaction. The Laboratory had to develop capability for the timely sampling and unambiguous identification chemical warfare agents in a battlefield or in case of the terrorist attack. The need for quality sample collection and analyses is critical to verify use of chemical weapon (CW) by an enemy or terrorists. Collection, packaging, transport and analysis of samples must be carried out on proper way and quickly enough for military, medical or political purposes. Precise records must accompany each sample but these records must not contaminate samples anyway. All sampling team personnel have to be equipped with appropriate equipment and qualified in its handling. After arriving samples at our Laboratory, we will handle with them on standard procedures; carry out preparation such as Headspace, Liquid/liquid extraction, Solid phase extraction, Liquid/solid extraction, concentration and derivatization. After that we will analyze samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method.(author)

  6. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critica...

  7. Acariens et insectes ravageurs de deux cupressacées menacées au Maroc: le Genévrier thurifère et le cyprès de l’Atlas

    OpenAIRE

    El Alaoui El Fels, Ahmed; Yart, Annie; Roques, Alain; Arjouni, Y.; El Mercht, Saïd; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2013-01-01

    Actuellement, les écosystèmes des deux cupressacées forestières menacés au Maroc, le Genévrier thurifère et le cyprès de l’Atlas, sont très perturbés: sous-bois presque absent, sol érodé, et régénération très réduite. S’y ajoute l’impactdes ravageurs (acariens et insectes), spécialisés dans l’exploitation des galbules ou des cônes et des graines, sur la production de graines sus-ceptibles de germer. Cet impact des ravageurs diminue de manière notable le nombre de graines susceptibles de donne...

  8. Future-oriented thinking and adjustment in a nationwide longitudinal study following the September 11th terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, E A; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a three-year longitudinal study of the mental and physical health of a national probability sample following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Adjustment over the three years following the attacks was associated with higher levels of future-oriented thinking and lower levels of fear about future terrorism (as measured 1, 2, and 3 years post-9/11), even after adjusting for demographics, lifetime trauma, pre-9/11 mental and physical health, and 9/11-related exposure. Future ori...

  9. Crisis-induced depression, physical activity and dietary intake among young adults: evidence from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Muzhe

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we provide evidence that young adults respond to crisis-induced depression by exercising less and having breakfast less often. Exogenous variation in the crisis-induced depression is obtained through a unique event in our sample period - the 9/11 terrorist attacks. We compare those who were interviewed just before and just after 9/11 and find a significant and sharp increase in the symptoms of depression. We also provide evidence that this increase is not a September effect, but an effect of the external traumatic event. PMID:22959863

  10. Tenant reaction patterns to the threat of a terrorist attack after September 11, 2001, in downtown Chicago office market

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Dermisi

    2005-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) spread the fear of other terrorist attacks targeting downtown office buildings across other major U.S. cities. Among them, Chicago owners and tenants were even more concerned because of the concentration of corporate headquarters and the site of the tallest office building in the U.S. This paper studies the tenant reactions in response to the 9/11 attacks in three locations within the Chicago’s downtown office market, comparing the before and after 9/11...

  11. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  12. Licensing issues in the context of terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants; Genehmigungsrechtliche Fragen terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danwitz, T. von

    2002-07-01

    The terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001 has prompted enhanced nuclear risk awareness among the German population. But in the current public debate about the safety of nuclear power plants in Germany in times of new dimensions of danger, aspects such as the role of the constitutional law, the German Atomic Energy Act, and the regulatory system governing nuclear power plant licensing in the context of protection and safety have not been addressed. The author therefore discusses the German nuclear power plant licensing law and administrative regime, elaborating on the significance attributed in those bodies of law to risks like terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants. (orig./CB) [German] Das allgemeine Risiko von terroristischen Anschlaegen auf Kernkraftwerke ist durch die Ereignisse vom 11. September 2001 wieder verstaerkt in das Bewusstsein der Oeffentlichkeit getreten. Die verfassungsrechtlichen Grundlagen und die atomgesetzliche Einordnung der Risiken von terroristischen Angriffen auf kerntechnische Anlagen bleiben jedoch in der aktuellen Diskussion weithin ungeklaert. Der Beitrag unternimmt es daher, die verfassungs- und verwaltungsrechtliche Bedeutung der Risiken terroristischer Angriffe auf Kernkraftwerke in atomrechtlichen Genehmigungsverfahren zu untersuchen. (orig./CB)

  13. 9/11, Act II: a fine-grained analysis of regional variations in traffic fatalities in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-12-01

    Terrorists can strike twice--first, by directly killing people, and second, through dangerous behaviors induced by fear in people's minds. Previous research identified a substantial increase in U.S. traffic fatalities subsequent to the September 11 terrorist attacks, which were accounted for as due to a substitution of driving for flying, induced by fear of dread risks. Here, we show that this increase in fatalities varied widely by region, a fact that was best explained by regional variations in increased driving. Two factors, in turn, explained these variations in increased driving. The weaker factor was proximity to New York City, where stress reactions to the attacks were previously shown to be greatest. The stronger factor was driving opportunity, which was operationalized both as number of highway miles and as number of car registrations per inhabitant. Thus, terrorists' second strike exploited both fear of dread risks and, paradoxically, an environmental structure conducive to generating increased driving, which ultimately increased fatalities. PMID:23160203

  14. The future of nuclear energy in an era of environmental crisis and terrorist challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    there is no greater issue at stake in the world today than the question of whether humankind can reconcile the economic advancement of its proliferating numbers with the preservation of the environment that allowed civilization to evolve. Under any realistic scenario, this reconciliation requires the widespread use of nuclear energy. Central among these battles is the shaping of a rational climate change regime to which the entire global community can subscribe and adhere. The topical question today is how that progress might be affected by a new factor, concerns about international terrorism that must be regarded as legitimate, that are already the subject of media treatment, and that greens have quickly seized on as a new argument against nuclear power. Viewed in a broader perspective, the current sense of terrorist danger, and the larger and more ominous fear of a clash of civilisations,is likely to strengthen an argument that can only redound to the benefit of nuclear power: the importance of energy security. This factor, always one of nuclear energy's great assets, may become increasingly important. With this factor in the balance, the current crisis will probably strengthen, rather than weaken, the impetus toward nuclear power. But even before September 11, the world faced crisis enough to justify a vast worldwide expansion of nuclear technology. If humankind is to meet the threat posed to the biosphere by our very existence, the world will need advanced nuclear reactors not just by the hundreds but by the thousands. In the century ahead, virtually all such reactors will incorporate principles of proliferation resistance and inherent safety. This will enhance our confidence but it will not diminish this Agency's role. Indeed, in any rational world we can foresee, the IAEA will have crucial and expanded responsibilities. Even after all of its travails, nuclear energy remains today as it began - the energy of the future - and to return to the subject of this

  15. Comment on the first anniversary of the terrorist attacks in the United States of America. Vienna, 11 September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The attacks in September 2001 were, however, a wake-up call to the world nuclear community that more can and must be done. In the wake of the terrorist attacks, Member States of the IAEA meeting in the Agency's General Conference adopted a resolution requesting that the IAEA Director General initiate a thorough review of the Agency's activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. The Agency moved rapidly to respond. It devised and is presently implementing an integrated action plan which includes enhanced and new activities to upgrade nuclear security worldwide and to combat nuclear terrorism. The plan covers eight areas: (1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; (2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; (3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; (4) security of radioactive sources; (5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; (6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; (7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines; and (8) co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters. National measures for protecting nuclear material and facilities remain uneven in their substance and application. There is wide recognition that the international physical protection regime needs to be further strengthened. Through its International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS), the Agency provides Member States with assessment services, together with associated advice and follow up actions to improve security arrangements at nuclear facilities. It also provides training and workshops, notably in assessing threats, as well as other supporting

  16. Punishing the mad bomber: questions of moral responsibility in the trials of French anarchist terrorists, 1886-1897.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    In late nineteenth-century France, several criminologists maintained that the perpetrators of the contemporary wave of anarchist terrorism were victims of mental disorders who deserved judicial leniency. French courts did not accept this theory, but instead declared the principal terrorists sane and fully responsible for their crimes and, based on this view, handed down severe sentences. Many criminologists accused the jurists of deliberately ignoring the mental illness of the anarchists because of government and public pressures to impose the death penalty, but evidence from the anarchist trials fails to support this charge. The controversy highlights the conflicts between the judicial establishment and the emerging discipline of criminology, whose pathological explanations of anarchist terrorism reflected a positivist attack on the traditional concepts of free will and moral responsibility, concepts the jurists viewed as fundamental to the legal system. PMID:20672480

  17. Psychological resilience after disaster: New York City in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, George A; Galea, Sandro; Bucciarelli, Angela; Vlahov, David

    2006-03-01

    Research on adult reactions to potentially traumatic events has focused almost exclusively on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although there has been relatively little research on the absence of trauma symptoms, the available evidence suggests that resilience following such events may be more prevalent than previously believed. This study examined the prevalence of resilience, defined as having either no PTSD symptoms or one symptom, among a large (n= 2,752) probability sample of New York area residents during the 6 months following the September 11th terrorist attack. Although many respondents met criteria for PTSD, particularly when exposure was high, resilience was observed in 65.1% of the sample. Resilience was less prevalent among more highly exposed individuals, but the frequency of resilience never fell below one third even among the exposure groups with the most dramatic elevations in PTSD. PMID:16507055

  18. Risk Acceptability and Cost-Effectiveness of Protective Measures Against Terrorist Threats to Built Infrastructure Considering Multiple Threat Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEWART Mark G

    2008-01-01

    Decisions are often needed about the need and/or extent of prolective measures against explosive blast lpads on built jnfrastructure.A decision support analysis considers fatality risks and cost-effecfjveness of protective measures expressed in terms of expected cost spenl on risk reduction per life saved for terrorisf threats to infrastructure.The analysis is applicable to any ilem of in frastructure.but in this paper is applied to casualties arising from building facade glazing damage.Risks may be compared with risk acceptance crite ria in the form of quantitative safety goais.The risk acceptability and cost-effectiveness of protective measures includes cost of fhe protective measures,attack probability,reduction in risk due to protective measures,probability of fatality conditional on successful terrorist attack and number of exposed individuals.

  19. Trends in Terrorist Activity and Dynamics in Diyala province, Iraq, during the Iraqi Governmental Transition, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Greenwald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explores the evolution of the Iraqi insurgency in the dynamic strategic environment between 2004 and 2006. In these three years, insurgents in Iraq sought to exploit terrorism as a tactic to induce fear and advance their regional and political agenda in the volatile Iraqi province of Diyala. Their geopolitical agenda was primarily aimed towards derailing the interim political process and reconciliation efforts throughout Iraq. This article draws its analytical conclusions from quantitative data of terroristic incidents, focusing on insurgents' tactics, targeting of victims, and areas of activity. It examines trends of insurgent activity between 2004 and 2006 as well as the evolution of their strategy against the Iraqi Government and its people.

  20. COMPARISON OF TIME-OF-FLIGHT AND DOUBLE FOCUSING MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR REACHING TENTATIVE IDENTIFICATIONS FOR UNANTICIPATED COMPOUNDS ADDED TO DRINKING WATER BY TERRORISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local monitoring of post-treatment drinking water using bench-top mass spectrometers could identify target compounds in a mass spectral library. However, a terrorist might seek to incite greater hysteria by injecting or infusing a mixture of unanticipated compounds of unknown tox...

  1. No Evidence of Suicide Increase Following Terrorist Attacks in the United States: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of September 11 and Oklahoma City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Trahan, Adam; Chamlin, Mitchell B.

    2009-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of detrimental psychological sequelae following disasters, including terrorist attacks. The effect of these events on extreme responses such as suicide, however, is unclear. We tested competing hypotheses about such effects by employing autoregressive integrated moving average techniques to model the impact of…

  2. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  3. PEDAGOGICAL DESIGNING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF READINESS OF MILITARY SEAMEN TO COUNTER PIRATES AND TERRORISTS AT SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varlamov S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, in accordance with the decision of the UN, warships of the coalition of states, which includes the Russian Federation, carry out tasks for the protection of navigation and for escorting ships in the areas endangered by pirates of the oceans. Training ships of the Navy to perform tasks of combat duty in the areas of increased activity of pirates to ensure the safety of navigation of civil transport vessels not only involves the decision of problems of staffing the crew with necessary staff, logistical support, and targeted development of the high readiness of the sailors to successful implementation of such specific combat missions. This kind of organizing and educational activities should be organized based on the experience of pedagogical designing of the military-pedagogical process. Instructional design is an objective necessity of development of subjects of military-pedagogical and educational activities of the projective imagination, thinking, efficient way of doing it. The author considers the instructional design of formation of readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea as an innovative phenomenon that connects pedagogical theory and innovative practice aimed at comprehensive training of the personnel of the fighting ships for the upcoming operation. The article explains target program of development of readiness of military seamen to counter pirates and terrorists at sea. The author's target program contains six separate and interrelated modules, which will allow crew members to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to create a high level of preparedness for the forthcoming military - professional activity in the sea

  4. Prise en charge d'une menace d'accouchement prématuré sur béance cervico-utérine au moyen d'un pessaire-cerclage obstétrical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohuz, Erdogan; Albaut, Maël; Brunel, Angélique; Champel, Nadine; Pellizzaro, Julie; Gallot, Denis; Lemery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons le recours efficace à un pessaire dans la prise en charge d'une menace d'accouchement prématuré. Une patiente de 28 ans, G2P1, ayant présenté une fausse-couche tardive à 20 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA) un an auparavant, bénéficiait d'un cerclage cervical à 15 SA. L’échographie endovaginale réalisée à 24 SA (sensation de pesanteur pelvienne) révélait un funnelling majeur et une longueur cervicale à 7 mm. Un pessaire obstétrical permettait la poursuite de la grossesse jusqu'au terme de 36 SA. Ce dispositif semble intéressant chez des patientes présentant une béance cervico-isthmique et chez qui un cerclage cervical s'est révélé inefficace. PMID:26161207

  5. Correlation and Fracture: Prevention and Control of Money Laundering in Terrorist Financing%关联与阻断:恐怖融资中洗钱犯罪之防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧明

    2012-01-01

    恐怖活动依赖于经济支撑,而在恐怖融资中,洗钱犯罪与恐怖活动犯罪具有极强的关联性.在防控恐怖融资的法网日趋严密的情状下,须廓清洗钱和恐怖融资之间竞合与分离的关系,从而通过建立涉恐资产冻结机制、继续高压打击洗钱罪的上游犯罪、强化对反恐融资和反洗钱人员的宣传培训等措施,阻断恐怖组织和恐怖分子的融资渠道.%Terrorist activities greatly depend on financial support. In terrorist financing, money laundering and terrorist activities are highly correlated. In the situation when the criminal law for prevention and control of terrorist financing is more and more complete, the relations between money laundering and terrorist financing,like overlapping and separating,should be clarified,so as to cut off the financing channels of terrorist organizations and terrorists by establishing the asset freezing mechanism to freeze suspected fund involved in terrorism,cracking down the upper crimes of money laundering and strengthening the training of counter-terrorism financing anti-money laundering personnels,etc.

  6. Frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia and migrant in the American online media on the example of New York Times (NYT) and Washington Post (WP)

    OpenAIRE

    Urevna Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia, which then grow into migrant-phobia. In the study, the author came to the conclusion that the frame "terrorist attacks in Paris" is widely used in political technologies in the United States. It was also found that in order to justify harsh statements with respect to the policy of the Muslims used substitute frames, such as "terrorist" and "Muslim". At the same time with such a substituti...

  7. Frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia and migrant in the American online media on the example of New York Times (NYT and Washington Post (WP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urevna Marina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of frame "the Paris terrorist attacks" in the development of Islamophobia, which then grow into migrant-phobia. In the study, the author came to the conclusion that the frame "terrorist attacks in Paris" is widely used in political technologies in the United States. It was also found that in order to justify harsh statements with respect to the policy of the Muslims used substitute frames, such as "terrorist" and "Muslim". At the same time with such a substitution of concepts Islamophobia has become more broad framework and became migrant-phobia.

  8. A public health approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhui Kamaldeep S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very recent acts of terrorism in the UK were perpetrated by 'homegrown', well educated young people, rather than by foreign Islamist groups; consequently, a process of violent radicalization was proposed to explain how ordinary people were recruited and persuaded to sacrifice their lives. Discussion Counterterrorism approaches grounded in the criminal justice system have not prevented violent radicalization. Indeed there is some evidence that these approaches may have encouraged membership of radical groups by not recognizing Muslim communities as allies, citizens, victims of terrorism, and victims of discrimination, but only as suspect communities who were then further alienated. Informed by public health research and practice, a new approach is proposed to target populations vulnerable to recruitment, rather than rely only on research of well known terrorist groups and individual perpetrators of terrorist acts. Conclusions This paper proposes public health research and practice to guard against violent radicalization.

  9. Devices of new generation for the anti-terrorist inspection and on-boundary customs radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The expansion of the boundaries of the application of radioactive materials (RM) in the scientific and industrial and military affairs is combined with the danger of the uncontrollable propagation RM. Therefore the creation of the new highly effective stationary, mobile and movable means of radiation monitoring is the very important direction of anti-terrorist activity. At present in the countries of the CIS and other states for the customs- boundary control are used radiation-monitoring and spectrometric equipment with the application of detectors of the type 'alkali-halide crystal - PMT'. Instruments of this type no longer satisfy contemporary requirements on the sensitivity, compactness, radiation-thermal stability, dynamic range of registration and other parameters, which is caused in essence, by the physical special features of the properties of the types of detectors indicated. Perspective detectors of the 'scintillator - semiconductor photo receiver' type; allow increasing the quality of radiation monitoring and operating characteristics of the instruments for radiation monitoring. Moreover as the scintillators, together with CsI(Tl) it is proposed to use single crystals of heavy oxides of the CdWO4, GSO, BGO type, new semiconductor scintillators (SCS) of type ZnSe(Cd) and others. The devices, which use perspective detectors, have a number of advantages in comparison with the traditional ones, which is caused by the following: - oxide scintillators substantially exceed alkali-halide scintillators on the recording efficiency; - the photodiode, utilized as the photo receiver, has excellent weight-dimension characteristics, sufficiently high sensitivity, it does not require the high-voltage power sources. The recording circuit design for the detectors of the type 'scintillator - PD' is very compact and it can be completed in the form of hybrid integrated microcircuit, which makes it possible to develop the highly sensitive matrix detecting systems

  10. De la menace illocutionnaire aux actes illocutionnaires « menaçants ». Pour une sémantique de l’interaction verbale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Galatanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has a double goal. On the one hand, on the theoretical level, we argue for and illustrate a semantics of verbal interaction, argumentative (Semantics of Argumentative Probabilities and conceptual (a cognitive approach, and by doing this, to propose anddefend a semantic-pragmatic interface being the simultaneous revelation of two states of the same linguistic phenomenon (linguistic significance and discursive meaning. We will also define and illustrate from this theoretical point of view a modal approach for a class of threatening illocutionary acts, which, while activating the threat of the face(s of the speaker and/or its recipient, also present a specific emotional component, from their canonical perlocutionary aim, namely to produce a negative emotional state in the recipient: destabilization, fear, shame, unpleasant surprise.

  11. Detecting terrorist nuclear weapons at sea: The 10th door problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D R

    2008-09-15

    While screening commercial cargo containers for the possible presence of WMD is important and necessary smugglers have successfully exploited the many other vehicles transporting cargo into the US including medium and small vessels at sea. These vessels provide a venue that is currently not screened and widely used. Physics limits that make screening of large vessels prohibitive impractical do not prohibit effective screening of the smaller vessels. While passive radiation detection is probably ineffective at sea active interrogation may provide a successful approach. The physics limits of active interrogation of ships at sea from standoff platforms are discussed. Autonomous platforms that could carry interrogation systems at sea, both airborne and submersible, are summarized and their utilization discussed. An R&D program to investigate the limits of this approach to screening ships at sea is indicated and limitations estimated.

  12. Victim, Terrorist or Conflict Transformer? : Internally Displaced Student Activists in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to analyze the role of internally displaced student activists in the transformation of the Colombian conflict. The thesis examines the strategies of displaced activists of the Colombian student movement related to mobilization, displacement and contribution to conflict transformation. The theoretical framework in this thesis consists of approaches to civil society as a site of resistance, how to transform conflict to achieve a sustainable conflict resolution, a...

  13. Futurs antérieurs et précédents uchroniques : l’anti-utopie comme conjuration de la menace future perfect and counterfactual precedents: Dystopia as a way to thwart threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Claisse

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionnellement traitée dans la continuité générique de l’utopie dont elle ne serait que l’inversion critique, l’anti-utopie est ici caractérisée comme cas particulier d’une posture critique plus générale, à travers les concepts de « futur antérieur » et de « précédent uchronique ». Relevant d’une logique de l’alerte, un futur antérieur en diffère par ses modalités temporelles ainsi que par son recours à la fiction : le futur dystopique est proposé comme déjà survenu, dans l’actualité du présent de narration, par un acte paradoxal de conjuration lequel vise à faire advenir la menace dans l’espace de représentation du destinataire pour mieux en empêcher la réalisation. Les exemples traités relèvent du dossier des nouvelles technologies de surveillance et de contrôle social, dont les acteurs ont déployé, ces vingt dernières années, une intense activité de mise à jour de leurs repères critiques et de leurs capacités d’anticipation. L’analyse en termes de futur antérieur permet de comprendre le basculement de configuration à l’œuvre : Big Brother fait désormais figure de « précédent uchronique » en regard de la nouvelle menace que ferait peser l’avènement des « sociétés de contrôle ». L’homologie de fonctionnement entre ces dispositifs fictionnels souligne leur double dimension cognitive (l’articulation entre le réel et les mondes possibles portés par l’anticipation et pragmatique (le réengagement d’un avenir par la communauté politique à laquelle s’adresse le futur antérieur. Au terme du parcours, la fiction apparaît comme un mode de connaissance et une prise sur le monde.Traditionally regarded as a mere critical inversion of utopia, dystopia will be characterized here as an instance of a more general critical posture, through the concepts of ‘future perfect’ and ‘counterfactual precedent’. The future perfect belongs to, but differs

  14. Iron Dome’s Impact on the Military and Political Arena: Moral Justications for Israel to Launch a Military Operation against Terrorist and Guerrilla Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liram Stenzler-Koblentz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The military and political arenas are closely linked in Israel’s !ght against terrorist and guerrilla organizations. Israel is a democratic country subject to legal and moral constraints and restraints, and therefore, when it initiates a military operation against such organizations, its justi!cations are important, as they will later a"ect its international legitimacy or lack thereof. This article discusses the Iron Dome system, which is designed to provide active protection for Israeli citizens. It attempts to answer the question whether there can be moral justification for Israel to launch a comprehensive military operation against a terrorist organization when it possesses such a system. The discussion of the question makes reference to a system of moral principles (jus ad bellum, which is part of just war theory and can help in making judgments about when there is moral justification for going to war.

  15. The economic impacts of the September 11 terrorist attacks: a computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois; Asay, Gary [University of Southern California

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a bottom-up approach that focuses on behavioral responses in estimating the total economic impacts of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. The estimation includes several new features. First, is the collection of data on the relocation of firms displaced by the attack, the major source of resilience in muting the direct impacts of the event. Second, is a new estimate of the major source of impacts off-site -- the ensuing decline of air travel and related tourism in the U.S. due to the social amplification of the fear of terrorism. Third, the estimation is performed for the first time using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis, including a new approach to reflecting the direct effects of external shocks. This modeling framework has many advantages in this application, such as the ability to include behavioral responses of individual businesses and households, to incorporate features of inherent and adaptive resilience at the level of the individual decision maker and the market, and to gauge quantity and price interaction effects across sectors of the regional and national economies. We find that the total business interruption losses from the WTC attacks on the U.S. economy were only slightly over $100 billion, or less than 1.0% of Gross Domestic Product. The impacts were only a loss of $14 billion of Gross Regional Product for the New York Metropolitan Area.

  16. On the Path of Election and Martyrdom: Some Psychic Mechanisms Involved in the Anders Behring Breivik's Determination as a Terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    On 22 July 2011, the Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out two attacks in Oslo that cost the lives of 77 people, injured many others, and plunged the entire Norwegian nation into mourning. When he was arrested, Breivik presented himself as a member of the Knights Templar, whose mission is to defend the Christian Western world. He considers that he has sacrificed himself by his actions for his people and says that he has prepared himself for martyrdom. In analysing Breivik's words and writings, this article attempts to identify the thought mechanisms involved in Breivik's idea of election (megalomania) and martyrology. It highlights the importance of a mechanism of "return to the sender," whereby Breivik returns the reproaches directed at him by an agency of judgment (ego ideal or superegoic object). It emphasizes the existence of a "burning desire" and yearning (Sehnsucht) for this same persecuting superegoic object, an object that Breivik constantly wants to find again, even if in death. Taking into consideration Searles's hypothesis that the sense of being persecuted is a defence against the impossibility of mourning, and also H. Blum's hypothesis that persecutory feelings are indicative of fears of a "regressive loss of object constancy," the different psychic mechanisms and modes of functioning underlying Breivik's terrorist determination are related here to what we know about his affective development and infantile relationships. PMID:26290947

  17. Exploring the Iran-Hezbollah Relationship: A Case Study of how State Sponsorship affects Terrorist Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R. DeVore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of state sponsorship on the decision-making of violent non-state actors is among the more important issues to scholars of security studies. This article addresses the issue by examining the relationship between Iran and Lebanon’s Hezbollah. To preview its conclusions, there are two main perspectives to consider with regard to the terrorist group – state sponsor relationship. First, state support has a powerful, yet indirect effect on violent non-state actor decision-making by shaping the options available to groups’ leaders.  Second, state sponsors can also directly leverage their aid to shape the strategic decisions of armed non-state actors, forcing their clients to either expand or restrict their activities. Because of inevitable lacunae and contradictions amongst published accounts, this study relies heavily upon primary sources and data collected during field research in Lebanon, including interviews with leaders from Hezbollah, the Lebanese Army, the United Nations' Peacekeeping Mission in Southern Lebanon (UNIFIL and the rival Shia organization, Amal.

  18. Predictors of the impact of the September 11th terrorist attacks on victims of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Victoria A; Arnkoff, Diane B; Glass, Carol R; Mete, Mihriye; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the role of several hypothesized predictors of the impact of a potentially traumatic event, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), on a sample of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). We found that IPV-related PTSS mediated the relationship between IPV and 9/11-related PTSS, confirming the hypothesis that severity of symptoms related to prior trauma plays a role in the development and severity of PTSS related to subsequent potentially traumatic events. Media exposure and threat appraisal were significantly positively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, whereas social support was significantly negatively associated with 9/11-related PTSS, with none of these variables serving as moderators of the relationship between IPV-related and 9/11-related PTSS. Our results suggest that trauma-related psychiatric history is an important factor in the development of PTSS subsequent to an additional potentially traumatic event, even after adjusting for relevant variables occurring at the time of that event. PMID:21882248

  19. The use of formal methods to map, analyze and interpret hawala and terrorist-related alternative remittance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Berkowitz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative remittance systems such as hawala derive from Eurasian systems of exchange and credit (banking functions well established by the medieval period that worked by transferring money without actually moving it. In parts of Asia and the Mid-East, these systems move more money transfers than conventional banks, and arguably, more commodities. These systems are legal in the U.S. and many other countries unless they involve money laundering or some other illegal function, but are illegal in countries such as Pakistan and India where they would otherwise deprive the government of massive tax revenue because of the near untraceability of transactions. They persist because they are fast, relatively inexpensive, reliable, and enable mobility by servicing the needs of migrant labor. Modern communications have made them faster, less expensive, and more reliable. How these institutions work is explicated along with consideration of how they are used to launder money and transfer funds and commodities used by terrorist organizations. Typical characteristics of illegal transfers are identified.

  20. Forecasting the “Arab Spring” of 2011: Terrorist Incident Data from 2000-2010 Offered No Early Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Chasdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the single most predominant questions associated with the so-called “Arab Spring” is whether or not any social research indicators associated with terrorism data are available with predictive value for such profound structural political changes. The underlying aim of this “Research Note” is to take a first pass at the terrorism data and to compare certain terrorism data trends for four countries that experienced successful regime change in 2011, namely Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, to terrorism trends in nine countries where political strains and tensions did not result in full blown regime change. In this essay, those countries include Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, UAE, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia. From the start, it should be clear that even though there was non-violent protest in many of these countries, this analysis places singular attention on what both Gurr and Ross and Miller call “oppositional” or “insurgent” terrorism where terrorist assaults are directed at state governments.

  1. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or f...

  2. The Impact of Pretrauma Analogue GAD and Posttraumatic Emotional Reactivity Following Exposure to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farach, Frank J.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Smith, Rita L.; Mandelbaum, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The relation between analogue generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) assessed the day before the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11), and long-term outcome was examined in 44 young adults who were directly exposed the following day to the terrorist attacks in New York City. After controlling for high exposure to the attacks, preattack analogue GAD was associated with greater social and work disability, loss of psychosocial resources, anxiety and mood symptoms, and worry, but not symptoms of po...

  3. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley Schroeder; Lori Pennington-Gray; Kelly Bricker

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE), and travel trade sectors. Within each operating s...

  4. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  5. La yihad en Francia, la presencia del terrorismo islamista y la lucha contra esta amenaza en territorio francés/Jihad in France, the presence of islamist terrorism and the fight against this menace in french territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Rodrigo Luelmo (Francia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El terrorismo islamista de carácter yihadista y salafista, liderado por la red Al-Qaeda, y que pretende imponer una interpretación ultrarrigorista y fundamentalista del Islam y que ya ha perpetrado multitud de ataques en el mundo musulmán y en Occidente, supone el mayor desafío para la seguridad nacional francesa. Para luchar contra esta amenaza, Francia pretende utilizar únicamente los medios que proporciona el Estado de Derecho y para ello dispone de una serie de instrumentos policiales y jurídico-legales que describiremos en nuestro artículo. La República Francesa también considera que es necesario defender la democracia y la libertad utilizando la transparencia, manteniendo informados a los ciudadanos para contar con su colaboración y apoyo y, sobre todo, dar la “batalla de las ideas” para vencer a los terroristas a largo plazo. Islamist Jihadist and Salafist terrorism, leaded by the network Al-Qaeda, which pretends to impose a very conservative and fundamentalist viewpoint of Islam, and which has committed a lot of terrorist attacks against Muslim and West countries, is actually the most important challenge for French national security. In order to fight against this threat, France only wants to use all the options provided by the rule of law; for this, French Government has some means such as police forces and justice and laws that we will describe in this article. French Republic considers that the openness is necessary to defend freedom and democracy, that is it, to have public opinion informed to get their support and collaboration, and above all, to do the “battle of ideas” to defeat terrorists as a long-term objective.

  6. Escalation, timing and severity of insurgent and terrorist events: Toward a unified theory of future threats

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Neil F

    2011-01-01

    I present a unified discussion of several recently published results concerning the escalation, timing and severity of violent events in human conflicts and global terrorism, and set them in the wider context of real-world and cyber-based collective violence and illicit activity. I point out how the borders distinguishing between such activities are becoming increasingly blurred in practice -- from insurgency, terrorism, criminal gangs and cyberwars, through to the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings and London riots. I review the robust empirical patterns that have been found, and summarize a minimal mechanistic model which can explain these patterns. I also explain why this mechanistic approach, which is inspired by non-equilibrium statistical physics, fits naturally within the framework of recent ideas within the social science literature concerning analytical sociology. In passing, I flag the fundamental flaws in each of the recent critiques which have surfaced concerning the robustness of these results and the re...

  7. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of cognitive behavior therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in terrorist-affected people in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Ekasawin, Suparat; Chakrabhand, Somchai; Suwanmitri, Soawaluk; Duangchun, Orawan; Chantaluckwong, Thananet

    2011-10-01

    Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is no evidence of its success with PTSD patients still under direct threat of terrorist attacks. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of CBT for PTSD terrorist-affected people. Twenty-eight survivors of terrorist attacks in southern Thailand were randomized to 8 sessions of either CBT or treatment as usual (TAU). CBT was modified to accommodate the realistic threats facing patients. There were independent assessments conducted before, immediately after, and 3 months following treatment. Main outcome measures included symptoms of PTSD (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview), depression (Beck Depression Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief). CBT resulted in significantly greater reduction in symptoms, including PTSD, depression, and complicated grief, at follow-up than TAU. Relative to TAU, CBT had stronger effect sizes at follow-up for PTSD, depression, and complicated grief. More patients in the CBT condition (75%) achieved high end-state functioning than participants in the TAU (33%). This preliminary evidence suggests that PTSD, depression, and complicated grief can be effectively treated despite ongoing threats of terrorism. Further, it demonstrates that non-specialist mental health workers in a non-western setting can be efficiently trained in using CBT, and this training can translate into successful treatment gains in trauma-affected individuals. PMID:21991280

  8. The Threat of Terrorism: Putting Human Rights to the Test : Assessing the Counterterrorist Policies of France in the Aftermath of the 13th of November 2015 Terrorist Attacks 

    OpenAIRE

    Poidevin, Fiore

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred in Paris on the 13th of November 2015, mark a shift for counterterrorism in France. Indeed, the magnitude of the terrorist attacks persuaded the French government to call for stricter counterterrorist policies. However, the effects of these measures on human rights have been interrogated widely. Therefore, in this thesis, I wish to address the conflict between state security and individual human rights. First, I will assess if the current situation of Franc...

  9. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    OpenAIRE

    Christofis, Nikos; Kollias, Christos; Stefanos PAPADAMOU; Stagiannis, Apostolos

    2013-01-01

    Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only...

  10. The Indigenous People of Chile and the Application of the Anti-terrorist Law : A case study of the land-conflict in Araucanía, Southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm'ler Jaliff, Pernilla

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the conflict between indigenous rights and the exploitation of land in Chile. The conflict is displayed through a public discourse about the recognition of the indigenous people on the one hand, and the application of the anti-terrorist law against the indigenous people on the other. The anti-terrorist law is currently applied to the indigenous group, the Mapuches, in southern Chile, which makes this issue particularly acute. The role of the international community and the...

  11. Inoculation Policies in Response to Terrorist or WMD Attacks: Additional Factors to Consider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When viewed on its own merits, the debate over who should be inoculated during a period of biological emergency is a rather straightforward public policy decision. The classic public policy 'balancing act' decision-making model is defaulted to as issues of fairness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, adequacy of supply, mission performance, and constituencies are arrayed and adjudicated. This mainstream approach is appropriate as far as it goes but it also exemplifies a series of structural and perceptual weaknesses when applied to wartime or localized terrorism scenarios. In fact, the establishment of a vaccination policy appropriate to a flu pandemic falls squarely within this mainstream debate. Although the notion of a pandemic carries an assumption of a great many fatalities it does not possess the fear quotient, uncertainty, horror, unnaturalness, or inevitability of a bio-terror or biological warfare incident. As a result, the reliability and responsiveness of key personnel responding to a flu pandemic should be less of an issue than it will be in the event of an intentional man-made biological incident. The principal policy weakness in instances an intentional bio-attack stems from a generalized failure, or refusal, to systematically study the behavior of key personnel, first-responders, soldiers, or critical senior leadership during severe crises occurring in their own backyards. In other words, when the 'balloon goes up' how many of your responders and critical personnel will show up for work? This presentation considers many of the 'unaddressed' factors that experience has shown may have a determinative effect upon the efficacy of a response to a biological incident. Lessons are drawn from experiences of US forces station in the former West Germany, US Defense Department Continuity of Operations Programs, Hurricane Katrina, and the 9/11 attacks on the United States. (author)

  12. 煽动实施恐怖活动罪相关问题研究%Issues Related to the Activities of Incitement to Commit Terrorist Offenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩文

    2016-01-01

    In order to adapt to the trend of international terrorism , to effectively combat terrorist crimes , “Criminal Law Amendment Nine” added the incitement of terrorist crimes and a series of anti -terrorism charges , fully reflects the legal interests protected by the front of the criminal policy .In this case, it is necessary to clarify the concept of incitement to the crime of terrorist activities , reasona-ble delimit incitement and freedom of expression , the relationship between coordination “Criminal Law” and “Anti-Terrorism Law (Draft)” the relevant provisions, for the anti-terrorism legal system construction and lay a strong foundation .%为了适应国际反恐趋势,有效打击恐怖主义犯罪,《刑法修正案(九)》增设了煽动实施恐怖活动罪等一系列反恐罪名,充分体现了法益保护前置化的刑事政策。在此,有必要厘清煽动实施恐怖活动罪的概念,合理划定煽动行为与言论自由权的界限,协调《刑法》与《反恐怖主义法(草案)》相关条款的关系,为反恐法律体系的建构打下有力的基础。

  13. Computer Modeling of Violent Intent: A Content Analysis Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Mcgrath, Liam R.; Bell, Eric B.

    2014-01-03

    We present a computational approach to modeling the intent of a communication source representing a group or an individual to engage in violent behavior. Our aim is to identify and rank aspects of radical rhetoric that are endogenously related to violent intent to predict the potential for violence as encoded in written or spoken language. We use correlations between contentious rhetoric and the propensity for violent behavior found in documents from radical terrorist and non-terrorist groups and individuals to train and evaluate models of violent intent. We then apply these models to unseen instances of linguistic behavior to detect signs of contention that have a positive correlation with violent intent factors. Of particular interest is the application of violent intent models to social media, such as Twitter, that have proved to serve as effective channels in furthering sociopolitical change.

  14. Procedural rules as a menace to investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current doubts about Germany's attractivity as an industrial site are not wholly unfounded. What we need in this situation is a new partnership between state and industry in order to win the confidence of investors and the public. It is high time for all sides to recognise that a consensus across all parties is badly needed in order to maintain this country's economic potential. We should not go further astray by setting up our own political and administrative obstacles. (orig.)

  15. Type I singularities and the Phantom Menace

    CERN Document Server

    Naskar, Tapan

    2007-01-01

    We consider the future dynamics of a transient phantom dominated phase of the universe in LQC and in the RS braneworld, which both have a non-standard Friedmann equation. We find that for a certain class of potentials, the Hubble parameter oscillates with simple harmonic motion in the LQC case and therefore avoids any future singularity. For more general potentials we find that damping effects eventually lead to the Hubble parameter becoming constant. On the other hand in the braneworld case we find that although the type I singularity can be avoided, the scale factor still diverges at late times.

  16. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  17. Fast Food Blamed as Menace to Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinYoung; 梅晓明

    2004-01-01

    肥胖是心脏病、糖尿病、癌症和其他各种疾病的诱因,它正日益成为世界上公共卫生健康的最严重威胁。调查显示快餐是造成人们肥胖的因素之一,因此食品公司有可能步烟草公司后尘,成为人们诉讼和政府调控的下一个目标。

  18. Ethylene in Storage: The Phantom Menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethylene is a small, gaseous, hydrocarbon that exists in the atmosphere at low concentrations. Plants, including potato tubers, produce ethylene as part of natural developmental processes and in response to some stresses, such as low temperature stress. Several lines of research have demonstrated th...

  19. The Menace of Science without Wisdom

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, N.

    2012-01-01

    We urgently need to bring about a revolution in the aims and methods of science – and of academic inquiry more generally. Instead of giving priority to the search for knowledge, universities need to devote themselves to seeking and promoting wisdom by rational means, wisdom being the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others, wisdom thus including knowledge, understanding and technological know-how, but much else besides. A basic task ought to be to help humanity le...

  20. 500 emplois menacés

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Around 1000 staff in total, demonstrated at CERN today, to protest against radical measures proposed by CERN management. CERN needs to find around 850 million CHF to supplement the budget of the LHC project (2 pages).

  1. Carbon dioxide catastrophes: Past and future menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Mario E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is important in its role as coupler of the terrestrial biosphere to inorganic chemical processes and as the principal greenhouse gas controlling Earth's surface temperature. The hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 levels have diminished with time, with the resulting cooling effect offsetting an increase in the solar constant, seems firmly established, and it is shown that feedback mechanisms exist which can maintain the terrestrial surface in a relatively narrow temperature range over geological time. Of the factors involved in such CO2 variation, the oceanic reservoir appears the most important. Surface waters are probably in approximate equilibrium with regard to CO2 exchange with the ambient atmosphere in most regions, but data from deep-ocean water sampling indicates that such waters are somewhat undersaturated in the sense that they would tend to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere if brought to the surface without change in composition or temperature. If major impacts into the ocean can result in loss of a substantial portion of the atmospheric CO2 reservoir, then any such future event could imperil the continuation of most higher forms of life on Earth. The most likely candidate for an inverse Nyos global event in previous Earth history is the Cretaceous-Tertiary terminal extinction event. The Cretaceous was characterized by warm, equable temperatures presumably indicative of relatively high CO2 levels and an intense greenhouse heating. Cooling of the oceans in absence of massive transfer of CO2 to the oceanic reservoir in itself would promote a condition of CO2 undersaturation in abyssal waters, and this is made even more extreme by the pattern of ocean water circulation. It is possible to envision a situation in which deep ocean waters were at least occasionally profoundly undersaturated with regard to CO2. Turnover of a major fraction of such an ocean would then remove, on a very short time scale, as much as 90 percent of the atmospheric CO2 inventory.

  2. Terrorist tactics in taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. VELDKAMP

    1986-01-01

    Under the catching title given above G.B. MONTEITH, Queensland Museum, has written an editorial in the Austr. Entom. Soc. News Bull. 21 (1985) 66—69, which has been copied in the Austr. Syst. Bot. Soc. Newsletter 44 (1985) with a comment by A. KANIS (CANB). Although it mainly concerns Australian herpetologists, many readers of the Flora Malesiana Bulletin will not have these journals available, so a short summary of its contents seemed to be in place, to give the situation a broader audience....

  3. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approximately 23.7 wt% 240Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the 239Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. 240Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% 238Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% 238Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating 237Np to 238Pu are also reported. However, these modifications increased the disloaded heavy metal mass

  4. Assessment and reduction of proliferation risk of reactor-grade plutonium regarding construction of ‘fizzle bombs’ by terrorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001 (Internal Post Box 360), Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [School for Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa); Reitsma, Frederik [Calvera Consultants (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    The approximately 23.7 wt% {sup 240}Pu in reactor-grade plutonium denatures the {sup 239}Pu to the extent that it cannot fuel high yield nuclear weapons. {sup 240}Pu has a high spontaneous fission rate, which increases the spontaneous neutron flux within the fuel. When such a nuclear weapon is triggered, these neutrons cause the nuclear fission chain reaction to pre-detonate which blows the imploding fuel shell apart before the designed level of compression and reactivity could be attained, thereby greatly reducing the average energy yield of such “fizzle” bombs. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium is normally viewed as highly proliferation resistant. In this article the literature on the proliferation resistance of reactor-grade plutonium and on the mechanism and effect of fizzle bombs is reviewed in order to test this view. It is shown that even very low yield fizzle bombs, exploded in urban areas, would still cause serious blast damage as well as radioactive contamination. Combined with the high levels of induced terror, fizzle bombs might thus be attractive psychological weapons for terrorists. Therefore reactor-grade plutonium may not be sufficiently proliferation resistant against nuclear terrorism. However, denaturisation with more than 9% {sup 238}Pu produces high levels of decay heat which will melt or explode the high explosives around uncooled implosion type weapons, rendering them useless. Unfortunately, reactor-grade Pu contains only 2.7% {sup 238}Pu and is thus not sufficiently proliferation resistant in this respect. It is also shown that the associated neptunium poses a substantial proliferation risk. In the present study strong improvement of the proliferation resistance was demonstrated by simulation of incineration of reactor-grade plutonium in the 400 MW{sub th} Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. Results for modified fuel cycles, aimed at transmutating {sup 237}Np to {sup 238}Pu are also reported. However, these

  5. Searching for and Finding Meaning in Collective Trauma: Results From a National Longitudinal Study of the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Updegraff, John A.; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E. Alison

    2008-01-01

    The ability to make sense of events in one’s life has held a central role in theories of adaptation to adversity. However, there are few rigorous studies on the role of meaning in adjustment, and those that have been conducted have focused predominantly on direct personal trauma. The authors examined the predictors and long-term consequences of Americans’ searching for and finding meaning in a widespread cultural upheaval—the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001—among a national probabilit...

  6. Port security in a developing country – pre and post 9/11 terrorist attacks: a case study on Port Klang in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, Periasamy

    2012-01-01

    The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon in the United States widely known as 9/11 undeniably produced a profound impact on a multitude sectors across the globe. The events became a turning point in the treatment of maritime security establishing a “before” and after” dividing line. One element that emerged in response to that attack was the change of attitude to security. This change, led to changes in behaviour and practices since it prompted a raft ...

  7. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma C...

  8. On Criminal Sanction System and Its Improvement on Terrorist Activity Crimes%论我国恐怖活动犯罪刑法制裁体系及其完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秉志; 商浩文

    2015-01-01

    恐怖活动犯罪是当下中国的重大现实问题之一。我国现行惩治恐怖活动犯罪的刑法制裁体系特点是从严从重惩治恐怖活动犯罪,侧重于打击有组织的恐怖活动,注重对恐怖活动犯罪的经济制裁,并且以普通的刑事罪名抗制恐怖活动的实行行为。完善我国恐怖活动刑法制裁体系,应进一步发挥宽严相济刑事政策的功效,完善刑法典中恐怖活动犯罪的罪名体系,增设独立的“恐怖行为罪”,并适时依据有关国际公约增设相关特别恐怖活动罪名;协调刑法与反恐怖法的关系,二者相互配合,共同打击恐怖活动犯罪。%The terrorist activity and crime is one of the most important social practical issues. The present criminal sanc⁃tion system against terrorism activity crimes focuses on taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously. We emphasize particularly on striking organized terrorist crimes, cracking down on terrorist crimes with economic mea⁃sures, and accusing terrorism activity crimes by ordinary criminal imputation. We should perfect accusation system in criminal law about terrorist activities, establishing separate"terrorist criminalities", paying attention to carry out tem⁃pering justice with mercy, while taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously, and adding special terrorist activity criminalities according to related international conventions. We should coordinate the anti-terrorism law and criminal law, so as to crack down the terrorist crimes.

  9. On Criminal Sanction System and Its Improvement on Terrorist Activity Crimes%论我国恐怖活动犯罪刑法制裁体系及其完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秉志; 商浩文

    2015-01-01

    The terrorist activity and crime is one of the most important social practical issues. The present criminal sanc⁃tion system against terrorism activity crimes focuses on taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously. We emphasize particularly on striking organized terrorist crimes, cracking down on terrorist crimes with economic mea⁃sures, and accusing terrorism activity crimes by ordinary criminal imputation. We should perfect accusation system in criminal law about terrorist activities, establishing separate"terrorist criminalities", paying attention to carry out tem⁃pering justice with mercy, while taking strict measures against terrorist crimes rigorously, and adding special terrorist activity criminalities according to related international conventions. We should coordinate the anti-terrorism law and criminal law, so as to crack down the terrorist crimes.%恐怖活动犯罪是当下中国的重大现实问题之一。我国现行惩治恐怖活动犯罪的刑法制裁体系特点是从严从重惩治恐怖活动犯罪,侧重于打击有组织的恐怖活动,注重对恐怖活动犯罪的经济制裁,并且以普通的刑事罪名抗制恐怖活动的实行行为。完善我国恐怖活动刑法制裁体系,应进一步发挥宽严相济刑事政策的功效,完善刑法典中恐怖活动犯罪的罪名体系,增设独立的“恐怖行为罪”,并适时依据有关国际公约增设相关特别恐怖活动罪名;协调刑法与反恐怖法的关系,二者相互配合,共同打击恐怖活动犯罪。

  10. Characterising the UK Terrorist Threat: The Problem with Non-Violent Ideology as a Focus for Counter-Terrorism and Terrorism as the product of ‘Vulnerability’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richards

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat in the UK has been characterised, arguing that they both challenge conventional academic wisdom as to how terrorism should be conceptualised. While such conventional wisdom should always be open to challenge, and policymaking perspectives are different to those of academics, these two particular aspects as to how the terrorist threat has been perceived in the UK merit scrutiny, especially as counter-terrorism strategies have been premised on them. They are: i the contemporary and explicit concern with ‘extremist’ but 'non-violent' ideas that are said to be ‘conducive’ to terrorism as a focus for a counter-terrorism response and ii the notion that terrorism has increasingly been seen as the product of ‘vulnerability’. The first, and the main focus of this article, appears to challenge the widely held view within terrorism studies that, when defining terrorism, reference to the cause or the perpetrator is unhelpful because terrorism should first and foremost (and more objectively be seen as a particular 'method' of violence that has been used by a wide variety of actors, regardless of the ideology or the belief systems of its perpetrators. The second aspect – the impetus towards viewing terrorism as the product of vulnerability or individual fallibility - arguably implies a diminished capacity for rational behaviour, which challenges a further commonly held view within terrorism studies: that terrorism entails the use of calculated and rational acts of violence.

  11. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following a chemical terrorist attack: Decision criteria for multipathway exposure routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical release. What follows is the second of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. Decision criteria analysis presented here provides first-time, open-literature documentation of multi-pathway, health-based remediation exposure guidelines for selected toxic industrial compounds, chemical warfare agents, and agent degradation products for pre-planning application in anticipation of a chemical terrorist attack. Guideline values are provided for inhalation and direct ocular vapor exposure routes as well as percutaneous vapor, surface contact, and ingestion. Target populations include various employees as well as transit passengers. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  12. Developing health-based pre-planning clearance goals for airport remediation following chemical terrorist attack: Introduction and key assessment considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Raber, Ellen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Dolislager, Frederick [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine; Hall, Dr. Linda [ENVIRON International Corporation; Love, Dr. Adam [Johnson Wright, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility re-use and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critical information, and decision criteria to facilitate post-attack and post-decontamination consequence management activities. A conceptual site model and human health-based exposure guidelines are developed and reported as an aid to site-specific pre-planning in the current absence of U.S. state or Federal values designated as compound-specific remediation or re-entry concentrations, and to safely expedite facility recovery to full operational status. Chemicals of concern include chemical warfare nerve and vesicant agents and the toxic industrial compounds phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride. This work has been performed as a national case study conducted in partnership with the Los Angeles International Airport and The Bradley International Terminal. All recommended guidelines have been selected for consistency with airport scenario release parameters of a one-time, short-duration, finite airborne release from a single source followed by compound-specific decontamination.

  13. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  14. Chemical or Biological Terrorist Attacks: An Analysis of the Preparedness of Hospitals for Managing Victims Affected by Chemical or Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a terrorist attack employing the use of chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD on American soil is no longer an empty threat, it has become a reality. A WMD is defined as any weapon with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale that its very presence in the hands of hostile forces is a grievous threat. Events of the past few years including the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and the use of planes as guided missiles directed into the Pentagon and New York’s Twin Towers in 2001 (9/11 and the tragic incidents involving twentythree people who were infected and five who died as a result of contact with anthrax-laced mail in the Fall of 2001, have well established that the United States can be attacked by both domestic and international terrorists without warning or provocation. In light of these actions, hospitals have been working vigorously to ensure that they would be “ready” in the event of another terrorist attack to provide appropriate medical care to victims. However, according to a recent United States General Accounting Office (GAO nationwide survey, our nation’s hospitals still are not prepared to manage mass causalities resulting from chemical or biological WMD. Therefore, there is a clear need for information about current hospital preparedness in order to provide a foundation for systematic planning and broader discussions about relative cost, probable effectiveness, environmental impact and overall societal priorities. Hence, the aim of this research was to examine the current preparedness of hospitals in the State of Mississippi to manage victims of terrorist attacks involving chemical or biological WMD. All acute care hospitals in the State were selected for inclusion in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized for data collection

  15. Istanbul Stock Market’s Reaction To Terrorist Attacks / İstanbul Borsasının Terörist Saldırılara Reaksiyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos CHRISTOFIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks can have a multitude of economic consequences that may adversely affect a number of economic sectors and activities including capital markets. This paper examines the impact of three major terrorist incidents on the Istanbul Stock Exchange, one of the major emerging markets internationally. The reaction of both the general index as well as sectorial indices is investigated. The findings reported herein indicate that the impact, although significant in certain cases, had only short-lived effects since the market rebound was fairly quick. Of the sectorial indices, the tourist industry is found to be more adversely affected by these events.

  16. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hababeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we will summarize state of the art wormhole defense approaches, categories most of the existing typical approaches and discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. We will also point out some unfulfilled areas in the wormhole problem and provide some directions for future exploring.

  17. Uncertainty Measurement and Visual Analysis on Terroristic Attacks Data%恐怖袭击事件不确定性度量及可视分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺怀清; 王赫

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,terroristic activities occur more frequently and have seriously affected the regional stability and the world peace. With the development of information technology, the researchers are able to obtain information of terroristic attacks from many aspects. However, with the constant enlargement of the scale of data sets,how to explore the underlying information and analyze the uncertainty from a large number of data has become an important issue in the analysis process of terroristic attacks. On Global Terrorism Database,based on visual analysis and uncertainty measurement theory,we propose the measurement and visual analysis methods on data records and uncertainty of attributes. By integrating results of uncertainty measurement with parallel coordinates, histogram, area chart and interactive methods,the data uncertainty is clearly displayed without influence on its representation and provides information base for situation assessment based on uncertainty theory the next step.%近年来,全球范围内恐怖主义活动愈发频繁,已经严重影响了地区稳定和世界和平.随着信息技术的发展,研究者们得以从多个方面获取恐怖袭击事件信息.然而,随着数据集规模的不断扩大,如何从大量数据中发掘隐含的信息、分析其中包含的不确定性,成为恐怖袭击事件分析过程中的重要问题.针对全球恐怖主义数据库,基于可视分析和不确定度量理论,提出了数据记录和属性不确定性的度量及可视分析方法.通过将不确定性度量结果与平行坐标、柱状图、面积图和交互式方法相结合,在不影响数据源表达的同时清晰地展示了其中包含的不确定性,为下一步基于不确定性理论的态势评估提供了信息基础.

  18. Tritium in the World Trade Center September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack: It's Possible Sources and Fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, P; Semkow, T; Husain, L; Haines, D; Woznial, G; Williams, P; Hafner, R; Rabun, R

    2002-05-03

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were determined at World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174{plus_minus}0.074 (2{sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53{plus_minus}0.17 and 2.83{plus_minus}0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. Tritium is used in self-luminescent emergency EXIT signs. No such signs were present inside the WTC buildings. However, it was determined that Boeing 767-222 aircraft operated by the United Airlines that hit WTC Tower 2 as well as Boeing 767-223ER operated by the American Airlines, that hit WTC Tower 1, had a combined 34.3 Ci of tritium at the time of impact. Other possible sources of tritium include dials and lights of fire and emergency equipment, sights and scopes in weaponry, as well as time devices equipped with tritium dials. It was determined that emergency equipment was not a likely source. However, WTC hosted several law-enforcement agencies such as ATF, CIA, US Secret Service and US Customs. The ATF office had two weapon vaults in WTC Building 6. Also 63 Police Officers, possibly carrying handguns with tritium sights, died in the attack. The weaponry containing tritium was therefore a likely and significant source of tritium. It is possible that some of the 2830 victims carried tritium watches, however this source appears to be less significant that the other

  19. Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: customer resilience to a total blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Oladosu, Gbadebo; Liao, Shu-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Regional economies are highly dependent on electricity, thus making their power supply systems attractive terrorist targets. We estimate the largest category of economic losses from electricity outages-business interruption-in the context of a total blackout of electricity in Los Angeles. We advance the state of the art in the estimation of the two factors that strongly influence the losses: indirect effects and resilience. The results indicate that indirect effects in the context of general equilibrium analysis are moderate in size. The stronger factor, and one that pushes in the opposite direction, is resilience. Our analysis indicates that electricity customers have the ability to mute the potential shock to their business operations by as much as 86%. Moreover, market resilience lowers the losses, in part through the dampening of general equilibrium effects. PMID:17640205

  20. Les sources de financement légal et illégal des groupes terroristes d´aujourd´hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Sánchez Medero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on analysera comment sont financés dans le monde actuel les groupesterroristes, comment font-ils pour transférer cet argent et quelles sont les mesures qu’ona adopté pour prévoir et bloquer ces sources de financement légal et illégal. Peut-être,ce point est l’un de moins étudiés par les spécialistes en la matière, mais il s’avère d’importancevitale, puis que les organisations terroristes, comme les autres organisations,ont besoin d’une série de ressources pour être maintenues et pour développer leursactivités; il s’ensuit qu’il est fondamental de connaître comme on finance ces groupespour pouvoir les combattre et leur mettre limite.

  1. Interroger la pertinence du critère d'irrégularité dans la définition de la figure de terroriste

    OpenAIRE

    Missoffe, Prune

    2016-01-01

    L'adoption le 24 juillet 2015 de la loi sur le renseignement suite aux attentats de janvier, la qualification par le président français des attentats de novembre comme « acte de guerre […] commis par une armée terroriste, Daech, une armée jihadiste, contre la France » (Déclaration du président français à l'issue du Conseil de défense, publié le 14 novembre 2015), la déclaration d'un état d'urgence et la suspension de l'application de la Convention européenne des droits de l'Homme suite à ces ...

  2. Lessons Learnt from the Westgate Shopping Mall Terrorist Attack in Nairobi, Kenya: Involving the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions Sector in Crisis Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Schroeder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks in Nairobi Kenya have been widely disseminated by the world media, thus, affecting the long-term interests of stakeholders. The tourism industry is made up of a vast number of these stakeholders, with the operating sector alone including the accommodation, tourism services, transportation, entertainment, food services, adventure and outdoor recreation, attractions, meetings, incentive, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, and travel trade sectors. Within each operating sector, there is also a variety of different stakeholders in various segments and organisations. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine tourism crisis communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks in Kenya. The main research question which guided this study was: did tourism communications surrounding the Westgate Shopping Mall attacks follow best practices for tourism crisis communications? Accordingly, this paper used participant observation to highlight communications surrounding the attacks from the perspective of a conference planner and a conference attendee.

  3. 基于自激点过程的恐怖活动建模研究%Modeling terrorist activities with self-exciting point process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐致靖; 祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 郑涛

    2012-01-01

    受分裂主义和极端民族主义浪潮驱动,近年来,恐怖活动愈加猖獗,对世界各国国家安全构成了严重威胁.分析恐怖袭击时空规律对于准确把握当前恐怖活动态势从而科学地预防和打击恐怖犯罪具有重要的现实意义.本文研究了1970年以来部分国家的恐怖袭击事件时间分布情况,并使用自激点过程模型进行了拟合.结果显示,自激点过程模型可以较好地拟合恐怖袭击事件趋势特征,反映短期内恐怖活动烈度.%Spurred by separatism and ultra-nationalism, terrorism has been greatly intensified over the past few years and is being a serious threat both to homeland security and civilians' personal safety, which lends special significance to the analysis of terrorist attack patterns. In this paper, we studied the time series of terrorist attacks in several countries since 1970 and modeled the temporal distribution with a self-exciting point process( Hawkes process). Our study will be an important reference for anti-terrorism efforts.

  4. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  5. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  6. The Tension between Due Process of Law and Counter-Terrorist Measures During the Initial Stages of Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Ezioni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the way the Israeli criminal system uses secret evidence during the initial stages of criminal procedure. In particular, the article discusses whether terror suspects should enjoy the same criminal procedure as regular criminal suspects, or whether the procedure should differ. The article identifies the underlying theories which guide the criminal justice system and applies them to Israeli criminal procedure with regards to privileged evidence. The article reviews how comparative law has approached the issue of secret evidence when it comes to terror suspects, and finally, discusses Israel’s Counter Terrorism Memorandum Bill. 

  7. Simulation of a terrorist attack with intent to a source of Iridium-192 and Radium Sulphate-226: procedures for radiation emergency actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accomplishment of major public events comprises a previous radiological safety planning network, since both public safety and safeguards criteria are based upon risk factors, to which individuals and even the environment may be exposed to, moreover in radiological, nuclear and/or terrorist threats. Therefore, a preventive and extensive local radiological survey must be performed, aiming the detection of unexpected radioactive material, being it a sealed or unsealed source or even in the dispersed form. Once confirmed its presence, protective actions must be started up, with monitoring and restraint of the source/material, followed by dose and dose rate assessment in environment, as well as contamination in air and in surfaces in general. As a consequence, such measures must be carried out at once, according to specific protocols adopted by the responding team, as soon as the incident is confirmed. Aiming a better qualification in the attendance of major events, a simulated scenario is proposed in this study, comprising an incident with the malicious presence of a radioactive source in the Mario Filho Stadium (Maracana). (author)

  8. Ananalysis on the characteristics of Casualties occurred terrorist attacks since 2010%2010年来全球恐怖活动伤亡特点的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨; 陈活良; 周开园; 鱼敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 恐怖主义既是当代世界的一大公害,又是一个相当复杂的政治和社会问题,它是全人类文明社会的共同敌人,是危害世界和平与安全,经济发展与社会进步的毒瘤.方法 查阅美国国家反恐中心数据库2010年9月~2011年9月间的资料,对一年间恐怖主义事件进行统计分析.结果 本文对2010年9月~2011年9月间,全球恐怖袭击事件的数量、杀伤性、袭击方式以及打击目标的进行全面分析.结论 目前反恐怖袭击形势依然严峻,而恐怖袭击手段主要以武装袭击、爆炸为主,平民仍然是恐怖袭击的主要受害者.%Objective Today, terrorism has become a public hazard and the enemy to the whole world which threatens the peace and safety of the world. Methods A statistical analysis was performed on the record of terrorist attacks collected at the United States National Counterterrorism Center Database from September 2010 to September 2011. Results The number of terrorist attacks, casualties and their objectives were analyzed. Conclusion Bomb and armed attacks are considered as the major methods for terrorist attacks. Civilians are the target in terrorist attacks.

  9. The Use of Dynamic Stochastic Social Behavior Models to Produce Likelihood Functions for Risk Modeling of Proliferation and Terrorist Attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to estimate the likelihood of future events based on current and historical data is essential to the decision making process of many government agencies. Successful predictions related to terror events and characterizing the risks will support development of options for countering these events. The predictive tasks involve both technical and social component models. The social components have presented a particularly difficult challenge. This paper outlines some technical considerations of this modeling activity. Both data and predictions associated with the technical and social models will likely be known with differing certainties or accuracies - a critical challenge is linking across these model domains while respecting this fundamental difference in certainty level. This paper will describe the technical approach being taken to develop the social model and identification of the significant interfaces between the technical and social modeling in the context of analysis of diversion of nuclear material

  10. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  11. 重视城市爆恐事件应急医学救援准备%Emphasizing the importance of emergency medical rescue preparedness in urban explosive terrorist attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连阳

    2016-01-01

    恐怖袭击是战争以外的个人或组织出于某种政治或社会目的而采取的特殊暴力行为,爆炸恐怖袭击事件是最常见的类型。笔者阐述了城市爆恐事件致伤特点和医学救援面临的挑战,详细回顾了波士顿爆炸案医学救援的主要经验,提出了我国应对城市爆恐事件的思路:(1)积极推进创伤救治规范化培训;(2)加快创伤救治中心建设;(3)如实战般开展灾难应急医学演练;(4)做好重大事件应急医学救援保障;(5)总结不足持续改进应急医学救援。%Terrorist attacks are special non⁃war violence behaviors which are made by individuals or organizations for some political or social purposes.Among which,explosive terrorist attack is the most common type.This article has described the characteristics of urban explosion and challenges for its medical rescue, reviewed the major medical rescue experience in Boston bombings,and suggested the following ideas which are helpful for dealing with urban explosion terrorist events:( 1 ) Actively promote the standardization of trauma treat training. ( 2 ) Accelerate the construction of trauma treat centers. ( 3 ) Carry out combat⁃like emergency medical rescue training. ( 4 ) Provide good medical support for major emergency events. ( 5) Continuously improve emergency medical rescue based on summarizing the previous shortcomings.

  12. Preliminary nuclear terrorist effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear device is assumed to be a small-yield (less than a few tens of kilotons) fission device. A location of such a device in a city street is assumed, and the probable behavior of the blast wave, thermal radiation, and fallout is discussed

  13. Public opinion and terrorist acts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2011), S107-S121. ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : support for terrorism * public opinion * international terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  14. Terrorist Threats and Judicial Deference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the extent to which judicial restraint in cases concerning national security is justified. It is argued that the extent of restraint must depend on the normative issue/aspect which is subject to judicial review....

  15. 暴恐事件网络舆情风险预警研究%Risk Early Warning Research of Network Public Opinion of Violence and Terrorist Incidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿志凯; 张秋波; 兰月新; 焦扬; 袁野

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance] To improve the scientificity and efficiency of the decision of the network public opinion of violence and terrorist incidents, achieve the defensive early warning, and seize the initiative and discourse power in the anti-terrorism consensus warfare and psychological warfare. [ Method/Process] This article, based on the study of violence and terrorism incidents and factors af-fecting the relevant network public opinion, builds a network public opinion risk early warning index system, including four dimensions of the violence-terrorism incidents, information, media, and netizensˊreaction, using AHP and ABC classification index to do the risk factor weight calculation and risk evaluation. [ Result/Conclusion] Through weighting on the index system, it identifies the high-risk warning factors of violence and terrorism incidents, and the high-risk warning factors can provide the key monitoring targets of the public opinion risk early warning system, making it strong for operability in meeting the requirements of actual combat, the coping strategies to be adopt-ed in real anti-terrorism activities are also presented.%[目的/意义]为提高暴恐事件网络舆情决策的科学性及时效性,实现防御性预警,夺取反恐舆论战及心理战的主动权和话语权。[方法/过程]在研究暴恐事件及网络舆情影响因素的基础上,构建了包含暴恐事件、信息特性、媒体报道、网民反应四个维度的暴恐事件网络舆情风险预警指标体系,并运用层次分析法、ABC分类法对风险指标进行权重计算及风险评估。[结果/结论]为舆情风险预警提供符合实战需求以及可操作性强的重点监测目标,获得舆情高风险因素,并结合高风险因素及反恐现实需求提出舆情应对策略,以期为暴恐事件网络舆情预警处置提供有价值的参考。

  16. THE RISE OF HOMO ISLAMICUS.AMERICAN COLLECTIVE IDENTITY MARKERS AND TERRORIST IDENTITY MARKERS AS THEY REVEAL THEMSELVES IN THE DISCURSIVE COHESION OF CONCEPTS ‘TERRORISM’ AND ‘ISLAM’ IN THE WASHINGTON POST 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stolovitskaia, Anastassia

    2008-01-01

    “The Rise of Homo Islamicus. American Collective Identity Markers and Terrorist Identity Markers as They Reveal Themselves in the Discursive Cohesion of Concepts ‘Terrorism’ and ‘Islam’ in The Washington Post 2001-2008” af Anastassia Stolovitskaia er integreret speciale i Engelsk og Kultur-og Sprogmødestuder på Roskilde Universitetscenter fra juni 2008. Specialet omhandler studiet af den diskursive kobling af begreberne ’Islam’ og ’Terrorisme’ på baggrund af elleve artikler fra The Washin...

  17. A Systems-Based Approach to Intelligence Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen Givens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 prompted the most comprehensive changes to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC since its creation via the National Security Act of 1947. Recent structural and organizational reforms, such as efforts to enhance information sharing and recruit speakers of hard-target languages, have also triggered new challenges to successful transformation. In light of the systemic problems facing the IC, this paper argues that systems engineering, a discipline increasingly useful in organizational change, offers a more efficient, holistic approach to the intelligence reform process than the status quo. Systems engineering views the IC as an integrated and interdependent system, whose value is primarily realized through the relationship among its components. The author makes the case that a systems-based approach to intelligence reform can enhance effectiveness while reducing the risk of unintended consequences.

  18. Threatening “the Good Order”: West Meets East in Cecil B. DeMille’s The Cheat and John Updike’s Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Freeman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Despite almost a hundred years of separation, both Cecil B. DeMille’s film The Cheat (1915 and John Updike’s novel Terrorist (2006 deploy a clear-cut territorial divide between Western and Eastern spaces in order to envision a unified American space. These narratives superimpose a “natural” division on these historically opposed spaces and thereby suggest that any contact between these spaces will have dangerous consequences. These consequences include the potential dissolution and eventual destruction of American productivity, surveillance, and territorial integrity. DeMille’s film and Updike’s novel represent America as a nation-state that must be protected from the East. In 1915, The Cheat warned against an interracial America and the upsurge in immigration that characterized the turn of the century. Nearly a century later, Terrorist presupposes an interracial America but still constructs an East that threatens the security of America. While registering the particular concerns of two distinct historical moments, these narratives represent a larger attempt in American aesthetics to imagine an East that jeopardizes the utopian possibilities of an overly idealized American space.

  19. 西方媒体对涉华暴恐事件报道立场原因浅析%An Analysis of Western Media's Position in the reporting of China-related Terrorist Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梓畅

    2016-01-01

    在对近年涉华暴恐事件的报道中,西方媒体与中国媒体对有关事件的性质定义产生争议已成为常态。西方媒体在对涉华暴恐事件报道时往往采取与中国截然相反的立场,这实际上是其国家意志与精英阶级利益的体现———出于反恐作为政治筹码的考量;中国威胁论、反共思维和冷战思维;中国人权问题;美国地缘政治战略的需要。%It has become the norm that Chinese media and Western media argue about the nature of the incident in the reporting of China-related terrorist attack. Western medias normally take entirely different stance than Chinese media, that is actually the reflection of the will of states and the interests of its elite class———for consideration of the following:the anti-terrorist political bargaining chip, China threat theory, anti-communist thinking, cold war mentality, China human rights issues and the geopolitical strategy of the United States.

  20. Programme Sahamalaza-Iles Radama de l’AEECL : étude et conservation des espèces menacées d’extinction de lémuriens dans le nord-ouest de Madagascar AEECL’s Sahamalaza-Iles Radama Program: study and conservation of threatened species of lemurs in north-west of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dumoulin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’AEECL, Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, est un consortium de parcs zoologiques et d’universités européennes mettant en commun leurs connaissances et leurs efforts en faveur de projets de recherche et de protection des lémuriens menacés d’extinction de Madagascar depuis plus de trente ans. Pour ce faire, l’AEECL mène ou finance des études afin d’améliorer les connaissances scientifiques concernant les lémuriens. Ces informations sont indispensables pour mettre en place les mesures concrètes adaptées pour protéger ces animaux. Ses travaux ont notamment aidé à la reconnaissance de la péninsule de Sahamalaza en tant que réserve de biosphère de l’UNESCO, en 2001 et à la création du parc national Sahamalaza-Iles Radama, en 2007, principal site de recherches menées par l’association. De plus l’AEECL met un point d’honneur à impliquer la population locale. Des associations communautaires locales ont été créées dans les villages de quatre communes. Elles ont le pouvoir de gérer les ressources naturelles de leur juridiction de façon durable.The European Association for the Study and Conservation of Lemurs (Association Européenne pour l’Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens, AEECL is a consortium of European zoological gardens and universities who have joined forces to carry out conservation and research projects for Madagascar’s highly endangered lemurs since more than 30 years. AEECL implements or finances various different research projects to improve the scientific knowledge of lemurs. Information is essential to be able to develop comprehensive conservation and management plans to protect these animals. The work of AEECL has led to the implementation of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in Sahamalaza in 2001 and to the creation of the Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park in 2007. In addition to the research, AEECL is carrying out a community-based natural resource

  1. An integrated approach to risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CBRN mass casualty events threat mitigation remains today the highest international priority. Although significant progress has been made, the national security requirements for efforts to combat Weapons of Mass Destruction and Weapons of Mass Disruption will be of the highest national priority in the near future. An integration of a number of approaches is essential in the risk assessment and mitigating the CBRN treat. Preparedness measures and procedures, engineering, science and technology, policy, medical, and emergency response are essential to reduce the threat from the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Improved coordination between international, public and private security entities is also essential task to hopefully prevent the terrorist attacks. In this lecture, it will be presented very important scientific approach to risk assessment of potential use of nuclear, radiological, biological or chemical weapons in terrorist actions. An integrated approach for mitigating the CBRN threat, crisis management and preparedness measures for prevention and reduction of potential consequences, will be presented.(author)

  2. FINANCING TERRORISM: FROM OFFSHORE COMPANIES TO THE CHARITY PARADOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently living to its edges, menaced at each corner by environmental changes, terrorist attacks, civil wars or biological weapons let loose. With the emerging of the Islamic State and other terrorist cells the entire world under the peaceful globalization sphere questions its security. The paper aims to focus on detailing the most modern ways of financing terrorism, including through tax haven offshore companies, and the charity paradox. Charity institutions, several banks and even Non-Profit Organizations go hand in hand with a full range of felonies, from money laundering to narcotic traffic, humans trafficking, organized crime, arms dealing and terrorist attacks. The paper aims to offer pertinent solutions to tax havens and light legislation in order to prevent terrorist groups and cells from becoming an extensively rich and potent menace to global and state security.

  3. Post-injection nerve injuries in Kashmir: A menace overlooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaat Rashid Tak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nerve injury is a serious complication of intramuscular injections. About 12 billion injections are administered worldwide annually among which 50% are unsafe and 75% are unnecessary.
    • METHODS: Three hundred and ten patients with post-injection nerve injury attended the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College Srinagar (India from Jan 2002 to Dec 2007. All patients were evaluated for the drug injected, site of injection, indication for injection and person who injected the drug. Severity of neurodeficit and socioeconomic and educational status of the patient was also noted.
    • RESULTS: A total of 278 patients had sciatic nerve injury, 29 had radial nerve injury and 3 had axillary nerve injury. One hundred and forty one were male and 169 were female patients. Injections were administered by unqualified persons in 258 patients (83%. Patients’ age ranged from 1 to 98 years (mean 37 years and they were followed for 24 to 60 months (mean follow up 36.6 months.
    • CONCLUSIONS: This alarming situation of unsafe injection practice needs an urgent check by preventing unauthorized personnel from injecting medicines, organizing compulsory update and refresher courses for all health service staff and educating the patients.
    • KEYWORDS: Kashmir, nerve, injury, post-injection.

  4. Miracle or Menace?: The Arrival of Cocaine 1860-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of cocaine was the formative episode in the modern understanding of the benefits and dangers of neurostimulants. European culture and medicine had historically been poor in stimulant plants and drugs. When coca and cocaine appeared in nineteenth-century Europe, doctors, pharmacists, and the public struggled to understand their benefits and risks, and to formulate a distinction between use and abuse. PMID:26070752

  5. Hepatitis C, A Mega Menace: A Pakistani Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPMS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Umar, Mohammad Bilal (Chair, World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO Hep C Guidelines Committee; Governor, American College of Gastroenterology; Professor of Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan (pages: 68-72

  6. SIKHISM AND THE MENACE OF FEMALE FETICIDE IN SIKH COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Arvinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Guru Nanak's system is a whole-life system like Islam and Judaism, and takes an integrated view of the spiritual and empirical aspects of life. Consequently, it categorically rejects monasticism, asceticism and withdraws from life. It sanctions a householder's life with full social participation and social responsibility. Brotherhood of mankind and equality of men and women and of all castes are repeatedly emphasized in the divine hymns and the lives of the Sikh Gurus. It is a...

  7. SIKHISM AND THE MENACE OF FEMALE FETICIDE IN SIKH COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvinder Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Guru Nanak's system is a whole-life system like Islam and Judaism, and takes an integrated view of the spiritual and empirical aspects of life. Consequently, it categorically rejects monasticism, asceticism and withdraws from life. It sanctions a householder's life with full social participation and social responsibility. Brotherhood of mankind and equality of men and women and of all castes are repeatedly emphasized in the divine hymns and the lives of the Sikh Gurus. It is a radical departure from the Hindu social ideology of Varna Ashram Dharma. From the beginning of Sikh tradition, women have held an important place. Sikh history holds stories of the many women who helped in many ways to shape the faith. Women have been active and central subjects in Sikh history and they are remembered in prayer and song along with their male counterparts. Until Guru Nanak's time women in Indian society had long played a subordinate role. The inferior status of women, however, did not fit into His vision of total equality for all people.

  8. Toxicity from Metals, Old Menaces and New Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals make up the bulk of the periodic table and range from the very light (e.g., beryllium to the very heavy (e.g., the actinides. Metals are important constituents of life, drive economic activity and industry, but can also be a hazard to human health. The metals can be roughly divided into three groups. The first being those metals, such as iron and zinc, that are essential to human life and have a wide therapeutic dose range. The second group of metals, such as lead, mercury, and uranium, has no known biological role and are toxic even at low doses. The third group of metals, such as selenium and manganese, has a role in maintaining human health but has a very narrow dose range that, when exceeded, produces toxic effects. [...

  9. Contemporary Nigerian Popular music: A Menace to National Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunrinade D O A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no gainsaying that most of the recent forms of contemporary popular music produced, packaged, made available for public consumption constitute grave danger and serious threat to moral uprightness in Nigerian society. This has exposed the Nigerian society to a wide variety of insecurity and violence. This is evident as seen from series of moral decadence and dissipation that infiltrated the lives of the citizenry - especially the youths (the leaders of tomorrow ranging from, sexual abuse, money mongering, indiscipline, examination malpractice and indecent dressing to mention but a few. Music is a powerful tool and a force for mobilization which brings about either reformation or deformation of character due to the type of rhythm, melody, harmony and principally the lyrics of the songs. This paper examines the new trend of contemporary popular music in Nigeria with a view to assess its negative and pessimistic impacts on the character molding of the citizenry in Nigerian society. Live performances of contemporary popular music were observed and audio and video tape materials relating to the said music were also analyzed based on their educational  and moral values of such songs. It was  discovered that contemporary popular music as we have it today in Nigeria communicates vulgarity and coarseness to the listeners and this poses a lot of negative effects on the attitude of the youths. Musicians employ indecent words to attract the youth thus creating negative influence on the character of the leaders of tomorrow (the youth to engage in various   debauchery.  The paper therefore, suggested that relevant agencies should be put in place to ensure that apart from entertainment, music should convey positive character building messages rather than music that egg on and motivate illicit acts. Likewise, musicians should compose songs in the spirit of societal reformation so as to impact moral virtues on the younger generation  thus encouraging holistic human development.

  10. Oxidative stress and stress signaling: menace of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loren E WOLD; Asli F CEYLAN-ISIK; Jun REN

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the diabetic population and is currently one of the leading causes of death in the United States and other industrialized countries. The health care expenses associated with cardiovascular disease are staggering, reaching more than US$350 billion in 2003. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high fat/cholesterol levels,alcoholism, smoking, genetics, environmental factors and hypertension, which are commonly used to gauge an individual's risk of cardiovascular disease and to track their progress during therapy. Most recently, these factors have become important in the early prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and breakdown by endogenous antioxidants, has been implicated in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes-associated heart dysfunction (diabetic cardiomyopathy). Antioxidant therapy has shown promise in preventing the development of diabetic heart complications. This review focuses on recent advances in oxidative stress theory and antioxidant therapy in diabetic cardiomyopathy, with an emphasis on the stress signaling pathways hypothesized to be involved. Many of these stress signaling pathways lead to activation of reactive oxygen species, major players in the development and progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  11. The phantom menace of city in graphic novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stanič

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphic novels are a type of narrative, in which series of images are complemented with spoken words, thoughts of the depicted persons or additional explanatory descriptions next to the images, below them or in the images themselves. The text and images augment each other. The narrative is read and observed. The subject of the article is the representation of city in graphic novels and the depiction of city as the setting of stories, whatever their genre.

  12. "Krokodil"-a menace slowly spreading across the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tony; Gheevarghese, Santhosh J; Gandhi, Umesh; Bhat, Zeenat Y; Pillai, Unnikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Krokodil (also known as crocodile, croc, krok, and poor man's heroin) is a suspension of desomorphine as the core substance with contaminants like iodide, phosphorous, and heavy metals, which are the byproducts of the manufacturing process. The name krokodil emerged due to the appearance of the skin lesions around the injection site, where it turns green and scaly like a crocodile skin due to desquamation. It is also known as the "drug that eats junkies" and "Russia's Designer drug." It is not available as a prescription anywhere in the world. It is a modern day man-made Frankenstein-like drug, which was manufactured due to the pursuit of drug addicts to make a cheap yet effective narcotic but ended up in creating havoc on its users. It has devastating effects on its users, including damage to skin, blood vessels, muscles, bones, and sometimes even multiorgan failure and eventually death. A systemic review was conducted to obtain any available data for the term krokodil to collect information for this article. PMID:25756471

  13. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  14. “Torture of terrorists ? Use of torture in a ‘war against terrorism' : justifications, methods and effects : the case of France in Algeria, 1954-1962 »,

    OpenAIRE

    Branche, Raphaëlle

    2007-01-01

    International audience Lors de la guerre qui l'opposa au mouvement nationaliste armé luttant pour l'indépendance de l'Algérie (1954-1962), la France recourut massivement à la torture. Celle-ci fut essentiellement justifiée par le terrorisme utilisé par le Front de Libération Nationale, alors que cette violence terroriste n'était ni l'essentiel de l'action des nationalistes ni la cible réelle de l'armée française. L'étude des méthodes employées et des buts poursuivis permet en effet de reme...

  15. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  16. The Mediterranean dialogue - a transatlantic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    "One of the consequences of the EU expansion is the advancement of the Middle East and Mediterranean region to constitute the southern borders of the EU. Thus, the strategic importance of these regions to the EU has increased. A significance that has been strengthened by the special relationship that the two regions (the EU and the Gulf) share with international terrorism: one is the target of terrorist attacks and the other the birth and breeding place of terrorists. The fact that these area...

  17. Detecting concealed information from groups using a dynamic questioning approach: simultaneous skin conductance measurement and immediate feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewout H Meijer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lie detection procedures typically aim at determining the guilt or innocence of a single suspect. The Concealed Information Test (CIT, for example, has been shown to be highly successful in detecting the presence or absence of crime-related information in a suspect’s memory. Many of today’s security threats, however, do not come from individuals, but from organized groups such as criminal organizations or terrorist networks. In this study, we tested whether a plan of an upcoming mock terrorist attack could be extracted from a group of suspects using a dynamic questioning approach. One-hundred participants were tested in 20 groups of 5. Each group was asked to plan a mock terrorist attack based on a list of potential countries, cities and streets. Next, three questions referring to the country, city, and street were presented, each with 5 options. Skin conductance in all 5 members of the group was measured simultaneously during this presentation. The dynamic questioning approach entailed direct analysis of the data, and if the average skin conductance of the group to a certain option exceeded a threshold, this option was followed up. E.g., if the reaction to the option ‘Italy’ exceeded the threshold, this was followed up by presenting 5 cities in Italy. Results showed that in 19 of the 20 groups the country was correctly detected using this procedure. In 13 of these remaining 19 groups the city was correctly detected. In 7 of these 13, the street was also correctly detected. The question about the country resulted in no false positives (out of 20, the question about the city resulted in 2 false positives (out of 19, while the question about the streets resulted in 2 false positives (out of 13. Furthermore, the 2 false positives at the city level also yielded a false positive at the street level. Taken together these results indicate our dynamic questioning approach can help to unveil plans about a mock terrorist attack.

  18. Approaches to quantitative risk assessment with applications to PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Experience with accidents such as Goiania in Brazil and indications of a considerable number of orphan sources suggest that improved protection would be desirable for some types of radioactive material of wide-spread use such as radiation sources for civil purposes. Regarding large potential health and economic consequences (in particular, if terrorists attacks cannot be excluded), significant costs of preventive actions, and large uncertainties about both the likelihood of occurrence and the potential consequences of PP safety and security incidents, an optimum relationship between preventive and mitigative efforts is likely to be a key issue for successful risk management in this field. Thus, possible violations of physical protection combined with threats of misuse of nuclear materials, including terrorist attack, pose considerable challenges to global security from various perspectives. In view of these challenges, recent advance in applied risk and decision analysis suggests methodological and procedural improvements in quantitative risk assessment, the demarcation of acceptable risk, and risk management. Advance is based on a recently developed model of optimal risky choice suitable for assessing and comparing the cumulative probability distribution functions attached to safety and security risks. Besides quantification of risk (e. g., in economic terms), the standardization of various risk assessment models frequently used in operations research can be approached on this basis. The paper explores possible applications of these improved methods to the safety and security management of nuclear materials, cost efficiency of risk management measures, and the establishment international safety and security standards of PP. Examples will be presented that are based on selected scenarios of misuse involving typical radioactive sources. (author)

  19. An Overview of Geographical Perspectives and Approaches in Terrorism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bahgat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical perspectives and approaches are implemented in some areas of conflict research, but can benefit many more. While the body of geographically-oriented terrorism literature has been growing since the 2001, a geo-spatial focus has traditionally been absent from most research on terrorism research and remains largely unfamiliar to many terrorism researchers. This article explores geographical literature on terrorism and its contributions to the understanding of terrorism as an empirical phenomenon. The article suggests three particular contributions from geographical perspectives: 1 the geography of terrorism is linked to specific places and contexts throughout the world where governance failures lead to grievance and opportunity; 2 the terrorist attack cycle occurs along specific spatial trajectories that can be identified and possibly policed; and 3 terrorist attacks have significant negative impacts but are spatially limited and not as severe as presumed by much of the conventional literature.  These aspects vary, depending on whether the violence is waged by territorial or non-territorial groups. Included in the article is a list of data sources that may serve as a partial guide for future geographic research. 

  20. Anti-Terrorists Combat Effectiveness Evaluation Based on Fuzzy AHP and DEA Comprehensive Evaluation%基于AHP和DEA综合评判的反恐分队综合作战效能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 吴帅; 王公宝

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the impact of comprehensive anti-terrorist unit operational effectiveness of the main factors,the evaluation model of comprehensive anti-terrorism unit combat effectiveness and evaluation index system is given.Then the Fuzzy AHP method is used to indicate the comprehensive anti-terrorism combat effectiveness evaluation.Finally,the DEA model is used to analysis the validity of the first level indicator and pointed out the need to improve the amplitude of invalid index.%通过分析影响反恐分队综合作战效能的主要因素,建立了反恐分队综合作战效能评估的指标体系.然后,运用模糊AHP评估模型对反恐分队综合作战效能进行定位评估.最后,运用DEA模型对一级指标进行了有效性分析,并指出了无效指标需要提高的幅度.

  1. MOOC:互联网金融反洗钱及反恐融资培训的新模式%MOOC:A new pattern of anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing training in internet finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海帆; 毛瑞华; 沈小涛

    2015-01-01

    文章从互联网与金融加速融合的宏观背景出发,讨论了互联网金融的内在逻辑及其对洗钱与反洗钱带来的新影响,针对金融行业反洗钱培训中效果增加与成本控制的矛盾解决,分析了MOOC 教学的理论优势以及将其引入国内反洗钱培训的必要性与可能性,并进一步探讨了实现这一构想的 MOOC 组织形式、MOOC 运行模式和 MOOC 课程设计等问题。%Against the background of the integration of internet and finance,the paper discusses the internal logic of internet finance and its new influences on money laundering & anti-money launde-ring,and then analyzes the theoretical advantages of MOOC teaching and the necessities and possibili-ties of applying MOOC to anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing(AML/CTF)training in China.It finally expounds the key points in the process of realizing the above goal,namely the organi-zational form,operation mode and course design of MOOC teaching in AML/CTF training.

  2. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  3. A PROFICIENT TRACEBACK APPROACH USING PROVINCIAL LOCALITY ASPECTS TO ELIMINATE DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Denial-of-Service (DoS attack, a menace to the availability of resources and service to the intended user, is usually by augmenting the traffic in the communication medium. These attacks originate in either ways, internal or external to a network with the aim to suspend the legitimate user from getting his/her service. The DoS attacks have been countered through various approaches, yet this problem remains stable in field. The traceback mechanisms of the attacker necessitate a large amount of valuable information which is usually hidden by the attacker or not documented in the network. Moreover the network has strict constraints over the usage of memory resources by the nodes and routers, equivalent to an empty memory nature. The amount of data reasonably required for computation would increase the processing delay which is usually unexpected. The counter measures proposed tried to detect the network under attack or to track the attacker with some degree of information available. Nowadays these attacks have evolved to break out from all those detection approaches with greater immunity to not reveal their identity. This study works with the physical zone addresses to detect and traceback the identity of the attacker. The packet sent from the attacker carries merely the part of its identity. Yet the Provincial Assessment Attributes (PAA possesses the geographical locality aspects in terms of Continent Code, Country Code, State Codes and the Area Codes along with its IP address. Accepting the factor that IP is spoofed in most cases, the routers in the path are still able to keep track of these PAA prospects irrespective of the faked IP. Hence this mechanism could be implemented with minimal computation, leading to the attacker with considerable and fruitful results in identifying the same. Besides, this method takes deep care to authenticate and not to affect the traffic of legitimate users.

  4. On the Time Varying Relationship between Oil Price and G7 Equity index: a Multivariate Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Guesmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the interaction between G7 stock markets and oil prices during the period 1998-2013. We employ a multivariate approach based on c-DCC-FIAPARCH framework that incorporates the features of asymmetries, persistence, that are typically observed in stock markets and oil prices. We show that the origin of oil price shock is the main driver of the relationship between stock and oil markets. More specifically, our results show, in one hand, that G7 equity market has a high correlation with oil market in the presence of aggregate demand oil price shocks (Asian crisis, housing market boom, Chinese growth, subprime crisis. In other hand, our results highlight that G7 equity market did not react to precautionary demand shocks (09/11 US terrorist attacks, and second Iraq war in 2003.

  5. Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed

    2004-08-01

    We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

  6. When do governments concede to terrorists?

    OpenAIRE

    Lasiter, Nolan O.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study addresses the question of whether violence leads to governments making concessions. There were four hypotheses proposed that support the research on this question. The first proposed that there was no correlation between levels of violence and concessions. The second proposed that concessions increase as violence increases. The third proposed that concessions decrease as violence decreases. The final hypothesis proposed that...

  7. Hospital Prepardness for a Radiological Terrorist Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological incidents present uniquely challenging scenarios for hospital emergency planning and response. Radiological terrorism has been recognized as a probable scenario with high impact and hospitals are being educated to deal with this threat. The purpose of this paper is to present the hospital's experience preparing staff and infrastructure for response to a Radiological Dispersal Device(RDD) explosion

  8. The terrorists of the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few days in the Middle East the world has, once again, seen the implementation of pure Nazi methods, which everybody had thought to have been forever condemned to the rubbish bin of History. The capture of a single Israeli soldier by Palestinian guerillas in a battle with the Israeli army (following the killing of scores of Palestinian women and children over the previous days by the same army, for which Israel refused to accept an independent inquiry is now being paid for through the collective punishment of the entire Gaza population.

  9. Who Gets Designated a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Colin J.; Miner, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This study examines formal terrorism designations by governments through the lens of organization studies research on categorization processes. It is argued that designations hinge on markers from the organizational profile of a militant group. Using cross-sectional data on militant organizations and designations by the United States, the United…

  10. SYNTHETIC JET APPLIED TO DETECT POTENTIAL TERRORISTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 229-234. ISSN 1231-3998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jets * annular jets * terrorism Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Macroeconomic Effects of Terrorist Shocks in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Larocque; Geneviève Lincourt; Michel Normandin

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural vector autoregression model to assess the dynamic effects of terrorism on output and prices in Israel over the post-1985 period. Long-run restrictions are used to obtain an interpretation of the effects of terrorism in terms of aggregate demand and supply curves. The empirical responses of output and prices suggest that the immediate effects of terrorism are similar to those associated with a negative demand shock. Such leftward shift of the aggregate demand ...

  12. 医院遂行城市维稳行动批量伤病员院内救治流程设计%Treatment Process Design for the Batches of Wounded in Terrorist Attacks in the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彦宏; 张琼; 曹金军; 缪绍武; 陶发胜

    2012-01-01

    针对城市维稳批量伤病员医疗救治特点和原则,基于军队平战时卫勤保障流程理论,利用运筹学原理,优化设计城市维稳批量伤病员在综合医院院内救治流程,明确流程设计的思路与目的.通过优化,将院内救治工作划分为:应急准备、分诊急救、专科救治和康复治疗等阶段.运用网络技术,对每个阶段各个工作节点和路线进行描述,从而确定了城市维稳批量伤病员院内救治工作的关键路线和关键活动;通过组织指挥和管理,保证关键路线和关键活动的如期实现,实施救治机构的标准化作业,确保伤病员救治效率和效益的最大化.要确保流程设计的合理性和有效性,医院还需建立救治流程管理制度体系,通过PDCA循环,在实践中不断校正和优化流程设计,以制度形式,保证团队对标准化流程掌握和运用,推动流程设计的持续改进,从而实现优化设计目的.%Based on the military medical support process theory and operations research theory, and combining with characteristics and principles of medical treatment of the sick and wounded at urban maintenance stability operations, the treatment process was redesigned for the batches of wounded in terrorist attacks in the hospital. In the new process, the treatment work was divided into the stages of emergency preparedness, triage emergency, special treatment and rehabilitation. With the network technology, each stage of work and route was described, and then the critical path and critical activities were determined of the treatment work. Then the measures were taken as the organization, command and management to ensure the critical path and activities to be carried out smoothly. Also the author proposed to schedule the standardized operation of the institutions, set up the process management system.

  13. Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    Dada a complexidade dos conflitos e crises, muitos governos e organizações estão, actualmente, num processo de desenvolvimento de conceitos e abordagens à gestão de crises. Não há nenhuma definição comummente aceite para a Comprehensive Approach. O presente trabalho faz uma abordagem ao desenvolvimento do termo, descrevendo e analisando a adopção da Comprehensive Approach a nível multilateral. Actores multinacionais como a ONU, a OTAN e a UE estão a desenvolver novos conceitos para uma apr...

  14. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  15. Narrative approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    -creation between coach and coachee. The conceptual framework will be tested by presenting central results of a research project. The ideas discussed in this chapter expand upon earlier concepts of the narrative approach (mainly formulated by White in 2007) by integrating ideas from phenomenology and experiential...

  16. Preventing nuclear terrorism: Towards an integrative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the threat of nuclear terrorism is at the centre of the United States' and the international security agenda. It was not always so. Only after the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent attacks around the world has the international community mobilized to confront the spectre of terrorists armed with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). We can all take pride in the important work and steps taken to address nuclear terrorism in the four years since 11 September 2001. Progress is under way to improve the security of nuclear and radioactive material, to update antiterror norms and controls over nuclear technologies, and to heighten awareness of the dangers arising from nuclear terrorism, thanks in part to conferences like this. As impressive as these gains may be, far more remains to be done to keep nuclear and radiological weapons out of the hands of terrorists and the States that sponsor them. A useful step forward would be to move towards an integrated strategy that joins more conventional antinuclear-terror activities (i.e. securing nuclear and radioactive assets against theft and sabotage) with efforts to strengthen the core of the non-proliferation regime (i.e. safeguards, physical protection, export controls and strengthened treaty regimes) to prevent terrorist acquisition or brokering of WMD technologies. Prevention of nuclear terrorism and traditional non-proliferation programmes form two halves of the same walnut; we cannot treat them as separate enterprises

  17. Forecasting Terrorism: The Need for a More Systematic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a unique branch of terrorism literature—terrorism futures—by academics, think tanks, and governmental agencies published between 2000 and 2012. To this end, it examines over sixty publications that attempt to discern possible futures of terrorism. In general, the track record of forecasting terrorism has not been good. This is particularly true for major changes in the modus operandi of terrorism, the attacks on 9/11 being a case in point. The analyses of the future of terrorism shows an absence of methodologies, and the lack of theoretical foundations, which lead to limited insights about the causes of changes in terrorism. Most forecasts seem to say more about the present state of terrorism than about the future. The article concludes with a call for a more systematic approach grounded in theory and methodology in order to improve the quality of foresight studies, and to enable researchers to better understand how to assess, model, forecast, and respond to the future terrorist threat.

  18. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    particular needs, which teachers must be aware of and deal with. Secondly, I propose a combination of adult learners’ characteristics with ‘teaching orientations’, as a basis for further research on teachers of adults’ professional development. Some of the competencies that teachers need can be taught in......This paper is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Data is collected at a Danish Adult Education Centre. The aim of the study is to understand teachers’ learning experiences. The research...... questions are: How (much) and what do teachers learn from experience? And how do teachers of adults develop their pedagogical approach? I examine the field of adult learners from the teachers’ perspective. Firstly, I identify some of the commonly described characteristics of adults as learners and their...

  19. An integrated approach to adapt physical protection to the new terrorism threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New terrorism (NT) differs significantly from the traditional form of terrorism insofar as it has the capability to: train and deploy suicide commandos; use sophisticated logistics; implement transnational terrorist operations; infiltrate security and diplomatic communities; and commit acts of mass disturbance and mass killings. NT does not engage in negotiations: it does not discriminate in its attacks between children, adult civilians or military personnel; and it is willing to deploy weapons of mass destruction. These characteristics require that the conventional approach to physical protection of installations dealing with nuclear and other radioactive materials (e.g., Design Basis Threat (DBT)) be adapted accordingly. This integrated approach should encompass: at the international level: revised legally binding conventions and recommendations which are more specific than current versions, providing practically applicable advice reflecting the new threat scenarios; at the national level: introducing an element of transparency for validating the national threat perception and supra-national review of the effectiveness of the counteractions taken such as regulatory approaches implementing these international agreements; at the operational level: enhancing security-related co-operation at the command and control level between the on-site security forces at nuclear installations, the response force, police and the military, as well as upgrading of the force-on-force training; and at the research level: R and D in physical protection technology and practices to keep abreast of the threats posed by the NT. (author)

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Hababeh; Issa Khalil; Abdallah Khreishah; Samir Bataineh

    2013-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we wi...

  1. A simplified approach to the basic principle of security measures onboard ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons whymerchant ships make desirable targetsfor pirates and terrorists as well as aconvenient means of transport for thestowaway. Criminal activity in the form ofsuch threats is quickly becoming one ofthe greatest threats to ships and their

  2. A Novel Approach for Social Network Analysis & Web Mining for Counter Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. G. A. Patil; Prof. K. B. Manwade; Mr. P. S. Landge

    2012-01-01

    Terrorists and extremists are increasingly utilizing Internet technology as an effective mode to enhance their ability to influence the outside world. Lack of multilingual and multimediaterrorist/extremist collections and advanced analytical methodologies; limit our experiential understanding of their Internet usage. To address this research gap, we explore an integrated approachfor identifying and collecting terrorist/extremist Web contents and to discover hidden relationships among communit...

  3. Combating terrorism in the Brazilian Tri-Border area a necessary law enforcement strategic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Adriano M.

    2007-01-01

    The whole world is in some way affected by terrorism. It has many faces, different causes, and comes about by distinct ways around the globe. As a consequence, in the Brazilian Tri-border Area (TBA) terrorism has its own characteristics. In the TBA, terrorist groups are focused on supporting activities for their organizations. The problems related to terrorism in the TBA are connected with the struggle between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. Terrorist groups, such as Hezbollah and...

  4. Emerging resistance to aminoglycosides in lactic acid bacteria of food origin-an impending menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimee, G; Halami, P M

    2016-02-01

    Aminoglycosides are the most preferred choice of therapy against serious infections in humans. Therefore, its use in animal husbandry has been strictly regulated in the EU, UK, and USA to avoid the hazards of aminoglycoside resistance in gut microflora. Nevertheless, aminoglycosides are recommended for prophylaxis and therapeutics in food animals and agriculture owing to its bactericidal nature. In the recent past, the global surge in aminoglycoside-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from food sources has been noticed that might question its continued use in animal husbandry. Upon antibiotic administration, a selective pressure is created in the gut environment; in such instances, LAB could act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance which may facilitate their transfer to pathogenic organisms contradicting its probiotic and industrial significance. This may be a risk to human health as the presence of one aminoglycoside resistance gene renders the bacteria tolerant to almost all antibiotics of the same class, thereby challenging its therapeutic efficacy. Low doses of aminoglycosides are recommended in farm animals due to its toxic nature and insolubility in blood. However, recent investigations indicate that use of aminoglycosides in sub-lethal concentrations can trigger the selection and conjugal transfer of aminoglycoside resistance in probiotic LAB. Resistance to erythromycin, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones in LAB were reported earlier to which immediate regulatory measures were adopted by some countries. Paradoxically, lack of regulations on antibiotic use in farms in most developing countries makes them a potential source of antibiotic resistance and its uncontrolled spread around the globe. The prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance was observed in enterococci from food origin earlier; however, its emergence in lactobacilli and pediococci suggests its spread in probiotic cultures which prompts immediate precautionary methods. This review highlights the emergence and hazards of aminoglycoside-resistant LAB which is in prime commercial demand both for preparing fermented food and also pharma-based therapeutics. It further focuses on the mode of aminoglycoside resistance and its occurrence in food-grade LAB, thus relating to its role in worldwide transfer via the food chain in spite of its limited use as compared to other antibiotics. PMID:26631185

  5. Cenotes et trous bleus, sites remarquables menacés par l’écotourisme

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Jean-Noël

    2008-01-01

    Les cenotes sont des avens d’origine karstique qui donnent regard sur la nappe phréatique. Les trous bleus sont de même origine mais se situent en mer. Ces formes originales ont longtemps été considérées comme mystérieuses : pourtant elles sont connues depuis très longtemps. C’est grâce aux cenotes que la civilisation maya a pu se développer car ils permettaient l’accès à l’eau. Plus tard, de la colonisation et jusqu’à l’époque actuelle, des pompages dans les cenotes ont permis l’établissemen...

  6. Kikuchi-fujimoto disease, the masquerading menace: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kataria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD or histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis is a rare, benign, self-limiting disease with unknown etiology characterized by regional lymphadenopathy. A 30-year-old female presented with fever, weakness, multiple joint pain, oral ulcers, erythematous facial rashes, hemorrhagic crusting on both lips, and cervical lymphadenopathy of 2-month duration. Clinically, the disease was mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus, but immunofluorescence was negative for it. Lymph node biopsy suggested a diagnosis of KFD.

  7. the run for arming and conflicts in Middle-East menace the safety of petroleum supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in the Middle-East is always a run to get arming equipment. Conflicts between Bahrain and Qatar, between Qatar and Saudi Arabia or between this last one and Yemen are a danger for the stability in this area; without forgetting Iran power rising. This situation is an obstacle to economic development, stability of policy and it goes against local populations interests, against industrialized countries interests and against petroleum industry interest itself

  8. Third-party funding in international arbitration: a menace or panacea?

    OpenAIRE

    Maniruzzaman, Munir

    2011-01-01

    As its Council Member I attended the ICC Institute of World Business Law’s 32nd annual meeting on ‘Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration’ held in Paris on 26 November 2012. It was a grand success as it drew many professionals, arbitrators, experts, academic specialists and, above all, representatives from some major third-party funding bodies such as Burford Group Ltd., Calunius Capital LLP, Fulbrook Management LLC and others, and the discussion and debates generated a great deal o...

  9. Are mist nets a menace for threatened insects? A first attempt to gather quantitative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Maltzeff, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    level and represent a bycatch of mist net techniques, especially in early spring and at sunrise, when their swarming and reproductive activity is high. When summed with other factors affecting these beetles, such as habitat loss and fragmentation, this tool may represent a threat for vulnerable insect...

  10. Nitrates et nitrites : Polluants qui menacent la santé et l’environnement

    OpenAIRE

    Laila IDRISSI

    2006-01-01

    Les nitrites et les nitrates sont des substances chimiques naturelles qui entrent dans le cycle de l’azote. Ce dernier est consommé par les plantes sous forme de nitrates qui correspond au minéral le plus fréquent dans les eaux. Les nitrates sont beaucoup utilisés dans les engrais inorganiques et les explosifs, comme agents de conservation des aliments et comme substances chimiques brutes dans divers procédés industriels. Les nitrites servent surtout d’agents de conservation des aliments, en ...

  11. Les cultures pérennes sont-elles menacées ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despreaux Denis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières décennies, les cultures pérennes ont connu un formidable essor dans les zones tropicales humides. Grâce à une demande toujours croissante en chocolat, café et caoutchouc naturel, les plantations de cacaoyers, de caféiers et d’hévéas se sont répandues sur plusieurs dizaines de millions d’hectares à travers tous les continents. Pour ce qui concerne les oléagineux, les cultures de cocotiers et, plus récemment, de palmiers à huile, ont connu des évolutions comparables. Les retours financiers que procurent ces cultures sont considérables et pèsent souvent de manière déterminante sur les économies des pays producteurs. Par ailleurs, ces productions agricoles alimentent aussi des filières économiques dynamiques et importantes pour les pays du Nord, telles que celles des pneumatiques, de l’agro-alimentaire ou des produits cosmétiques. Cependant, le nouveau contexte de politiques libéralisées et mondialisées, ainsi que l’émergence de questions nouvelles sur la gestion durable des territoires et des ressources naturelles, amènent à s’interroger sur la place qui sera réservée à ces productions agricoles au cours du xxie siècle.

  12. Enfermement des étrangers : l’Europe sous la menace du syndrome maltais

    OpenAIRE

    Rodier, Claire; Teule, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    La République de Malte, située à mi-chemin entre le continent européen et l’Afrique, est depuis toujours à la croisée des circuits migratoires. Avec l’élargissement du 1er mai 2004, Malte est devenue une des portes d’entrée de l’Union européenne pour des centaines de personnes qui échouent par choix ou plus souvent par hasard sur ses plages. Pour faire face à ce phénomène, les autorités maltaises ont mis en œuvre une politique d’enfermement systématique des étrangers qui arrivent irrégulièrem...

  13. 禽流感的威胁%The menace of avian influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关尽忠

    2004-01-01

    禽流感(Avian influenza AI)过去相当一段时间内把它称之为鸡瘟(Fowl qlague):它于1878年首次报道于意大利,1901年证实其病原为“滤过性”痫原体,1955年才证明其病原为甲型流感病毒的一员。后来发现实际上在禽中还有一种相似的疾病即新城疫(Newcastle disease ND)。常常两者混为一淡。为

  14. Biodiversité, conservation et menaces actuelles pesant sur les abeilles domestiques européennes

    OpenAIRE

    De La Rúa, Pilar; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Dall' Olio, Raffaele; Muñoz, Irene; Serrano, José

    2009-01-01

    International audience Europe harbours several endemic honeybee (Apis mellifera) subspecies. Yet the distribution of these subspecies is nowadays also much influenced by beekeeping activities. Large scale migratory beekeeping and trade in queens, coupled with the promiscuous mating system of honeybees, have exposed native European honeybees to increasing introgressive hybridization with managed non-native subspecies, which may lead to the loss of valuable combinations of traits shaped by n...

  15. A tropical menace of co-infection of Japanese encephalitis and neurocysticercosis in two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Sudhakar, Sniya Valsa; Thomas, Maya Mary; Yadav, Vikas Kapildeo

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito borne encephalitis caused by Flavivirus. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic disease of the central nervous system caused by Taenia solium. In this report, we describe the clinical profile, imaging findings, and outcome of two children with JE and coexisting NCC. Eleven and thirteen-year-old boys from the same town of Jharkhand state were brought with history of fever, seizures, altered sensorium, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Dystonia, hypomimia, bradykinesia, and dyskinesia were observed. Meige syndrome observed in one of the children is a novel finding. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed findings suggestive of JE with cysticercal granulomas. There are few reports of coexistence of JE and NCC in children. Both children were treated with ribavirin, and follow-up imaging had shown significant resolution of signal changes. Both the children had shown marked clinical improvement. Ribavirin was found to beneficial in reducing the morbidity in our patients. PMID:27606026

  16. "The Elephant in the Dark Room": Merrick and Menacing Mimicry in Bernard Pomerance's "The Elephant Man"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, Samira

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to look at Pomerance's "The Elephant Man," from a new perspective from which no critic has investigated the play, before. Applying postcolonial theory of Homi K. Bhabha to the play, the author scrutinizes how "mimicry strategy", employed by the colonizer and the Other, can be threatening for both and how the…

  17. Ozone - the persistent menace: Interactions with the N cycle and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, David; Arneth, Almut; Mills, Gina; Solberg, Sverre; Uddling, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is involved in a complex web of interactions with other atmospheric gases and particles, and through ecosystem interactions with the N-cycle and climate change. Ozone itself is a greenhouse gas, causing warming, and reductions in biomass and carbon sequestration caused by ozone provide a further indirect warming effect. Ozone also has cooling effects, however, for example, through impacts on aerosols and diffuse radiation. Ecosystems are both a source of ozone precursor...

  18. Gravitational waves from isolated systems: The phantom menace of a positive cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    There is a deep tension between the well-developed theory of gravitational waves from isolated systems and the presence of a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, however tiny. In particular, even the post-Newtonian quadrupole formula, derived by Einstein in 1918, has not been generalized to include a positive $\\Lambda$. We first explain the principal difficulties and then show that it is possible to overcome them in the weak field limit. These results also provide concrete hints for constructing the $\\Lambda >0$ generalization of the Bondi-Sachs framework for full, non-linear general relativity.

  19. The magic and menace of metagenomics: prospects for the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveau, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to be a pragmatic primer into the field of metagenomics with special emphasis on the prospective contributions of metagenomics to the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). After an introduction into the concepts and methodologies of metagenomics and a discussion of

  20. Human capital measurement, ambiguity, and opportunism: Actors between menace and opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Gotthard

    2007-01-01

    Under the growing influence of economic normative thoughts (as for example the spread of shareholder value philosophy in the 1990s) and therefore under pressure to justify themselves, human resource management professionals are searching for concepts to measure the effects of their decisions and activities on business objectives. Especially, the concepts of human capital measurement attract far-reaching attention. However, that performance measurement of human resource management faces consid...

  1. The mycotoxin menace%霉菌毒素的威胁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terry Mabbett

    2001-01-01

    @@ 寄生的和腐生的霉菌在收获和贮存期间侵害谷物和生长在大田中的饲草作物.几乎所有的霉菌会造成作物重量和质量的损失.另外,一些霉菌还会产生霉菌毒素(Mycotoxins,Myco代表霉菌,toxin代表毒素).这些化合物(由霉菌产生的代谢产物)即使很低的水平也是非常有毒的.饲料和谷物受到0.5kg/mg霉菌毒素的污染就会导致畜禽生长受阻,繁殖性能降低,组织坏死,免疫性能受到破坏,致癌以及基因突变.

  2. Unsightly urban menaces and the rescaling of residential segregation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, James

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a slum clearance project in Lexington, Kentucky, as a lens through which to examine the spatial dynamics of racial residential segregation during the first half of the twentieth century. At the time, urban migration and upward socioeconomic mobility on the part of African Americans destabilized extant residential segregation patterns. Amid this instability, various spatial practices were employed in the interest of maintaining white social and economic supremacy. The author argues that such practices were indicative of a thoroughgoing reinvention of urban socio-spatial order that in turn precipitated the vastly expanded scale of residential segregation still found in U.S. cities today. Evidence of this reinvented ordering of urban space lies in the rendering of some long-standing African American neighborhoods as “out of place” within it and the use of slum clearance to remove the “menace” such neighborhoods posed to it. PMID:22073437

  3. A Drifting Concept for an Unruly Menace: A History of Psychopathy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghigian, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The term "psychopath" has enjoyed wide currency both in popular culture and among specialists in forensic psychiatry. Historians, however, have generally neglected the subject. This essay examines the history of psychopathy in the country that first coined the term, developed the concept, and debated its treatment: Germany. While the notion can be traced to nineteenth-century psychiatric ideas about abnormal, yet not completely pathological, character traits, the figure of the psychopath emerged out of distinctly twentieth-century preoccupations and institutions. The vagueness and plasticity of the diagnosis of psychopathy proved to be one of the keys to its success, as it was embraced and employed by clinicians, researchers, and the mass media, despite attempts by some to curb its use. Within the span of a few decades, the image of the psychopath became one of a perpetual troublemaker, an individual who could not be managed within any institutional setting. By midcentury, psychopaths were no longer seen as simply nosological curiosities; rather, they were spatial problems, individuals whose defiance of institutional routine and attempts at social redemption stood in for an attributed mental status. The history of psychopathy therefore reveals how public dangers and risks can be shaped and defined by institutional limitations. PMID:26353436

  4. Les manières de salle de garde, un patrimoine menacé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docteur Emmanuelle Godeau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur laquelle repose cet article analyse la place des coutumes des marges de l’apprentissage universitaire dans la construction du personnage du médecin spécialiste français, dans lequel l’internat et les manières à y apprendre sont centrales. Environ cent entretiens ethnographiques avec des spécialistes d’âges et d’exercices variés ont été menés. L’internat concerne les futurs spécialistes, reçus au concours de l’internat qui donne accès, après 6 années d’étude communes à tous les médecins, à une formation propre de 4-6 années supplémentaires, pendant laquelle ils apprennent non seulement leur profession auprès de malades et de patrons, mais aussi les manières constitutives du personnage du spécialiste, en fréquentant internes et internats. Chaque midi à table, les internes acquièrent ces manières de salle de garde. À travers l’apprentissage de règles contraignantes et souvent paradoxales, de savoir-dire et de savoir-faire, autrement dit de savoir-être propres au groupe, ils vont acquérir une compétence spécifique : nouveau calendrier, nouvelle langue, nouveau code comportemental, nouvelle hiérarchie, nouveaux devoirs… dont le non-respect est sanctionné par des gages codifiés. La mise en place de rituels collectifs fondant la communauté, l’application de codes précis, la valorisation de modèles identificatoires permettent à chacun de prendre place, de s’impliquer selon une organisation concentrique, de donner sens aux expériences en cours en les intégrant dans une logique initiatique. Cet apprentissage se singularise par le fait qu’il coexiste avec celui d’un langage médical parfois complexe, d’attitudes professionnelles codifiées, d’un sens de la hiérarchie aiguisé, d’un code de déontologie rigoureux… autant de caractéristiques propres au monde hospitalo-universitaire.This paper is based on a research on the importance of customs learned in the margins of medical academic training to build the figure of the French consultant. In that process, internship and the manners to be learned during this time are central. Around a hundred ethnographic interviews with consultants of various ages and practices have been conducted. In France, internship is a specialized training of 4-6 additional years for future consultants, who have succeeded to an examination after 6 academic years common to all medical doctors. During internship, not only do they learn their profession with patients and experienced doctors, but also, with other interns, those behaviours that characterise the medical consultant. At lunch-time, interns learn those manners in the staff room. While learning constraining and often paradoxical rules, skills and know-how, in other words, group life skills, they learn a specific expertise: new calendar, new language, new behavioural code, new hierarchy, new duties… that if not respected are sanctioned by codified pledges. The organisation of collective rituals that build the community, the setting of specific codes, the development of identificatory models, allow each member to take its place, to get involved following a concentric organisation, to give meaning to new experiences while integrating them in an initiatory logic. Such an apprenticeship is unique because it co-exists with that of a somewhat complex medical language, of codified professional attitudes, of a sharp sense of hierarchy, of a strict ethics code… all specific to University hospitals.

  5. Tropospheric Ozone: a Menace for Crops and Natural Vegetation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Saitanis

    Full Text Available Based on instrumental monitoring (AOT40s and phytodetection (with Bel-W3 and KK6/5 tobacco cultivars data we evaluated ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Greece. In the greater region of Mesogia-Attica, during the summer of 2000, the year before the new airport Eleftherios Venizelos (March 2001 began operating in this region, the AOT40s (ppb*h were 16,325 over 110 days at Spata; 18,646 over 113 days at Markopoulo; 8,093 over 22 days at Artemis and 16,679 over 121 days in Athens. The Bel- W3 and KK6/5 plants were extensively injured at all places with the greatest injury occurring at Artemis. During the same summer, ozone was also monitored in three rural areas of Corinth, at the Astronomical Observatory of Krionerion, Bogdani Hill and Kiato; The highest average daily AOT40 (192 ppb*h was observed in Krionerio, and it was almost equal to that occurred in Athens (193 ppb*h. Bel-W3 and KK6/5 plants placed at 11 rural areas in Corinth showed extended injury. The following year (2001, high injury was observed on other sets of bioindicator plants exposed in a network of 28 locations throughout the greater area of Volos and Pelion Mountain. Symptoms were more severe at Mortias, Xinovrisi, Tsagarada, Makrinitsa and Chania. The AOT40 (May-July was 11,391 and 10,351 ppb*hours for 2001 and 2002 respectively. Severe ozone-like symptoms have also been observed on field-cultivated grape vines, onion and watermelon plants. Synoptically, our investigations suggest that ozone occurs in the Greek mainland at levels that are potentially phytotoxic for sensitive crop species and for sensitive natural vegetation species including forest trees.

  6. Understanding Korean experiences of online game hype, identity, and the menace of the "Wang-tta".

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Florence

    2005-01-01

    THEME: Internationalism: Worlds at Play The context South Korea continues to set the pace in the world of online games. The nation is a world leader in broadband penetration rates and has a very high level of online game playing. This study reports on the intricate relationship between the sociocultural factors at work in Korean game communities and the context of how games are received. The original field research reported here adds to current knowledge of the interplay between science, tech...

  7. Unthinkable Allies?: John Dewey, Irving Babbitt and "The Menace of the Specialized Narrowness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, Kipton D.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Irving Babbitt's probing critiques of John Dewey's ideas at the beginning of the 20th century. Babbitt (1865-1933) was the co-founder of the New Humanists, a collection of scholars and academics who advocated for a return of the Greek and Roman classics in the American curriculum. Babbitt believed that both naturalism and…

  8. The global menace of arsenic and its conventional remediation - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arpan; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous element found in the earth crust with a varying concentration in the earth soil and water. Arsenic has always been under the scanner due to its toxicity in human beings. Contamination of arsenic in drinking water, which generally finds its source from arsenic-containing aquifers; has severely threatened billions of people all over the world. Arsenic poisoning is worse in Bangladesh where As(III) is abundant in waters of tube wells. Natural occurrence of arsenic in groundwater could result from both, oxidative and reductive dissolution. Geothermally heated water has the potential to liberate arsenic from surrounding rocks. Inorganic arsenic has been found to have more toxicity than the organic forms of arsenic. MMA and DMA are now been considered as the organic arsenic compounds having the potential to impair DNA and that is why MMA and DMA are considered as carcinogens. Endless efforts of researchers have elucidated the source, behavior of arsenic in various parts of the environment, mechanism of toxicity and various remediation processes; although, there are lots of areas still to be addressed. In this article, attempts have been made to lay bare an overview of geochemistry, toxicity and current removal techniques of arsenic together. PMID:27239969

  9. Can the Higgs Boson Save Us From the Menace of the Boltzmann Brains?

    CERN Document Server

    Boddy, Kimberly K

    2013-01-01

    The standard $\\Lambda$CDM model provides an excellent fit to current cosmological observations but suffers from a potentially serious Boltzmann Brain problem. If the universe enters a de Sitter vacuum phase that is truly eternal, there will be a finite temperature in empty space and corresponding thermal fluctuations. Among these fluctuations will be intelligent observers, as well as configurations that reproduce any local region of the current universe to arbitrary precision. We discuss the possibility that the escape from this unacceptable situation may be found in known physics: vacuum instability induced by the Higgs field. Avoiding Boltzmann Brains in a measure-independent way requires a decay timescale of order the current age of the universe, which can be achieved if the top quark pole mass is approximately 178 GeV. Otherwise we must invoke new physics or a particular cosmological measure before we can consider $\\Lambda$CDM to be an empirical success.

  10. Are mist nets a menace for threatened insects? A first attempt to gather quantitative data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Maltzeff, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to identify the threat to flying beetles imposed by mist nets deployed for bird studies in an area of Mediterranean mosaic of evergreen scrub and deciduous forest in Italy. The present paper is the first attempt to identify the non-target species which die in these artificial traps. A...

  11. "Menaced Rationality": Husserl and Merleau-Ponty on the Crisis and Promise of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan D

    2015-12-01

    In this paper I provide an overview of Husserl's and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological critique of science, and suggest that such a critique is not only necessary in order to resolve an aporia that is otherwise apparently endemic to science, but that such a critique may also offer resources for productively addressing related philosophical difficulties, particularly the relationship between ideality and materiality/"nature." Following Husserl and Merleau-Ponty, I maintain that only a phenomenologically grounded science can be consistently "scientific." PMID:26140994

  12. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED

  13. Imaging through atmospheric turbulence for laser based C-RAM systems: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    High Energy Laser weapons (HEL) have unique attributes which distinguish them from limitations of kinetic energy weapons. HEL weapons engagement process typical starts with identifying the target and selecting the aim point on the target through a high magnification telescope. One scenario for such a HEL system is the countermeasure against rockets, artillery or mortar (RAM) objects to protect ships, camps or other infrastructure from terrorist attacks. For target identification and especially to resolve the aim point it is significant to ensure high resolution imaging of RAM objects. During the whole ballistic flight phase the knowledge about the expectable imaging quality is important to estimate and evaluate the countermeasure system performance. Hereby image quality is mainly influenced by unavoidable atmospheric turbulence. Analytical calculations have been taken to analyze and evaluate image quality parameters during an approaching RAM object. In general, Kolmogorov turbulence theory was implemented to determine atmospheric coherence length and isoplanatic angle. The image acquisition is distinguishing between long and short exposure times to characterize tip/tilt image shift and the impact of high order turbulence fluctuations. Two different observer positions are considered to show the influence of the selected sensor site. Furthermore two different turbulence strengths are investigated to point out the effect of climate or weather condition. It is well known that atmospheric turbulence degenerates image sharpness and creates blurred images. Investigations are done to estimate the effectiveness of simple tip/tilt systems or low order adaptive optics for laser based C-RAM systems.

  14. APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Abdülkadir

    2014-01-01

    The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...

  15. Prevention and public health approaches to trauma and traumatic stress: a rationale and a call to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Kathryn M.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Thoresen, Siri; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Background The field of trauma and traumatic stress is dominated by studies on treatments for those who experience adversity from traumatic experiences. While this is important, we should not neglect the opportunity to consider trauma in a public health perspective. Such a perspective will help to develop prevention approaches as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to a public health approach to trauma and traumatic stress and identify key opportunities for trauma professionals and our professional societies (such as the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ISTSS] and the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ESTSS]) to increase our societal impact by adopting such an approach. Method This paper reviews and summarizes key findings related to the public health impact of trauma. The special case of children is explored, and a case example of the Norwegian terrorist attacks in 2011 illustrates the potential for improving our response to community level traumatic events. We also discuss how professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS, as well as individual trauma professionals, can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. Results Trauma is pervasive throughout the world and has negative impacts at the personal, family, community, and societal levels. A public health perspective may help to develop prevention approaches at all of these levels, as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. Conclusions Professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. They should promote the inclusion of trauma in the global public health agenda and include public health in their activities. PMID:26996536

  16. Prevention and public health approaches to trauma and traumatic stress: a rationale and a call to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Magruder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The field of trauma and traumatic stress is dominated by studies on treatments for those who experience adversity from traumatic experiences. While this is important, we should not neglect the opportunity to consider trauma in a public health perspective. Such a perspective will help to develop prevention approaches as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to a public health approach to trauma and traumatic stress and identify key opportunities for trauma professionals and our professional societies (such as the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ISTSS] and the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies [ESTSS] to increase our societal impact by adopting such an approach. Method: This paper reviews and summarizes key findings related to the public health impact of trauma. The special case of children is explored, and a case example of the Norwegian terrorist attacks in 2011 illustrates the potential for improving our response to community level traumatic events. We also discuss how professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS, as well as individual trauma professionals, can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. Results: Trauma is pervasive throughout the world and has negative impacts at the personal, family, community, and societal levels. A public health perspective may help to develop prevention approaches at all of these levels, as well as extend the reach of early interventions and treatments. Conclusions: Professional organizations such as ESTSS and ISTSS can and should play an important role in promoting a public health approach. They should promote the inclusion of trauma in the global public health agenda and include public health in their activities.

  17. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eryılmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  18. Holistic Approaches to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The holistic approach to health includes a spectrum of concepts that have an important influence on our health. Elementary school counselors must recognize this previously neglected need for a holistic approach. Stress, relaxation response, biofeedback, and the orthomolecular approach are discussed. (Author/BEF)

  19. A Novel Approach for Social Network Analysis & Web Mining for Counter Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. G. A. Patil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrorists and extremists are increasingly utilizing Internet technology as an effective mode to enhance their ability to influence the outside world. Lack of multilingual and multimediaterrorist/extremist collections and advanced analytical methodologies; limit our experiential understanding of their Internet usage. To address this research gap, we explore an integrated approachfor identifying and collecting terrorist/extremist Web contents and to discover hidden relationships among communities. It has been shown in the literature that content analysis gives more insight of technical sophistication, content richness; whereas the link analysis focuses on the web interactivity. A dark web attribute system has made the sincere effort on identifying and comparing terrorist website with genuine web sites by using content and link analysis still there is scope in the same area as proposed in [1]. This proposed work focuses on identifying & analyzing new web page attributes. It is aimed to compare different terrorist/extremist sites with genuine sites and accordingly prepare metrics which canbe further used for identification of other sites of terrorist/extremist groups. Also proposed work focus on to visualize and analyze hidden domestic terrorism communities and intercommunity relationships among all web sites in our collection.

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  1. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990), which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. ...

  2. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  3. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...... such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice....

  4. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  5. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  6. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  7. Hezbollah’s global tentacles: A relational approach to convergence with transnational organised crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuprecht, Christian; Walther, Olivier; Skillicorn, David;

    2016-01-01

    That terrorists, criminals, and their facilitators exploit the global marketplace is well known. While the global movement of illicit goods is well documented, robust empirical evidence linking terrorism and organized crime remains elusive. This article posits Network Science as a means of making...... implies a paradigm shift: Hezbollah is no less a terrorist organization than an organized crime syndicate. This is apparent in a network’s structure. Transnational Organized Crime is typically about nodes being connected to many others in the network. Yet, Hezbollah fundraising networks allow such...... these links more apparent. As a critical case study, Hezbollah is quite possibly the most mature globalized terrorist organization, although it thinks of itself as the “Party of God.” However, the means seem to justify the ends: this article shows that Hezbollah’s holy men have no qualms about resorting...

  8. Development of approaches to the safety and security of sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even prior to the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001, it was clear that there was a significant orphan source issue arising from the poor safety and security of radioactive materials around the world. The objective of the paper is to globally review, through a series of examples, the variable state of the existing source security arrangements and some of the driving forces and consequences. This will provide a background against which subsequent papers will develop emergency preparedness arrangements. (author)

  9. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海娜

    2015-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  10. Modular Approach for Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  11. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Sevryuk

    2014-01-01

    Educational transformation in Russia allows using new methods in teaching and learning. One of which is the interdisciplinary approach. The article describes the definition of the interdisciplinary approach, shows the reasons why to teach with it, and explains the advantages of using it and how it helps students advance their thinking, cognitive development and other abilities. It also gives some interdisciplinary examples.

  12. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  13. Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain, neck pain, and joint pain or stiffness. NIH Research and Information on Complementary Health Approaches The lead agency at NIH for scientific research on complementary health approaches is the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). You can ...

  14. The Geodynamic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1996-01-01

    The Danish National lecture: The Geodynamic approach - problem or possibility? - mirrors the authors involvement in projects and research focusing on the impact of the geodynamic approach. The lecture discusses the why and how of some of the geotechnical anomalies and the differences in traditional...

  15. The TLC Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  16. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  17. Parametric analysis of the biomechanical response of head subjected to the primary blast loading - a data mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Kalra, Anil; Saif, Tal; Yang, Zaihan; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury due to primary blast loading has become a signature injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist activities. Extensive experimental and computational investigations have been conducted to study the interrelationships between intracranial pressure response and intrinsic or 'input' parameters such as the head geometry and loading conditions. However, these relationships are very complicated and are usually implicit and 'hidden' in a large amount of simulation/test data. In this study, a data mining method is proposed to explore such underlying information from the numerical simulation results. The heads of different species are described as a highly simplified two-part (skull and brain) finite element model with varying geometric parameters. The parameters considered include peak incident pressure, skull thickness, brain radius and snout length. Their interrelationship and coupling effect are discovered by developing a decision tree based on the large simulation data-set. The results show that the proposed data-driven method is superior to the conventional linear regression method and is comparable to the nonlinear regression method. Considering its capability of exploring implicit information and the relatively simple relationships between response and input variables, the data mining method is considered to be a good tool for an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of blast-induced brain injury. As a general method, this approach can also be applied to other nonlinear complex biomechanical systems. PMID:26442779

  18. The effect of terrorist incidents on capital flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, R. K.; Stanišić, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 502-513. ISSN 1363-6669 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : foreign direct-investment * macroeconomic consequences * transnational terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014

  19. The effect of terrorist incidents on capital flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filer, Randall K.; Stanišić, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2016), s. 502-513. ISSN 1363-6669 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : foreign direct-investment * macroeconomic consequences * transnational terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2014

  20. Comparison of Two Terrorist Organizations: Hezbollah and Al Qaeda

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a short way to political aims. The term terror was firstly used in French Revolution and later it became part of the political systems. The real reasons of terrorism change from time to time and from place to place. There are nationalist, separatist organizations in the world. The two examples, Hezbollah and Al Qaeda are religion-based organizations and they emerged on very similar backgrounds. Both of them found ideological backgrounds in the history of Islam. Furthermore, both ...

  1. The Role of Social Context in Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Nichole

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of studies on suicide bombing suggest that terrorism is not necessarily bound to religious extremism. The authors of this body of work, primarily drawn from political science and social psychology, agree that suicide bombings, with or without the trappings of religion, are largely a response to occupation, or, since September…

  2. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  3. Consequence assessment of attacking nuclear spent fuel pool by terrorist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of spent fuel pool and spent fuel assemblies are described in this paper for a typical 1000 MW PWR nuclear power station as an example. Based on the analysis of sabotage-induced cases and release source term of spent fuel pool, consequences are calculated by using MACCS system. The results show that in the three cases of 1) Zircaloy fire propagates throughout entire spent fuel inventory in the pool, 2) Zircaloy fire involves only the last fuel batch to be discharged, and 3) there are gap releases from 3 last discharged fuel batches, the radiuses of areas in which there are the danger of acute death are about 6 km, 3 km and 0 km, respectively; the radiuses of areas in which effective dose is larger than 50 mSv are about 80 km, 34 km and 9 km, respectively; the radiuses of areas in which avertable dose of shelter is larger than 10 mSv are about 100 km, 48 km and 11 km, respectively. (authors)

  4. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies. PMID:25639179

  5. 31 CFR 595.311 - Specially designated terrorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide financial, material, or technological support for, or services in support of, such acts of... chapter sets forth the procedures to be followed by persons seeking administrative reconsideration...

  6. Decision Support for Countering Terrorist Threats against Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Richard Adler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dynamic decision support methodology forcounter-terrorism decision support. The initial sections introduce basic objectives and challenges of terrorism risk analysis and risk management. The remainder of the paper describes TRANSEC, a decision support framework for defining, validating, and monitoring strategies focused on managing terrorism risks to international transportation networks. The methodology and software tools underlying TRANSEC are applicable to other homeland security problems, such as critical infrastructure and border protection.

  7. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  8. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  9. EXPERIMENTS WITH SYNTHETIC JET FOR DETECTING POTENTIAL TERRORISTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 221-227. ISSN 1231-3998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jets * annular jets * terrorism Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. Assessing the recent terrorist threat to the Malacca Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In light of these recent threats this article examines the likelihood of sea-based extremist violence in the region, JI (Jemaah Islamiya) capacity to operate in an offshore environment and whether Southeast Asia is a place that al-Qaida would seek to exploit in terms of maritime attacks."

  11. Compatible or Incompatible: Intelligence and human rights in terrorist trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Quirine Eijkman; Bibi van Ginkel

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the special criminal procedures for the use of intelligence in terrorism-related court cases in Canada, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Since 9/11 and the terror attacks in L...

  12. The State as a Terrorist: France and the Red Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Riegler

    2012-01-01

    The present article explores a less well-known episode in the history of terrorism: The Red Hand (La Main Rouge). During the Algerian war of independence (1954-1962) it emerged as an obscure counterterrorist organisation on the French side. Between 1956 and 1961, the Red Hand targeted the network of arms suppliers for the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and executed hits against rebel emissaries both in Western Europe and in North Africa. Today, there is consensus among sc...

  13. The State as a Terrorist: France and the Red Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riegler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores a less well-known episode in the history of terrorism: The Red Hand (La Main Rouge. During the Algerian war of independence (1954-1962 it emerged as an obscure counterterrorist organisation on the French side. Between 1956 and 1961, the Red Hand targeted the network of arms suppliers for the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN and executed hits against rebel emissaries both in Western Europe and in North Africa. Today, there is consensus among scholars that the Red Hand had been set up by the French foreign intelligence service in order to strike at the subversive enemy. This makes the Red Hand a telling example of state terrorism and its capacity for unrestricted violence in ‘emergency’ situations. Since the Red Hand’s counterterrorist acts ultimately proved to be futile and due to the repercussions caused in France as well, the case study also highlights the limits of this type of counter-terrorism. 

  14. Al-Zarqawi - terrorist või kangelane? / Kalev Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 29. juuni lk. 5. Jordaanias sündinud palestiinlane Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, õige nimega Ahmed Fadel al-Khalaylah, on rühmituse Jama'at al-Tawhid wal Jihad juht ja hetkel kuulsaim sõjapealik Iraagis, kes on pühendanud oma elu võitlusele USA vastu

  15. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  16. Destabilization of Terrorist Networks through Argument Driven Hypothesis Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2007-01-01

    Social network analysis has been used for quite some time to analyze and understand the behavior of nodes in the network.  Theses nodes could be individuals or group of persons, events or organizations etc.  Infact these nodes could be any thing importantly, these nodes propagate and obviously ha...

  17. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  18. TERRORIST PHENOMENON’S IMPACT ON THE WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu UZLAU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available “How much does terrorism cost?” is a question which will not be answered in a near future (short and medium term in a relevant, practical and sweeping manner, because any estimation at this moment would cover only in a small measure the spent amounts and the inflicted costs of the phenomenon. These statistics are not precise, of course; they might be argued or even invalidated, because it is difficult to elaborate an objective situation regarding the real value of the attack expenditures or of the damage done. They are purely informative, highlighting a cruel reality: with a very small budget, huge damage may be done, and even a whole society might be paralyzed.

  19. Visual Culture and Critical Pedagogy in "Terrorist Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Instant access to visual images and emotional accounts of terrorism have secured them a vivid place in our memory and reinforced the idea that "we" have been targeted and are under immediate threat. Fear and the sense of belonging to an innocent, victimized, and threatened group, under attack from irrational, malevolent, and uncontrollable…

  20. Reluctant terrorists? Transcaucasian social-democracy, 1901-1909

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Ree

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of Transcaucasian social-democratic terrorism from 1901 to 1909. For two reasons the ‘psychohistorical’ model emphasising the subjective and irrational aspects of terrorism has only limited value for the Transcaucasian case. First, the significance of the conte

  1. Annular Synthetic Jet for Anti-Terrorist Warfare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Vogel, Jiří; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    Vol. 10/2008. Bydgoszcz : Polish Society of Mechanical Engineers and Technicians, 2008 - (Peszynski, K.), s. 111-112 ISBN 978-83-87982-08-9. [International Conference on Developments in Machinery Design and Control /12./. Nowogród (PL), 09.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : war with terrorism * fluidics * sensors Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. THE UNIVERSAL TERRORIST?... (A New theory on “MARSISM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that “HUMAN ANCESTOR” shall be considered as “TERRORIST” evolved from “Dark Cloud of Stardust”. The human Ancestor shall be considered as lived in “MARS PLANET” in the early Universe under “Perfect law and order” (kingdom Rule, absolute ideology under the influence of “Zero hour radiation” environment also called as “J-RADIATION”

  3. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illn...

  4. Balancing the trinity: U.S. approaches to marginalizing Islamic militancy in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Erich B.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Pakistan ranks among the top recipients of U.S. foreign aid in the world, yet accounts for nearly 20 percent of the terrorist groups identified on the U.S. State Department Bureau of Counterterrorism Foreign Terrorist Organizations list. As a major non-NATO ally and valued U.S. partner in the Global War on Terrorism, Pakistan thus gives the appearance of being ineffective in its efforts to defeat Islamic extremism and militancy. This ...

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  6. TERORISMUL - AMENINŢARE LA ADRESA RELAŢIILOR ECONOMICE INTERNAŢIONALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmisegetuza Tulbure

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Les attentats terroristes de World Trade Center de 11 septembre 2001 ont change définitivement la conception internationale sur le terrorisme, en prouvant que le phénomène est bien plus complexe qu’on aurait pu croire. A cette occasion le monde entier a compris que les attentats terroristes ne représentent seulement une menace a l’adresse des vies des gens, a la surette publique mais en même temps représentent un réel danger au bon déroulement des rapports internationaux. Par ses dimensions atteintes a nos jours, le terrorisme ne représente plus une action isolée des certains groupes qui contestant les valeurs de la société mais des vraies forces maléfiques soutenues par des ressources financières énormes qui ont comme but de bouleverser l’entier flux des relations économiques et commerciales internationales, et aussi de perturber grièvement l’activité des institutions et des autorités publiques. Il est évident que l’opinion publique internationale, ainsi que les autorités compétentes n’ont pas restes indifférents face à ce nouveau péril et tous les efforts se sont conjugues pour faire face à la menace terroriste.

  7. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have.......DiscussionThe supersetting approach is a further development of the setting approach in which the significance of integrated and coordinated actions together with a participatory approach are emphasised and important principles are specified, all of which contribute to the attainment of synergistic effects and sustainable.......SummaryThe supersetting approach is a relevant and useful conceptual framework for developing intervention-based initiatives for sustainable impact in community health promotion. It strives to attain synergistic effects from activities that are carried out in multiple settings in a coordinated manner. The supersetting...

  8. Stakeholders: main approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Mattos de Barros Schiavoni; Mário César Barreto Moraes; Alice Carneiro de Castro; Jair Nascimento Santos

    2013-01-01

    Every time organizations need adaptations to stay alive. We consider the analysis of their external environment an essential tool in this adaptive process, in particular, know your stakeholders. This article aims to present different approaches to organizational stakeholders, contributing concurrently with academia and companies who choose to analyze and act on its stakeholders, and possibly have a prominent market. We highlight the approach of stakeholder management, Edward Freeman, the mode...

  9. APPROACHES TO CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the question ?what is corporate governance?? It examines dominant theoretical approaches to the subject, and reviews influential legislative attempts to address the area in the United States as well as the United Kingdom. Inconsistencies between theoretical approaches to the subject and practical frameworks will be discussed, along with the implications of current frameworks in the US and UK. It will be concluded that legislative reform ought to address the dynamic nature ...

  10. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi (editor)

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  11. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  12. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  13. El impacto psicológico de los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001 en la ciudad de Nueva York: el trastorno por estrés postraumático y la recuperación de una ciudad traumatizada Psychological impact of terrorist attacks on september 11, 2001 in New York City: posttraumatic stress disorder and the recuperation of a traumatized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cárcamo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Los ataques terroristas a las Torres Gemelas el 11 de septiembre de 2001 abrumaron los mecanismos psicológicos que utilizan diariamente los neoyorquinos para enfrentar el estrés. La expectativa de otro ataque terrorista, incluyendo el temor al bioterrorismo, complica el proceso de recuperación de muchos individuos afectados directamente por el desastre. Estas personas experimentan una combinación de problemas psicológicos, incluyendo el Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT, la depresión, la ansiedad, el duelo traumático, y las conductas auto-destructivas. Además, algunas víctimas vivieron el desplome de las Torres Gemelas dentro de un marco religioso de naturaleza apocalíptica (por ejemplo, "el dia del juicio final" o "el fin del mundo". Hasta la fecha, éste ha sido el acto terrorista más mortífero en la historia de Estados Unidos. En este artículo discutimos los siguientes temas: (1 el efecto psicólogico inmediato de los ataques terroristas, (2 la prevalencia del TEPT antes de y después del 11 de septiembre de 2001, (3 los factores que aumentan la vulnerabilidad para presentar el TEPT, (4 las respuestas inmediatas al desastre de parte de las instituciones gubernamentales, privadas y académicas, y (5 una descripción breve de los tratamientos para el TEPT avalados por la evidencia científica. El artículo concluye con un relato de la horrible y aterradora experiencia de un sobreviviente de los ataquesThe terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC on September 11, 2001 strained the emotional resources of many New York City residents. The expectation of another terrorist attack, including the fear of bio-terrorism, complicates the recovery process of individuals who were directly affected by the disaster. These individuals are experiencing an amalgan of psychological problems, including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, depression, anxiety, traumatic grief, and self-destructive behaviors. In addition, for some

  14. A formal approach to verifying treaty compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The risks posed by the spread of sensitive technologies that can be used to produce weapons of mass destruction have increased dramatically in recent years. The 21st century has ushered geopolitical transformation, socio-economic movements and environmental change on an global scale. The bipolar, East-West world of the last century exists no more; old political alliances are drifting; new coalitions are forming; and the global war on terrorism creates new divides. Political turmoil and conflict in the post September 11, 2001 era have led to a growing realization that nuclear, chemical and biological weapons may now be obtained clandestinely by non-state actors, sub-national groups or terrorists who, in a fluid and rapidly changing environment of globalization, could use them to destroy people or blackmail their leaders. International efforts necessary to inhibit the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and to eliminate them as far as possible, face challenges of extraordinary complexity. International treaties and conventions requiring binding commitments on the part of the member states and establishing appropriate compliance verification regimes constitute a primary assurance against such risks. For instance, the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) with its safeguards system, applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on nuclear materials and facilities on the territories of the member states, represents the cornerstone in the nuclear field, gives assurance about the peaceful nature of the nuclear activities and aims to prevent nuclear proliferation. The NPT, with its long history and positive experience since 1968, has become a model, and its elements have influenced other fields where proliferation concerns exist, such as the biological and chemical industries. In the environmental field, the Kyoto Protocol represents the major international effort to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. From a technical

  15. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  16. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  18. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  19. Approaching electrical tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Cosentino

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A general approach to electrical tomography is here described, based on the distribution of the experimental data to the set of voxels in which the subsoil has been divided. This approach utilizes the sensitivity coefficients as factors of the convolution procedure to execute the back projection of the data, to obtain the 3D pictures of the subsoil. A subsequent probabilistic filtering technique is described to improve the pictures in view of sharp boundary models. Some models are finally presented, mostly regarding cubic buried anomalies as well as pipe-shaped and L-shaped anomalies.

  20. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.