WorldWideScience

Sample records for approach lanes

  1. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  2. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  3. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  4. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J.; Geruschat, Duane R.; Rouphail, Nagui M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the “yield to pedestrian” sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six rou...

  5. Research on TDM approach of sharing BRT-lane supported by vehicle-infrastructure integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongzhao; Ling Yue; Liu Dongxu; Guo Mingfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the availability of the part-time idle bus rapid transit lane (BRT-lane),a time divi-sion multiplexing (TDM) method to share BRT-lane with the vehicles besides BRT buses is proposed based on ve-hicle-road collaboration. The TDM control strategy is established under the circumstance of vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). The algorithm is given to forecast the segmented BRT travel time. According to the real time traffic information,a comprehensive model is given to estimate the vehicles’lane-changing time from/to the BRT-lane to/from its neighbor lane and determine the timing sequence for vehicles collaboration. Finally,the experi-ment demonstrates that the predicted value of the travel time and lane-changing time is much close to the true val-ue. The control strategy of the vehicles collaboration could promise the non-BRT vehicles to share BRT-lane with-out disturbing BRT’s priority.

  6. A Bioinformatics Approach for Determining Sample Identity from Different Lanes of High-Throughput Sequencing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfeder, Rachel L.; Stephen C J Parker; Ajay, Subramanian S.; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or “barcode” modifications. We rely on the ...

  7. A Bioinformatics Approach for Determining Sample Identity from Different Lanes of High-Throughput Sequencing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L Goldfeder; Parker, Stephen C.J.; Ajay, Subramanian S.; Hatice Ozel Abaan; Margulies, Elliott H.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the ...

  8. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  9. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  10. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  11. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  12. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  13. Automation of Vehicular Parking Using Loop Detector with single lane traffic: A Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Pavan V N V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With increase in number of vehicle users day by day, traffic and parking of vehicles have become major problems. In this paper, we have designed an automatic vehicular parking system using loop detector which detects the presence of vehicle and displays the corresponding parking slots available in the parking area so that manual risk is reduced. In the past many parking systems were developed using magneto-resistive sensors, IR sensors and image processors. Here we are using low cost loop detector that is also insensitive to any climatic conditions, easy to maintain, long lasting and whose detection range is maximum. Loop detector works on the principle of change in its inductance (due to change in flux density when a metal surface comes closer to it. A better approach was followed in developing the algorithm for parking.

  14. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  15. Lane Keeping Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayko, Jens

    Während längerer Fahrten auf autobahnähnlichen Straßen wird die Fahraufgabe des Spurhaltens von vielen Fahrern als lästig empfunden. Andererseits stellt das unbeabsichtigte Verlassen des Fahrstreifens eine häufge Unfallursache dar, wie bereits in Kapitel 34 beschrieben. Im Gegensatz zu der im vorigen Kapitel dargelegten Funktion des Lane Departure Warning (LDW) greift die hier beschriebene Spurhalteassistenz bzw. Lane Keeping Support (LKS) aktiv in das Lenksystem ein. Dadurch wird der Fahrer bei der Fahraufgabe des Spurhaltens unterstützt. Ziel dieser Funktion ist, je nach Auslegung, eine Erhöhung der Sicherheit, eine Erhöhung des Fahrkomforts oder eine Kombination beider Ziele. Ein wichtiges Merkmal der hier beschriebenen Systeme ist die Art der Assistenz, die über Warnungen hinausgeht, jedoch keine den Fahrer ersetzende Assistenz darstellt. Die motorische Ausführung der Lenkung des Fahrzeugs erfolgt somit durch den Fahrer und das LKS-System zugleich. Das Einsatzgebiet der heute verfügbaren Systeme erstreckt sich über autobahnähnliche Straßen in mittleren bis hohen Geschwindigkeiten und sichtbaren Markierungen der Fahrstreifen.

  16. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  17. Measuring and Evaluation on Priority Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with economic development, cities are increasingly congested in China. In order to eliminate peak-hour congestion, many cities establish priority lanes, commonly bus lanes. Although priority lanes could help Local Authorities gain its short-term management objectives, at the same time, it would greatly infringe on the legitimate rights of other vehicles and waste the scarce road resources, which is rigorously proved by mathematical models in this paper. In the long run, priority lanes would make social conflicts more intensified, and therefore highly undesirable. On the contrary, the social system engineering, combined with High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV lanes and High Occupancy Toll (HOT lanes, is the right way to alleviate overcrowding and build a Low-Carbon harmonious society.

  18. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  19. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  20. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger;

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to prove safety (collision freedom) of multi-lane motorway traffic with lane-change manoeuvres. This is ultimately a hybrid verification problem due to the continuous dynamics of the cars. We abstract from the dynamics by introducing a new spatial interval logic based...... on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  1. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization. PMID:26992020

  2. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization.

  3. Vehicle Classification by Lane Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification of vehicles from video is used for analysis of traffic, self-driving systems or security systems. This analysis is based on shape, size, velocity and track of vehicles. These features characterize vehicle in background subtraction and feature extraction methods. Extraction is done by active contours and morphological operations. Extracted vehicles are classified by applying various classification techniques. The combination of features and classification techniques varies with the application. Proposed system, Uses combination of K Nearest Neighbor (KNN and Decision Tree techniques to overcome constraints. These constraints are instances of an object, overlapping of objects, and scaling factor. KNN is utilized to classify vehicle by size and lane. Decision tree manipulates the combination of these two features to classify accurately which results increased performance. This system classifies objects into three classes. These classes are four wheeler, bikers and heavy duty vehicle extracted from video.

  4. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  5. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  6. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...

  7. Dedicated lanes, tolls and ITS technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The merits of separating cars and trucks have long been debated. Potential advantages include smoother traffic flows, lower accident rates, improved air quality and reduced maintenance and road infrastructure costs. Large trucks are often banned from urban roads and restricted to certain lanes on many highways but there are no dedicated truck facilities. However, truck-only lanes and truck tollways are now being actively studied. Tolls on cars and trucks are also becoming increasingly common ...

  8. Evaluating the Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; McKnight, Claire E.; Ewing, Reid; Roe, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of on-street bicycle lanes installed prior to 2007 on different categories of crashes (total crashes, bicyclist crashes, pedestrian crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, and injurious or fatal crashes) occurring on roadway segments and at intersections in New York City. Methods. We used generalized estimating equation methodology to compare changes in police-reported crashes in a treatment group and a comparison group before and after installation of bicycle lanes. Our study approach allowed us to control confounding factors, such as built environment characteristics, that cannot typically be controlled when a comparison group is used. Results. Installation of bicycle lanes did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. The most likely explanations for the lack of increase in crashes are reduced vehicular speeds and fewer conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists after installation of these lanes. Conclusions. Our results indicate that characteristics of the built environment have a direct impact on crashes and that they should thus be controlled in studies evaluating traffic countermeasures such as bicycle lanes. To prevent crashes at intersections, we recommend installation of “bike boxes” and markings that indicate the path of bicycle lanes across intersections. PMID:22095351

  9. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  10. Efficiency determination of the method "special lane in the intersection area" from the standpoint of priority in time

    OpenAIRE

    Вікович, Ігор Андрійович; Зубачик, Роман Михайлович; Беспалов, Дмитро Олександрович

    2014-01-01

    Using the space-time priority and priority in time at the isolated signal-controlled intersection with one traffic lane on all approaches is considered in the paper. Space-time priority is represented by the method “special lane in the intersection area”, which in this case is a combination of a special lane in the intersection area and adaptive algorithm for a special phase call. Priority in time is realized using the algorithm for continuation of the enable signal and early termination of t...

  11. Continuum modelling of multi-lane heterogeneous traffic flow operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Bovy, P.H.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report represents the second report in regarding macroscopic traffic flow modelling. In this report we present a multiple lane generalisation of the aggregate-lane multiple user-class model. Key to its derivation is the lane-specific multiple user-class phase-space density (MUCPSD), generalisin

  12. Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces

  13. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  14. Particle Swarm Optimization of Speed in Unplanned Lane Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Ghosal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Speed Optimization Technique in Traffic is a very promising research problem. Searching foran efficient optimization method to increase the degree of speed optimization and thereby increasing thetraffic flow in a lane is a widely concerning issue. However, there has been a limited research effort on theoptimization of the lane usage with speed optimization. This paper presents a novel technique to solve theproblem optimally using the knowledge base analysis of speeds of vehicles, population of lanes , usingpartial modification of Swarm Intelligence which, in turn will act as a guide for design of lanes optimally toprovide better optimized traffic with less number of transitions of vehicles between lanes..

  15. Agent-based modeling of lane discipline in heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailisan, Damian N.; Lim, May T.

    2016-09-01

    Designating lanes for different vehicle types is ideal road safety-wise. Practical considerations, however, require road sharing. Using a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for two vehicle types (cars and motorcycles), we analyzed the interplay of lane discipline, lane changing, and vehicle density. In the absence of lane changing, the transition between free flow and congested states occurs at a higher vehicle (road occupation) density when the ratio of cars to motorcycles is increased. When lane changing is allowed, the smaller motorcycles tend to fill in unused spaces, until the point when the wider cars effectively block their way at high vehicle densities. When the condition of lane discipline is not imposed, i.e. staying wholly within lane boundaries is not required, further improvement in throughput becomes possible at the cost of required driver attentiveness.

  16. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  17. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  18. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  19. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H.; Yoshida, T.; Butsuen, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N.; Nakano, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  20. A Dust Lane in the Radio galaxy 3C270

    OpenAIRE

    Mahabal, Ashish; Kembhavi, Ajit; Singh, K. P.; Bhat, P.N.; Prabhu, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    We present broad band surface photometry of the radio galaxy 3C270 (NGC~4261). We find a distinct dust lane in the $V-R$ image of the galaxy, and determine its orientation and size. We use the major axis profile of the galaxy to estimate the optical depth of the dust lane, and discuss the significance of the lane to the shape of the galaxy.

  1. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  2. Intelligent driving in traffic systems with partial lane discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Hamid; Emmerich, Heike

    2013-04-01

    It is a most common notion in traffic theory that driving in lanes and keeping lane changes to a minimum leads to smooth and laminar traffic flow, and hence to increased traffic capacity. On the other hand, there exist persistent vehicular traffic systems that are characterised by habitual disregarding of lane markings, and partial or complete loss of laminar traffic flow. Here, we explore the stability of such systems through a microscopic traffic flow model, where the degree of lane-discipline is taken as a variable, represented by the fraction of drivers that disregard lane markings completely. The results show that lane-free traffic may win over completely ordered traffic at high densities, and that partially ordered traffic leads to the poorest overall flow, while not considering the crash probability. Partial order in a lane-free system is similar to partial disorder in a lane-disciplined system in that both lead to decreased traffic capacity. This could explain the reason why standard enforcement methods, which rely on continuous increase of order, often fail to incur order to lane-free traffic systems. The results also provide an insight into the cooperative phenomena in open systems with self-driven particles.

  3. Lane detection using road planar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Chu, Chee-Hung H.

    2011-06-01

    Intelligent vehicles have many applications in the military, aerospace, and other industries, including land-mine detection for the military, patient transportation in hospitals, and many other domains that often require automation to reduce risks to the human operators. One of important tasks of intelligent vehicles is the navigation, whose goal is to extract and determine the appropriate path that leads to a destination based on perceived environmental information. The objective of our work is to develop a simple and effective method to detect and extract road lanes and boundaries. We propose a solution by incorporating the planar information of road surfaces. We first detect all possible edges in the captured images. The straight lanes and boundaries are extracted as straight lines, which generate a vanishing point. The straight lines are described with Hough transform. A cluster analysis in Hough space is used to detect the vanishing point on road. Further, we search lines passing through the vanishing point from 180 degrees to 270 degrees and from 0 degree to negative 90 degrees. The first two strong lines will be extracted as road boundaries.

  4. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  5. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization of Speed in Unplanned Lane Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Ghosal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Speed Optimization Technique in Traffic is a very promising research problem. Searching for an efficient optimization method to increase the degree of speed optimization and thereby increasing the traffic flow in a lane is a widely concerning issue. However, there has been a limited research effort on the optimization of the lane usage with speed optimization. This paper presents a novel technique to solve the problem optimally using the knowledge base analysis of speeds of vehicles, population of lanes , using partial modification of Swarm Intelligence which, in turn will act as a guide for design of lanes optimally to provide better optimized traffic with less number of transitions of vehicles between lanes..

  7. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  8. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  9. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  10. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  11. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  12. Social dilemma structures hidden behind traffic flow with lane changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to merge traffic flow analysis with evolutionary game theory, we investigated the question of whether such structures can be formed from frequent lane changes in usual traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C-agents (cooperative strategy) always remain in the lane they are initially assigned, whereas D-agents (defective strategy) try to change lanes to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person prisoner dilemma (n-PD) games or quasi-PD games. In these situations, lane changes by D-agents create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency. (paper)

  13. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  14. Managing Rush Hour Congestion with Lane Reversal and Tradable Credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the morning and evening rush hour, the two-way road flows are always unbalanced in opposite directions. In order to make full advantage of the existing lanes, the two-way road lane has to be reallocated to play the best role in managing congestion. On the other hand, an effective tradable credit scheme can help to reduce the traffic demand and improve fairness for all travelers. So as to alleviate the commute congestion in urban transportation network, a discrete bilevel programming model is established in this paper. In the bilevel model, the government at the upper level reallocates lanes on the two-way road to minimize the total system cost. The traveler at the lower level chooses the optimal route on the basis of both travel time and credit charging for the lanes involved. A numerical experiment is conducted to examine the efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  16. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chen Fu; Hsien-Chein Cheng; Pei-Yung Hsiao; Shih-Shinh Huang

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chi...

  17. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hodas, N O

    2003-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  18. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  19. Reducing carbon emissions by introducing electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Doolan, Ronan; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2014-01-01

    Most cities have special lanes dedicated to buses, however these lanes are rarely used at full capacity. At the same time governments around the world are encouraging people to buy electric vehicles. This paper proposes the creation of electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes (E-DBL), by allowing electric vehicles access to bus lanes, in order to improve the use of road capacity. By opening bus lanes to electric vehicles, traffic congestion could be eased, the range ...

  20. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  1. Development of crash modification factors for changing lane width on roadway segments using generalized nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Park, Juneyoung; Wang, Jung-Han

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of changing lane width in reducing crashes on roadway segments. To consider nonlinear relationships between crash rate and lane width, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) using 3-years crash records and road geometry data collected for all roadway segments in Florida. The study also estimates various crash modification factors (CMFs) for different ranges of lane width based on the results of the GNMs. It was found that the crash rate was highest for 12-ft lane and lower for the lane width less than or greater than 12ft. GNMs can extrapolate this nonlinear continuous effect of lane width and estimate the CMFs for any lane width, not only selected lane widths, unlike generalized linear models (GLMs) with categorical variables. The CMFs estimated using GNMs reflect that crashes are less likely to occur for narrower lanes if the lane width is less than 12ft whereas crashes are less likely to occur for wider lanes if the lane width is greater than 12ft. However, these effects varied with the posted speed limits as the effect of interaction between lane width and speed limit was significant. The estimated CMFs show that crashes are less likely to occur for lane widths less than 12ft than the lane widths greater than 12ft if the speed limit is higher than or equal to 40mph. It was also found from the CMFs that crashes at higher severity levels (KABC and KAB) are less likely to occur for lane widths greater or less than 12ft compared to 12-ft lane. The study demonstrates that the CMFs estimated using GNMs clearly reflect variations in crashes with lane width, which cannot be captured by the CMFs estimated using GLMs. Thus, it is recommended that if the relationship between crash rate and lane width is nonlinear, the CMFs are estimated using GNMs. PMID:25616033

  2. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  3. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  4. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  5. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  6. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  7. A Comparison of High Occupancy Vehicle, High Occupancy Toll, and Truck-Only Lanes in the Sacramento Region

    OpenAIRE

    Rodier, Caroline J.; Johnston, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    As the evidence mounts that HOV lanes will not produce expected reductions in congestion and emission, alternatives are being sought. High occupancy toll (HOT) lanes and truck only lanes are attractive alternatives. In this study, a region-wide system of new HOV lanes, HOT lanes, and truck only lanes m the Sacramento region are compared. The travel effects are simulated with the Sacramento regional travel demand model (SACMET96). The economic benefits for both personal travel and commercial v...

  8. Robust and Real Time Detection of Curvy Lanes (Curves) with Desired Slopes for Driving Assistance and Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Amartansh; Bhurchandi, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest reasons for road accidents is curvy lanes and blind turns. Even one of the biggest hurdles for new autonomous vehicles is to detect curvy lanes, multiple lanes and lanes with a lot of discontinuity and noise. This paper presents very efficient and advanced algorithm for detecting curves having desired slopes (especially for detecting curvy lanes in real time) and detection of curves (lanes) with a lot of noise, discontinuity and disturbances. Overall aim is to develop robus...

  9. Robust and Real Time Detection of Curvy Lanes (Curves) Having Desired Slopes for Driving Assistance and Autonomous Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Amartansh Dubey; Bhurchandi, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest reasons for road accidents is cu rvy lanes and blind turns. Even one of the biggest hurdles for new autonomous vehicles is to d etect curvy lanes, multiple lanes and lanes with a lot of discontinuity and noise. This paper p resents very efficient and advanced algorithm for detecting curves having desired slopes (especia lly for detecting curvy lanes in real time) and detection of curves (lanes) with a lot of no...

  10. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  11. Lane Keeping Assistance with Learning-Based Driver Model and Model Predictive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Stéphanie; Gao, Yiqi; Vasquez, Dizan; Tseng, H. Eric; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Borrelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    International audience This paper proposes a novel active Lane Keeping Assistance Systems (LKAS) which relies on a learning-based driver model. The driver model detects unintentional lane departures earlier than existing LKAS, and as a result the correction needed to keep the vehicle in the lane is smaller. When the controller has control of the car, the driver model estimates what the driver would do to keep the car in the lane, and the controller tries to reproduce that behavior as much ...

  12. Lane changing and speed interaction on freeways: An analytical microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvan Ekbatani, M.; Grebert, V.; Daamen, W.; Knoop, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of lane changing manoeuvre on the capacity, stability, and breakdown of traffic flows is a crucial issue. In a recent study, four distinct lane change strategies on freeways have been empirically found: (1) Speed Leading; (2) Speed Leading with Overtaking; (3) Lane Leadin

  13. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  14. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  15. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  16. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  17. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  18. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  19. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%. PMID:22573983

  20. Colouring with Children: the case of “Happy lanes- Cirkáló”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szűts-Nowsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a workshop for the process introducing ‘Happy Lanes’ colouring method; a colouring method for design educators for children. It focuses colouring perception in two approaches: from the neuropsychological and neurobiological. While we point on the benefits of the method with help of some special worksheets we analyse the process of solution, step by step, looking at the working of the colouring lanes, as the essence of the method. It stems from Berlyne’s motivation theory relating to the active inference theory, especially predictive coding and free energy principle. Through this method as a map, children can map their way between each and every level of the hierarchical brain system and cortical microcircuits. The colouring process includes two ways in parallel with each other in a top-down system; by creative, independent problem solving. According to the motivation theory the goal of this process is the optimal arousal level, which depend on the stimuli of the environment; in this case, children colour the task with the aid of the colouring lanes. This they do without any help from someone

  1. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  2. A new traffic model on compulsive lane-changing caused by off-ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-He, Liu; Hung-Tang, Ko; Ming-Min, Guo; Zheng, Wu

    2016-04-01

    In the field of traffic flow studies, compulsive lane-changing refers to lane-changing (LC) behaviors due to traffic rules or bad road conditions, while free LC happens when drivers change lanes to drive on a faster or less crowded lane. LC studies based on differential equation models accurately reveal LC influence on traffic environment. This paper presents a second-order partial differential equation (PDE) model that simulates both compulsive LC behavior and free LC behavior, with lane-changing source terms in the continuity equation and a lane-changing viscosity term in the momentum equation. A specific form of this model focusing on a typical compulsive LC behavior, the ‘off-ramp problem’, is derived. Numerical simulations are given in several cases, which are consistent with real traffic phenomenon. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11002035 and 11372147).

  3. Visual guidance during bicycle steering through narrow lanes: a study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) explored how visual behaviour guides bicycle steering when cycling at different speeds through 15m long lanes of 10, 25 and 40cm wide. Participants were found to shift their gaze direction towards the end of the lanes at higher speeds, towards the near pathway on narrow lanes and more towards irrelevant areas on wider lanes. To investigate to what extent young learner bicyclists adapt their visual behaviour in a similar way as adults, the experiment was repeated with seven eight-year-old children, and results were compared to the adult data. Children were found to cycle slower through narrow lanes than adults. However, with increasing lane width and cycling speed, children made the same shifts of visual gaze direction as the adults. These results suggest that for a simple precision steering task, children are able to adopt a similar visual-motor strategy as adults, provided that they cycle at their own pace. PMID:25725423

  4. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Lun Hui Xu; San Gen Hu; Qiang Luo

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW) algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC) using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was establ...

  5. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  6. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... conditional probabilities of the different cues which are estimated from a training set. The importance of the individual visual cues can be computed using a standard measure and the cues can then be combined in an optimal way. In addition we show that when doing 3D reasoning, the uncertainties connected...

  7. A New Paradigm in User Equilibrium-Application in Managed Lane Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asapol Sinprasertkool

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective use of the High-Occupancy-Vehicle (HOV lanes has the potential to decrease the overall roadway throughput during peak periods. Excess capacity in HOV lanes during peak periods can be made available to other types of vehicles, including single occupancy vehicles (SOV for a price (toll. Such dual use lanes are known as “Managed Lanes.” The main purpose of this research is to propose a new paradigm in user equilibrium to predict the travel demand for determining the optimal fare policy for managed lane facilities. Depending on their value of time, motorists may choose to travel on Managed Lanes (ML or General Purpose Lanes (GPL. In this study, the features in the software called Toll Pricing Modeler version 4.3 (TPM-4.3 are described. TPM-4.3 is developed based on this new user equilibrium concept and utilizes it to examine various operating scenarios. The software has two built-in operating objective options: 1 what would the ML operating speed be for a specified SOV toll, or 2 what should the SOV toll be for a desired minimum ML operating speed. A number of pricing policy scenarios are developed and examined on the proposed managed lane segment on Interstate 30 (I-30 in Grand Prairie, Texas. The software provides quantitative estimates of various factors including toll revenue, emissions and system performance such as person movement and traffic speed on managed and general purpose lanes. Overall, among the scenarios examined, higher toll rates tend to generate higher toll revenues, reduce overall CO and NOx emissions, and shift demand to general purpose lanes. On the other hand, HOV preferential treatments at any given toll level tend to reduce toll revenue, have no impact on or reduce system performance on managed lanes, and increase CO and NOx emissions.

  8. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  9. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  10. Lattice hydrodynamic modeling of two-lane traffic flow with timid and aggressive driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model is proposed by considering the aggressive or timid characteristics of driver's behavior. The effect of driver's characteristic on the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. It is shown that for both the cases of lane changing or without lane changing the stability region significantly enlarges (reduces) as the proportion of aggressive (timid) drivers increases. To describe the propagation behavior of a density wave near the critical point, nonlinear analysis is conducted and mKdV equation representing kink-antikink soliton is derived. The effect of anticipation parameter with more aggressive (timid) drivers is also investigated and found that it has a positive (negative) effect on the stability of two-lane traffic flow dynamics. Simulation results are found consistent with the theoretical findings which confirm that the driver's characteristics play a significant role in a two-lane traffic system.

  11. Safety-collision transition induced by lane changing in traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the traffic behavior when a vehicle changes from the first lane to the second lane on a two-lane highway. We apply the optimal velocity model to the vehicular motion. If the incoming vehicle does not decelerate successfully, it crashes into the vehicle ahead. On the other hand, if the headway between the incoming vehicle and the vehicle behind on the second lane is not long sufficiently, the rear vehicle may come into collision with the incoming vehicle. The safety-collision transition occurs by changing the lane. The dynamical transition depends highly on the vehicular speed, the sensitivity, and the headway. We derive the phase diagram (or region map) for the safety-collision transition.

  12. Driver’s Awareness and Lane Changing Maneuver in Traffic Flow based on Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of driver’s awareness (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver is discussed. “Scope awareness” is defined as the visibility which is required for the driver to make a visual perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that appears in the target lane for lane changing in the road. Cellular automaton based simulation model is created and applied to simulation studies for driver awareness behavior. This study clarifies relations between the lane changing behavior and the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed model is valid for investigation of the important features of lane changing maneuver.

  13. The Problem of Reserved-lane for Hazardous Chemicals Transportation and Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fuqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous chemicals transportation requires a high-level of security assurance. It is an effective transport strategy that reserved-lanes are set in a transportation route to avoid accidents such as rear-end collision and crash. However, other vehicles will be inevitably influenced if a lane is set as the reserved-lane. Thus, how to minimize the influence by setting the reserved-lane becomes a problem needed to be studied. The mathematical programming model of the reserved-lane setting for hazardous chemicals transportation is established in this paper. According to the characteristics of the problem, the heuristic algorithm based on Dijkstra algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is a simple and intelligible, satisfactory solution that can be obtained in polynomials.

  14. Extended-search, Bézier Curve-based Lane Detection and Reconstruction System for an Intelligent Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the real-time performance and detection rate of a Lane Detection and Reconstruction (LDR system, an extended-search-based lane detection method and a Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm are proposed in this paper. The extended search-based lane detection method is designed to search boundary blocks from the initial position, in an upwards direction and along the lane, with small search areas including continuous search, discontinuous search and bending search in order to detect different lane boundaries. The Bézier curve-based lane reconstruction algorithm is employed to describe a wide range of lane boundary forms with comparatively simple expressions. In addition, two Bézier curves are adopted to reconstruct the lanes’ outer boundaries with large curvature variation. The lane detection and reconstruction algorithm — including initial-blocks’ determining, extended search, binarization processing and lane boundaries’ fitting in different scenarios — is verified in road tests. The results show that this algorithm is robust against different shadows and illumination variations; the average processing time per frame is 13 ms. Significantly, it presents an 88.6% high-detection rate on curved lanes with large or variable curvatures, where the accident rate is higher than that of straight lanes.

  15. A case study on multi-lane roundabouts under congestion: Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanwu Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on modern roundabouts performance are mostly based on data from singe lane roundabouts that are not heavily congested. For planners and designers interested in building multilane roundabouts for intersections with potential growth in future traffic, there has been a lack of existing studies with field data that provide reference values in terms of capacity and delay measurements. With the intent of providing such reference values, a case study was conducted by using the East Dowling Road Roundabouts in Anchorage, Alaska, which are currently operating with extensive queues during the evening peak hours. This research used multiple video camcorders to capture vehicle turning movements at the roundabouts as well as the progression of vehicle queues at the roundabout entrance approaches. With these video records, the number of vehicles in the queues can be accurately counted in any single minute during the peak hours. This study shows that unbalanced entrance flow patterns (i.e., one entrance has significant higher flow than others can intensify the queue and delay for the overall roundabouts. Then various software packages including RODEL, SIDRA and VISSIM were used to estimate several performance measurements, such as capacity, queue length, and delay, compared with the collected field data. With the comparison, it is found that all the three software packages overestimate multi-lane roundabout capacity before calibration. With default parameters, SIDRA and VISSIM tend to underestimate delays and queue lengths for the multi-lane roundabouts under congestion, while RODEL results in higher delay and queue length estimations at most of the entrance approaches.

  16. The Formation of Dust Lanes: Implications for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Yoachim, Peter; Bernstein, Rebecca A.

    2004-06-01

    From a survey of edge-on disks, we find that disk galaxies show a sharp, mass-dependent transition in the structure of their dusty ISM. In more massive, rapidly rotating disks with Vc>120kms-1, we see the well-defined dust lanes traditionally associated with edge-on galaxies. However, in more slowly rotating, lower mass galaxies with Vclower characteristic velocities in the presence of disk instabilities, leading to smaller gas scale heights and the appearance of narrow dust lanes. The drop in velocity dispersion may be due either to a switch in the driving mechanism for turbulence from supernovae to gravitational instabilities or to a change in the response of the ISM to supernovae after the ISM has collapsed to a dense layer. We hypothesize that the drop in gas scale height may lead to significant increases in the star formation rate when disk instabilities are present. First, the collapse of the gas layer increases the typical gas density, reducing the star formation timescale. Second, the star formation efficiency increases because of lower turbulent velocities. These two effects can combine to produce a sharp increase in the star formation rate with little change in the gas surface density and may therefore provide an explanation for the Kennicutt surface density threshold for star formation. Our data also suggest that star formation will be systematically less efficient in low-mass disks with Vceffective nucleosynthetic yield is reduced because the star formation timescale becomes longer than the gas accretion timescale, suppressing the metallicity. This effect can possibly produce the observed fall-off in metallicity at rotation speeds Vc~120kms-1. The latter observation lends support to theories in which bulges in late-type galaxies grow through secular evolution in response to disk instabilities. We include in this paper relationships between the surface density and the vertical stellar velocity dispersion as a function of galaxy rotation speed, which may

  17. The Research of the Lane Detection Algorithm Base on Vision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sha Sha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent vehicle is an important area country in recent years of painstaking research in Intelligent Transportation System, which become the focus of the study, based on the visual structure of the road environment recognition. Aiming at the robust and real time problems of lane detection in the visual navigation system of intelligent vehicles, a robust lane detection method is proposed for the structured road. It can provide for intelligent vehicle automatically to maintain lane and changing lanes traveling lane information necessary to make smart vehicle to achieve a smooth, safe driving. Due to the complexity of the road itself, the complexity of the road image, Therefore, the pre-road established certain assumptions and these assumptions and the detection algorithm is combined to further improve the algorithm efficiency. Simulation test of the collected road images results show that the lane detection method designed in this study is stable enough to show the lane Position for engineering application not matter in good or poor illumination road condition.

  18. PREVAILING SATURATION FLOW RATE FOR LANE GROUPS IN AN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Arhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the prevailing Saturation Flow Rate (SFR for specific lane groups in an urban area: District of Columbia (DC. The lane groups considered were Through (T, shared Through and Right (TR, shared Through and Left (TL, and exclusive Left turn (L lane groups. These SFR values could then be used to calculate the local base SFR. The study determined the prevailing SFR for these lane groups based on data collected at 81 intersections. The hypothesis that the mean SFRs for all the lane groups are different was tested at a 5% level of significance. From the results, the mean prevailing SFR for the T, TR, TL and L lane groups were 1,559, 1,461, 1,566 and 1,460 vphpl respectively. Those prevailing SFRs can be used for planning analyses in the District of Columbia. The results also indicated that these mean prevailing SFRs are statistically similar at 95% confidence interval. Based on the results, a local base SFR for the City can be determined for each lane group.

  19. Structured trajectory planning of collision-free lane change using the vehicle-driver integration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.

  20. Driver’s Awareness and Lane Changing Maneuver in Traffic Flow based on Cellular Automaton Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Steven Ray Sentinuwo

    2015-01-01

    Effect of driver’s awareness (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle) on the lane changing maneuver is discussed. “Scope awareness” is defined as the visibility which is required for the driver to make a visual perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that appears in the target lane for lane changing in the road. Cellular automaton based simulation model is created and applied to simulation studies for driver awareness behavior. This study clarifies re...

  1. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  2. A car-following model with the anticipation effect of potential lane changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S. C. Wong; Rui Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is presented, taking into account the anticipation of potential lane changing by the leading vehicle. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is constructed and solved, and three types of traffic flow in the headway-sensitivity space, namely stable, metastable and unstable ones, are classified. Both the analytical and simulation results show that anxiety about lane changing does indeed have an influence on driving behavior and that a consideration of lane changing probability in the car-following model could stabilize traffic flows. The quantitative relationship between stability improvement and lane changing probability is also investigated.

  3. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  4. Open Access!: Review of Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study by David Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Tunstall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available David M. Lane (project leader. Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study (http://onlinestatbook.com/ Also: David M. Lane (primary author and editor, with David Scott, Mikki Hebl, Rudy Guerra, Dan Osherson, and Heidi Zimmer. Introduction to Statistics. Online edition (http://onlinestatbook.com/Online_Statistics_Education.pdf, 694 pp. It is rare that students receive high-quality textbooks for free, but David Lane's Online Statistics: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study permits precisely that. This review gives an overview of the many features in Lane's online textbook, including the Java Applets, the textbook itself, and the resources available for instructors. A discussion of uses of the site, as well as a comparison of the text to alternative online statistics textbooks, is included.

  5. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  6. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Steven Ray Sentinuwo

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle) on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changin...

  7. Comparison of color image segmentations for lane following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier

    1993-05-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with unhomogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We identify typical situations which constitute a basis for the realization of an image database. We describe the process of experimentation conceived for the comparative analysis of performances. The analytical results are useful in order to infer a few optimal combinations of techniques driven by the situations, and to define the present limits of the color perception's validity.

  8. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  9. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing

    2007-12-01

    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  10. PSO Algorithm Particle Filters for Improving the Performance of Lane Detection and Tracking Systems in Difficult Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chang Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a robust lane detection and tracking method by combining particle filters with the particle swarm optimization method. This method mainly uses the particle filters to detect and track the local optimum of the lane model in the input image and then seeks the global optimal solution of the lane model by a particle swarm optimization method. The particle filter can effectively complete lane detection and tracking in complicated or variable lane environments. However, the result obtained is usually a local optimal system status rather than the global optimal system status. Thus, the particle swarm optimization method is used to further refine the global optimal system status in all system statuses. Since the particle swarm optimization method is a global optimization algorithm based on iterative computing, it can find the global optimal lane model by simulating the food finding way of fish school or insects under the mutual cooperation of all particles. In verification testing, the test environments included highways and ordinary roads as well as straight and curved lanes, uphill and downhill lanes, lane changes, etc. Our proposed method can complete the lane detection and tracking more accurately and effectively then existing options.

  11. SOCIO-SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPE BACK LANE OF HOUSING AT BANDAR BARU NILAI: PRIVACY AND COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI F. M. LIAS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban informal spaces in the form of back lane tend to promote socio-spatial integration between neighbourhood communities. The Back Lane Planning Design Guidelines issued in 2014 by Town and Country Planning Department of Malaysia identified back lane as such a place to encourage communal lifestyle whereas an area of owns residents privacy. In reality, back lane portrays as the wasted unfavourable paths thus several social concerns of safety, security, health issues as well as invading privacy and sense of deficiency community bonding issues arise. This study quantitatively analyses dwellers perception focusing to level of visual privacy and level of spiritual neighbourhood interaction towards effectiveness of newly landscape back lane (LBL in contemporary urban dwellings. Comparison of socio-spatial integration between two types of back lane design in grid-linear housing scheme ; the pleasing greenery landscape back lane (LBL and the plain empty bare paved back lane (PBL in residential area of Kota Seriemas, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan . Structured questionnaire distributed to 115 respondents to assess on privacy and comfort level, neighbourhood activities and communal lifestyle, back -lane usage, resident’s perception and expectation.The study proved the landscape design back lane (LBL is ensuring own right privacy lacking in promoting community interaction among the residents due to contemporary urban lifestyles.

  12. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  13. Automatic parsing of lane and road boundaries in challenging traffic scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helala, Mohamed A.; Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Pu, Ken Q.

    2015-09-01

    Automatic detection of road boundaries in traffic surveillance imagery can greatly aid subsequent traffic analysis tasks, such as vehicle flow, erratic driving, and stranded vehicles. This paper develops an online technique for identifying the dominant road boundary in video sequences captured by traffic cameras under challenging environmental and lighting conditions, e.g., unlit highways captured at night. The proposed method works in real time of up to 20 frames/s and generates a ranked list of road regions that identify road and lane boundaries. Our method begins by segmenting each frame into a set of superpixels. An adaptive sampling step approximates superpixel contours to a collection of edge segments. Next, we show how online hierarchical clustering can be efficiently used to organize edges into clusters of colinearly similar sets. Promising clusters are paired with each other to form cluster pairs. Then we present and prove a statistical ranking measure that is used along with road-activity and perspective cues to find the dominant road boundaries. We evaluate the proposed approach on two real-world datasets to test our method under camera viewpoint changes and extreme environmental and lighting conditions. Results show that our method outperforms two state-of-the-art techniques in precision, recall, and runtime.

  14. Tactile stimulations and wheel-rotation responses: Toward augmented lane departure warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eTandonnet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When an on-board system detects a drift of a vehicle to the left or to the right, in what way should the information be delivered to the driver? Car manufacturers have so far neglected relevant results from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we show that this situation possibly led to the sub-optimal design of a lane departure warning system (AFIL, PSA Peugeot Citroën implemented in commercially available automobile vehicles. Twenty participants performed a two-choice reaction time task in which they were to respond by clockwise or counter-clockwise wheel-rotations to tactile stimulations of their left or right wrist. They performed poorer when responding counter-clockwise to the right vibration and clockwise to the left vibration (incompatible mapping than when responding according to the reverse (compatible mapping. This suggests that AFIL implements the worse (incompatible mapping for the operators. This effect depended on initial practice with the interface. The present research illustrates how basic approaches in Cognitive Science may benefit to Human Factors Engineering and ultimately improve man-machine interfaces and show how initial learning can affect interference effects.

  15. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  16. Real-time lane departure warning system based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution and risk evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 宋晓琳; 张桂香

    2014-01-01

    A technology for unintended lane departure warning was proposed. As crucial information, lane boundaries were detected based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution in search bars of given number and then each search bar was tracked using Kalman filter between frames. The lane detection performance was evaluated and demonstrated in ways of receiver operating characteristic, dice similarity coefficient and real-time performance. For lane departure detection, a lane departure risk evaluation model based on lasting time and frequency was effectively executed on the ARM-based platform. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm generates satisfactory lane detection results under different traffic and lighting conditions, and the proposed warning mechanism sends effective warning signals, avoiding most false warning.

  17. Socio-demographic impacts on lane-changing response time and distance in work zone with Drivers' Smart Advisory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lane-changing behavior is an important component of traffic simulation. A lane-changing action is normally confined to a decision-making process of the task, and the action itself is sometimes assumed as an instantaneous event. Besides, the lane-changing behavior is based mostly on observable positions and speeds of other vehicles, rather than on vehicles' intentions. In practice, changing one lane requires about 5–6 s to complete. Existing lane-changing models do not comprehensively consider drivers' response to work zone lane-changing signs (or other related messages, if any. Furthermore, drivers' socio-demographics are normally not taken into account. With regard to this, fuzzy logic-based lane-changing models that consider drivers' socio-demographics were developed to improve the realism of lane-changing maneuvers in work zones. Drivers' Smart Advisory System (DSAS messages were provided as one of the scenarios. Drivers' responses, including reactions to work zone signs and DSAS messages, and actions to change lane, were investigated. Drivers' socio-demographic factors were primary independent variables, while Lane-Changing Response Time (LCRT and Distance (LCRD were defined as output variables. The model validation process yielded acceptable error ranges. To illustrate how these models can be used in traffic simulation, the LCRT and LCRD in work zones were estimated for five geo-locations with different socio-demographic specifications. Results show that the DSAS is able to instruct all drivers to prepare and change lanes earlier, thereby shortening the duration of changing lanes. Educational background and age are essential variables, whereas the impacts of gender on the output variables are indistinctive.

  18. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  19. Chaotic time series prediction for surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lanes in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; WANG Qi-sheng; YAO Jin-rui; ZHAO Guo-yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measured displacements, the change laws of the effect of distance in phase space on the deformation of mine lane were analyzed and the chaotic time series model to predict the surrounding rocks deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock by nonlinear theory and methods was established. The chaotic attractor dimension(D) and the largest Lyapunov index(Emax) were put forward to determine whether the deformation process of mine lane is chaotic and the degree of chaos. The analysis of examples indicates that when D>2 and Emax>0, the surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock is the chaotic process and the laws of the deformation can still be well demonstrated by the method of the reconstructive state space. Comparing with the prediction of linear time series and grey prediction, the chaotic time series prediction has higher accuracy and the prediction results can provide theoretical basis for reasonable support of mine lane in soft rock. The time of the second support in Maluping Mine of Guizhou, China, is determined to arrange at about 40 d after the initial support according to the prediction results.

  20. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.

  1. Lane marking detection by extracting white regions with predefined width from bird's-eye road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadayuki; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Detecting lane markings on roads from in-vehicle camera images is very important because it is one of the fundamental tasks for autonomous running technology and safety driving support system. There are several lane markings detection methods using the width information, but most of these are considered to be insufficient for oblique markings. So, the primary intent of this paper is to propose a detecting lane markings method robust to orientation of markings. In this work, we focus on the width of lane markings standardized by road act in Japan, and propose a method for detecting white lane markings by extracting white regions with constant predefined width from bird's-eye road images after segmentation such as categorical color area one. The proposed method is based on the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The proposed method has a merit that can be measure an exact width for oblique markings on the bird's-eye images because it can be obtained perpendicular width for edge. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by experimental results for 187 actual road images taken from an in-vehicle camera.

  2. Spatially resolved observations of coronal type II radio bursts with multiple lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimovets, Ivan; Vilmer, Nicole; Sadykov, Viacheslav

    We have analyzed two coronal type II radio bursts occurred during solar flare and CME events of 3 November 2010 and 16 February 2011. Characteristic feature of both these bursts is a separation into three bands (lanes) of emission. Joint analysis of spatially-resolved observations made by the Nancay Radioheliograph and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory have shown that in both cases all three lanes were most probably emitted from above the CMEs. Radio sources of the first and the second lanes of each burst were located very close to each other and it is difficult to say unambiguously whether they were emitted from slightly different parts of a hypothetical shock front or from its upstream and downstream regions. However, emission region of the third lane, at least of the type II burst on 16 February 2011, was significantly different from emission region of the first two lanes. This confirms an old idea that different parts of a spatially extended non-planar shock wave can emit radiowaves from its different parts interacting with different coronal structures. Properties of these coronal structures are discussed.

  3. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  4. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  5. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  6. Traffic of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A: effects of lane changing

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Kinesins are biomolecular motors which move on cylindrical nano-tubes called microtubules. A normal microtubule consists of more than one protofilament on which the equispaced motor binding sites form a periodic array. The collective movement of the kinesins on a microtubule is, therefore, analogous to vehicular traffic on multi-lane highways where each protofilament is the analogue of a single lane. We extend a recent model of the traffic of single-headed kinesin KIF1A [{\\it Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 75}, 041905 (2007)}] by incorporating processes which correspond to shifting of the motor proteins from one protofilament to another. On the basis of analytical treatment of our model, we predict the effects of lane changing on the flux of the KIF1A motors. Our quantitative predictions can be tested, in principle, by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments with fluorescently labelled KIF1A molecules.

  7. Dangerous drivers foster social dilemma structures hidden behind a traffic flow with lane changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the fact that there are quite a few ill-mannered drivers who disregard traffic rules concerning lane-changing and maximum speed, we investigated an interesting question: whether or not social dilemma structures can be formed from a frequent dangerous lane-changing attitude in a typical traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always keep to traffic regulations with respect to lane-changing and speed, while D agents (defective strategy) disregard them to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person Prisoner's Dilemma (n-PD) games or to quasi-PD games. In these situations, existing ill-mannered drivers create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency.

  8. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  9. Analysis on Traffic Conflicts of Two-lane Highway Based on Improved Cellular Automation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiru Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic traffic characteristics of two-lane highway and different driving characteristics for drivers, the characteristics of drivers and vehicle structure are introduced into Cellular Automation model for establishing new Cellular Automation model of two-lane highway. Through computer simulation, the paper analyzes the effect of the promotion of different vehicles, drivers and arrival rates on traffic conflicts of two-lane highway, which gets the relationship between the parameters such as road traffic and velocity variance and collision. The results indicate that the frequency of traffic conflicts has close relationship with the product of traffic flow and velocity variation. When the traffic flow and velocity variation are great, the frequency of the conflict is the greatest, and when the traffic flow and velocity variation are little, the frequency of the conflict is the least.

  10. Sílvia Lane e o projeto do "Compromisso Social da Psicologia" SÍlvia Lane and the project for a socially committed psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Mercês Bahia Bock; Marcos Ribeiro Ferreira; Maria da Graça M. Gonçalves; Odair Furtado

    2007-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos da trajetória da Profa. Sílvia Tatiana Maurer Lane, desde a construção de uma Psicologia Social crítica até a formulação de um projeto de compromisso social da Psicologia. A Profa. Sílvia Lane foi pioneira nas formulações teóricas que colocaram a Psicologia Social brasileira em questão, ressaltando a necessidade de se explicitar seu vínculo com interesses dominantes e de se redirecionar sua produção no sentido de contribuir para a transformação soc...

  11. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  12. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  13. Lane Departure System Design using with IR Camera for Night-time Road Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Onur Akırmak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the largest areas of research and development in the automobile industry is road safety. Many deaths and injuries occur every year on public roads from accidents caused by sleepy drivers, that technology could have been used to prevent. Lane detection at night-time is an important issue in driving assistance systems. This paper deals with vision-based lane detection and tracking at night-time. This project consists of a research and development of an algorithm for automotive systems to detect the departure of vehicle from out of lane. Once the situation is detected, a warning is issued to the driver with sound and visual message through “Head Up Display” (HUD system. The lane departure is detected through the images obtained from a single IR camera, which identifies the departure at a satisfactory accuracy via improved quality of video stream. Our experimental results and accuracy evaluation show that our algorithm has good precision and our detecting method is suitable for night-time road conditions.

  14. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  15. "Go West, Young Man!" - Praktikum an der Lane Medical Library der Universität Stanford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuß, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of a five weeks internship at Lane Medical Library which is part of Stanford University, California. The story depicts personal impressions and reports on the university, on the library's history, organisation and its future development.

  16. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  17. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  18. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  19. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly. PMID:27504248

  20. We Have Met Our Past and Our Future: Thanks for the Walk down Memory Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes the readers for a walk down memory lane on the use of teaching aids. He shares his experience of the good old days of Audio Visual--opaque projector, motion pictures/films, recorders, and overhead projector. Computers have arrived, and now people can make graphics, pictures, motion pictures, and many different…

  1. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  2. Inner-Outer Lane Advantage in Olympic 1000 Meter Speed Skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamst, Richard; Kuper, Gerard H.; Sierksma, Gerard; Talsma, Bertus G.

    2012-01-01

    During the Olympic Games and the World Championships Single Distances the 1000m is skated by every skater only one time. However, there may be a difference in skating a 1000m race with a start in the inner and the outer lane that introduces an externality that introduces unfairness. We show that thi

  3. Evaluation of Single Vehicle Data in Dependence of the Vehicle-Type, Lane, and Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tilch, Benno; Helbing, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study dependencies of fundamental diagrams, time gap distributions, and velocity-distance relations on vehicle types, lanes and/or measurement sites. We also propose measurement and aggregation methods that have more favourable statistical properties than conventional methods.

  4. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  5. Analysis of the wave properties of a new two-lane continuum model with the coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arvind Kumar Gupta; Sapna Sharma

    2012-01-01

    A multilane extension of the single-lane anisotropic continuum model (GK model) developed by Gupta and Katiyar for traffic flow is discussed with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of different lanes in the instantaneous traffic situation and the lane-changing effect. The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.The shock and the rarefaction waves,the local cluster effect and the phase transition are investigated through simulation experiments with the new model and are found to be consistent with the diverse nonlinear dynamical phenomena observed in a real traffic flow.The analysis also focuses on empirically observed twolane phenomena,such as lane usage inversion and the density dependence of the number of lane changes.It is shown that single-lane dynamics can be extended to multilane cases without changing the basic properties of the single-lane model.The results show that the new multilane model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena and is in accordance with real traffic flow.

  6. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  7. Trails, Bike, Greenprints Proposed Bike Lanes, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, City of Woodstock.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'Greenprints Proposed Bike Lanes'. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  9. NEW GALERKIN OPERATIONAL MATRICES FOR SOLVING LANE-EMDEN TYPE EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with intro - ducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n = 3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  10. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  11. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  12. Association of Celiac Disease With Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis; Lane Hamilton Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Tekin Nacaroglu; Ozlem Sarac Sandal; Ozlem Bag; Semiha Bahceci Erdem; Ozlem Bekem Soylu; Gulden Diniz; Aysel Ozturk; Demet Can

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage, which is seen primarily in childhood. Celiac disease is defined as a chronic, immune-mediated enteropathy of the small intestine, caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically pre-disposed individuals. Association of IPH and celiac disease is known as Lane Hamilton syndrome. There are limited number of case reports of this syndrome in literature. ...

  13. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  14. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kala; Kevin Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the r...

  15. Hybrid functions for nonlinear initial-value problems with applications to Lane-Emden type equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzban, H.R.; Tabrizidooz, H.R. [Department of Mathematics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razzaghi, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Department of Applied Mathematics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: razzaghi@math.msstate.edu

    2008-09-08

    A numerical method for solving nonlinear initial-value problems is proposed. The Lane-Emden type equations which have many applications in mathematical physics are then considered. The method is based upon hybrid function approximations. The properties of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Lagrange interpolating polynomials are presented and are utilized to reduce the computation of nonlinear initial-value problems to a system of non-algebraic equations. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  16. ADAS on COTS with OpenCL: A Case Study with Lane Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Huang, Biao Hu, Long Chen, Alois Knoll, Zhihua Wang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of autonomous cars is driving a boost for car electronics and the size of automotive semiconductor market is foreseen to double by 2025. How to benefit from this boost is an interesting question. This article presents a case study to test the feasibility of using OpenCL as the programming language and COTS components as the underlying platforms for ADAS development. For representative ADAS applications, a scalable lane detection is developed that can tune the trade-off be...

  17. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh Anne M; Bentley Rebecca J; Thornton Lukar E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES) – a cross-sectional multilevel study con...

  18. Validity of Spontaneous Braking and Lane Changing with Scope of Awareness by Using Measured Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Steven Ray Sentinuwo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the validation method and its evaluation of the spontaneous braking and lane changing with scope awareness parameter. By using the real traffic flow data, the traffic cellular automaton model that accommodate these two driver behaviors, e.g., spontaneous braking and driver scope awareness has been compared and evaluated. The real traffic flow data have been observed via video-recording captured from real traffic situation. The validation results shown that by accommodate s...

  19. Two-way multi-lane traffic model for pedestrians in corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Degond, Pierre; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Aw-Rascle macroscopic model of car traffic into a two-way multi-lane model of pedestrian traffic. Within this model, we propose a technique for the handling of the congestion constraint, i.e. the fact that the pedestrian density cannot exceed a maximal density corresponding to contact between pedestrians. In a first step, we propose a singularly perturbed pressure relation which models the fact that the pedestrian velocity is considerably reduced, if not blocked, at congestion. ...

  20. Lynches Lane Reed & Willow Bed Facility Final Report South Dubin County Council

    OpenAIRE

    McCarton, Liam; O'Hogain, sean; McDonald, Don; Reid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This final report will present results from a two year study to monitor the performance of a hybrid reed willow bed facility at Lynches Lane, in the administrative area of South Dublin County Council (SDCC). Design specifications for the facility are presented. Monitoring results for a two year period including influent and effluent parameters, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and soil classification are also presented and discussed. During the two year monitoring period the system ach...

  1. Reassessing international investment patterns: a revisitation of Lane and Milesi-Ferretti's evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierucci, Eleonora; Pericoli, Filippo; VENTURA , Luigi

    2014-01-01

    We show that recent methodological advances in econometric theory raise questions about the results obtained by Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (LMF) in relation to the determinants of international investment patterns (International Investment Patterns, The Review of Economics and Statistics 2008; 90(3): 538{549). We find that LMF's estimated equations are affected by heteroscedasticity (which can lead to inconsistent estimates in log-linearized models), and that the results depend on the pattern o...

  2. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  3. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  4. Method of planning a reference trajectory of a single lane change manoeuver with Bezier curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, D.; Ślaski, G.

    2016-09-01

    For a comprehensive simulation of vehicle steering process it is vital to model the decision process of planning a trajectory shape and process of the selected trajectory. A single lane change manoeuver is only slightly restricted by the road geometry. There are also other requirements of a possible trajectory of movement, such as the continuity of change (derivative) of curvature, maximizing the passenger's comfort measured with appropriate indicators based on variables of motion dynamics or parameters of motion trajectory which influence that dynamic. This article presents a suggested method of automatic generation of trajectory of single lane change manoeuver. The proposed method can be used as an integral part of driver models and is based on a combination of two symmetrical Bezier curves optionally supplemented with a straight lane connector. The method meets the requirements of a trajectory shape, which results from optimizing the value of parameters controlling Bezier curve based on minimizing the curvature and the resulting lateral acceleration while preserving the continuity of curvature derivative of the planned trajectory.

  5. A New Lane Departure Warning Algorithm Considering the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Hui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the driving safety warning required for different driver types and situations, a new lane departure warning (LDW algorithm was proposed. Its adaptability is much better through setting the different thresholds of time to lane crossing (TLC using fuzzy control method for driver with different driving behaviors in different lanes and different vehicle movements. To ensure the accuracy of computation of TLC under the different actual driving scenarios, the algorithm was established based on vehicle kinematics and advanced mathematics compared to other ways of computation of TLC. On this basis, a LDW strategy determining driver's intentions was presented by introducing identifying vehicle movements. Finally, a vast quantity of the real vehicle experiments was given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed LDW algorithm. The results of the tests show that the algorithm can decrease false alarm rate effectively because of distinguishing from unconscious by real-time vehicle movements, and promote the adaptability to the driver behavior characteristics, so it has favorable driver acceptance and strong intelligence.

  6. Risk appraisal of passing zones on two-lane rural highways and policy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesige, Godfrey; Farah, Haneen; Koutsopoulos, Haris N

    2016-05-01

    Passing on two-lane rural highways is associated with risks of head-on collision resulting from unsafe completion of passing maneuvers in the opposite traffic lane. In this paper, we explore the use of time-to-collision (TTC) as a surrogate safety measure of the risk associated with passing maneuvers. Logistic regression models to predict the probability to end the passing maneuver with TTC less than 2 or 3s-threshold were developed with the time-gap from initiation of the maneuver to arrival of the opposite vehicle (effective accepted gap), and the passing duration as explanatory variables. The data used for model estimation was collected using stationary tripod-mounted camcorders at 19 passing zones in Uganda. Results showed that passing maneuvers completed with TTC less than 3s are unsafe and often involved sudden speed reduction, flashing headlights, and lateral shift to shoulders. Model sensitivity analysis was conducted for observed passing durations involving passenger cars or short trucks (2-3 axles), and long trucks (4-7 axles) as the passed vehicles for 3s TTC-threshold. Three risk levels were proposed based on the probability to complete passing maneuvers with TTC less than 3s for a range of opposite direction traffic volumes. Applications of the results for safety improvements of two-lane rural highways are also discussed.

  7. Bidirectional transport and pulsing states in a multi-lane ASEP model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Congping; Ashwin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an ASEP-like transport model for bidirectional motion of particles on a multi-lane lattice. The model is motivated by experiments on organelle motility along a microtubule (MT), where particles are propelled by molecular motors (dynein and kinesin) along the thirteen protofilaments of the MT. In the model, particles can switch directions of motion due to "tug-of-war" events between counteracting motors. Collisions of particles on the same lane can be cleared by switching to adjacent filaments (lane changes). We analyze transport properties of the model with no-flux boundary conditions at the end of a MT ("plus-end" or tip). In particular, we find a nonlinear scaling of the mean number of particles accumulated at the tip ({\\em tip size}) with injection rate and an associated phase transition leading to {\\em pulsing states} characterized by periodic filling and emptying of the system. Moreover, we show that the ability of changing protofilaments can affect the transport efficiency. F...

  8. Robust and Real Time Detection of Curvy Lanes (Curves Having Desired Slopes for Driving Assistance and Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amartansh Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest reasons for road accidents is cu rvy lanes and blind turns. Even one of the biggest hurdles for new autonomous vehicles is to d etect curvy lanes, multiple lanes and lanes with a lot of discontinuity and noise. This paper p resents very efficient and advanced algorithm for detecting curves having desired slopes (especia lly for detecting curvy lanes in real time and detection of curves (lanes with a lot of noise , discontinuity and disturbances. Overall aim is to develop robust method for this task which is applicable even in adverse conditions. Even in some of most famous and useful libraries like OpenC V and Matlab, there is no function available for detecting curves having desired slope s, shapes, discontinuities. Only few predefined shapes like circle, ellipse, etc, can be detected using presently available functions. Proposed algorithm can not only detect curves with discontinuity, noise, desired slope but also it can perform shadow and illumination correction a nd detect/ differentiate between different curves.

  9. Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Di Silvestro, Giacomo; La Cava, Grazia; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, approximately 60% of road accident fatalities occur on two-lane rural roads. Thus, research to develop and enhance explanatory and predictive models for this road type continues to be of interest in mitigating these accidents. To this end, this paper describes a novel and extensive data collection and modeling effort to define accident models for two-lane road sections based on a unique combination of exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables directly related to the safety performance. The first part of the paper documents how these were identified for the segmentation of highways into homogeneous sections. Next, is a description of the extensive data collection effort that utilized differential cinematic GPS surveys to define the horizontal alignment variables, and road safety inspections (RSIs) to quantify the other road characteristics related to safety. The final part of the paper focuses on the calibration of models for estimating the expected number of accidents on homogeneous sections that can be characterized by constant values of the explanatory variables. Several candidate models were considered for calibration using the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. After considering the statistical significance of the parameters related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors, and goodness of fit statistics, 19 models were ranked and three were selected as the recommended models. The first of the three is a base model, with length and traffic as the only predictor variables; since these variables are the only ones likely to be available network-wide, this base model can be used in an empirical Bayesian calculation to conduct network screening for ranking "sites with promise" of safety improvement. The other two models represent the best statistical fits with different combinations of significant variables related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors. These multiple variable models can be used, with

  10. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Jetto; H.Ez-Zahraouy; A.Benyoussef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road.The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle.The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out.We are interested in the relaxation time τ,i.e.,which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane.Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model,we have found two states,namely,the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane,and the trapped state in which τ diverges.We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability.In the second situation,we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task.Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase,two different states can be distinguished.One is the critical state,in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out.The other is the safe state,in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out.In order to be in the safe state,we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane.Furthermore,this critical distance depends on the density of cars,and it follows an exponential law.

  11. New Fast Lane towards Discoveries of Clusters of Galaxies Inaugurated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    . As of March 2003, there were only 5 known clusters in the literature at such a large redshift with enough spectroscopically measured redshifts to allow an estimate of the velocity dispersion. But the VLT allowed obtaining the dispersion in a distant cluster in 2 hours only, raising great expectations for future work. 700 spectra... Marguerite Pierre is extremely content : Weather and working conditions at the VLT were optimal. In three nights only, 12 cluster fields were observed, yielding no less than 700 spectra of galaxies. The overall strategy proved very successful. The high observing efficiency of the VLT and FORS support our plan to perform follow-up studies of large numbers of distant clusters with relatively little observing time. This represents a most substantial increase in efficiency compared to former searches. The present research programme has begun well, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of this new multi-telescope approach and its very high efficiency. And Marguerite Pierre and her colleagues are already seeing the first tantalising results: it seems to confirm that the number of clusters 7,000 million years ago is little different from that of today. This particular behaviour is predicted by models of the Universe that expand forever, driving the galaxy clusters further and further apart. Equally important, this multi-wavelength, multi-telescope approach developed by the XMM-LSS consortium to locate clusters of galaxies also constitutes a decisive next step in the fertile synergy between space and ground-based observatories and is therefore a basic building block of the forthcoming Virtual Observatory. More information This work is based on two papers to be published in the professional astronomy journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics (The XMM-LSS survey : I. Scientific motivations, design and first results by Marguerite Pierre et al., astro-ph/0305191 and The XMM-LSS survey : II. First high redshift galaxy clusters: relaxed and collapsing systems

  12. Evolution in the Dust Lane Fraction of Edge-on L* Spiral Galaxies since z=0.8

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; Radburn-Smith, D; de Jong, R S; Guhathakurta, P; Koekemoer, A; Allen, R J; Böker, T

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a well-defined and narrow dust lane in an edge-on spiral galaxy is the observational signature of a thin and dense molecular disk, in which gravitational collapse has overcome turbulence. Using a sample of galaxies out to z~1 extracted from the COSMOS survey, we identify the fraction of massive disks that display a dust lane. Our goal is to explore the evolution in the stability of the molecular ISM disks in spiral galaxies over a cosmic timescale. We check the reliability of our morphological classifications against changes in restframe wavelength, resolution, and cosmic dimming with (artificially redshifted) images of local galaxies from SDSS. We find that the fraction of L* disks with dust lanes in COSMOS is consistent with the local fraction (~80%) out to z~0.7. At z=0.8, the dust lane fraction is only slightly lower. A somewhat lower dust lane fraction in starbursting galaxies tentatively supports the notion that a high specific star formation rate can efficiently destroy or inhibit a den...

  13. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  14. Empirical Study of Accepted Gap and Lane Change Duration within Arterial Traffic under Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated variations in accepted gaps and lane change duration on arterial under recurrent and non-recurrent congestion. Descriptive statistics and best-fit distributions were obtained for the two parameters for both traffic conditions. Hypothesis testing using Mann-Whitney U-Test showed that the means of accepted gaps and lane change durations were statistically different between the two types of traffic’ conditions. The study found that during non-recurrent congestion, drivers on an average accepted smaller gaps but took longer lane change durations. Based on the fact that the data were collected for the same flow-rate (70-90 vehicles/minute in both traffic conditions and based on the literature, the reason for the above findings could be that, drivers get more frustrated during non-recurring congestion that they accept smaller gaps. Drivers visiting the study location for game day (non-recurrent exhibit different driver behavioral characteristics when compared to regular commuters (recurrent which could have also contributed to the statistical differences in the lane changing characteristics of two types of congestion. These findings have direct implications on the lane changing parameters used in microscopic traffic simulation and also help transportation planners and managers to understand driver behavior during recurrent and non-recurrent congestion and better manage the facilities.

  15. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  16. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  17. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  18. Race, gender and class in The inheritance of loss and Brick Lane : a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This thesis discusses and compares the themes of race, gender and class in Brick Lane by Monica Ali and The Inheritance of Loss by Kiran Desai. My main objective is to explore similarities and differences between the three themes, based on a thorough analysis of characters, settings and plots, and to find out how they correspond and how they differ. The themes of race, gender and class are seen through the lens of migration and multiculturalism in a postcolonial setting, which is a prevailing...

  19. Visual object-oriented application for lane following on intelligent highway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChunyan; WangWi; LuJian; ChangYulin

    2003-01-01

    A visual object-oriented software for lane following on intelligent highway system (IHS) is proposed. According to object-oriented theory, 3 typical user services of self-check, transfer of human driving and automatic running and abnormal information input from the sensors are chosen out. In addition, the functions of real-time display, information exchanging interface, determination and operation interweaving in the 3 user services are separated into 5 object-oriented classes.Moreover, the 5 classes are organized in the visual development environment. At last, experimental result proves the validity and reliability of the control application.

  20. Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.; Farner, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~20-25% of the dextral-motion between the Pacific and North American plates the Walker Lane is represented as an elongate, NW oriented, region of active tectonics positioned between the northwesterly-translating Sierra Nevada microplate and the east-west extension of the Basin and Range. This region of transtension is being variably accommodated on regional-scale systems of predominantly strike-slip faulting. At the western edge of the central Walker Lane (ca. 38°-39°N latitude) is a region of crustal-scale blocks bounded by wedge-shaped depositional-basins and normal-fault systems, here defined as the west-central Walker Lane (WCWL). Devoid of obvious strike-slip faulting, the presence of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations in the WCWL represents unrecognized components of dextral-shearing and/or changes of strain-accommodation over time. We use paleomagnetic reference directions for Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) members of the late Miocene Stanislaus Group as spatial and temporal markers for documentation of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations near Bridgeport, CA. Study-site rotations revealed discrete rotational domains of mean vertical-axis rotation ranging from ~10°-30° with heterogeneous regional distribution. Additionally, the highest measured magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation (~50°-60° CW) define a 'Region of High Strain' that includes the wedge-shaped Bridgeport Valley (Basin). This study revealed previously-unrecognized tectonic rotation of reference direction sites from prior studies for two (By-Day and Upper) of the three members of the EVT, resulting in under-estimates of regional strain accommodation by these studies. Mean remanent directions and virtual geomagnetic poles utilized in our study yielded a recalculated reference direction for the By-Day member of: Dec.=353.2°; Inc.= 43.7°; α95=10.1, in agreement with new measurements in the stable Sierra Nevada. This recalculated direction confirmed the presence of previously

  1. 多车道公路的交通通行能力%Traffic Capacity of Multi- lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静宇

    2012-01-01

    According to traffic capacity theory of multi - lane highway, and annual traffic volume forecast result of project vision in Highway Capacity Manual, peak rate and number of lane required by design project are calculat- ed, and number of lane required by construction project is finally determined through calculation of maximum traffic capacity and service level analysis.%根据《道路通行能力手册》中多车道公路通行能力理论及项目远景年交通量预测成果,计算高峰流率、设计工程项目所需车道数;通过最大通行能力计算及服务水平分析,最终确定工程项目的所需车道数。

  2. Traffic paradox on a road segment based on a cellular automaton: Impact of lane-changing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Jinyang; Ding, Ning; Nie, Cen

    2015-06-01

    The traffic paradox "faster is slower" does not always apply. To study when and where it is valid, a simulation for a real road segment is performed using a novel cellular automaton. This simulation is used to analyze the change in global traffic flow status during free lane-changing behavior under general urban traffic conditions. The impact of lane-changing behavior is quantified into two aspects, time and space, and are described by average delay and transitable flow, respectively. Then surfaces are obtained, which adopt the arriving probability of vehicles and the green ratio as dual independent variables. Thus by the comparison of two surfaces, free lane-changing and straight proceeding, the horizontal projection of the intersecting lines is solved. Finally, the range of occurrence and reasons for the paradox are analyzed.

  3. Ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelman, Ido; J., José G Funes S; Kniazev, Alexei Y; Väisänen, Petri

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of multicolour observations of 30 E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. For each galaxy we obtained broad-band images and narrow-band images using interference filters isolating the H\\alpha +[NII] emission lines to derive the amount and morphology of dust and ionized gas. To improve the wavelength coverage we retrieved data from the SDSS and 2MASS and combined these with our data. Ionized gas is detected in 25 galaxies and shows in most cases a smooth morphology, although knots and filamentary structure are also observed in some objects. The extended gas distribution closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. An extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes is derived and is used to estimate the dust content of the galaxies. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colours for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the H-alpha emission and colo...

  4. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  5. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  6. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  7. Analysis of eye movements difference between lane keeping and lane changing intention stage%车道保持与换道意图阶段眼动行为差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伟; 付锐; 吴付威; 彭金栓

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of low identify rate for identifying lane changing intention relying on turn signal,new identification method for lane changing intention was explored using the difference of 16 driver's eye movement behaviors in different driving tasks.The real-world experiments were conducted to collect driver's eye movements data during lane keeping and lane changing intention stage.Mathematical statistical method was used to analyze eye movement behavior data between different stages,including basic eye movement parameters,attention allocation and visual search patterns.The results show that parameters such as the average fixation time,average saccade amplitude,attention allocation on different lanes,rearview mirror and dashboard attention allocation,fixation transition probabilities between difference fixation areas,horizontal visual search breadths are significantly different between these two stages; during lane changing intention stage,drivers pay more attention on the target lane and rearview mirrors,and pay less attention on the current lane and dashboard,compared with lane keeping stage.Besides,the fixation transition becomes more flexible and the horizontal search breadth becomes more wider during lane changing intention stage.4 tabs,9 figs,16 refs.%为了解决目前依靠转向灯识别换道意图时因转向灯开启率低而识别遗漏的问题,探索运用驾驶人在不同任务条件下眼动行为存在的差异来识别换道意图.在真实道路环境条件下进行实车试验,采集了16名驾驶人车辆保持阶段和换道意图阶段的眼动行为数据,运用数理统计方法对比分析驾驶人在不同阶段的基本眼动参数、注意力分配和视觉搜索模式3个方面眼动行为参数.研究结果表明:平均注视时间、平均扫视幅度、车道注意力分配、后视镜注意力分配、仪表盘注意力分配、区域间注视转移概率、水平视觉搜索广度等参数在2个阶段存在显

  8. Psicologia social e processo grupal: a coerência entre fazer, pensar sentir em Sívia Lane Social psychology and group process: coherence between doing, thinking and feeling in Sílvia Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da concepção histórica e dialética de processo grupal proposta por Sílvia Lane, que utiliza como base para suas reflexões os pressupostos de materialismo dialético quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e a realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. O que pretendemos enfatizar neste artigo é a produção sobre grupo presente em sua obra que foi se construindo no decorrer das décadas de 1980 e 1990, sintetizada no texto O processo grupal. Neste sentido, busca-se trazer as contribuições presentes no conjunto de sua obra, sistematizadas em artigos, coletâneas e livros, em que Sílvia Lane discute a articulação de algumas categorias fundamentais para a análise do processo grupal e suas implicações teóricas, metodológicas e prático-políticas.The present article discusses historic and dialectical conceptions of group process by Sílvia Lane, that uses like base for her reflections the presuppositions of dialectical materialism, when the author considers the personal aspects, the group characteristics, the subjective existence and objective reality and the historical character of the group. This article intends to emphasize the production written by Sílvia Lane about group between 1980 and 1990 summaried in the text The group process. In this direction, it searchs to bring the contributions in her work through articles, collections and books that Sílvia Lane discusses some fundamental categories to the analysis of group process and their theoretical and methodological evolvement and practical-politics.

  9. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  10. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  11. Role of simulation in assessing intelligent technology for sustainable mobility : example of toll routes and toll lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryz, T.; Armstrong, J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A key challenge in the pursuit of sustainable mobility involves management of road traffic congestion. Public transit innovations are an important means of addressing traffic congestion, although additional measures are necessary in many urban areas in order to avoid traffic gridlock on primary routes. Improvements in intelligent transportation system (ITS) technologies now enable the implementation of sophisticated congestion charging schemes. However, it is necessary to test, in a computer simulation laboratory, the traffic and related effects of congestion charging measures given the high cost of such systems and the need to convince the public of the merits of implementation. This paper reported research in the use of simulation and other methodological innovations for testing congestion charging schemes based on ITS technologies in order to produce information to support decision-making. It discussed congestion pricing, ITS technologies for congestion charging, and simulation of selected congestion charging schemes. These simulations included macro simulation of traffic in a multimodal corridor with a toll route and simulation of an integrated freeway and arterial network. The paper also presented a simulation of a high occupancy toll lane dynamic charging system including development of a real-time tolling algorithm for high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes and application of the algorithm to a hypothetical HOT lane and simulation of HOT lanes. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  13. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  14. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  15. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D; Sawhney, K; Nistea, I; Alcock, S G; Pape, I; Sutter, J; Alianelli, L; Evans, G

    2016-05-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  16. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.;

    2014-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere are of concern due to their toxic properties and effects on climate. In coastal areas, ship emissions can be a significant anthropogenic source. In this study we investigated the contribution from ship emissions to the total particle number and mass concentrations...... at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...

  17. Two-way multi-lane traffic model for pedestrians in corridors

    CERN Document Server

    Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Motsch, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Aw-Rascle macroscopic model of car traffic into a two-way multi-lane model of pedestrian traffic. Within this model, we propose a technique for the handling of the congestion constraint, i.e. the fact that the pedestrian density cannot exceed a maximal density corresponding to contact between pedestrians. In a first step, we propose a singularly perturbed pressure relation which models the fact that the pedestrian velocity is considerably reduced, if not blocked, at congestion. In a second step, we carry over the singular limit into the model and show that abrupt transitions between compressible flow (in the uncongested regions) to incompressible flow (in congested regions) occur. We also investigate the hyperbolicity of the two-way models and show that they can lose their hyperbolicity in some cases. We study a diffusive correction of these models and discuss the characteristic time and length scales of the instability.

  18. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  19. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  20. 单目智能车道偏离预警系统%Monocular Aptitude Lane Departure Warning System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕柯岩; 朱明; 贺柏根; 杨粤涛

    2012-01-01

    车道偏离预警系统是继安全气囊之后的汽车安全辅助系统,该系统主要任务是采用基于机器视觉的方法提取车道线并进行预警决策.文章利用TMS320DM642视频处理器作为中央处理器,设计出基于DM642的车道偏离预警系统硬件架构,算法方面对图像进行灰度化、二值化和边缘提取做预处理,然后设置感兴趣区域(ROI),利用基于相位编组的改进Hough变换(RHT)进行车道线检测,根据车道偏离预警条件进行预警决策,当车辆在驾驶员非意识时偏离车道线的情况下实施报警.试验结果证明,本系统能够提前2.5s进行车道偏离的预警工作,并能够排除路面标记的影响,满足车道偏离预警系统实时、鲁棒的性能要求.%Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) is a car safety assist systems, following the capsule of the safety, whose main task is to extract lane markings and make warning-decision. In this paper, the lane departure warning system hardware architecture is designed based on TMS320DM642 which acts as the central processing unit. The algorithms turn the image into grayscale, and then detect the image's edge information, in the end set the region of interest (ROD on the image. Hough transform based on phase grouping is used to extract the lanes, and according to the lane departure warning conditions, the system analyzes whether the warning should be presented or not and gives the driver warning singles when it is unconscious. The experiments results proved that the system will make warning in 2. 5 s before the traffic accident, which implements the aim of the real-time, reliable lane departure warning.

  1. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  2. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  3. Monitoring the newly qualified nurses in Sweden: the Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE study was initiated in 2002, with the aim of longitudinally examining a wide variety of individual and work-related variables related to psychological and physical health, as well as rates of employee and occupational turnover, and professional development among nursing students in the process of becoming registered nurses and entering working life. The aim of this paper is to present the LANE study, to estimate representativeness and analyse response rates over time, and also to describe common career pathways and life transitions during the first years of working life. Methods Three Swedish national cohorts of nursing students on university degree programmes were recruited to constitute the cohorts. Of 6138 students who were eligible for participation, a total of 4316 consented to participate and responded at baseline (response rate 70%. The cohorts will be followed prospectively for at least three years of their working life. Results Sociodemographic data in the cohorts were found to be close to population data, as point estimates only differed by 0-3% from population values. Response rates were found to decline somewhat across time, and this decrease was present in all analysed subgroups. During the first year after graduation, nearly all participants had qualified as nurses and had later also held nursing positions. The most common reason for not working was due to maternity leave. About 10% of the cohorts who graduated in 2002 and 2004 intended to leave the profession one year after graduating, and among those who graduated in 2006 the figure was almost twice as high. Intention to leave the profession was more common among young nurses. In the cohort who graduated in 2002, nearly every fifth registered nurse continued to further higher educational training within the health professions. Moreover, in this cohort, about 2% of the participants had left the nursing

  4. Trails, Bike, Bike Lanes within City of Ashland, WI, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Ashland.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, Bike dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Bike Lanes within...

  5. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations

  6. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossoe, K.S., E-mail: kwami.sossoe@irt-systemx.fr [TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE SYSTEMX (France); Lebacque, J-P., E-mail: jean-patrick.lebacque@ifsttar.fr [UPE/IFSTTAR-COSYS-GRETTIA (France)

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  7. HOV车道设置特性及可行性分析%Characteristics and Feasibility Analysis of Setting HOV Lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 陈峻; 邓社军

    2012-01-01

    HOV lanes are commonly adopted in other countries. This paper first summarizes the macroscopic features of HOV lanes in other countries from three aspects: land use, location, and its relationship with public transit. Taking one segment of the HOV lanes in Houston, U.S. As an example, the paper investigates the performance of HOV lanes in mitigating traffic congestion by comparing travel speeds on HOV lanes and the regular lanes under various configurations. Then the paper summarizes the experience of setting HOV lanes in other countries based on the above analyses. Finally, the paper elaborates the feasibility of setting HOV lanes in Chinese cities considering the patterns of land use, characteristics of roadway system, and bus exclusive lanes. Taking the intersection at Xuanwu Road and Huayuan Road as an example, the paper analyzes the traffic operational performance of different HOV lane settings in terms of travel speed and delay time through simulation. The results show that all designs can improve the average travel speed significantly expect setting two HOV lanes.%HOV车道是国外常见的一种交通措施.首先结合实例从用地形态、设置位置、与公交线路的关系三方面,总结了国外HOV车道系统的宏观特征.然后以美国休斯敦的一段HOV车道为例,通过对比不同车道设置类型和运行方式下HOV车道和普通车道的车辆行驶速度,探讨HOV车道的缓堵效果.综合上述两方面的分析,总结了国外HOV车道的设置经验.最后结合用地形态、道路特征、公交专用车道的设置状况,阐述了中国城市设置HOV车道的可行性,并以南京市玄武大道花园路路口段为例,从车辆行驶速度和延误两方面,通过仿真对比分析不同HOV车道设置方案的交通运行状况.结果显示,除单独设置两条HOV车道的方案外,其余方案均可提高路段平均车速.

  8. Developing crash modification functions to assess safety effects of adding bike lanes for urban arterials with different roadway and socio-economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lee, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although many researchers have estimated crash modification factors (CMFs) for specific treatments (or countermeasures), there is a lack of studies that explored the heterogeneous effects of roadway characteristics on crash frequency among treated sites. Generally, the CMF estimated by before-after studies represents overall safety effects of the treatment in a fixed value. However, as each treated site has different roadway characteristics, there is a need to assess the variation of CMFs among the treated sites with different roadway characteristics through crash modification functions (CMFunctions). The main objective of this research is to determine relationships between the safety effects of adding a bike lane and the roadway characteristics through (1) evaluation of CMFs for adding a bike lane using observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) and cross-sectional methods, and (2) development of simple and full CMFunctions which are describe the CMF in a function of roadway characteristics of the sites. Data was collected for urban arterials in Florida, and the Florida-specific full SPFs were developed. Moreover, socio-economic parameters were collected and included in CMFunctions and SPFs (1) to capture the effects of the variables that represent volume of bicyclists and (2) to identify general relationship between the CMFs and these characteristics. In order to achieve better performance of CMFunctions, data mining techniques were used. The results of both before-after and cross-sectional methods show that adding a bike lane on urban arterials has positive safety effects (i.e., CMFbike crashes. It was found that adding a bike lane is more effective in reducing bike crashes than all crashes. It was also found that the CMFs vary across the sites with different roadway characteristics. In particular, annual average daily traffic (AADT), number of lanes, AADT per lane, median width, bike lane width, and lane width are significant characteristics that

  9. Can carpooling clean the air? The economics of HOV lanes, hybrid cars and the Clean Air Act.

    OpenAIRE

    Shewmake, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Private vehicles are a significant source of air pollution in many areas of the United States. Areas with already high levels of air pollution are required by the Clean Air Act to take steps to reduce automobile use and the associated emissions. The behavioral implications of many travel demand management techniques are poorly understood. In this dissertation I focus on carpooling. Policy makers encourage commuters to carpool through High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, fre...

  10. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  11. A Comparative Systems-level Analysis: Automated Freeways, Hov Lanes, Transit Expansion, Pricing Policies And Land Use Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The focus of this project was to examine the potential travel, emissions, and consumer benefits of advanced freeway automation and travel demand management measures. The Sacramento Regional Travel Demand model (SACMET 95) was used to simulate the travel effects of travel demand management measures in the Sacramento region for a twenty year time horizon. The scenarios examined included various combinations of automated freeways, new High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, transit, land use intensi...

  12. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle Across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications – bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing directions. Opportunities for crossing were divided into aligned (far gap opens with or before near gap) and rolli...

  13. A Simplified Method for Calculating Propeller Thrust Decrease for a Ship Sailing on a Given Shipping Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelazny Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During ship sailing on rough water, relative ship motions can be observed which make the propeller emerge from the water, and decrease its thrust as a consequence. The article presents a simplified method for calculating the thrust decrease and the time of propeller emergence from water for the ship on a regular an irregular wave. The method can be used for predicting the operating speed of the ship on a given shipping lane.

  14. Comment on: Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow, Nathan O. Hodas and Arnand Jagota, Am. J. Phys. 71 (12) 2003, pp. 1247

    OpenAIRE

    Risch, M.

    2006-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  15. A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.

  16. Analysis of a novel two-lane lattice model on a gradient road with the consideration of relative current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin-Liang; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel hydrodynamic lattice model is proposed by considering of relative current for two-lane gradient road system. The stability condition is obtained by using linear stability theory and shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with three parameters, that is, the slope, the sensitivity of response to the relative current and the rate of lane changing. The stable region increases with the increasing of one of them when another two parameters are constant. By using nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries, and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations are derived to describe the phase transition of traffic flow. Their solutions present the density wave as the triangular shock wave, soliton wave, and kink-antikink wave in the stable, metastable, and unstable region, respectively, which can explain the phase transitions from free traffic to stop-and-go traffic, and finally to congested traffic. To verify the theoretical results, a series of numerical simulations are carried out. The numerical results are consistent with the analytical results. To check the novel model, calibration are taken based on the empirical traffic flow data. The theoretical results and numerical results show that the traffic flow on the gradient road becomes more stable and the traffic congestion can be efficiently suppressed by considering the relative current and lane changing, and the empirical analysis shows that the novel lattice model is reasonable.

  17. Driving simulator evaluation of drivers' response to intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yun, Meiping; Zhang, H Michael; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-08-01

    With the worsening of urban traffic congestion in large cities around the world, researchers have been looking for unconventional designs and/or controls to squeeze more capacity out of intersections, the most common bottlenecks of the road network. One of these innovative intersection designs, known as the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL), opens up exit-lanes to be used by left-turn traffic with the help of an additional traffic light installed at the median opening (the pre-signal). This paper studies how drivers respond to EFL intersections with a series of driving simulator experiments. In our experiments, 64 drivers were recruited and divided into two groups. One group is trained to use the EFL while the other group is not. In addition, four scenarios were considered with different sign and marking designs and traffic conditions in the experiments. Results indicate that drivers show certain amount of confusion and hesitation when encountering an EFL intersection for the first time. They can be overcome, however, by increasing exposure through driver education or by cue provided from other vehicles. Moreover, drivers unfamiliar with EFL operation can make a left turn using the conventional left-turn lanes as usual. The EFL operation is not likely to pose any serious safety risk of the intersection in real life operations. PMID:25969158

  18. Polynomial-time homology for simplicial Eilenberg-MacLane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krcal, Marek; Sergeraert, Francis

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier paper of Cadek, Vokrinek, Wagner, and the present authors, we investigated an algorithmic problem in computational algebraic topology, namely, the computation of all possible homotopy classes of maps between two topological spaces, under suitable restriction on the spaces. We aim at showing that, if the dimensions of the considered spaces are bounded by a constant, then the computations can be done in polynomial time. In this paper we make a significant technical step towards this goal: we show that the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(Z,1), represented as a simplicial group, can be equipped with polynomial-time homology (this is a polynomial-time version of effective homology considered in previous works of the third author and co-workers). To this end, we construct a suitable discrete vector field, in the sense of Forman's discrete Morse theory, on K(Z,1). The construction is purely combinatorial and it can be understood as a certain procedure for reducing finite sequences of integers, without any re...

  19. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  20. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  1. X-Ray Emission from a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2015-01-01

    We report the multiband imagery with an emphasis on the X-ray emission properties of a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866. X-ray emission from this galaxy is due to a diffuse component and a substantial contribution from the population of discrete X-ray binary sources. A total of 22 discrete sources have been detected within the optical D25 extent of the galaxy, few of which exhibit spatial association with the globular clusters hosted by this system. Composite spectrum of the diffuse emission from this galaxy was well constrained by a thermal plasma model plus a power law component to represent the emission from unresolved sources, while that of the discrete sources was well fitted by an absorbed power law component of photon index 1.82$\\pm$0.14. X-ray color-color plot for the resolved source was used to classify the detected sources. The cumulative X-ray luminosity function of the XRBs is well represented by a power law function of index of {\\Gamma} ~ 0.82$\\pm$0.12. Optical imagery of NGC 5866 r...

  2. Production and composition of oranges cv. Lane Late under maintenance potassium fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção e composição de laranjas de cv. Pista árvores tardias submetido a adubação de manutenção de potássio. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar de cv. Lane Late em Rosário do Sul (RS. As laranjeiras foram submetidos a suplementação com 0, 50 ou 100% da dose recomendada de K2O em cada safra de 2008/2009 a 2011/2012. A produção de frutos, diâmetro do fruto, espessura da casca, volume de suco e suco, folha e os níveis de K no solo foram avaliados nas safras 2008/2009, 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. parâmetros de composição da fruta foram avaliados nos 2010/2011 e 2011/2012 safras. A aplicação de doses crescentes de potássio para CV. Pista laranjeiras atrasado para três safras não teve efeito sobre a produção de frutos. No entanto, a suplementação do solo com o potássio aumentou os níveis de nutrientes totais nas folhas e suco.

  3. Collective Dynamics on a Two-Lane Asymmetrically Coupled TASEP with Mutually Interactive Langmuir Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on clustering of motor proteins on microtubule filament, we study an open system of two parallel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes under asymmetric coupling conditions, which incorporates the mutual interaction with the surrounding environment through Langmuir Kinetics (LK) in both the lanes. In the modified LK, the attachment and detachment rates depends on the configuration of nearest neighboring sites. We analyse the model within the framework of continuum mean-field theory and the phase diagrams along with density profiles are obtained using boundary layer analysis. The effect of mutual interactions on the phase diagram for two different situations of attachment and detachment (LK) rates is discussed. Under the symmetric LK dynamics, the topological structure of the phase diagram remains similar to the one in without mutual interaction; while for the antisymmetric case, after a certain critical value of attractive/repulsive mutual attraction, significant changes are found in the qualitative nature of phase diagram. Moreover, it is shown that the type of mutual interaction affects the dynamic properties of motor proteins. The theoretical findings are examined by extensive Monte-Carlo simulations.

  4. Results of the radiological survey at 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclides analyses. The survey of this site, 7 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ044), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Some radionuclide measurements were greater than typical background levels in the northern New Jersey area. However, results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  6. Results of the radiological survey at 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 112 Columbia Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ068), was conducted during 1987. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  8. Surprising detection of an equatorial dust lane on the AGB star IRC+10216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, S. V.; Min, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Canovas, H.; Pols, O. R.; Rodenhuis, M.; de Juan Ovelar, M.; Keller, C. U.; Decin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Understanding the formation of planetary nebulae remains elusive because in the preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase these stars are heavily enshrouded in an optically thick dusty envelope. Methods: To further understand the morphology of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars we observe the closest carbon-rich AGB star IRC+10216 in scattered light. Results: When imaged in scattered light at optical wavelengths, IRC+10216 surprisingly shows a narrow equatorial density enhancement, in contrast to the large-scale spherical rings that have been imaged much further out. We use radiative transfer models to interpret this structure in terms of two models: firstly, an equatorial density enhancement, commonly observed in the more evolved post-AGB stars, and secondly, in terms of a dust rings model, where a local enhancement of mass-loss creates a spiral ring as the star rotates. Conclusions: We conclude that both models can be used to reproduce the dark lane in the scattered light images, which is caused by an equatorially density enhancement formed by dense dust rather than a bipolar outflow as previously thought. We are unable to place constraints on the formation of the equatorial density enhancement by a binary system. Final reduced images (FITS) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A3Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  9. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions—in particular pavement painting and intersection design—and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27548562

  10. Perception of Safety and Liking Associated to the Colour Intervention of Bike Lanes: Contribution from the Behavioural Sciences to Urban Design and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Contreras, Daniela; Lillo, Sebastián; Beyle, Christian; Segovia, Ariel; Rojo, Natalia; Moreno, Sandra; Oyarzo, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The perception of colour and its subjective effects are key issues to designing safe and enjoyable bike lanes. This paper addresses the relationship between the colours of bike lane interventions-in particular pavement painting and intersection design-and the subjective evaluation of liking, visual saliency, and perceived safety related to such an intervention. Utilising images of three real bike lane intersections modified by software to change their colour (five in total), this study recruited 538 participants to assess their perception of all fifteen colour-design combinations. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with the Bonferroni post hoc test was performed to assess the effect of the main conditions (colour and design) on the dependent variables (liking towards the intervention, level of visual saliency of the intersection, and perceived safety of the bike lane). The results showed that the colour red was more positively associated to the outcome variables, followed by yellow and blue. Additionally, it was observed that the effect of colour widely outweighs the effect of design, suggesting that the right choice and use of colour would increase the effectiveness on bike-lanes pavement interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  11. Penny Lane et Strawberry Field(s : réel, identité et fantasmagorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gensane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les chansons « Penny Lane » et « Strawberry Fields Forever » permettent d’appréhender le thème de l’enfance chez les Beatles. De manière très différente, John Lennon et Paul McCartney s’appuient sur une visite de deux lieux réels liverpooliens pour mettre en résonance leurs visions fantasmagoriques du passé, et pour exploiter la langue (qu’ils travaillent et qui les travaille dans une perspective authentiquement artistique.

  12. Tectonic Tales: Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Late-Miocene Stanislaus Group of lavas and ignimbrites were deposited across a region of diverse tectonic rates and style. Distributed east of Sonora Pass across the Walker Lane Belt into Nevada, and extending as far west as Knights Ferry along the Stanislaus River in the central Sierran foothills, the Stanislaus Group’s distinctive lithologic and paleomagnetic characteristics provide the means to reconstruct tectonic evolution in this region. Motion of the Sierra Nevada microplate is relatively straightforward while the adjacent range front fault and Walker Lane are characterized by westward propagation with time, extensive complex faulting, and vertical axis rotation of fault bounded blocks. The Stanislaus Group is composed of: 1) Table Mountain Formation, dominantly latite lavas emplaced at about ~10 Ma, 2A) Tollhouse Flat Member of the dominantly quartz latite Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT), emplaced sometime during 9.4-9.8 Ma, 2B) Latite Flow Member of EVT, 2C) By-Day Member of EVT, 9.42±0.04 Ma, 2D) Upper Member of EVT 9.43±0.02 Ma, and 3) Dardanelle Formation, composed of latite lavas, which caps the Stanislaus Group. Because of wide areal distribution across the central Walker Lane, we have used members of the Stanislaus Group to evaluate and understand regional strain in this part of the North American-Pacific plate boundary, which currently accommodates ~25% of relative dextral plate motion. Paleomagnetic analysis has yielded multiple reference remanence directions for elements of the Stanislaus Group on the “relatively stable” Sierra Nevada microplate for comparison with those same units deposited within the extensively-faulted Walker Lane to the east. Preliminary results show tectonic domains near Bridgeport, CA in the 5-10 km size range displaying eastward-increasing vertical-axis block rotation. This west-to-east increase in rotation appears to sub-parallel the Sierran frontal fault system when analyzed with data from previous studies to the

  13. Nonlinear Asymptotic Stability of the Lane-Emden Solutions for the Viscous Gaseous Star Problem with Degenerate Density Dependent Viscosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear asymptotic stability of Lane-Emden solutions is proved in this paper for spherically symmetric motions of viscous gaseous stars with the density dependent shear and bulk viscosities which vanish at the vacuum, when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the stability regime {(4/3, 2)}, by establishing the global-in-time regularity uniformly up to the vacuum boundary for the vacuum free boundary problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson systems with spherical symmetry, which ensures the global existence of strong solutions capturing the precise physical behavior that the sound speed is {C^{{1}/{2}}}-Hölder continuous across the vacuum boundary, the large time asymptotic uniform convergence of the evolving vacuum boundary, density and velocity to those of Lane-Emden solutions with detailed convergence rates, and the detailed large time behavior of solutions near the vacuum boundary. Those uniform convergence are of fundamental importance in the study of vacuum free boundary problems which are missing in the previous results for global weak solutions. Moreover, the results obtained in this paper apply to much broader cases of viscosities than those in Fang and Zhang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 191:195-243, 2009) for the theory of weak solutions when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the most physically relevant range. Finally, this paper extends the previous local-in-time theory for strong solutions to a global-in-time one.

  14. Aerometrics' laser-based lane-tracker sensor: engineering and on-the-road evaluation of advanced prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Carlos A.; Tapos, Francis M.; Alayleh, Mehyeddine M.; Bachalo, William D.

    1997-02-01

    Aerometrics initiated and continues on the development an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. The principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics' early testing were presented last year in this forum. This paper presents Aerometrics' continuing efforts in bringing the technology to market. New prototypes have been developed and tested. Aerometrics' engineering efforts and the use of latest technologies have resulted in a 24-fold reduction in sensor volume when compared to their predecessors and similar reductions in weight. The current prototype measures less than 9 cm X 8 cm X 7 cm, and can be easily fit within the cavity of rear-view mirror holders used in most present-day vehicles. Also, advances in signal conditioning and processing have improved the reliability of the sensor. Results of continuing testing of the sensor will be presented.

  15. A new scenario based approach for designing driver support systems applied to the design of a lane change support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.; Voort, M.C. van der; Arem, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Designing a new driver support system that meets the expectations of drivers is a difficult and time-consuming process. Despite the availability of various types of design support, it has essentially remained a process in which designers are forced to make assumptions about what other people want. T

  16. 景德镇里弄文化的保护和发展%Protection and Development of Jingdezhen Lanes Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩政; 杨敏

    2015-01-01

    景德镇里弄是景德镇千年传统陶瓷生产方式发展的历史印记和特色遗产,景德镇里弄文化是景德镇陶瓷文化的重要组成部分,传承和保护景德镇里弄文化对于整理、创新新时期景德镇陶瓷文化和打造陶瓷文化产业都具有积极的意义。本文概述了景德镇里弄发展的历史和现状,阐述了景德镇里弄文化的历史内涵和时代价值,最后提出了保护和发展景德镇里弄文化的几点基本思路,具体涉及特色里弄修复、里弄特色生活方式再现以及里弄特色陶瓷文化产业开发等几个方面。%Lanes are a distinctive symbol of Jingdezhen ceramic history and local heritage. Jingdezhen lanes culture is an essential part of its ceramic culture. The heritage and protection of Jingdezhen lanes will have positive inlfuence on sorting and innovating Jingdezhen ceramic culture and developing ceramic industry in such a new period. This paper summarizes the history and present conditions of lanes, describing their cultural content and enormous value. In the end, it puts forward several basic ideas for their protection and development, involving building rules and regulations, repairs of unique lanes and exploitation of lanes culture.

  17. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  18. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  19. Evaluation of geodetic and geologic datasets in the Northern Walker Lane-Summary and recommendations of the Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Richard W.; Hammond, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The Northern Walker Lane comprises a complex network of active faults in northwestern Nevada and northeastern California bound on the west by the Sierra Nevada and on the east by the extensional Basin and Range Province. Because deformation is distributed across sets of discontinuous faults, it is particularly challenging to integrate geologic and geodetic data in the NWL to assess the region's seismic hazard. Recent GPS measurements show that roughly one centimeter per year of relative displacement is accumulating across a zone about 100 km wide at the latitude of Reno, Nevada, but it is not clear where or how much of this strain might ultimately be released in damaging earthquakes. Despite decades of work in the region, the sum of documented late Pleistocene to recent slip rates is distinctly less than the GPS-measured relative displacement.

  20. EFFECT OF CONGESTION ON FUEL COST AND TRAVEL TIME COST ON MULTI-LANE HIGHWAYS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Errampalli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicles normally move at their free speeds when it is least impeded due to traffic flow under lean traffic (free flow conditions. As traffic flow increases, the vehicles cannot sustain their free speeds due to interactions from other vehicles in the traffic stream. In addition to that the vehicles that are operating in the congested traffic conditions will consume more fuel than those operating in steady state traffic conditions for the same average speed. This leads to increase in travel time and fuel consumption of the vehicles and thereby adding to total road user cost (RUC. On the contrary, fuel consumption is also high at very high speeds under free flow traffic flow conditions leading to increase RUC. Considering these scenarios, the travel time and fuel cost of the vehicle due to the congestion and free flow conditions (uncongested has to be necessarily modelled in order to estimate realistic assessment of RUC on Indian highways. In the present study, the congestion cost relationships have been developed between Congestion Factor, a ratio of cost under congestion and steady state conditions and Volume-Capacity Ratio by considering various vehicle types plying on varying widths of multi-lane highways (four, six and eight lane divided carriageways through the collection of exhaustive time related and fuel related data. Time related data was collected through questionnaire survey method whereas fuel consumption data was collected using advanced sophisticated fuel flow measuring equipment (V-Box. The developed equations have been successfully applied to demonstrate their applicability in terms of estimating realistic effect of congestion on time and fuel cost by considering a section on NH-2 in Delhi. The analysis shows that the congestion effect is more significant on fuel cost for heavy commercial vehicles whereas it is more prominent on time cost for passenger vehicles. However, the congestion effect on combined fuel and time cost is

  1. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  2. The Express-Lane Edit: Making Editing Useful for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Editing is a powerful tool for writers, but are our methods of teaching it really demonstrating that power for young adolescents? The author, frustrated with students' inability to edit, blames his own approach and, beginning with a grocery store epiphany, works to develop a more effective system. Elements of his successful approach include time…

  3. The application of active-source seismic imaging techniques to transtensional problems the Walker Lane and Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Anna Marie

    The plate margin in the western United States is an active tectonic region that contains the integrated deformation between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly focused plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates within the northern Gulf of California gives way north of the Salton Trough to more diffuse deformation. In particular a large fraction of the slip along the southernmost San Andreas fault ultimately bleeds eastward, including about 20% of the total plate motion budget that finds its way through the transtensional Walker Lane Deformation Belt just east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Fault-bounded ranges combined with intervening low-lying basins characterize this region; the down-dropped features are often filled with water, which present opportunities for seismic imaging at unprecedented scales. Here I present active-source seismic imaging from the Salton Sea and Walker Lane Deformation Belt, including both marine applications in lakes and shallow seas, and more conventional land-based techniques along the Carson range front. The complex fault network beneath the Salton Trough in eastern California is the on-land continuation of the Gulf of California rift system, where North American-Pacific plate motion is accommodated by a series of long transform faults, separated by small pull-apart, transtensional basins; the right-lateral San Andreas fault bounds this system to the north where it carries, on average, about 50% of total plate motion. The Salton Sea resides within the most youthful and northerly "spreading center" in this several thousand-kilometer-long rift system. The Sea provides an ideal environment for the use of high-data-density marine seismic techniques. Two active-source seismic campaigns in 2010 and 2011 show progression of the development of the Salton pull-apart sub-basin and the northerly propagation of the Imperial-San Andreas system through time at varying resolutions. High fidelity seismic imagery

  4. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  5. Predicting Lane Keeping Behavior of Visually Distracted Drivers Using Inverse Suboptimal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Felix; Bieg, Hans-Joachim; Manstetten, Dietrich; Herman, Michael; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Driver distraction strongly contributes to crash-risk. Therefore, assistance systems that warn the driver if her distraction poses a hazard to road safety, promise a great safety benefit. Current approaches either seek to detect critical situations using environmental sensors or estimate a driver's attention state solely from her behavior. However, this neglects that driving situation, driver deficiencies and compensation strategies altogether determine the risk of an accident. This work prop...

  6. Computing the coefficients for the power series solution of the Lane-Emden equation with the Python library SymPy

    OpenAIRE

    Rohe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how the Python library Sympy can be used to compute symbolically the coefficients of the power series solution of the Lane-Emden equation (LEE). Sympy is an open source Python library for symbolic mathematics. The power series solutions are compared to the numerically computed solutions using matplotlib. The results of a run time measurement of the implemented algorithm are discussed at the end.

  7. Late Neogene slip transfer and extension within the curved Whisky Flat fault system central Walker Lane, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biholar, Alexander Kenneth Casian

    In Whisky Flat of west-central Nevada, northwest-striking faults in the Walker Lane curve to east-northeast orientations at the northern limits of the Mina deflection. This curve in strike results in the formation of ˜685 m deep depression bounded by north-south convex to the east range-front faults that at the apex of fault curvature are bisected at a high angle by a structural stepover. We use the vertical offset of a late Miocene erosional surface mapped in the highlands and inferred from gravity depth inversion in the basin to measure the magnitude of displacement on faults. A N65°W extensional axis determined through fault-slip inversion is used to constrain the direction in displacement models. Through the use of a forward rectilinear displacement model, we document that the complex array of faults is capable of developing with broadly contemporaneous displacements on all structures since the opening of the basin during the Pliocene.

  8. An extremely low gas-to-dust ratio in the dust-lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5485

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten; Sarzi, Marc; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M; Puerari, Ivânio; Smith, Matthew W L; Viaene, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that a significant fraction of the early-type galaxy population contains substantial reservoirs of cold interstellar gas and dust. We investigate the gas and dust in NGC 5485, an early-type galaxy with a prominent minor-axis dust lane. Using new Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging data, we detect 3.8 x 10^6 Msun of cool interstellar dust in NGC 5485, which is in stark contrast with the non-detection of the galaxy in sensitive HI and CO observations from the ATLAS3D consortium. The resulting gas-to-dust ratio upper limit is Mgas/Md < 14.5, almost an order of magnitude lower than the canonical value for the Milky Way. We scrutinize the reliability of the dust, atomic gas and molecular gas mass estimates, but these do not show systematic uncertainties that can explain the extreme gas-to-dust ratio. Also a warm or hot ionized gas medium does not offer an explanation. A possible scenario could be that NGC 5485 merged with an SMC-type metal-poor galaxy with a substantial CO-dark molecular gas co...

  9. Modeling the Impact of Alternative Immunization Strategies: Using Matrices as Memory Lanes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J Alonso

    Full Text Available Existing modeling approaches are divided between a focus on the constitutive (micro elements of systems or on higher (macro organization levels. Micro-level models enable consideration of individual histories and interactions, but can be unstable and subject to cumulative errors. Macro-level models focus on average population properties, but may hide relevant heterogeneity at the micro-scale. We present a framework that integrates both approaches through the use of temporally structured matrices that can take large numbers of variables into account. Matrices are composed of several bidimensional (time×age grids, each representing a state (e.g. physiological, immunological, socio-demographic. Time and age are primary indices linking grids. These matrices preserve the entire history of all population strata and enable the use of historical events, parameters and states dynamically in the modeling process. This framework is applicable across fields, but particularly suitable to simulate the impact of alternative immunization policies. We demonstrate the framework by examining alternative strategies to accelerate measles elimination in 15 developing countries. The model recaptured long-endorsed policies in measles control, showing that where a single routine measles-containing vaccine is employed with low coverage, any improvement in coverage is more effective than a second dose. It also identified an opportunity to save thousands of lives in India at attractively low costs through the implementation of supplementary immunization campaigns. The flexibility of the approach presented enables estimating the effectiveness of different immunization policies in highly complex contexts involving multiple and historical influences from different hierarchical levels.

  10. Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model to Evaluate "Lane-Like Segregation" of Pedestrian Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Teknomo, Kardi; Inamura, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the pedestrian analysis is to evaluate the effects of proposed policy on the pedestrian facilities before its implementation. The implementation of a policy without pedestrian analysis might lead to a very costly trial and error due to the implementation cost (i.e. user cost, construction time and cost, etc.). On the other hand, using good analysis tools, the trial and error of policy could be done in the analysis level. Once the analysis could prove a good performance, the implementation of the policy is straightforward. The problem is how to evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively toward the behavior of pedestrians before its implementation. Since the interaction of pedestrians cannot be well address using a macroscopic level of analysis, a microscopic level of analysis is the choice. However, the analytical solution of the microscopic pedestrian model is very difficult and simulation models are more practical approach. To evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively to...

  11. Video-based lane detection and tracking algorithm%基于视频序列的车道线检测和跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淋; 梁华为; 王智灵; 邓耀

    2013-01-01

    The lane detection is a critical technology for unmanned driving system and a series of driving assistance systems.Traditional lane detection algorithms are easily disturbed by the other traffic lines on the road.A new method for lane detection and tracking is put forward in this paper.First,the adaptive image threshold algorithm is adopted for lane features extraction.By means of setting the ROI twice and planning the tracking region,the ROI decreases gradually.At last,the feature points in the ROI are transformed from the image coordinate system to the real-world coordinate system before they are used to accomplish curve fitting through least square method.Experiments under various conditions,such as highway and urban environments,show that the method proposed in this paper is able to accurately recognize the lane marks in real time and effectively eliminate the disturbance of the other traffic line markings.%车道线检测是无人驾驶系统以及一系列辅助驾驶系统的关键技术环节.传统的车道线检测方法容易受到其他交通标志线干扰,提出了一种新的车道线检测与跟踪方法.该方法首先使用自适应阈值算法提取特征,通过ROI二次设置以及跟踪区域规划,逐步减小感兴趣区域,最后将感兴趣区域内的特征点从图像坐标系转换到世界坐标系下,以最小二乘方法进行曲线拟合.在高速公路及城区道路等多种工况下的实验表明,提出的方法能够正确实时的识别出车道线,有效的消除了其他交通标线的干扰.

  12. Life in the fast lane for protein crystallization and X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy; Lin, Dawei; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Gavira, Jose A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    The common goal for structural genomic centers and consortiums is to decipher as quickly as possible the three-dimensional structures for a multitude of recombinant proteins derived from known genomic sequences. Since X-ray crystallography is the foremost method to acquire atomic resolution for macromolecules, the limiting step is obtaining protein crystals that can be useful of structure determination. High-throughput methods have been developed in recent years to clone, express, purify, crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein gene product rapidly using automated devices, commercialized kits and consolidated protocols. However, the average number of protein structures obtained for most structural genomic groups has been very low compared to the total number of proteins purified. As more entire genomic sequences are obtained for different organisms from the three kingdoms of life, only the proteins that can be crystallized and whose structures can be obtained easily are studied. Consequently, an astonishing number of genomic proteins remain unexamined. In the era of high-throughput processes, traditional methods in molecular biology, protein chemistry and crystallization are eclipsed by automation and pipeline practices. The necessity for high-rate production of protein crystals and structures has prevented the usage of more intellectual strategies and creative approaches in experimental executions. Fundamental principles and personal experiences in protein chemistry and crystallization are minimally exploited only to obtain "low-hanging fruit" protein structures. We review the practical aspects of today's high-throughput manipulations and discuss the challenges in fast pace protein crystallization and tools for crystallography. Structural genomic pipelines can be improved with information gained from low-throughput tactics that may help us reach the higher-bearing fruits. Examples of recent developments in this area are reported from

  13. Life in the fast lane for protein crystallization and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy; Lin, Dawei; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Gavira, José A; Ng, Joseph D

    2005-07-01

    The common goal for structural genomic centers and consortiums is to decipher as quickly as possible the three-dimensional structures for a multitude of recombinant proteins derived from known genomic sequences. Since X-ray crystallography is the foremost method to acquire atomic resolution for macromolecules, the limiting step is obtaining protein crystals that can be useful of structure determination. High-throughput methods have been developed in recent years to clone, express, purify, crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein gene product rapidly using automated devices, commercialized kits and consolidated protocols. However, the average number of protein structures obtained for most structural genomic groups has been very low compared to the total number of proteins purified. As more entire genomic sequences are obtained for different organisms from the three kingdoms of life, only the proteins that can be crystallized and whose structures can be obtained easily are studied. Consequently, an astonishing number of genomic proteins remain unexamined. In the era of high-throughput processes, traditional methods in molecular biology, protein chemistry and crystallization are eclipsed by automation and pipeline practices. The necessity for high-rate production of protein crystals and structures has prevented the usage of more intellectual strategies and creative approaches in experimental executions. Fundamental principles and personal experiences in protein chemistry and crystallization are minimally exploited only to obtain "low-hanging fruit" protein structures. We review the practical aspects of today's high-throughput manipulations and discuss the challenges in fast pace protein crystallization and tools for crystallography. Structural genomic pipelines can be improved with information gained from low-throughput tactics that may help us reach the higher-bearing fruits. Examples of recent developments in this area are reported from

  14. 基于TopHat分割和曲线模型的三车道检测方法%Three-lane Detection Method Based on TopHat Segmentation and Curve Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段建民; 战宇辰; 刘冠宇

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve problems in the process of traditional three-lane detection, such as low anti-interference capacity, inaccuracy in lane fitting, and error identification of side lane, a three-lane detection method was proposed in this paper based on TopHat segmentation and curve models. A lane segmentation algorithm using variable-kernel TopHat was proposed as image pre-processing, by using shape features and color features of lane markings. For lane detection, firstly, a vanish-point fitting method based on WLS ( weighted least squares ) was proposed as a constraint of Hough transform. Secondly, straight lines were clustered in polar coordinates by using DBSCAN ( density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise) , matching to a template. Then lane ROI ( region of interest) was made according to the straight-line template, and the lane was searched and fitted by using cubic curve. Finally, for uncertain side-lanes, a side-lane driving judgement method was proposed by using random seed. The algorithm has better performance in both detection rate and lane miss rate than traditional three-lane detection algorithms. Experiment verifies that the method has high accuracy and stability, and is useful for three-lane detection.%为了解决传统三车道检测过程中算法易受干扰、车道线拟合不准确、两侧车道误判等问题,提出了一种基于顶帽算法( TopHat)分割和曲线模型的三车道检测方法。利用车道线的形状和颜色特征,在图像预处理阶段提出了一种变内核TopHat的车道线分割算法。在车道线识别阶段,首先,提出了一种基于加权最小二乘法( weighted least squares,WLS)的消失点拟合方法以约束霍夫变换;其次,在极坐标中以DBSCAN( density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise)聚类法对直线聚类并匹配三车道模板;再次,以该模板为基础建立车道线感兴趣区,在每个感兴趣区内搜索并以三次曲线模型拟合车

  15. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels ~ 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of

  16. Optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Jiang; Yulin Chang

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee bus priority with a minimum impact on car traffic at intersections, an optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach (IBA) was proposed. The problems of the existing system are first solved through optimization: the judgment time of the IBA system was advanced to allow a bus to jump car queues if the bus was detected to arrive at the intersection, and the instant that the IBA lane became available to cars was controlled dynamically to increase the capacity of the IBA lane. The total car delay in one cycle was then analyzed quantitatively when implementing the optimal control system. The results show that in comparison with the existing system of the IBA, the car delay is greatly reduced and the probability of a car stopping twice is low after optimizing the IBA system.

  17. Analysis of Drivers' Lane Changing Decision-making Mechanism and Its Visual Characteristics%驾驶人换道决策机制及视觉特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 郭应时

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze drivers' behavior characteristics before lane changing, and extract the characterization parameters reflecting the lane changing intent, experiments in real environment were designed. Based on drivers' perception of external information and judgment, the formation mechanism of lane changing decision making was analyzed in detail. According to drivers' fixation characteristics on rearview mirror, lane changing intent time window was determined, characterization parameters reflecting drivers' lane changing intent were extracted subsequently. The results show that lane-changing decision is composed of information perception and three judgment-decision processes, that drivers' lane changing intent time window is about 5 s, and that fixation frequencies on rearview mirrors and blind areas, as well as fixation duration and proba-biliies on related lanes could effectively characterize drivers' lane changing intent.%为透析换道前驾驶人行为机理,提取可以体现驾驶人换道意图的表征参数,设计真实道路条件下的实车试验,对换道决策机制进行深入研究.基于驾驶人对外界信息的感知特性、判断决策等,分析驾驶人车道变换决策的形成机理.依据换道前驾驶人对后视镜的注视特性确定换道意图时窗,进一步提取驾驶人车道变换意图表征指标.分析表明,换道决策由信息感知及3个判断决策过程复合而成,驾驶人换道意图表征时窗约为5 s;后视镜及视野盲区注视频次,当前车道与目标车道的注视时间及注视概率等指标都可以用来有效表征驾驶人的车道变换意图.

  18. Mixed logit model-based driver injury severity investigations in single- and multi-vehicle crashes on rural two-lane highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Xiaoyue Cathy; Wang, Hua; Bogus, Susan M

    2014-11-01

    Crashes occurring on rural two-lane highways are more likely to result in severe driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. In this study, mixed logit models are developed to analyze driver injury severities in single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes on rural two-lane highways in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A series of significant contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, weather conditions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features and traffic compositions, are identified and their impacts on injury severities are quantified for these two types of crashes, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the models' specification and generality. The research findings indicate that there are significant differences in causal attributes determining driver injury severities between SV and MV crashes. For example, more severe driver injuries and fatalities can be observed in MV crashes when motorcycles or trucks are involved. Dark lighting conditions and dusty weather conditions are found to significantly increase MV crash injury severities. However, SV crashes demonstrate different characteristics influencing driver injury severities. For example, the probability of having severe injury outcomes is higher when vans are identified in SV crashes. Drivers' overtaking actions will significantly increase SV crash injury severities. Although some common attributes, such as alcohol impaired driving, are significant in both SV and MV crash severity models, their effects on different injury outcomes vary substantially. This study provides a better understanding of similarities and differences in significant contributing factors and their impacts on driver injury severities between SV and MV crashes on rural two-lane highways. It is also helpful to develop cost-effective solutions or appropriate injury prevention strategies for rural SV and MV crashes. PMID:25016459

  19. 基于Android平台的车道线检测系统设计%A method to implementation of lane detection under Android system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠迪; 官洪运; 邓昶; 薛节

    2015-01-01

    Vision-based lane detection methods mainly adopt the Hough transform for straight-line fitting, but there are computationally intensive, slow operation and other issues of the method. In this paper, taken structured roads feature into consideration, a new algorithm to identify high complexity of small and unsupervised adaptive linear classifier on the Android platform to achieve the lane detection and real-time tracking. Because of the portability of Android mobile terminals, we will use OpenCV development of the lane detection and tracking system ported to the Android platform, making intelligent driver assistance more flexible, while extending the application fields of the Android platform.%在以图象处理为基础的车道线检测中,主要以采用Hough变换直线拟合等方法进行,但该方法存在计算量大,运算速度慢等问题。本文针对该问题,提出一种在结构化道路中识别效率高的非监督自适应直线分类器。同时运用OpenCV提供库进行开发,在 Android平台上实现了车道线检测与实时跟踪系统。经过实验表明在Android平台上,本文提出的车道线检测系统相对于传统方法每秒处理图像帧数fps数倍增加,有效的提升了辅助安全系统的功能。

  20. Calculation of storage lengths for left-turn lanes with permitted phases%许可相位下左转车道存储段长度计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京元; 王炜

    2011-01-01

    The storage length of left-turn lane for signalized intersection approach with permitted phase and only one left- turn lane is studied using traffic flow theory and queuing theory. The storage length is supposed to meet the requirement of left-turn vehicle queuing. The main variables are left-turn volume, cycle length, left-turn green time and opposing traffic volume. A theoretical modal for calculating the storage length of single left-turn lane with permitted phase is established with M/M/1 queuing system. The applicable conditions are discussed. Variations of storage length with degree of saturation and left-turn volume are analyzed, and the thresholds for queue length, degree of saturation, etc. are proposed with overall consideration of geometric condition, service quality and economic performance. It is indicated that the number of queuing vehicles is not more than 20, and the practical saturation interval is [0, 0.8 ] for a 95% probability. Methods for determining three key parameters are discussed, with the first being the confidence probability, the second the design traffic volume, and the third the queuing headway. Calculations and analyses are conducted for general conditions. Two sets of concepts are proposed in order to facilitate application, which include the limiting traffic volume, queue length, critical traffic volume and critical queue length. The development and application of design quick check tables are discussed. The results were charted and the processes of determining the storage length are developed. The development may serve as calculation guidelines for single left-turn lane with permitted phase at signalized intersection approach, as well as for protected left-turn phases.%以左转交通量、周期长度、左转绿灯时间、对向交通量为变量,运用交通流理论和排队论,从满足左转排队车辆停车需求的角度,对信号交叉口进口道设置左转许可相位和一条左转专用车道时的左转车

  1. A STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS INFLUENCE OVER THE BEHAVIOR OF THE TWO-SECTION ARTICULATED VEHICLE DURING THE LANE CHANGE MANOEUVRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusi RUSEV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The course stability and the steerability of the two-section wheeled vehicle at high velocities during the lane change manoeuvre are studied in this paper. Mechanic-mathematical model is developed, on which base simulation programmes are elaborated. Simulation studies of the course stability at different velocities depend on some constructive and exploitation factors are made by these models. Based on the simulation results an idea for an algorithm and a semi-active control system of the resistance in the pulling-supporting device is proposed.

  2. Solution of ambiguity and cycle slip for satellite-borne GPS phase data with wide-lane/narrow-lane method%基于宽巷/窄巷法的星载GPS相位数据的模糊度解算和周跳探测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金运; 孙佳龙; 鞠晓蕾; 申秀梅

    2009-01-01

    星载GPS技术是卫星精密定轨及其任务顺利执行的关键,而模糊度和周跳问题是星载GPS相位数据应用的难题.本文利用宽巷/窄巷法对星载GPS相位数据进行模糊度计算和周跳探测,给出了模糊度计算和周跳探测的计算公式和解算步骤.利用宽巷/窄巷法对CHAMP卫星实际星载GPS数据进行了处理,结果表明该方法是可行的,同时由于卫星的高速运动,星载GPS数据的模糊度解算和周跳探测难度也较大.%The satellite-borne GPS technique is very important to determine the precise orbit of artificial earth satellite and successfully execute the satellite mission. But the onboard GPS phase data include the ambiguities and the cycle clips and it is very difficult to fully solve them. The wide-lane/narrow-lane method is used to solve ambiguity and detect cycle slip for onboard GPS phase data in this paper. The formulae and the procedure are given to calculate ambiguity and cycle slip. In the meantime, the wide-lane/narrow-lane method is used to process the practical GPS observations onboard CHAMP. The results indicate that the method is practical and efficient. Since the satellite moves at a very large velocity, it is more difficult to solve ambiguity and detect cycle slip for onboard GPS data than the ground-based GPS data.

  3. Constraints from GPS on Block Kinematics of the Transition between the Southern Walker Lane and the Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southern Walker Lane (SWL) is a part of the Eastern California Shear Zone that lies north of the Mojave region, bounded by the Garlock Fault to the south, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Basin and Range to the east and by Mono Lake to the north. The region includes many northwest striking right-lateral strike slip and sub-parallel normal faults (e.g. Death Valley/Furnace Creek, Fish Lake Valley, Owens Valley), which together accommodate ~25% of the Pacific/North American relative motion. For many of these faults, and the system as a whole, there appears to be a discrepancy between geodetically and geologically inferred fault slip rates. Since the installation of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the Nevada Earthquake Response Network (NEARNET) of the University of Nevada, Reno, many recently obtained high- precision GPS data are now available to place improved constraints on the pattern and rates of crustal deformation of this region. In this study we use a block modeling methodology to estimate block motions and fault slip rates from GPS velocities of PBO, NEARNET and BARGEN continuous sites. Time series were obtained from raw RINEX data that we processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with the Ambizap software for ambiguity resolution. We have additionally included earlier published campaign-style velocities, in those areas where we do not have better coverage from other continuous/semi-continuous networks. Geologic slip rates have been obtained from the published literature. We solve for the motion of blocks using the GPS velocities that have been adjusted based on the viscoelastic modeling to estimate long term motion. To evaluate the consistency between the geologic and geodetic data, we compare long-term fault slip to slip rates inferred from geodetic results obtained over Basin and Range. The preliminary results obtained from the block model indicate significant slip at the easternmost

  4. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday & Saturday, October 8-9, 8pmSouth of the CloudsYun De Nan Fang 云的南方Director: Zhu Wen Starring: Li Xuejian and Jin Zi Produced: 2004, 100 minutesA work of stringent and serene intelligence, South of the Clouds combines a sense of absurdity with delicate sadness and a feeling of tragic necessity. The hero is an affable, usually disoriented middle-aged widower who, encouraged by his daughter, makes a trip to the Yunnan Province of Southern

  5. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday and Saturday, July 2-3, 8pmMama’s Go/aJin Wa Wa 金娃娃Director: Joanne Cheng Produced: 2003, 92 minutesFilmed in the historical town of Lijiang, "Mama’s Gold" tells the moving story of one woman (Mama) and her 300 once destitutechildren, ranging in age from 2 to 18 and originating from 14 different ethnic groups, all survivors of devastating earthquakes and poverty stricken regions of rural China.Based on the conflict between Mama and her American donor who took Mama to Chinese court, the film reveals the complex multi-cultural worlds of both children and adults who unfortunately shared little in common. Told through the filmmaker ’s point of view, the film examines life in the orphanage and visits the Children’s mountain homes. The film captures the emotional journey of Mama and her children who desperately need each other.Cheng also directed, wrote, produced the award-winning China Gold Rush, an inter-cultural documentary on changing lives in millennium China. Cheng went to college in the

  6. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Directed: Dayyan EngStarring: Gong Beibei, Wu Chao, Li Yixiang and Zhou KuiProduced: 2001, 11 minutes A woman drives a bus along deserted country roads, and she picks up a young man alongthe way. Although the man tries to talk to the driver, she's not interested. Eventually, two robbersclimb into the bus, steal the passengers' money, and drag the driver behind some bushes,where they rape her. Only one passenger—the young man—tries to protect her. The remaining passengers sit

  7. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday & Saturday,Sept.10-11,8 pmMaster of Everything自娱自乐Director:Xin LeeStarring:John Lone,Coco Lee,Tao HongProduced:2004,97 minutes Based an true events, "Master of Everything" mixes two of the most popularfilm genres in Asia-comedy and kung-fu.

  8. Charry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday and Saturday,May7-8,8:00pm In Expectation亚山云雨(Wu Shan Yun Yu)Director:Zhang MingActors:Zhang Xianmin,Zhong Ping and Li BingProduced:1996,90 minutes Set against the backdrop of the Three Gorges Dam,this film follows the intertwined lives of three people, a boat signal pilot,an innkeeper,and a policeman.Mai.Qiang,a signal pilot,leads a

  9. Left lane road electrification

    CERN Document Server

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J

    2010-01-01

    We propose the partial electrification of multilane motorways in suburban areas as a practical alternative in order to reduce the weight and price of electrically-powered automobiles. These could then be supplied energy en-route, thus significantly reducing the weight and cost of vehicle-mounted batteries. Our theoretical study is based on the circumstances of Madrid (Spain), a six million inhabitant region, but should be easily adaptable to other metropolitan areas.

  10. Mixed traffic flow model considering illegal lane-changing behavior: Simulations in the framework of Kerner’s three-phase theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Haifei

    2012-11-01

    This paper studies the mixed motorized vehicle (m-vehicle) and non-motorized vehicle (nm-vehicle) traffic flow in the m-vehicle lane. We study the formation mechanism of the nm-vehicle illegal lane-changing behavior (NILB) by considering the overtaking motivation and the traffic safety awareness. In the framework of Kerner’s three-phase theory, we propose a model for the mixed traffic flow by introducing a new set of rules. A series of simulations are carried out in order to reveal the formation, travel process and influence of the mixed traffic flow. The simulation results show that the proposed model can be used to study not only the travel characteristic of the mixed traffic flow, but also some complex traffic problems such as traffic breakdown, moving synchronized flow pattern (MSP) and moving jam. Moreover, the results illustrate that the proposed model reflects the phenomenon of the mixed flow and the influence of the MSP caused by the NILB, which is consistent with the actual traffic system, and thus this work is helpful for the management of the mixed traffic flow.

  11. Analysis of the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixing traffic flow in a two-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yong-Sheng; Shi Pei-Ji; Zeng Qiong; Ma Chang-Xi; Lin Fang; Sun Peng; Yin Xiao-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Based on the existing classical cellular automaton model of traffic flow,a cellular automaton traffic model with different-maximum-speed vehicles mixed on a single lane is proposed,in which public transit and harbour-shaped bus stops are taken into consideration. Parameters such as length of cellular automaton,operation speed and random slow mechanism are re-demarcated. A harbour-shaped bus stop is set up and the vehicle changing lane regulation is changed.Through computer simulation,the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixed traffic flow and traffic capacity is analysed. The results show that a public transport system can ease urban traffic congestion hut creates new jams at the same time,and that the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on traffic capacity is considerable. To develop urban traffic,attention should be paid to the occupation rate of public transit vehicles and traffic development in a haphazard way should be strictly avoided.

  12. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  13. 自然驾驶条件下驾驶人换道行为实时预测%Real-time prediction of lane-changing behaviors under naturalistic driving condtions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 郭应时

    2015-01-01

    为降低车道变换的风险性,提出一种基于驾驶人视觉特性与车辆运动状态预测车道变换行为的方法. 应用视觉追踪系统、毫米波雷达等仪器设备,进行了真实环境下的实车驾驶试验. 基于换道前驾驶人后视镜注视特性确定换道意图时窗大小为5 s,构建换道行为预测的表征指标体系. 设计BP神经网络结构,构建换道行为预测模型. 结果表明:模型可以至少提前1.5 s预测驾驶人的换道行为,且预测精度达到95.58%. 与基于转向灯状态预测驾驶人换道行为相比,其预测精度及时序特性均有显著提升,证明了预测指标及预测方法的有效性.%To reduce the risk of lane changing behaviors, based upon drivers' visual characteristics and vehicle motion states, a method for lane change prediction is proposed. By using visual tracking system, millimeter-wave radar and so on, the research group conducts experiments under real road environment. Based on drivers' fixation characteristics of the rearview mirrors before lane change occurs, lane changing intent time window is determined as 5 s, the characteristic index for predict lane changing behavior is further built. By designing BP neural network, the lane change prediction model is constructed. Results show that the model may predict drivers ' lane changing behavior for at least 1.5 s in advance, and the prediction accuracy can reach 95.58%. As compared to predict lane change behavior via turn signals, the prediction accuracy and time series characteristics are both improved remarkably, thus verifying the effectiveness of the predictive index and method.

  14. A Recognition Model of Lane Change Intention Based on Driver's Decision Mechanism%基于驾驶人决策机制的换道意图识别模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪捷; 刘志强

    2016-01-01

    According to the producing mechanism of driver's lane change decision, desired speed satisfaction, risk perception coefficient and change feasibility coefficient are put forward and quantified as the identification parameters of lane change decision. The results of analyzing real vehicle test data indicate that quantitative indicators have different correlation with lane change decision, and there is a significant difference among the beginning of lane changing, lane keeping and transition state stage. Fuzzy neural network model is established to identify driver's lane change intention by using desired speed satisfaction, risk perception coefficient and feasibility coefficient of lane change as the input feature index. The research results show that the model accuracy in the early stage of lane change is 89.93%, and the false alarm rate is 9.52%, which both are better than BP neural network model by taking the collision time TTC as input vectors and the Logistic model by using RV, RP and RS as variables. It shows that the model has a good predictive accuracy.%依据驾驶人换道决策的产生机制,提出速度期望满足度、危险感知系数和换道可行性系数作为换道决策的识别指标并确定其量化方法.通过实车试验数据的分析表明:量化指标与换道决策存在不同程度的相关性;同时在换道初期、车道保持及过渡状态阶段存在显著差异.以速度期望满足度、危险感知系数和换道可行性系数为特征输入参数,建立基于模糊神经网络的驾驶人换道意图识别模型,进行驾驶人换道意图的识别.结果表明,该模型在换道初期的预测准确率达到89.93%,虚警率为9.52%,优于以碰撞时间TTC为输入指标的BP神经网络模型,以及以RV、RP、RS为变量的Logistic模型,说明模型具有较好的预测准确性.

  15. Autobot Evolution: A Futuristic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Hariharan#

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SCABOR is an approach for the 3-D lane detection and autonomous driving. Its main attribute is to diagnose the metrology of roads. It has a wide significance in determining the basic structure, the presence of humps and dips and gives a clear and cache information of the way .Our view on this paper is to apply SCABOR along with the application of the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM in autonomous driving system for safe and fast driving. Here the SCABOR technology’s currentapplication is outlined and its use has been extended to traffic system. We have suggested a unique method for flexible driving. We also suggest ways in which SCABOR technology can be enhanced forfuture applications. Among the significant advantages, these techniques perform well even in high risk zones and congested areas with up to 100% accuracy where many other techniques fail.

  16. EQUIVALENT QUEUE LENGTH MODEL FOR THE TWO-LANE HIGHWAY UNDER THE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT%双车道公路交通事故下当量排队长度的数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨姊

    2014-01-01

    The traffic capacity of the highway and queue length of vehicles under the traffic accident are important to analyze the traffic accident.Firstly,the paper discusses the lane-changing during the traffic accident on the two-lane highway and analyzes the status of traffic flow during the Lane -Changing.Then it builds the equivalent queue length model for the two-lane highway under the traffic accident based on the two-fluid theory. Finally,it simulates and analyzes the model.%交通事故下道路的通行能力和车辆排队长度等问题是交通事故分析的重要内容。笔者探讨了双车道公路交通事故持续期间的换道行为,分析了换道期间车流运行的状态,在此基础上,结合二流理论建立了双车道公路交通事故下当量排队长度的数学模型。最后对该模型进行了仿真分析和计算。

  17. Lane Design for National and Provincial Highway Pavement Maintenance%国省道路面大中修分车道设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春林

    2014-01-01

    Along with the improvement of road network,large and medium-sized maintenance is to be the main task in the future of national and provincial highway maintenance department.In this paper, through a provincial road repairing project,according to the radically different diseases situation and traffic axle loads in left and right pavement,the lane design concept was put forward for national and provincial highway pavement maintenance.%随着路网的完善,国省道公路大中修是未来公路养护部门的主要工作。通过某省道大中修工程,根据左右幅病害及交通轴载完全不同的现状,提出国省道路面大中修分车道设计理念。

  18. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  19. A nonclassical Radau collocation method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index 4.75 ≤ α < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirani, M. D.; Maleki, M.; Kajani, M. T.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index α when 4.75 ≤ α ≤ 5 is introduced. The method is based upon nonclassical Gauss-Radau collocation points and Freud type weights. Nonclassical orthogonal polynomials, nonclassical Radau points and weighted interpolation are introduced and are utilized in the interval [0,1]. A smooth, strictly monotonic transformation is used to map the infinite domain x ∈ [0,∞) onto a half-open interval t ∈ [0,1). The resulting problem on the finite interval is then transcribed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations using collocation. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  20. Characteristics Analysis of Lane Changing Behavior Based on the Naturalistic Driving Data%基于自然驾驶数据的驾驶员变道特征分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 李艳

    2016-01-01

    为研究驾驶员的变道特征,包括变道频率、变道动机、注视行为以及转向灯使用情况,基于上海自然驾驶实验采集的驾驶员行为以及车辆运行数据,通过车道偏移值对变道事件进行识别,提取特征变量。对比分析不同类型道路上驾驶员的变道特征,得到以下结论:驾驶员变道较为频繁,城市主干道上变道频率最高,为0.82次/km;高速公路上多车道变道的比例相对较高,安全隐患较大;与美国学者 Olsen 等人的研究结果相比,驾驶员在变道前查看侧视镜与开启转向灯的比例较高,但极少转头检查盲区。频繁变道、多车道变道以及忽视盲区都是变道过程中存在的安全隐患,深入了解这些特征,从而有针对性地提出改善措施对提高行车安全性有重要意义。%In order to study characteristics of drivers′lane changing behaviors,including lane changing frequency, motivations,gazing behavior and turn signal usage,drivers′behavior and vehicle operating data are collected from Shang-hai naturalistic driving study.Lane changing is identified by lane departure and its variables are thus extracted.Character-istics of lane changing behavior are analyzed and compared between different types of road.Lane changing behavior con-stantly occurs on urban arterial road,with a frequency of 0.82 per kilometer.The rate of the multilane changing on the freeway is relatively higher,being a potential threat to the drivers.Comparing with the study results by Olsen et al.,it appears that drivers rarely carry out"shoulder check"the blind spot before lane changing behavior although,the percent-age of side mirrors check and use of turn signal is relatively high.Potential risks exist in the frequent lane changes,multi-lane changing and blind spot ignorance,which deserve further studies.

  1. 基于自然驾驶数据的驾驶员紧急变道行为开环模型%Open-loop model of drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior based on the naturalistic driving data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱西产; 刘智超; 李霖

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe drivers’ behavior when driver takes an emergency lane-change action, an open-loop model was proposed based on the naturalistic driving data which was colected by the program named China pilot Field Operation Test. Almost 228 lane-change use cases were extracted from the naturalistic driving data. Steering wheel angle rate combined with steering wheel angle were used as iflters to classify the different emergency degrees of lane-change. The duration of drivers’ emergency lane-change was studied based on a liner dependency between the maximum values of both steering wheel angle and steering wheel angle rate. Parameters were iftted by the 50th percentile of the naturalistic driving data colected from lane-change scenarios .The model can be applied in research of Chinese drivers’ behavior and its values have been proved by both signiifcant test and correlation test. The results of tests show that coherence of the outputs from real driver and the model is good, so the model can wel describe Chinese drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior.%基于“中国大型实车路试先行实验(China Pilot-FOT)”所采集的自然驾驶数据,提出了一种开环模型,它可以描述驾驶员紧急变换车道行为。将方向盘转角和方向盘转角变化率作为变道紧急程度的筛选条件,从中筛选出228例紧急变换车道工况。基于最大方向盘转角与最大方向盘转角变化率的线性关系,分析了紧急变换车道的持续时间。利用其中50百分位驾驶数据,来拟合模型参数。使用相关性和显著性检验,验证了真实驾驶数据与驾驶计算模型的关系。结果表明:该模型的输出结果与真实驾驶员操作结果一致性良好。因此,该模型可以描述中国一般驾驶员紧急变道行为。

  2. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mina Deflection (MD) region of the central Walker Lane of eastern California and western Nevada, is a complex zone of northeast-trending normal, and primarily left-lateral strike-slip to oblique-slip faulting that separates the Southern Walker Lane (SWL) from a series of east-tilted normal fault blocks in the Central Walker Lane (CWL) (Faulds and Henry, 2008; Surpless, 2008). The MD accommodates the transfer of right-lateral strike-slip motion from northwest-striking faults in the SWL to a series of left-stepping northwest-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults in the CWL, east of the Wassuk Range near Hawthorne, NV. The ~50 km wide ~80 km long right-step is a distinct transition in regional physiography that has been attributed to strain accommodation through pre-Cenozoic lithospheric structures. Several slip transfer mechanisms have been proposed within the MD, from clockwise rotation of high-angle fault blocks (Wesnousky, 2005), to low-angle displacement within the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain complex (Oldow et al., 2001), and curved fault arrays associated with localized basins and tectonic depressions (Ferranti et al., 2009). The region has been a regular source of M4+ events, the most recent being an extended sequence that included twenty-seven M 3.5+ earthquakes (largest event M 4.6) south of Hawthorne in 2011. These earthquakes (Mono Lake, primarily associated with the Huntoon Valley fault, included three M 5+ left-lateral strike-slip faulting events. A 1997 sequence in northern Fish Lake Valley (east of the White Mountains), with mainshock Mw 5.3 (Ichinose et al., 2003), also showed high-angle northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip motion. Historical events include the 1934 M 6.5 Excelsior Mountains event south of Mina, NV, and the 1932 M 7.1 Cedar Mountains earthquake east of the Pilot Mountains. Another persistent feature in the seismicity is an ~40 km long arcuate distribution of activity extending from approximately Queen Valley, north of the

  3. Kinematics of Deformation in West-Central Walker Lane; Paleomagnetic Testing of Fault-Block Rotation and Doming Models, Eastern California and Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, S. M.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    Walker Lane is a broad (~100-200 km) zone of dextral shear located between the Sierra Nevada microplate and the Basin and Range Province. We consider Bodie Hills a part of the greater Walker Lane because it has experienced clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks due to dextral shear accommodation. This strain is variable, resulting in rotations ranging from ~10°-70° depending on location. The Miocene Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) is an ideal strain marker, because it is a geologically instantaneous and laterally extensive unit. We use paleomagnetic analysis of ignimbrites to improve the resolution of strain domain boundaries as well as test for doming in Bodie Hills. EVT site mean directions were compared to reference directions of the Tollhouse Flat and By Day Members collected from the stable Sierra Nevada to determine magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation. Three new sites and three previously sampled sites define a high-rotation domain including Bridgeport Valley and the East Walker River Canyon with an average clockwise rotation of ~50°-60°. We define the eastern boundary of this high-rotation domain as coinciding with a mapped fault exhibiting 11.7°×7.9° rotation of the presumed footwall. Our data corroborates and improves on Carlson's (2012) kinematic model in which the greater Bodie Hills has rotated clockwise ~30° since EVT emplacement. Eutaxitic textures, dipping up to 90°, are gross indicators of true tilt, but are also influenced by original dips in some localities, complicating interpretations. John et al. (2012) describe a simple doming model of Bodie Hills since EVT emplacement, supported by the high elevation of outflow channels compared to source areas. Our paleomagnetic data does not support simple doming, suggesting that there is either no doming of Bodie Hills, or that vertical crustal displacements have occurred without large-scale folding. John et al. (2012) dated undifferentiated EVT in Bodie Hills at ~9.4 Ma; using

  4. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  5. A Setup & Design of Wuyi Mountain Chongyangxi Bicycle Tour Lane System%武夷山崇阳溪自行车游览道系统的设置与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊

    2013-01-01

      With the engineering background of Wuyi Mountain Chongyangxi bicycle tour lane system design, a complete framework of bicycle tour lane system is built in this paper. Meanwhile, the design content, principle and key point of every sub-system are presented and summarized.%  以武夷山崇阳溪自行车游览道系统设计为工程背景,建立自行车游览道系统的完整框架。同时,就每个子系统的设计内容、原则和要点进行阐述和小结。

  6. Mixed Traffic Flow Capacity of More Major Lanes Unsignalized Intersection%主路多车道无信号交叉口混合交通流的通行能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新现

    2008-01-01

    Highway capacity is defined as maximum volume of traffic flow through the particular highway section under given traffic conditions,road conditions and so on.Highway construction and management is judged by capacity standard.The reasonable scale and time of highway construction,rational network structure and optimal management mode of highway network can be determined by analyzing the fitness between capacity and traffic volume.All over the world,highway capacity is studied to different extent in different country. Based on the gap acceptance theory,the mixed traffic flow composed of two representative vehicle types heavy and light vehicles is analyzed with probability theory.Capacity model of the minor mixed traffic flows crossing m major lanes,on which the traffic flows fix in with M3 distributed headway,on the unsignalized intersection is set up,and it is an extension of minor lane capacity theory for one vehicle-type and one major-lane traffic flow.

  7. Study on the safety interchange spacing of a six-lane expressway%双向六车道高速公路立交安全间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武

    2016-01-01

    采用 VISSIM 仿真软件,对双向六车道高速公路相邻立交接入点净间距与行车冲突之间的关系进行了仿真分析。以冲突率为行车安全的评价指标,建立冲突率与接入点间距之间的关系模型。再根据冲突率安全阈值,确定不同设计速度下的双向六车道高速公路相邻立交安全间距,为高速公路规划设计提供了参考。%The relationship between the access point spacing of the six-lane expressway and traffic conflicts was simulated with the VISSIM micro-simulation software.By using traffic conflict rate as the evaluation index of traffic safety,the relationship between the traffic conflict rate and the interchange spacing was then established.The safety values of the inter-change spacing on the six-lane expressway are given on the basis of the safety threshold of traf-fic conflict rate,which can provide a reference for the six-lane expressway plan and design.

  8. Genetic diversity and morphological characterization of half-sib families of Heliconia bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Peterson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F R A; Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Loges, V

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical Heliconia genus contains highly diversified plants and up to 220 species have been reported from the north of Mexico to the South of Brazil. Heliconia are cultivated as ornamental garden plants and as cut flowers. All species can be propagated by seeds or vegetatively, through rhizomes. Depending on the species, an individual plant can spread and form large clonal populations. H. bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Petersen are among the most cultivated Heliconia species. However, they still have undesirable characteristics that could be improved for the international market. This study aimed to characterize 15 half-sib families originating from commercial cultivations, by morphological and molecular markers. The genetic diversity (ĤE), considering all individuals of the three species was 0.103. For H. bihai half-sib families, the value of ĤE was 0.242, showing high genetic diversity. The ĤE value for H. chartacea was 0.068, indicating low genetic diversity. All individuals of H. wagneriana showed the same band patterns, suggesting that the two parental plants were propagated vegetatively from the same plant and may have undergone some endogamic crossings. These results showed that molecular characterization can differentiate individuals closely related as half-siblings for H. bihai and H. chartacea, despite the low variation observed with morphological descriptors. The high genetic diversity observed in H. bihai half-sibling genotypes can provide valuable resources for breeding programs. PMID:27420942

  9. Design and Implementation of Lane System Based on C++%基于C++的车道系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井福荣

    2015-01-01

    Information system is designed to help the highway toll station in the background of integrated operations management, to achieve the background service center and the information of the various toll stations to synchronize and intelligent management. Each enterprise should strengthen management of Information real-time and synchronization and improve work efficiency. This pa?per presents the design and implementation of lane real-time intercom system is to achieve real-time synchronization for each charge of site information and the rear service center, to ensure that the background service center and each site of barrier free com?munication.%信息系统旨在帮助高速公路收费站的后台一体化运营管理,实现后台服务中心与各个收费站点的信息的同步和智能化的管理.信息的实时与同步是每个企业增强管理、提高工作效率的基础,该文设计实现的车道实时对讲系统就是做到每个收费站点的信息与后方服务中心的实时同步,确保后台服务中心与各个站点的无障碍交流.

  10. Genetic diversity and morphological characterization of half-sib families of Heliconia bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Peterson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F R A; Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Loges, V

    2016-06-20

    The Neotropical Heliconia genus contains highly diversified plants and up to 220 species have been reported from the north of Mexico to the South of Brazil. Heliconia are cultivated as ornamental garden plants and as cut flowers. All species can be propagated by seeds or vegetatively, through rhizomes. Depending on the species, an individual plant can spread and form large clonal populations. H. bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Petersen are among the most cultivated Heliconia species. However, they still have undesirable characteristics that could be improved for the international market. This study aimed to characterize 15 half-sib families originating from commercial cultivations, by morphological and molecular markers. The genetic diversity (ĤE), considering all individuals of the three species was 0.103. For H. bihai half-sib families, the value of ĤE was 0.242, showing high genetic diversity. The ĤE value for H. chartacea was 0.068, indicating low genetic diversity. All individuals of H. wagneriana showed the same band patterns, suggesting that the two parental plants were propagated vegetatively from the same plant and may have undergone some endogamic crossings. These results showed that molecular characterization can differentiate individuals closely related as half-siblings for H. bihai and H. chartacea, despite the low variation observed with morphological descriptors. The high genetic diversity observed in H. bihai half-sibling genotypes can provide valuable resources for breeding programs.

  11. 在幽长的心灵雨巷中穿行——读王舶宇的《心灵雨巷》%Passing in the Unending Rainy Lane of Soul——After reading Rainy Lane of Soul by Wang Boyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许军娥

    2012-01-01

    Rainy Lane of Soul by Wang Boyu exhibits the author’s extensive reading horizon and the profound reading interest,tells the reader the author’s soft soul song and romantic emotional factor,evokes the author’s distinctive cultural appreciation and rational light of intelligence,and describes the author’s poetic childhood complex as well as happy childhood times.%王舶宇的《心灵雨巷》展示着作者宽广的阅读视野与深度阅读的乐趣,倾诉着作者柔软的心灵之曲和浪漫的情感因子,焕发着作者独特的文化知鉴与理性的智慧之光,描摹着作者诗意的童年情结和温馨的童年时光。

  12. Siegert State Approach to Quantum Defect Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hategan, C; Wolter, H H

    2016-01-01

    The Siegert states are approached in framework of Bloch-Lane-Robson formalism for quantum collisions. The Siegert state is not described by a pole of Wigner R- matrix but rather by the equation $1- R_{nn}L_n = 0$, relating R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ to decay channel logarithmic derivative $L_n$. Extension of Siegert state equation to multichannel system results into replacement of channel R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ by its reduced counterpart ${\\cal R}_{nn}$. One proves the Siegert state is a pole, $(1 - {\\cal R}_{nn} L_{n})^{-1}$, of multichannel collision matrix. The Siegert equation $1 - {\\cal R}_{nn} L_{n} = 0$, ($n$ - Rydberg channel), implies basic results of Quantum Defect Theory as Seaton's theorem, complex quantum defect, channel resonances and threshold continuity of averaged multichannel collision matrix elements.

  13. 基于双层规划的城市公交专用道优化设计%Optimum design of city bus lane based on bi-level programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 龙建成

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bus service level ,more and more cities have opened the bus lanes . But the bus lanes will aggravate the car right ,thus the relationship between the car and the bus should be balanced scientifically from the perspective of overall system .In order to guarantee the min-imum travel cost of the traveler ,and considering the travel selection behavior of the traveler ,a bi-lev-el programming model for bus lane network optimization is built from the perspective of the whole city traffic network .According to the flow characteristic of the car and the bus on the road with bus lanes , the impedance function based on bus lane network is proposed and the dual-mode traffic assignment model is established .The lower-layer flow assignment and the bi-level programming model are solved by using the Frank-Wolfe algorithm and the genetic algorithm respectively .Finally ,the example anal-ysis with real traffic network is carried out to verify the validity of the proposed model and algorithm .%为了提高公交车的服务水平,很多城市开辟了公交专用道,由于公交专用道的设置会降低小汽车的路权,必须从系统整体的角度来设置公交专用道以科学权衡小汽车与公交车的路权分配。文章从城市交通网络的整体出发,以出行者总体出行成本最小为目标,充分考虑出行者的出行选择行为,提出了城市公交专用道优化设计的双层规划模型;结合设置公交专用道的路段上公交车与小汽车的流量特性,提出了基于公交专用道网络的道路阻抗函数,构造双模式交通分配模型;分别使用Frank-Wolfe算法和遗传算法进行下层流量分配和双层规划模型的求解,并运用交通网络进行实例分析,验证了所提模型和算法的有效性。

  14. A study on single lane-change manoeuvres for determining rearward amplification of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi; He, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers issued a test procedure, SAE-J2179, to determine the rearward amplification (RA) of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles (MTAHVs). Built upon the procedure, the International Organization for Standardization released the test manoeuvres, ISO-14791, for evaluating directional performance of MTAHVs. For the RA measures, ISO-14791 recommends two single lane-change manoeuvres: (1) an open-loop procedure with a single sine-wave steering input; and (2) a closed-loop manoeuvre with a single sine-wave lateral acceleration input. For an articulated vehicle with active trailer steering (ATS), the RA measure in lateral acceleration under the open-loop manoeuvre was not in good agreement with that under the closed-loop manoeuvre. This observation motivates the research on the applicability of the two manoeuvres for the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS. It is reported that transient response under the open-loop manoeuvre often leads to asymmetric curve of tractor lateral acceleration [Winkler CB, Fancher PS, Bareket Z, Bogard S, Johnson G, Karamihas S, Mink C. Heavy vehicle size and weight - test procedures for minimum safety performance standards. Final technical report, NHTSA, US DOT, contract DTNH22-87-D-17174, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Report No. UMTRI-92-13; 1992]. To explore the effect of the transient response, a multiple cycle sine-wave steering input (MCSSI) manoeuvre is proposed. Simulation demonstrates that the steady-state RA measures of an MTAHV with and without ATS under the MCSSI manoeuvre are in excellent agreement with those under the closed-loop manoeuvre. It is indicated that between the two manoeuvres by ISO-14791, the closed-loop manoeuvre is more applicable for determining the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS.

  15. 环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为研究%Car Following Behavior of Roundabout Entrance Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金勇; 刘岩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为,依据实地交通调查的数据,利用线性跟驰模型和回归分析方法对环形交叉口入口道跟驰车辆进行分析,分析结果表明:环形交叉口入口道的车辆跟驰行为是符合线性跟驰模型的,但是有别于普通道路上的车辆跟驰行为,其反应强度系数λ的值在0.2 ~1.0之间,λ值为0.38出现的概率比较大,占40%,进行稳定性分析可知车间距的摆动处于基本稳定和衰减摆动两种状态,是符合局部稳定性的.%The car-following behavior of roundabout entrance lane is studied by using liner car-following and regression models for obtaining the car-following behavior to match the liner car-following behavior. However, it is different from the behavior on the road. The value of reaction intensity factor is between 0. 2 to 1. 0,and the value 0. 38 appears relatively more often and accounting for 40%. The swing of car space headway is between stable status and decay swing with the stability analysis,and it is consistent with local stability.

  16. Probability-based Delay Model for Signalized Intersections with A Short Right-turn Lane%基于概率的右转短车道信号控制交叉口延误模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宗忠; 马艳; 高鸿雁; 苏洁

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the modeling of vehicle delays at signalized intersections with a short right-turn bay which is commonly seen in urban traffic. The model is developed considering the stochastics of traffic volume variation which can result in uncertain blockage occurrences to the short right-turn bay. The proposed model enhances the existing methodologies documented in the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM 2010) which treats the short bay as an exclusive full lane. The model incorporates probabilistic theories and intersection characteristics, thus providing an improved approach to delay estimation by considering the short-bay storage length, traffic flow rate, and signal timing. The proposed model is validated using the SimTraffic microscopic simulation model, which is calibrated using field data obtained at a real-world intersection site. Based on the model, it is found that the short-bay length strongly influences the right-turn vehicle delays. In addition, allowing right-turn-on-red (RTOR) can ease the over-saturation problem and reduce the approach delay substantially, especially when the short-bay length is less than 2-vehicle storage length.%研究城市道路中常见的右转短车道信号控制交叉口车辆延误模型.该模型考虑了交通流变化随机性导致的右转短车道交通阻滞问题,改进了现行美国通行能力手册(HCM 2010)中将短车道视为独立进口车道的计算方法.本文应用概率论方法并结合交叉口特性,同时考虑了短车道、交通流率和信号配时等因素影响,提出了一种改进的交叉口延误估计方法.通过使用SimTraffic微观仿真模型,应用交叉口获得的实测数据对模型进行参数标定,验证了模型的有效性.研究结果表明,短车道对右转车辆延误有显著影响.尤其在短车道长度小于2辆标准车长的情况下,允许红灯右转(Righe-turn-on-red, RTOR)可以有效缓解过饱和交通流问题并减少交叉口实际延误.

  17. 基于有限零和灰色博弈的车道变换决策分析%Analysis of Lane Change Decision Making Based on the Finite and Zero-sum Grey Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 郭应时; 袁伟; 王畅

    2011-01-01

    车道变换决策阶段,由于驾驶人对距离和速度判断失误,极易造成擦挂和追尾事故.为了明确车道变换决策形成机制以及此过程中交通冲突的诱发机制,基于决策阶段车辆间的运动关系及驾驶期望等,限定边界条件,提出车道变换博弈的概念.引入具有混合策略的二人有限零和灰色博弈模型,推导模型算法.结合实际道路试验前提下车道变换博弈样本的筛选和数据处理分析,研究博弈双方驾驶人的策略选择和收益特性.结果表明,当车道变换对象车与目标车道后随车的交通冲突不可避免时,对象车的理想最优策略是减速等待,而目标车道后随车的理想最优策略是加速通过临界冲突点,可以有效地兼顾博弈双方安全性与行车时间的收益需求,达到整体最优.研究结果可为车道变换过程中交通冲突的形成机制和路权分配提供相应的理论支持.%In the lane change decision-making stage, scratch and rear-end accidents may occur owing to drivers' miss judgments on the relative distances and velocities. In order to clarify the formation mechanism of drivers' decision making and traffic conflict in the lane change process, based on the motion relationship of related vehicles and driving expectation, the boundary conditions are limited, and a lane change game concept is put forward. The finite and zero-sum grey game model with mixed strategies is introduced, and the model algorithm is subsequently derived. Strategy selection and income characteristics of the drivers in the game are researched by sample selection and data processing analysis under the condition of real-world experiments. Analysis shows that when the traffic conflict between lane change object vehicle and following vehicle in the target lane is inevitably, the ideal and optimal strategy for the object vehicle is slowing down and waiting, while corresponding strategy for the game opponent is passing by the

  18. Research of content determination of lactose in the raw milkby Lane-Eynon's method%莱因-埃农氏法测定原料乳中乳糖含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珍菊; 林芳栋

    2012-01-01

    将莱因-埃农氏法引入原料乳中乳糖含量的测定,在现有基础上考察了莱因-埃农氏法在原料乳中测定乳糖含量的沉淀剂使用量、精密度、重复性等。由实验结果可知,莱因一埃农氏法的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.398%,精密度高,重复性实验的RSD为1.374%,重复性好,加标回收率为100.34%,乳糖盲样测定结果也与实际相符,用该方法进行原料乳中乳糖的测定是切实可行的。%Lane-Eynon's method was introduced in the determination of lactose content in raw milk. On the basis of the existing study,the research on lactose content in raw milk by Lane-Eynon's method was carried out. The precipitation agent usage,precision and repeatability of this method were measured. The precision and repeatability of the Lane-Eynon was well,with RSD 0.398%, 1.374% respectively. The average recovery was 100.34% ,the result of the milk blind samples was consistent with the actual value,so it was feasible to determine the content of lactose in the raw milk.

  19. Explore the Impact on Urban Road Capacity Caused by Lane Occupancy%探究车道被占用对城市道路通行能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱筱琪; 张浩宇; 张杨柳; 朱家明

    2014-01-01

    从车道占用对城市道路通行能力的影响入手,运用对比分析法、推理演绎法以及排队论等方法,建立道路通行能力模型、道路价值度模型、相关性分析模型、排队长度模型。并运用M atlab软件,得出所占车道不同对该横断面实际通行能力影响不同,车道被占用影响的路段车辆排队长度与事故横断面实际通行能力、事故持续时间、路段上游车流量间的关系,以及排队长度等结果。%This article starts from the lane occupied influences on urban road traffic capacity ,comparative analysis method ,reasoning deduction method ,and queuing theory are used to establish significant difference test model ,traffic capacity model ,the road value degree model ,correlation analysis model and queue length model. With the help of software such as Matlab ,EXcell,we obtained the differences in the results of occupied different lanes influences on the transverse section actual capacity . Draw a conclusion that the queue length influenced by occupied lanes relation-ships with accident cross-sectional actual capacity 、the duration of the accident and section of upstream flow. And the results of queue length.

  20. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Okayama, T.; Katayama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  1. 行进在快车道上的中国环境社会学%China Environmental Sociology Stepping onto Express Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪大用; 龚文娟

    2015-01-01

    本文基于对2011—2014年中国环境社会学研究成果的再分析,指出中国环境社会学已经行驶在快车道上,呈现出加速发展之势,在环境与社会的关系以及环境问题的社会原因、社会影响和社会应对等方面都取得了一些有价值的研究成果. 未来中国环境社会学研究需要保持清醒、冷静的头脑,进行必要的、建设性的反思,进一步完善学术对话机制、加强基础理论与方法研究,在经验研究中更加重视信息技术革命背景下的环境传播、环境政策发展过程及其实践分析等领域,并以一种更加积极乐观而又科学客观的态度,进一步加强对特定地区、特定行业和企业实施环境治理成功经验的调查研究和理论总结.%Based on re-analysis to China's environmental sociology research in 2011—2014, the article points out that China's environmental sociology has already stepped onto an express lane, showing a trend of accelerated development, achieving some valuable research findings in relationship between environment and society, social causes of, impact and reactions to environmental problems. Future studies need to done with consciousness and reasonability, with necessary and constructive reflection, to further improve the academic dialogue mechanism, strengthen research in basic theories and research methods. While in empirical studies, more attention should be attached to environment communication, environmental policy development and practice analysis under the IT revolution background. A more positive and optimistic but scientific and objective attitude should be developed to make further research and a theoretical summary to successful practice of environmental management in particular areas, industries and enterprises.

  2. Sea-lane litter surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, I.M.

    1982-07-01

    Several matters of concern are raised as a result of two surveys which examined how merchant ships and pleasure craft dispose of waste. The first 10-months' survey of 600 ships showed that a significant proportion of ships dump their untreated sewage, garbage, and cargo-hold and engineroom wastes, directly into the sea. The survey also showed a lack of clear instructions on waste disposal by shipping lines, owners, or agents. Nineteen per cent of the sample admitted they threw engineroom waste, such as oily rags and oil-cans, directly overboard, while 18% were dumping cargo-hold waste overboard. Only 13.5% of the ships used facilities that had been provided by local authorities for disposal of domestic garbage in port, while 8.66% had been instructed to dispose of garbage at sea. Just over half of the ships surveyed said they stored garbage in plastic bags when in port, but 60 of these ships said they did not seal the plastic bags. The second survey--of 626 pleasure-craft--also showed a lack of clear instructions, by yachting or boating clubs, on how to dispose of waste. However, the survey indicated a responsible attitude on the part of the majority of boat-owners, with 84% of the sample using plastic bags to store garbage while at sea, and 75.72% using services for waste disposal provided by local authority cleansing departments at ports, harbours, and marina.

  3. BASEMAP SUBMISSION LANE CO OREGON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme, orthographic...

  4. Study on Synergy Problem of Dynamic Lane-use Assignment and Signal Control at Intersections%交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾滢; 杨晓光; 马莹莹

    2009-01-01

    基于信号控制交叉口时空关系分析,综合运用交通流理论和信号控制技术,建立了动态车道功能与信号相位组合模型,用Visual Basic语言编制程序对该模型求解.为验证模型的有效性,应用该模型对实际案例进行了优化,并通过交通仿真软件VISSIM分别对优化前后的方案进行了仿真对比分析.仿真结果表明:交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制存在协同作用,与仅改善车道功能或信号控制相比,实现两者的协同能有效提高交叉口时空资源的利用率,使关键状态参量如延误与排队长度显著降低.%Based on the analysis of space-time relation of signalized intersections,an integrated model for lane-use assignment and signal phase was established using the traffic flow theory and signal control technology synthetically.In order to solve the model,a program was developed through Visual Basic programming.Actual road intersections were optimized by the program and optimal solutions were generated.Then both the origin plan and the optimal solutions were simulated with VISSIM to verify the model.The simulation results show that there is synergetic effect between dynamic lane-use assignment and signal control.Different from improving lane-use assignment or signal plan alone,synergy cann effectively improve the utilization of space-time resources at intersections,thus reducing the key traffic state parameters such as delay and queue length.

  5. 岭南传统建筑冷巷热环境实测分析%Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Environment in Cold Lane of Lingnan Traditional Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳山; 马俊丽

    2014-01-01

    通过对具有典型岭南传统建筑特点的广州陈家祠冷巷进行实际测量,结合实测数据分析和数值模拟结果,提出冷巷自然通风是风压和热压共同作用的结果,保持冷巷布置与地区主导风向一致,有利于冷巷自然通风。冷巷的存在一方面加强了建筑周边空气流动,改善了建筑热环境;同时也滞缓了室内空气温度的上升幅度和峰值,对维持室内热舒适性起到一定的作用,具有“自然空调”的效果。建筑周边植被对改善建筑热环境也起到了重要作用。%Based on the actual measurement of Guangzhou Chen Clan Academy which has the typical architectural features of the Lingnan traditional architecture. Combined with the measured data analysis and numerical simulation, the natural ventilation of the cold lane is the result of a combination of wind pressure and hot pressing. The cold lane is consistent with dominant wind direction which can be benefit for the natural ventilation. Cold lane can strengthen the air flow around the building that improve the thermal en-vironment, on the other hand, also slow the rise and the peak of the indoor air temperature which play a role in maintaining the indoor thermal comfort, and has a “natural air conditioning” effect. The vegetation that surrounds the building has also play an import role to improve the building thermal environment.

  6. THE BPMN APPROACH OF THE UNIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRȊMBEI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a new vision about the enterprise modelling in the context of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and the university area. Although the flow objects, artefacts, connecting objects and swim lanes are very used in the process of Enterprise Modelling, they have specific roles in the university information systems. The paper will reveal a specific approach of BPMN in the context of university information systems based on a comparative analysis of some representative universities from United States and Central Europe. Our ideas are argued with a practical case study that includes 4 realistic and complex systems: study programs and curriculum, students’ admission, student roadmap, students’ exchange. The future directions of the article are some visions of BPMN orchestration of a SOA-based architecture for Student Record Systems.

  7. Performance environment and nested task constraints influence long jump approach run: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Flora; Smirniotou, Athanasia; Theodorou, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate possible changes at step pattern and technical performance of the long jump approach run in seven young long jumpers by modifying the performance environment (long jump runway versus track lane) and the nested actions (run-through with take-off versus complete long jump). Our findings suggest that the step pattern and technical aspects of the approach run are affected by environmental context and nested task constraints. In terms of environmental context, it appears that practising the training routine of run-through followed by take-off on the long jump runway allows athletes to simulate competition conditions in terms of step regulation and technical efficacy. The task of run-through followed by take-off on the track lane failed to initiate visual perception, step regulation and technical efficiency at the steps preceding the instant of take-off. In terms of nested task constraints, when run-ups were followed by jump for distance instead of only a take-off, a higher level of consistency was achieved and step regulation was based on perception-action coupling. Practising long jump run-up accuracy at a setting not containing the informational elements of the performance environment fails to develop the key elements of the skill.

  8. Influences of Loads on Vehicles and Lanes on Reliability of Bridge Structures%车辆荷载和车道荷载对桥梁结构可靠度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名扬; 王起才

    2012-01-01

    公路桥梁结构的整体计算采用车道荷载,结构的局部计算采用车辆荷载,车辆荷载与车道荷载的作用不得叠加.将采用这2种荷载设计的结构进行可靠度对比,结果表明,按车辆荷载设计的结构满足正常使用功能的可靠度偏低,更容易发生损坏,这些损坏会影响到结构的正常使用.提出通过调整重型车辆通过桥梁时的交通行驶规则,增大结构按正常使用极限状态设计时车辆荷载的代表值,从而提高按车辆荷载设计的结构可靠度.%Integral calculation for highway bridge structures adopts loads on lanes, local calculation for structures employs loads on vehicles, and the effects of loads on vehicles and lanes should not be superimposed. This paper compares reliabilities of structures designed by means of these two loads, the result show that the reliability of structures designed based on loads on vehicles to satisfy normal functions of use is lower and easier to damages, which will affect normal use of structures. The paper proposes to increase effect values of actions of loads on vehicles during design in limit state of normal use by adjusting traffic driving rules as heavy vehicles pass bridges so as to improve reliability of structures designed on the basis of loads on vehicles.

  9. Chain reaction models for vehicle queuing on single-lane road section%单车道路段上车辆排队的链式反应模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚荣涵; 贾婧

    2012-01-01

    为揭示单车道路段上车辆排队的演化规律,描述了车辆排队的形成和消散过程与核裂变的链式反应过程之间的相似性。根据核链式反应原理,建立了单车道路段上车辆排队的链式反应模型体系,包括车辆排队形成模型、车辆排队消散模型和信号交叉口车辆排队模型。利用大连市典型路段的实测交通数据对车辆排队形成和消散模型进行了验证,并运用MAT-LAB软件对不同条件下的交通流进行数值模拟,分析了阻滞信号和消散信号的传播速度对于到达流量和行驶速度的敏感度。结果显示,模型具有较高的精度,可以测算单车道路段上车辆排队的链式反应速度和范围,能够解释车辆排队形成和消散的内在规律。研究成果为解析多车道路段上车辆排队的演化规律以及路段阻塞的链式反应规律奠定了基础,可为解决城市交通拥堵问题提供理论依据,同时为研究交通排队提供新的思路和方法。%To reveal the vehicle queue formation and dissipation behavior on a road section with a single lane, the similarity between the growth and dissipation process of vehicle queuing and the chain reaction process of nuclear fission was described. According to the theory of nuclear chain reaction, a chain reaction model system of vehicle queuing on a road section with a single lane was built, including the vehicle queue formation model, the vehicle queue dissipation model, and the vehicle queue model for signalized intersections. By using the field survey data from a typical road section in Dalian city, vehicle queue formation and dissipation models were validated. Also, the numerical simulations for traffic streams under different conditions were made by applying MATLAB software. Based on the simulation results, the sensitivities of the propagation speed of block and dissipation signal to arrival flow rate and running speed were further analyzed

  10. Optimization and its Extension on the Impact Model of Urban Road' s Traffic Capacity at Lane Occupied%城市道路通行能力影响模型优化及其推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪仁兴; 沈婷; 胡静雅; 陈靖倩

    2015-01-01

    In china, traffic congestion has become a serious problem in today's increasingly prominent on growing probloms of urban traffic. But, many older urban road planning form earlier, the existing urban road construction is so far as behind the economic development at present,. Among them, the lane occupied has become the big-gest problem of the traffic congestion, including traffic problem, street parking, lane construction and so on. This paper aims to take advantage of the knowledge of traffic flow theory, by SPSS and MATLAB software, the actual traffic jam road traffic capacity is examined, using the real scene of the accident, as reflected in the video data acquisition and analysis, inspired by the classic logistic population model, a block growth model is proposed and established. The relationship about vehicle queue length, time duration, traffic capacity and traffic flow is obtained. Meanwhile, according to the people's traffic expectations, we established model about vehicle queue length and its influencing factors in response to urban road occupied, and given timing program and traffic organ-ization scheme of upstream crossing signal lights. The use of block growth model can effectively optimize urban road capacity, ease urban traffic pressure and improve the traffic environment.%利用交通流理论等知识,借助于SPSS和MATLAB软件,考察实际交通堵塞道路的通行能力,通过对真实事故现场数据的采集分析,受经典的logistic人口模型启发,提出并建立了阻滞增长模型,得到了拥堵时车辆排队长度与持续时间、通行能力、车流量之间的关系.建立了城市道路被占时的车辆排队长度和其影响因子探究的数学模型,给出了上游路口信号灯配时方案和交通组织方案.运用阻滞增长模型可有效优化城市道路通行能力,缓解城市交通压力,改善交通环境.

  11. The Outburst Elimination Technique Research of Floor Drainage Lane with High Concentrated of Gas%高瓦斯矿井底抽巷区域消突技术实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the upper corner gas concentration exceeds the limit in working face of Henan Da Yu Gou coal group co., LTD. Huatai coal mine,to carry out floor drainage lane、wear layer drilling floor drainage lane and floor drainage lane wear layer anti-reflection unloading hydraulic punching in for drilling measures at 12 mining area in 12030 and 12070 working face. Through the analysis of bottom engineering drainage area disappear Can increase the porosity Water permeability and wettability of二 1 coal from the physical and mechanical properties. Improve the gas extraction rate, Better to solve the problem of working face and the upper corner gas concentration is too large, Multiple tectonic highlight the mine safety and efficiency into production provides the practical experience and theoretical reference.%为解决河南大峪沟煤业集团有限责任公司华泰煤矿工作面上隅角瓦斯浓度超限的问题,在12采区12030和12070工作面下部开展底板抽放巷、底板抽放巷穿层钻孔、并对底板抽放巷穿层钻孔进行水力冲孔卸压增透等措施。通过分析底抽巷区域消突工程可以从物理力学性质上增大二1煤层的孔隙率、透水性和润湿性。较大程度的提高了瓦斯抽采率,较好的解决了工作面和上隅角瓦斯浓度过大,为多构造突出矿井的安全高效生产提供了实践经验和理论参考。

  12. Research on Length of Blocked Road Section for Maintenance of Two-lane Highway in Mountain Area Based on Vissim%基于Vissim的山区双车道公路养护作业封闭段长度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文亮; 刘振清; 贺玉龙; 高发亮

    2012-01-01

    建立山区双车道公路养护作业区Vissim仿真模型,通过信号灯控制通行时间,模拟在不同封闭段长度下车辆的运行状态,对行程延误、排队长度、停车次数和停驶车辆百分比等参数进行分析,得出山区双车道公路单车道封闭,短期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于200 m,长期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于2500 m,这为山区双车道公路养护作业区设置和交通组织提供理论依据.%The simulation model of maintenance area for two-lane highway in mountain area was established based on Vissim. The model can simulate vehicles' running state with different lengths of blocked road section through signal lamp controlling time, and can analyze parameters such as trip delay, queuing length, number of stops and the percentage of suspended vehicles. The result shows that the blocked single-lane section length for short-term maintenance of two-lane highway in mountain area should be less than 200 m and that for long-term maintenance should be less than 2500 m. It provided a theoretical basis of setting maintenance area and transportation organizations for two-lane highway in mountain area.

  13. Evaluation on Comprehensive Benefits of Exclusive Bus Lane Settings:Taking Jingtong Express-way as an Example%公交专用车道设置综合效益评估--以京通快速路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文聪; 缪芳

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the lack of evaluation standard for setting exclusive bus lanes, this paper analyzes the operation costs before and after setting exclusive bus lanes from the perspectives of individual travel cost and social cost. Focusing on the direct benefits of exclusive bus lanes, the paper discusses the operation costs and benefits through analyzing the change of traffic parameters before and after setting exclusive bus lanes. By evaluating the changes of transport capacity, time cost and energy cost, the paper quantifies these indicators into monetary values. Finally, a case study using Jingtong Expressway as an example is conduct-ed.%为解决当前公交专用车道设置缺乏评估标准的问题,从个人出行成本和社会成本两个角度出发,对公交专用车道设置前后交通运营成本组成进行分析。在此基础上,重点针对公交专用车道运营的直接效益,通过分析公交专用车道设置前后交通运行参数的变化,分别对运营产出和运营成本进行综合分析,评估公交专用车道设置前后的运能总量、时间及能源消耗成本的变化,并将其折算成货币指标,实现评估指标的定量化。最后,以京通快速路为例进行了评估实证分析。

  14. Ancient and Modern Association of "Encountering Complex" --Another Interpretation of DAI Wangshu's Rain Lane%“邂逅情结”的古今联通——戴望舒《雨巷》的另一解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张细珍

    2012-01-01

    Besides the "clove complex" and "rain lane complex", DAI Wangshu's Rain Lane has the "encoun- tering complex". It not only associates the mental expectation of ancient and modern scholars, but also implies the emotional tanglement of the poet at that time; in addition, it activates current readers' imagination. "Encountering complex" is the reality of a man living in the world, and is the reflection of self-comfort of DAI Wangshu. Essentially, DAI Wangshu can not walk out of the rain lane in his mind.%戴望舒《雨巷》除具有“丁香情结”、“雨巷情结”,还蕴涵“邂逅情结”。它既联通古今文人的心理期待,又隐含诗人当时的情感纠结,还激活当今读者的生命想象。“邂逅情结”是人之为人的一种存在境遇,是戴望舒自我安慰的理想投射。究其本质,他走不出自己心灵的雨巷。

  15. Optimization Method for Opening Number of Lanes Based on Operating Costs of Toll Station and Queuing Costs of Driver%基于收费站运营成本和司机排队成本的车道开启数量优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪军; 李亚平

    2013-01-01

    基于对收费站运营及司机排队的成本分析,结合排队论理论,考虑队长及服务水平限制,建立以两者总成本最少为目标函数的车道开启数量模型,确定已知交通量下的最佳开启车道数,为高速公路收费站实现有效经营提供科学的理论依据.并结合实例阐述了模型的应用过程.%The number of opening lanes is an important issue in toll station management process. Based on the cost analysis of vehicle queue and toll station, combined queuing theory and considered the limitation of queue length and service level, a number model for opening lanes is established which objective function is at the least total cost. If the traffic volume is known, this model can determine the best number of opening lanes. So it provides theoretical basis for effective management of toll station. Combined with example, the application process of the model is also described.

  16. 结合先验知识和图像特征的道路提取方法%Combined prior knowledge and image characteristics for lane detection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽群; 肖俊

    2011-01-01

    In the complex environment, this paper presents a lane detection method with the ability to deal with both structured and unstructured roads.The method combines a priori knowledge database with adaptive region growing method.It establishes a priori knowledge database through a set of road sampling,training, data mining and knowledge discovery,combines adaptive road region growing method using this database process on real-time segmented images.The experimental results show that this method is able to robustly find the road area on different types of roads in various environments.%致力于在复杂环境下能对多种道路进行检测,提出了一种先验知识库与自适应区域增长相融合的道路检测方法,通过少量的道路样本采集,建立样本库,训练挖掘出道路知识模型,并结合区域增长方法对分割的实时道路影像进行道路区域增长.实验结果表明,该方法适用于多种不同环境道路的提取,鲁棒性强.

  17. MULTI-PASS APPROACH FOR MOBILE TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nolan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning (MTLS has been utilised for an increasing number of corridor surveys. Current MTLS surveys require that many targets be placed along the corridor to monitor the MTLS trajectory’s accuracy. These targets enable surveyors to directly evaluate the magnitude of GNSS errors at regular intervals and can also be used to adjust the trajectory to the survey control. However, this “Multi-Target” approach (MTA is an onerous task that can significantly reduce efficiency. It also is inconvenient to the travelling public, as lanes are often blocked and traffic slowed to permit surveyors to work safely along the road corridor. This paper introduces a “Multi-Pass” approach (MPA, which minimises the number of targets required for monitoring the GNSS-controlled trajectory while still maintaining strict engineering accuracies. MPA uses the power of multiple, independent MTLS passes with different GNSS constellations to generate a “Control Polyline” from the point cloud for the corridor. The Control Polyline can be considered as a statistically valid survey measurement and be incorporated in a network adjustment to strengthen a control network by identifying outliers. Results from a test survey at the MTLS course maintained by the Oregon Department of Transportation illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  18. Multi-Pass Approach for Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, J.; Eckels, R.; Evers, M.; Singh, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Terrestrial Laser Scanning (MTLS) has been utilised for an increasing number of corridor surveys. Current MTLS surveys require that many targets be placed along the corridor to monitor the MTLS trajectory's accuracy. These targets enable surveyors to directly evaluate the magnitude of GNSS errors at regular intervals and can also be used to adjust the trajectory to the survey control. However, this "Multi-Target" approach (MTA) is an onerous task that can significantly reduce efficiency. It also is inconvenient to the travelling public, as lanes are often blocked and traffic slowed to permit surveyors to work safely along the road corridor. This paper introduces a "Multi-Pass" approach (MPA), which minimises the number of targets required for monitoring the GNSS-controlled trajectory while still maintaining strict engineering accuracies. MPA uses the power of multiple, independent MTLS passes with different GNSS constellations to generate a "Control Polyline" from the point cloud for the corridor. The Control Polyline can be considered as a statistically valid survey measurement and be incorporated in a network adjustment to strengthen a control network by identifying outliers. Results from a test survey at the MTLS course maintained by the Oregon Department of Transportation illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  19. An extended master-equation approach applied to aggregation in freeway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Wei; Lin Bo-Liang; Huang Yong-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We restudy the master-equation approach applied to aggregation in a one-dimensional freeway,where the decay transition probabilities for the jump processes are reconstructed based on a car-following model. According to the reconstructed transition probabilities,the clustering behaviours and the stochastic properties of the master equation in a one-lane freeway traffic model are investigated in detail.The numerical results show that the size of the clusters initially below the critical size of the unstable cluster and initially above that of the unstable cluster all enter the same stable state,which also accords with the nucleation theory and is known from the result in earlier work.Moreover,we have obtained more reasonable parameters of the master equation based on some results of cellular automata models.

  20. Study on the Effects of Traffic Lane Occupation on Capacity of City Roads%车道被占用对城市道路通行能力影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅

    2014-01-01

    Based on events of traffic accident , this paper analyzes the time taken by accidents in average city roads, length of traffic queuing , and sectioned traffic changes and vehicleflow changes under the effects of acci-dents. Using the traffic wave theory , this paper gives the lengths of queuing in jammed lanes of various widths .Un-der realistic circumstances , an event of accident , from the moment the accident occurs to the arrival of police , ac-cident scene investigation , handling, clearance and restoration , can be broken down into four phases , i.e.pre-ac-cident moment , moment from the occurrence to investigation , moment from investigation to the clearance of the scene, and restoration after the scene has been cleared .The procedures of an accident event are not clear-cut, and the analysis of the accident mainly focuses on the moment of the occurrence to traffic restoration .The effects of po-lice handling hereby are not studied .%本文以交通事故这种异常事件为例,分别对公路基本路段内交通事故影响时间、车辆排队长度、事故影响下不同时间段内不同路段断面流量变化和不同路段发生事故的车流变化进行了分析。采用交通波理论给出了该事故路段内不同阻塞行车道宽度的车辆排队长度。

  1. Research on Capacity for Left-turn Lane with Waiting Area%设有待行区的左转车道通行能力计算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗二凯; 邵长桥

    2011-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of waiting area on left-turn capacity, the traffic operating process of left-turn lanes with waiting area was analyzed, and a capacity model for it was developed by the theory of saturation flow rate. Then, lost time was fixed by the linear regression method. Finally, it finds that the increased range of left-turn capacity with waiting area is related to the length of waiting area and lost time. The results provide a theoretical basis for planning, design, transformation, traffic organization, signal timing and traffic operations evaluation at intersection.%为量化待行区的设置对左转车道通行能力的影响,分析了其特性,以饱和流率法为基础,建立了设有待行区的左转车道通行能力模型;利用线性回归方法确定了损失时间的计算公式.通过待行区设置前后左转车道的通行能力对比分析发现,通行能力提高幅度与待行区长度、损失时间有关.研究成果将为信号交叉口的规划、设计、改造、交通组织、信号配时以及交通运行评价提供理论依据.

  2. 弯道不分道跑项目一组双线跑理论与应用%The Theory and Practice for Double Starting Lines for Race Events with One Lane in Bend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉元

    2012-01-01

      In local sports meeting, especially track and field sports meeting in primary and middle schools, there is only one starting line for race events with only one lane in bend, push ,tread, collision ,injury and fouls are always resulted for large number of runners crowd on one starting line. The paper explores double starting lines theory based on 《Regulations of Track and Field Events 2010-2011》and 《Standard Manual of Track and Field Facilities and Equipment 2008 》, hoping to improve athletes’ sport competing level, avoid accidents, ensure the success of track and field sports meeting%  基层运动会,特别是中小学田径运动会,弯道不分道跑项目一般只设一条起跑线,在起跑出发阶段常常因参赛人数过多而出现运动员相互拥挤、踩踏、冲撞,造成受伤和犯规现象,不利于田径运动的开展,本文以《田径竞赛规则2010-2011》、《田径场地设施标准手册2008》为依据,探讨弯道不分道跑项目一组双线跑理论与应用,以期提高运动员竞技运动水平,避免伤害事故的发生,确保田径运动会成功举办。

  3. 甲基二氯硅烷-甲基乙烯基二氯硅烷-甲苯三元体系等压汽液平衡%Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Methyldichlorosi lane+Methylvinyldichlorosilane+Toluene and Constituent Binary Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余淑娴; 余祖兵; 邱祖民; 孙(韦华)

    2003-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for a ternary system of methyldichlorosilane + methylvinyldichlorosi-lane + toluene and constituent binary systems were measured at 101.3kPa using a new type of magnetical pump-ebulliometer. The equilibrium compositions of the vapor phase of binary systems were calculated indirectly fromthe total pressure-temperature-liquid composition (pTx). The experimental data were correlated with the Wilsonand NRTL(non-random two liquid) equations. The parameters of the Wilson model were employed to predict theternary VLE data. The calculated boiling points were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  4. 基于IPA分析法的景区旅游形象游客感知研究--以三坊七巷历史文化街区为例%Research on Perceived Destination Image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on IPA Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓薇

    2014-01-01

    运用IPA分析法对三坊七巷旅游形象的游客感知进行了实证研究,结果表明:游客总体满意度较好;历史名人文化、节事活动、景区内部交通等感知要素游客评价满意度高于重要性,是景区竞争优势,今后可继续强化;传统坊巷格局、外部交通通达性、景区游览接待设施等感知因素亟待改进;核心区域延续性、旅游资源特色、餐饮价格等感知要素由于游客的期望值低,景区对这些服务可考虑采取适度发展的策略。%Taking Three Lanes and Seven Alleys as a case study, the paper determined the effects of 22 factors on the perceived image of the destination.Through the data collected from questionnaire, a quantitative demon-strative study has been conducted on perceived destination image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.The study conclusion indicates that overall customer satisfaction is good.Tourists are satisfied with historical celebrity cul-ture, festival activities and interior traffic of tourist spots;the layout of traditional lanes and alleys, the exterior traffic and infrastructure are in urgent need to be improved based on the undesirable percieved image;the conti-nuity of core tourist region, characteristics of the tourist resources and food prices can be given moderate attention to as expectations are low in these respects.The study conclusion can provide guidance for sustainable develop-ment of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.

  5. Collision-f ree path planning for lane keeping system of intelligent vehicle%智能车辆车道保持系统中避障路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明磊; 陈无畏; 王家恩

    2014-01-01

    文章针对车道保持系统在运行中存在障碍物的情况,基于多传感器对智能车辆的局部避障路径规划问题进行了研究。首先利用单目视觉传感器检测可通行道路的边界线,根据道路信息得到车辆行驶的目标路径并生成虚拟障碍物;然后利用激光测距雷达与视觉传感器相结合的信息探测道路中可能存在的障碍物信息;最后将传感器感知的实际障碍物与虚拟障碍物相结合,采用改进的向量场直方图方法进行局部避障路径规划。仿真实验结果表明该避障路径规划算法是有效的。%Considering the possibility of obstacles existing on the road w hen the lane keeping system is utilized for the driver assistance ,the multisensory fusion based local collision-free path planning of the intelligent vehicle is studied .Firstly ,the traversable road boundaries are detected by using a monocu-lar vision sensor and a target path and virtual obstacles are generated by combining the detected boundaries and the road information consequently .Secondly ,the possible real obstacles existing on the road are detected by using the fusion information from laser ranging radar and vision sensors .Fi-nally ,the real obstacles detected by sensors are combined with virtual obstacles ,and a local collision-free path is planned by using improved vector field histogram (VFH) method .The results of simula-tion experiment indicate the validity of the proposed collision-free path planning method .

  6. 浅析基于车道事件的ETC服务性信息构建%Elementary Analysis of ETC Service Information Struction Based on Toll Lane Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭裕安; 翦俊

    2012-01-01

    随着我国ETC系统的大范围推广.从不同类型用户群体中所衍生出来的各种服务性需求越趋多样。但是由于目前系统缺乏为各类用户提供1种有针对性的信息交互渠道.从而大大影响系统整体的应用、运营和维护效率,这也成为制约我国ETC事业进一步发展和推广的一大瓶颈。文章针对上述问题,利用从ETC车道所采集到的各类多源异构数据,从中分析、挖掘及提炼出一些有价值的服务性信息,这不仅有利于现有ETC服务体系的完善。也为本行业及其他增值服务拓展了一条崭新发展渠道。%With the ETC system promoted widely in China,the service demand derived from the different types of user group became more multiplex. But due to the lack of a targeted channel for transferring the information to all types of users,the system's efficiency about application,operation and maintenance should be influenced,which had become the bottleneck constrainting the further development and extension of ETC industry. Therefore, in view of the mentioned problem,the paper described a way to analyze and extract some valueable service information from the heterogeneous data collected in ETC lane,which were not only benefit to improve the existing service system,but also to provide a new way for the expansion of this industry and other value-added services.

  7. Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    Dada a complexidade dos conflitos e crises, muitos governos e organizações estão, actualmente, num processo de desenvolvimento de conceitos e abordagens à gestão de crises. Não há nenhuma definição comummente aceite para a Comprehensive Approach. O presente trabalho faz uma abordagem ao desenvolvimento do termo, descrevendo e analisando a adopção da Comprehensive Approach a nível multilateral. Actores multinacionais como a ONU, a OTAN e a UE estão a desenvolver novos conceitos para uma apr...

  8. No reserved communication lanes for high energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  9. Educational Marketing Methods at Lane Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Casey

    Peter Drucker defined marketing as "the promotion of a product or service from its inception through every step of its evolution and distribution until it reaches the satisfied customer." Inherent in this definition are the four components of marketing: pricing, product, place, and promotion. The product itself is the most important element and…

  10. Cherry Lane Movies(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday & Saturday,August 6-7,8pmInfernal Affairs IWu Jian Dao(1)无间道(1)Directors:Alan Mak,AndrewLauCost:Ming:Andy LouYon:Tony LeungWang:Anthony WangSam:Eric TsangYoung Ming:Edison ChenYoung Yan:Shawn YueSam's wife:Carina LauDr.Lee:Kelly ChenProduced:2003.94 minutesYan,a veteran cop,has spent a decade

  11. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles...

  12. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  13. A Study of the Tourists’ Cultural Perception of the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on Network Text Analysis%基于网络文本分析的三坊七巷游客文化感知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小娜; 郑向敏

    2015-01-01

    Using network text analysis and software of ROST Content Mining, the paper explores thetourists’ cultural awareness of theTh-ree Alleys and Seven Lanes. The results of the study are as follows: visitors’ awareness of theThree Alleys and Seven Lanes is generally positive, material cultural awareness is stronger than intangible culture, and awareness of diet culture is the strongest in the material cultural awareness. The perception of the craft is mainly showed in non-material cultural awareness, while tourists’cultural perception is different.%本文运用网络文本分析法,以各大旅游网站中相关游记与评论等数据为样本,使用ROST Content Mining软件探索三坊七巷游客的文化感知。研究结果如下:游客对三坊七巷文化的整体印象较好;物质文化感知强于非物质文化感知;物质文化感知中对饮食文化感知最强;非物质文化感知方面主要表现为对手工艺品的感知;游客的文化感知存在差异。

  14. A simulator study investigating how motorcyclists approach side-road hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David

    2013-03-01

    The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone.

  15. 视觉注意模型的道路监控视频关键帧提取%Key frame extraction based on the visual attention model for lane surveillance video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云鹏; 张三元; 王仁芳; 张引

    2013-01-01

    针对道路监控视频提出一种基于视觉注意模型的关键帧提取算法.首先采用自顶向下的方法,通过运动检测获取运动目标,以车牌和车辆最佳清晰度位置作为注意度评价标准,提取运动目标位置显著度;然后在运动目标内部采用自底向上的方法,提取运动目标的运动方向和强度显著度;接着用一种简单有效的车辆位置优先的自适应线性混合模式合成视觉注意度,并在时间方向上生成最终的视觉注意度曲线;最后求出视觉注意度曲线的导数曲线,自适应滤波处理后,在正值到负值变化的零交叉点中选取显著度最高的图像作为关键帧.实验结果表明,本文算法提取的关键帧不但包括了所有经过监控的车辆最佳或接近最佳清晰度的位置,而且还能包括道路停车、超速和逆向行驶等各种交通事件,符合交通观察者的视觉特性,同时也有利于进一步对关键帧进行车辆静态特征的提取,以形成交通视频的特征数据库.%A key frame extraction algorithm based on the visual attention model is proposed for lane surveillance video.First,the top-down method is used to detect moving objects whose position saliency is decided by the clearest position of license plates and vehicles.Then,within the moving objects,the bottom-up method is used to calculate the moving orientation and moving intensity saliency of these moving objects.Next,the visual attention curve is fused by a simple adaptive linear mode.Last a derivative curve is generated,from which the frame with the most salient value in those zero-crossing points from the positive to the negative on the derivative curve is selected as key frame.Experiments show that the key frames extracted by the proposed algorithm not only include the optimal or suboptimal positions of all passed vehicles,but also include on-street parking,speeding,reverse driving,and other traffic incidents.The results are consistent with the

  16. a Novel Approach to Camera Calibration Method for Smart Phones Under Road Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bijun; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Maosheng; Guo, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the `Tuzhi' self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  17. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  18. An Approach to Driverless Vehicles in Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Onieva, Enrique; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Godoy, Jorge; Villagra, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper presents AUTOPIA program results towards autonomous vehicles in highways. Based on our previous experience in automatic driving systems, a high-speed controller has been developed to perform vehicle's guidance autonomously. The map is generated in real time by the leading vehicle via vehicle-to-vehicle communications, permitting the vehicle equipped with the automatic system driving in any real circumstance in highways as can be lane-change maneuver. The s...

  19. 智慧景区服务创新研究--以福州三坊七巷为例%Research on Service Innovation of Smart Scenic Spot:A Case Study of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys in Fuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁秋妹; 陈章旺

    2014-01-01

    以服务主导逻辑作为技术导向型和需求导向型结合的理论平台,阐释智慧旅游的服务内涵及其对智慧景区服务创新的影响,并以此为基础构建出智慧景区服务创新的概念模型。最后,以三坊七巷智慧景区的建设为例,研究从服务游客与居民、服务行政管理部门、服务旅游业态等3方面进行服务创新,改善旅游服务品质与效率,提升游客体验满意度,保障居民安全,进而保持三坊七巷景区旅游业态的持续竞争力,促进福州旅游产业的转型升级。%The theory of logicof service-dominant is both technology-oriented and demand-oriented, covering the exposition of smart tourism service as well as its effect on the innovation of smart scenic spot service. Based on the above theory, this paper is devoted to depicting the conceptual model of smart tourism service innovation. Three Lanes and Seven Alleys are quoted to show the service innovation.And with the implementation of these efforts, quality and efficiency of tourism can be the key for customers satisfaction which leads to the ultimate goal of maintaining the competitive edge of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys scenic as well as upgrading the transformation of tourism industry in Fuzhou.

  20. Potential cellular and regenerative approaches for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Lane

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Emma L Lane, Olivia J Handley, Anne E Rosser, Stephen B DunnettBrain Repair Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3US, UKAbstract: Parkinson’s disease is most commonly treated with a range of pharmacotherapeutics, with the more recent introduction of surgical techniques including deep-brain stimulation. These have limited capabilities to improve symptoms of the disease in more advanced stages, thus new therapeutic strategies including the use of viral vectors and stem cells are in development. Providing a continuous supply of dopamine to the striatum in an attempt to improve the treatment of motor symptoms using enzymes in the dopamine synthesis and machinery is one approach. Alternatively, there are tools which may serve to both protect and encourage outgrowth of surviving neurons using growth factors or to directly replace lost innervation by transplantation of primary tissue or stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons. We summarize some of the potential therapeutic approaches and also consider the recent EU directives on practical aspects of handling viral vectors, cells and tissues, and in the running of clinical trials in Europe which impact on their development.Keywords: transplantation, viral vector, stem cells, ethics, European Union directive

  1. Data Fusion Based Hybrid Approach for the Estimation of Urban Arterial Travel Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Anusha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time estimation in urban arterials is challenging compared to freeways and multilane highways. This becomes more complex under Indian conditions due to the additional issues related to heterogeneity, lack of lane discipline, and difficulties in data availability. The fact that most of the urban arterials in India do not employ automatic detectors demands the need for an effective, yet less data intensive way of estimating travel time. An attempt has been made in this direction to estimate total travel time in an urban road stretch using the location based flow data and sparse travel time data obtained using GPS equipped probe vehicles. Three approaches are presented and compared in this study: (1 a combination of input-output analysis for mid-blocks and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM based delay calculation at signals named as base method, (2 data fusion approach which employs Kalman filtering technique (nonhybrid method, and (3 a hybrid data fusion HCM (hybrid DF-HCM method. Data collected from a stretch of roadway in Chennai, India was used for the corroboration. Simulated data were also used for further validation. The results showed that when data quality is assured (simulated data the base method performs better. However, in real field situations, hybrid DF-HCM method outperformed the other methods.

  2. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-03-22

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches.

  3. TEACHING THE SOCIAL SKILLS TO THE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS THROUGH DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil ALPTEKİN

    2012-03-01

    , 120; Goldstein vd. 2002, 5; Sucuoğlu ve Özokçu, 2005, 58-61. So, it is necessary to provide students with social skills required with structured training practices to ensure the mentally retarded students to be accepted socially and participate in social environments (McLane 1998, 16; Bremer ve Smith 2004, 76; Siperstein ve Rickards, 2004, 76; Avcıoğlu, 2005, 17. Training practices based on the cognitive process approach and direct instruction approach are utilized for providing mentally handicapped students with social skills. Based on the said approaches, cooperative teaching and peer tutoring are variation thereof in social skills training. (Rosenshine 1982, 63; Collet–Klingenberg ve Chadsey–Rush 1991, 258-270; Güzel 1998, 31-34; Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 31-39; Dağseven 2008, 46-60. Direct instruction approach is an effective teaching method which is commonly-used for social skills training (Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 32. Social skills such as sharing, thanking are taught through direct instruction approach and complex social skills such as expressing feelings are taught, as well (Vaughn vd. 2003, 1; Dağseven 2008, 46. Students are motivated about the target skills to be taught through the direct instruction approach by explaining the information about where the skills will be used. Social skills to be taught by the teacher or any other person are exemplified or watched in video and thereby become a model. Guided practices by which some of social skills are performed by just recalling them in order to perform without a model for the student are included. Students are liberated by including the practices where recalls are excluded (Baumann 1985, 2 Gresham 1988, 35; Güzel 1998, 33; Çakır 2006, 26-39; Dağseven 2008, 47. In this study, instruction plan for thanking which is presented together with direct instruction approach is developed. Therefore, books on social skills (Gresham 1988, 31-41; Rutherford vd. 1998, 356; Goldstein vd. 2002, 178

  4. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  5. The Research of Network Public Opinion of Individual Extreme Violence Event---Taking the Event of "Being Beat of Chengdu Female Driver Because of Her Change of Lanes" for Instance%个人极端暴力事件的网络舆情传播研究*--以“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武桥; 黄永林

    2015-01-01

    The event that " Chengdu female driver was beat because she changes lanes" was spread broadly, became the focus of public o-pinion of every kind of news media public,and attracted the attention of network public opinion to the problem of individual extreme vio-lence in a society. The study of network transmission through the event of " being beat of the Chengdu female driver because of her change of lanes" found that: the mainstream network media played a dominant role in the report guidance of the social public security issues, and showed clear positive effects in the public opinion guidance and the support against violence and uncivilized phenomena. However, the media was in a passive position on the agenda setting, was insufficient in the guidance of public opinion and the netizen emotions. It will be the trend to enhance the sense of responsibility of the mainstream network media on social responsibility, raise the degree of media cred-ibility, improve the media's information accuracy, and give full play to the advantages of the platform.%“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件满城风雨,成为各新闻媒体舆论聚集的焦点,并引起网络舆论对社会个人极端暴力事件的高度关注。通过对“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件的网络传播研究发现:主流网络媒体在社会公共安全问题报道议题引导上占主导地位,在舆论引导、声援反暴力、反不文明现象作用明显。但是在议程设置上处于被动地位、引导舆论上仍存发力不足、网民情绪引导上缺乏力度,而增强主流网络媒体的社会责任意识、提高媒体公信力、提高信息准确性、发挥平台优势将是大势所趋。

  6. 个人极端暴力事件的网络舆情传播研究*--以“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件为例%The Research of Network Public Opinion of Individual Extreme Violence Event---Taking the Event of "Being Beat of Chengdu Female Driver Because of Her Change of Lanes" for Instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武桥; 黄永林

    2015-01-01

    The event that " Chengdu female driver was beat because she changes lanes" was spread broadly, became the focus of public o-pinion of every kind of news media public,and attracted the attention of network public opinion to the problem of individual extreme vio-lence in a society. The study of network transmission through the event of " being beat of the Chengdu female driver because of her change of lanes" found that: the mainstream network media played a dominant role in the report guidance of the social public security issues, and showed clear positive effects in the public opinion guidance and the support against violence and uncivilized phenomena. However, the media was in a passive position on the agenda setting, was insufficient in the guidance of public opinion and the netizen emotions. It will be the trend to enhance the sense of responsibility of the mainstream network media on social responsibility, raise the degree of media cred-ibility, improve the media's information accuracy, and give full play to the advantages of the platform.%“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件满城风雨,成为各新闻媒体舆论聚集的焦点,并引起网络舆论对社会个人极端暴力事件的高度关注。通过对“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件的网络传播研究发现:主流网络媒体在社会公共安全问题报道议题引导上占主导地位,在舆论引导、声援反暴力、反不文明现象作用明显。但是在议程设置上处于被动地位、引导舆论上仍存发力不足、网民情绪引导上缺乏力度,而增强主流网络媒体的社会责任意识、提高媒体公信力、提高信息准确性、发挥平台优势将是大势所趋。

  7. 液压钻车与履带式挖掘机配套技术在大断面岩巷掘进中的应用%Application of Hydraulic Drilling and Supporting Technologies Crawler Excavators in Heavy Section Rock Lane Boring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常春锋

    2013-01-01

      五阳煤矿的现有资源濒临枯竭,扩区工程迫在眉睫,如何实现大断面岩巷的快速掘进,直接决定了扩区的开发进度。五阳煤矿以中央胶带大巷为试点,通过引入全液压钻车与履带式挖掘机等设备,经过优化爆破参数、改良施工工序和合理安排劳动组织等方法,在大断面岩巷炮掘方面实现了大的提升。%The current resources of Wuyang Coal Mine have become critically depleted ,and expanding area engineering was imminent , it directly determines the progress of the development of expansion by how to realize the rapid excavation of large cross section rock roadway.It makes central belt roadway of Wuyang Coal Mine a experimental unit ,and it optimized blasting parameters and improved construction process and made reasonable arrangement of labor organization and other methods ,and it achieved a big promotion of heavy section rock lane blasting.

  8. APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Abdülkadir

    2014-01-01

    The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...

  9. No man is an island. A personal tribute to Bob Blanchard and ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Robert John

    2015-07-01

    I first met Bob Blanchard at an international conference in Paris some 40 years ago. We collaborated intensively during the late 1980s/early 1990s on the ethopharmacology of antipredator defence in wild and laboratory rats, and remained good friends until his untimely passing in November 2013. Bob will undoubtedly be remembered as one of the most influential behavioural neuroscientists of the 20th century and, with Caroline, the most eloquent advocate of ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behaviour. In this brief trip down memory lane, I describe when and where Bob and I first met and how, over a lengthy period, he directly and indirectly helped shape my own research career. His profound influence in this regard is illustrated by reference to not only our collaborative research on antipredator behaviour but also my other work on the ethopharmacology of agonistic behaviour, social conflict analgesia, anxiety, and appetite. The element common to all of this work has been ethoexperimental analysis and, for teaching me the true value of this approach, I shall always remain indebted to the big man. Literally and figuratively, Bob was most certainly larger than life. PMID:25497885

  10. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...

  11. Holistic Approaches to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The holistic approach to health includes a spectrum of concepts that have an important influence on our health. Elementary school counselors must recognize this previously neglected need for a holistic approach. Stress, relaxation response, biofeedback, and the orthomolecular approach are discussed. (Author/BEF)

  12. A Judge Model of the Impact of Lane Closure Incident on Individual Vehicles on Freeways Based on RFID Technology and FOA-GRNN Method%基于RFID技术和FOA-GRNN理论的高速公路道路关闭交通事件对车辆影响的判断模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史东亚; 陆键; 陆林军

    2012-01-01

    In order to compensate the disadvantage of AID based on traditional traffic statistics technology can detect the incident but can't identify whether the individual vehicle is affected by the incident, this article presents a judge model of impact of lane closure incident on individual vehicles on freeways based on RFID technology and FOA-GRNN method. This model uses GRNN to classify the traffic information collected by RFID, uses FOA to optimize the spread value of GRNN. With VISSIM simulation, results shows that the model has the feature of high DR, low FAR, and can quickly detect the vehicle influenced by incident to support traffic evanesce.%为弥补基于传统交通信息采集技术的高速公路交通事件检测算法仅能判断交通事件发生与否而无法判断车辆个体是否受到交通事件影响的不足,作者提出了一种基于RFID和FOA-GRNN的高速公路交通事件对车辆影响的判断模型.该模型使用RFID获取关键交通信息,利用广义回归神经网络对交通信息进行归类,应用果蝇优化算法获取广义回归神经网络的最佳平滑参数值.用VISSIM进行了仿真,对模型进行了验证,结果表明该判断模型具有检测率高、误警率低的特点,能迅速判断出受到交通事件影响的车辆,为交通疏导工作提供支持.

  13. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  14. Case-control design as investigative approach to assessing cancer etiology: development and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Petrovic, B; Nikolic, M

    2012-01-01

    The case-control method evolved out of analyses of series of cases. The analytic form of the case-control study can be found in the 19th century medical literature, but did not appear to be viewed as a special or distinct methodology. The first modern case-control study was the Janet Lane-Claypon's study of breast cancer in 1926, but the design was used only sporadically in medicine until 1950, when 4 published casecontrol studies linked smoking and lung cancer. These 1950s studies synthesized the essential elements of the case-control comparison, produced a conceptual shift within epidemiology, and laid the foundation for the rapid development of the case-control design in the subsequent half century. The powerful consistency of these case-control studies, and the replication of their findings in later prospective studies, promoted the general acceptance of the case-control study as a scientific tool in clinical research. Newer case-control studies have benefited from the advances in design, execution and analysis since 1950s. These advances include more rigorous selection and matching of case and control population, improved interviewing techniques, location of the design within a general framework of epidemiologic strategies for relating exposure to disease, understanding of the measures of effect, and application of increasingly sophisticated statistical procedures to findings. This review traces the development and future perspectives of the case-control design to assessing cancer etiology. With illustrations drawn primarily from the literature on its use and the value of its results to unravelling the etiology of malignant diseases, we tried to explore if the case-control approach firmly ensconced in epidemiology as investigational tool and rivals in importance the more straightforward cohort approach. PMID:23033277

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  16. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990), which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. ...

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  18. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  19. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  20. Cyclist–motorist crash patterns in Denmark: A latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    differentiating the latent classes were speed limit, infrastructure type, road surface conditions, number of lanes, motorized vehicle precrash maneuvers, the availability of a cycle lane, cyclist intoxication, and helmet wearing behavior. After the latent class clustering, the distribution of cyclists’ injury......Objective: The current study aimed at uncovering patterns of cyclist–motorist crashes in Denmark and investigating their prevalence and severity. The importance of implementing clustering techniques for providing a holistic overview of vulnerable road users’ crash patterns derives from the need...

  1. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海娜

    2015-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  2. Modular Approach for Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  3. Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain, neck pain, and joint pain or stiffness. NIH Research and Information on Complementary Health Approaches The lead agency at NIH for scientific research on complementary health approaches is the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). You can ...

  4. The Geodynamic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1996-01-01

    The Danish National lecture: The Geodynamic approach - problem or possibility? - mirrors the authors involvement in projects and research focusing on the impact of the geodynamic approach. The lecture discusses the why and how of some of the geotechnical anomalies and the differences in traditional...

  5. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  6. Articulating Design Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techni...

  7. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  8. Stakeholders: main approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mattos de Barros Schiavoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Every time organizations need adaptations to stay alive. We consider the analysis of their external environment an essential tool in this adaptive process, in particular, know your stakeholders. This article aims to present different approaches to organizational stakeholders, contributing concurrently with academia and companies who choose to analyze and act on its stakeholders, and possibly have a prominent market. We highlight the approach of stakeholder management, Edward Freeman, the model of corporate relations with stakeholders Ann Svendsen approach and commitment of stakeholders, Steven Walker and Jeffrey Marr.

  9. Safety Characteristics of Two-lane Highway Sections Passing through Towns/villages in Mountainous Area Based on Negative Binomial Prediction Model%基于负二项预测模型的山区双车道公路穿村镇路段的安全特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁军; 唐琤琤; 康云霞

    2012-01-01

    针对我国交通事故呈现出的在公路穿村镇路段聚集的趋势,在某山岭地形区域进行了双车道公路的交通事故、交通组成、道路和路侧等因素的大量数据采集,并对公路穿村镇路段的整体安全特性进行了分析,采用负二项模型等事故预测模型和相关检验理论对模型形式,以及公路穿村镇路段全部事故和追尾、碰撞、路侧等不同形态的事故规律特性进行了深入分析.研究结果发现,公路穿村镇路段的事故时空分布呈一定规律性;交通量、混杂率和道路横坡度为影响公路穿村镇路段交通安全的3个显著因素,且均呈正向影响.%Aimed at the aggregating trend of traffic accidents in highway sections passing through towns/ villages in China, a large number of two-lane highway safety data, such as traffic accident, traffic composition, highway and roadside factors were collected in a mountainous area. Moreover, the overall safety characteristics of town/village accidents were analyzed, and the accident prediction model such as negative binomial prediction model and relative test methods were used to deeply analyze the model form and the regularities of total accidents, collision, rear-ended crash, roadside accident, etc. It is found that (1) the accidents in road sections passing through towns/villages are in the regular temporal and special distribution; (2) truck proportion, traffic volume and cross slope are the significant factors influencing traffic safety of road sections passing through towns/villages, and all of them are positive in such sections.

  10. 从戴望舒诗歌中的女性形象看其诗歌创作心理--以《雨巷》为例兼谈其他诗歌%The Poetry Creation Psychology of Dai Wang-shu from the Female Images in his Poems-Taking Rain Lane as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀昭

    2014-01-01

    The lilac girl in Dai Wang-shu’s Rain Lane has multiple meanings:it is the symbol of the melancholy, the embodiment of poet's political ideal and hope, and the self portrait of poet;the creation of image is influenced by Chinese and Western poetry. In addition, the other female characters in Dai Wang-shu’s poetry are lover’s silhouette in the poet's heart. They reflect the abstract worship of women. Investigating its reason, the cultural psychology of female images creation in Dai Wang-shu's poetry are as follows. Firstly, they are affected by the personality liberation and individualism of May Fourth. Secondly, they are the explicit manifestation of femininity in men's soul. Thirdly, they are the potential influences of the modern intellectuals who can't get rid of the mental habits and traditional culture of group consciousness.%戴望舒的《雨巷》中“丁香姑娘”具有多重内涵:既象征愁怨,也是诗人政治理想和希望的化身,还是诗人的自画像;其意象的创造受中西诗学的影响。此外,戴望舒其他诗歌中的女性形象既是诗人心中恋人的剪影,也体现了对女性的抽象崇拜。究其原因,戴望舒诗歌女性形象创造的文化心理为:首先受到五四个性解放思潮和个体本位思想的影响,其次是男人心灵深处女性气质的外显,再次是现代知识分子无法摆脱群体意识的精神习惯和传统文化的潜在影响。

  11. Exploring the association between speed and safety: A path analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargoum, Suliman A; El-Basyouny, Karim

    2016-08-01

    Road safety is influenced by many factors; these factors include characteristics of the road, climate, traffic and, most importantly, vehicle speeds. Previous research shows that increases in speed are typically associated with an increased collision risk. Moreover, previous studies have also found relationships between road and traffic characteristics and collisions. In addition, these features have also been found to affect speeds. This paper aims to model all the aforementioned relationships simultaneously using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. More specifically, the paper attempts to model the relationship between average speed and collision frequency, while taking into account the effects of factors that confound the relationship. Moreover, the analysis attempts to assess the mediated effects that some variables have on collisions through their effects on speed. The data used in this study originated from 353 two-lane urban roads in the city of Edmonton, Canada. The average speeds were obtained from 35 million speed survey observations collected over a five-year period. The speed data are linked to the crash frequency at each location during the same time frame, along with the other factors (road, traffic and climate). The results show that, among others, average speed, volume, segment length, medians and horizontal curves all have statistically significant effects on collisions. On the other hand, shoulders, speed limits and vehicle-lengths are some variables that significantly influence speeds. The results also show that the effects of some variables on safety are indeed mediated through speeds (both partial and full mediation is observed). These findings provide valuable insight that may assist decision makers in choosing and developing alternative speed management strategies, which, in turn, could help improve safety. PMID:27163700

  12. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi (editor)

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  13. Stakeholders: main approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Mattos de Barros Schiavoni; Mário César Barreto Moraes; Alice Carneiro de Castro; Jair Nascimento Santos

    2013-01-01

    Every time organizations need adaptations to stay alive. We consider the analysis of their external environment an essential tool in this adaptive process, in particular, know your stakeholders. This article aims to present different approaches to organizational stakeholders, contributing concurrently with academia and companies who choose to analyze and act on its stakeholders, and possibly have a prominent market. We highlight the approach of stakeholder management, Edward Freeman, the mode...

  14. An Energy Survey of the Church Lane Building at DIT

    OpenAIRE

    Teehan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Within the European Union, the collective governments have introduced broad energy policies in order to increase energy efficiency and improve energy performance in new and existing buildings, within each member state. The following dissertation considers energy and how energy is used within the context of global and local consumption in an extensive literature review. Where does the future lie for Ireland and its energy sources? Policies, standards and regulations associated with energy effi...

  15. HistoryLane : Web Browser History Visualization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chtivelband, Igor

    2012-01-01

    With the evolution of Internet, users exploit it increasingly intensively for achieving their goals: sending emails, playing games, watching videos, reading news. They do it through Web browsers, that may vary in exact implementation, but have similar core functionalities . One of these core functionalities is the access to a browsing history. However, as browsing patterns are getting more complex, the traditional history tools become insufficient. Visualization of browsing history might be h...

  16. Hillcrest House Nursing Home, Long Lane, Letterkenny, Donegal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-11-23

    Abstract Background Suicide and non-fatal suicidal behaviour are significant public health issues in Europe requiring effective preventive interventions. However, the evidence for effective preventive strategies is scarce. The protocol of a European research project to develop an optimized evidence based program for suicide prevention is presented. Method The groundwork for this research has been established by a regional community based intervention for suicide prevention that focuses on improving awareness and care for depression performed within the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD). The EAAD intervention consists of (1) training sessions and practice support for primary care physicians,(2) public relations activities and mass media campaigns, (3) training sessions for community facilitators who serve as gatekeepers for depressed and suicidal persons in the community and treatment and (4) outreach and support for high risk and self-help groups (e.g. helplines). The intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in an earlier study, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression. In the context of the current research project described in this paper (OSPI-Europe) the EAAD model is enhanced by other evidence based interventions and implemented simultaneously and in standardised way in four regions in Ireland, Portugal, Hungary and Germany. The enhanced intervention will be evaluated using a prospective controlled design with the primary outcomes being composite suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal), and with intermediate outcomes being the effect of training programs, changes in public attitudes, guideline-consistent media reporting. In addition an analysis of the economic costs and consequences will be undertaken, while a process evaluation will monitor implementation of the interventions within the different regions with varying organisational and healthcare contexts. Discussion This multi-centre research seeks to overcome major challenges of field research in suicide prevention. It pools data from four European regions, considerably increasing the study sample, which will be close to one million. In addition, the study will gather important information concerning the potential to transfer this multilevel program to other health care systems. The results of this research will provide a basis for developing an evidence-based, efficient concept for suicide prevention for EU-member states.

  17. 10 MMBt/Hr AFBC Commercial Demonstration Cedar Lane Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold M. Keener; Mary H. Wicks; Tom Machamer; Dave Hoecke; Don Bonk; Bob Brown

    2005-10-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO2 emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 4-40 MMBtu/hr size range. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range could displace a considerable amount of heating gas and oil with coal, while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators.

  18. Hook or hatchet – Lover 's Lane, love scene epilogue

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-01-01

    Myth of a couple who escape death in a chance encounter with the psychopath with a hook instead of a hand, is one of the ten classic urban legends that have been brought to public attention by folklorists during the sixth and seventh decade of the twentieth century. Eminent Anglo-American folklorists dedicated entire papers, or significant portion in their works to this tale, as a contribution to the study of urban legends as a folk genre. In this essay, the legend of the hook is closely link...

  19. St Martha's Nursing Home, Love Lane, Clybee, Charleville, Cork.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bidwell, Posy

    2012-12-17

    BACKGROUND: Between 2000 and 2010, Ireland became increasingly dependent on foreign-trained doctors to staff its health system. An inability to train and retain sufficient doctors to meet demand is the primary reason for the dependence on foreign-trained doctors. By 2008 the proportion of foreign-trained doctors was the second highest in the OECD. This increased dependence on international medical migration has both national and international policy implications. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) for a 10-year period: 2000-2010. Data indicate country of qualification but not nationality. The total number of registrants and entrants (n) was determined for each year. Immigration data were also obtained on the number of work visas issued to doctors. Registration and visa data were then compared in order to estimate doctor migration to Ireland 2000-2010. RESULTS: The proportion of foreign-trained doctors rose from 13.4% of all registered doctors in 2000 to 33.4% by 2010. The largest increase was in foreign-trained doctors from outside the EU, rising from 972 (7.4%) in 2000 to 4740 (25.3%) of registered doctors in 2010. The biggest source country in 2000 was Pakistan. By 2010, South Africa had become the biggest source country. The number of foreign-trained doctors from other EU countries doubled from 780 in 2000 to 1521 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Registration data are likely to over-estimate and visa data under-estimate the numbers of doctors actively working in Ireland. However, they serve to illustrate Ireland\\'s rapidly increasing and potentially unsustainable reliance on foreign-trained doctors; and to highlight the need for better data to measure migratory flows. Improved measurement of health worker migration is necessary both for national workforce planning and to fulfil the requirements of the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel.

  20. Careers in Auto Racing: Work in the Fast Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, William

    2009-01-01

    Long before most people had seen an automobile, thrill-seekers across the globe were driving cars competitively. The speed of racecars has accelerated steadily, as has the popularity of the sport. In public opinion polls of sports popularity, in fact, auto racing consistently finishes near the top. Racecar drivers may be the star of their event,…

  1. DOE ZERH Case Study: Addison Homes, Cobbler Lane, Simpsonville, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed humid climate that got a HERS 41 without PV, with 2x4 16” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam, a sealed conditioned crawl space insulated on inside with 2 inches poly iso, a vented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass, a central heat pump with fresh air intake.

  2. 8 CFR 287.11 - Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the PAL program before or at the time of sale or disposal unless otherwise notified by the Service... participant must have that device removed by the Service at the PAL enrollment center prior to sale or... himself or herself for an interview at a time and place designated by the Service prior to approval of...

  3. St. Joseph's Centre, Crinken Lane, Shankill, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  4. Neotectonics, Geodesy and Seismic Hazard in the Northern Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, S. G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Hammond, W. C.; Bormann, J. M.; Brune, J. N.

    2011-12-01

    The establishment of fleets of large numbers of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) capable of recording for more than a year has made it possible to study Earth structure beneath the oceans using seismic observations in much greater resolution than previously possible. However, shallow water poses strong challenges for OBS deployments, with much higher noise levels from waves and currents. The on-going Cascadia Initiative, a major OBS community project directed at studying the Cascadia subduction zone with its megathrust earthquake potential and broad continental shelf, includes OBS deployments at depths as shallow as 50 m. Before the Cascadia deployment, there was a valid fear that the data from the shallowest sites would be useless for seismic observations. The shallow Cascadia OBS deployments feature shielding to protect the sensors from the flow of ocean floor currents (and trawling), The first year data show that the shielding can reduce horizontal component noise levels (due to currents) by more than 20dB permitting good SNR for horizontal phases even at shelf depths. Noise from deformation under ocean wave loading has been found to be very large at the shallowest sites. High amplitude ocean waves cause the differential pressure gauges (DPG) and unshielded seismic sensors at a few sites to sometimes clip, but shielded seismic sensors and pressure measurements from absolute pressure gauges (APGs) remain unclipped even at the shallowest sites. The study demonstrates pressure gauge records can be used to predict and remove the noise from the deformation under ocean wave loading in the spectral domain, potentially improving signal to noise for long period seismic phases by up to 40dB. A FIR digital filter can be created from the pressure to acceleration transfer function that when convolved with the pressure record accurately predicts the wave loading signal allowing removal of about 30dB of this noise. These results show that with proper shielding, good quality seismometer observations can be obtained from shallow water, opening up this critical part of the seafloor to observations for the first time. The data also show that without the use of pressure gauges to remove the wave loading noise, and without shielding, the shallow water, long period (>10s) data are almost useless for seismology.

  5. Talbot Lodge Nursing Home, Kinsealy Lane, Malahide, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.

  6. Hook or hatchet – Lover 's Lane, love scene epilogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Myth of a couple who escape death in a chance encounter with the psychopath with a hook instead of a hand, is one of the ten classic urban legends that have been brought to public attention by folklorists during the sixth and seventh decade of the twentieth century. Eminent Anglo-American folklorists dedicated entire papers, or significant portion in their works to this tale, as a contribution to the study of urban legends as a folk genre. In this essay, the legend of the hook is closely linked with the boyfriend's' death legend, its hermetic interpretation, and contextualization in the social reality of sexual relations at the time in which it occurs.

  7. Ohm's law in the fast lane: general relatiivistic charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.

    2004-01-01

    Fully relativistic and causal equations for the flow of charge in curved spacetime are derived. It is believed that this is the first set of equations to be published that correctly describes the flow of charge, as well as the evolution of the electromagnetic field, in highly dynamical relativistic environments on timescales much shorter than the collapse time (GM/c3).

  8. QoS- unbroken traffic lane streaming in Road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present situation travel becomes the biggest hassle for everyone. In this proposed research paper I have used GPS system to find out the shortest path to make your travel at ease. Through this navigation process it is clear-cut for us to find out right path. In this process, it is possible for an individual to analyse the exact shortest route from multiple paths. With the information from the satellite it depicts the image of the route for the travel. Besides it bestows the time and speed for us. If an individual is planning to travel from one node to another node it requires the information for one to decide to analyse the routes to reach the destination without any difficulty. By using our proposed system one is facing any problem while travelling in certain route it is easy for the particular individual to analyse the route map information precisely so that it makes the person to reach the any place within devastate their time they can reach with no trouble. This advanced system which facilitates to understand the route links which gives clear information about the instantaneous routes which makes you to trip inthe future without any difficulties.

  9. No reserved communication lanes for high energy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  10. Brookhaven National Laboratory moves to the fast lane

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The U.S. Department of Energy's energy sciences network (ESnet) continues to roll out its next-generation architecture on schedule with the March 14 completion of the Long Island Metropolitan Area Network, connecting Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the ESnet point of presente (PO) 60 miles away in New York City." (1 page)

  11. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  12. From Brick Lane to White Hart Lane? Football, anti-racism and young, male, British Asian identities

    OpenAIRE

    Burdsey, Daniel Charles

    2004-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/05/2004. This thesis investigates why British Asians are under-represented as professional footballers proportionally to their numbers in the overall population. Fundamentally, it is both an account of how young, male, British Asian footballers interpret and explain their under-representation in the professional game, and a critical analysis of the strategies and policies employed by the a...

  13. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...... impact of supersetting initiatives. The supersetting approach is an ecological approach, which places the individual in a social, environmental and cultural context, and calls for a holistic perspective to change potentials and developmental processes with a starting point in the circumstances of people¿s...... in local community settings and on the strengths of social interaction and local ownership as drivers of change processes. Interventions based on a supersetting approach are first and foremost characterised by being integrated, but also participatory, empowering, context-sensitive and knowledge...

  14. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  15. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Homogenization approach in engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenization is an approach which studies the macrobehavior of a medium by its microproperties. Problems with a microstructure play an essential role in such fields as mechanics, chemistry, physics, and reactor engineering. Attention is concentrated on a simple specific model problem to illustrate results and problems typical of the homogenization approach. Only the diffusion problem is treated here, but some statements are made about the elasticity of composite materials. The differential equation is solved for linear cases with and without boundaries and for the nonlinear case. 3 figures, 1 table

  18. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  19. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  20. Realistic Approach to Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Garth C.

    Part of the Omaha police in-service training program was devoted to innovative approaches to solving police department problems and improving community relations. The sessions were an attempt to use the brainstorming technique to elicit new solutions to everyday problems faced by the rank-and-file members of the police department. The report…

  1. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  2. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  3. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  4. 12th CIFIT Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CIFIT, standing for China International Fair for Investment and Trade, approved by the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, hold on September 8-11 every year in the city of Xiamen, China. In the year of 2008, the days for the 12th CIFIT approaches closely, a series of preparation have been on the way.

  5. Case Histories of Landslide Impact: A Database-driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    frequented highway in NW Germany. Landslide problems at this site started with road construction in the early 1880s and were related to multiple event clusters, especially those in the years 1936-1937 (n = 4), 1961 (n = 2), 1970-1974 (n = 5), and 1999-2001 (n = 7). The most frequently applied mitigation measures were rudimentary and less expensive, including (i) removal of loose rock and vegetation (1924, 1936, 1961-1962, 1994), (ii) rock blasting (1936), (iii) catch barriers (1937, 1994), and (iv) temporary or perpetual closure of traffic lanes (1982, 1994). A series of destructive landslides forced decision-makers to launch an expensive slope stabilization project in 2001 that resulted in costs of USD 7.1 million. After finalization of the project no further landslide problems have been reported for this site. References Corominas, J., van Westen, C., Frattini, P., Cascini, L., Malet, J.-P., Fotopoulou, S., Catani, F., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Mavrouli, O., Agliardi, F., Pitilakis, K., Winter, M.G., Pastor, M., Ferlisi, S., Tofani, V., Hervás, J., Smith, J.T., 2014. Recommendations for the quantitative analysis of landslide risk. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 73, 209-263. Damm, B., Klose, M., 2014. Landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany: a tool for analysis of mass movement processes and impacts. In: Sassa, K., Canuti, P., Yin, Y. (Eds.), Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. Volume 2: Methods of Landslide Studies. Springer, Berlin, pp. 787-792. Klose, M., Damm, B., Terhorst, B., 2014. Landslide cost modeling for transportation infrastructures: a methodological approach. Landslides, DOI 10.1007/s10346-014-0481-1.

  6. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

  7. Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.

  8. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed......The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response...

  9. A Personal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellyn Weir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the process of taking a personal approach to my son’s problems with computer games. As a psychology student, I should have been in a good position to explore the paradoxical emotions and this situation of conflict. Yet I was also aware that relating closely to the people we are studying has long been a taboo even in qualitative research. I nevertheless adopted a collaborative methodology in which I balanced a dual role of parent and researcher. Taking a personal approach, allowing intimate, reciprocal negotiation, I was not only able to put this taboo to the rare empirical test but also achieved an insight that would otherwise have not been available to me. By engaging in dialogue and encouraging the ability to object, a first-person plural (We, position was achieved in which an understanding of this situation developed and has transferred to our everyday lives.

  10. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  11. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  12. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural m...

  13. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directio...

  14. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  15. Grounded Theory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rabbani Khorasghani; Mohammad Abbaszadeh

    2010-01-01

    AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This meth...

  16. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  17. The Branding Management Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKOUBI; Mohamed Lamine

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]We wil try to present,through the display of the various branding concepts and theories, the different branding management approaches.This wil present the different visions of the discipline depending on the author to try and demonstrate their differences,at first, and their complementarities at last to help the different branding management practitioners (brand managers,marketing managers,advertisers,media-planners……) apprehend the right brand positioning strategy to engage.

  18. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard se...

  19. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  20. Parsec's astrometry direct approaches .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, A. H.

    Parallaxes - and hence the fundamental establishment of stellar distances - rank among the oldest, keyest, and hardest of astronomical determinations. Arguably amongst the most essential too. The direct approach to obtain trigonometric parallaxes, using a constrained set of equations to derive positions, proper motions, and parallaxes, has been labeled as risky. Properly so, because the axis of the parallactic apparent ellipse is smaller than one arcsec even for the nearest stars, and just a fraction of its perimeter can be followed. Thus the classical approach is of linearizing the description by locking the solution to a set of precise positions of the Earth at the instants of observation, rather than to the dynamics of its orbit, and of adopting a close examination of the never many points available. In the PARSEC program the parallaxes of 143 brown dwarfs were aimed at. Five years of observation of the fields were taken with the WIFI camera at the ESO 2.2m telescope, in Chile. The goal is to provide a statistically significant number of trigonometric parallaxes to BD sub-classes from L0 to T7. Taking advantage of the large, regularly spaced, quantity of observations, here we take the risky approach to fit an ellipse in ecliptical observed coordinates and derive the parallaxes. We also combine the solutions from different centroiding methods, widely proven in prior astrometric investigations. As each of those methods assess diverse properties of the PSFs, they are taken as independent measurements, and combined into a weighted least-square general solution.

  1. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  2. Three Approaches to Descriptive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart

    This report compares three approaches to descriptive research, focusing on the kinds of descriptions developed and on the methods used to develop the descriptions. The main emphasis in all three approaches is on verbal data. In these approaches the importance of interpretation and its intuitive nature are emphasized. The three approaches, however,…

  3. Study on the Method of Reversible Approach Guidance at the Signalized Intersection Base on PARAMICS%基于PARAMICS的信号交叉口可变进口道诱导方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东明; 成卫; 潘云伟; 肖海承

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of science and technology to make intelligent transportation as an effective means to solve traffic problems, for the traffic flow phenomenon of morning and afternoon peak hour traffic and the direction of imbalance at intersection,the thought of traffic guidance is induced, made use of variable approach to solve traffic congestion during peak periods at the signalized intersection ,given the way of the data acquisition and the conditions of lanes change. Variable Message Sign (VMS) is used to display the information of lanes change in a timely manner,with the actual the intersection model is established,the same time,with rich API of the microscopic traffic simulation software-paramics to achieve the model simulation, the comparison and evaluation results are presented. The results show that the using of variable approach can significantly improve the intersection level of service.%科学技术的快速发展使智能交通成为解决交通问题的有效手段.针对交叉口交通流量呈现潮汐性、方向不均衡性的现象,运用交通诱导的思想,提出利用可变进口道解决高峰时段信号交叉口交通拥堵的方法.给出了数据采集的途径和变化车道的条件.采用VMS(可变情报板)及时展示车道变化信息,结合实际,建立交叉口模型,并通过微观交通仿真软件PA-RAMICS丰富的API功能,实现对模型的仿真验证.列出对比评价结果,结果表明进行可变进口道诱导之后,交叉口的服务水平明显提高.

  4. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  5. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agresta Ferdinando

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal

  6. Approaches to Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2009-03-01

    Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and

  7. Repository program licensing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being studied by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. DOE has the responsibility to determine the suitability of the site and to develop a license application (LA) for authorization to construct the potential repository. If the site is suitable, the license application would be submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The repository program licensing approach is focused on the timely acquisition of information needed in licensing and the resolution of potential licensing issues with the NRC staff. Licensing involves an iterative process requiring refinements as data are acquired, analyzed, and evaluated. The repository licensing approach presented in this paper ensures that the information is available when needed to facilitate the licensing process. Identifying the information needed to evaluate compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR 60, monitoring the acquisition of such information, and developing a successful license application are integral elements of DOE's repository program licensing approach. Activities to characterize the site are being systematically conducted as planned in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). In addition, DOE is implementing the issue resolution initiative, the license application annotated outline (LAAO) process, and interim licensability evaluations to update the early planning in the SCP and to focus site characterization, design, and performance assessment activities on the acquisition of information needed for a site suitability determination and licensing. Collectively, the issue resolution initiative, LAAO process, and interim licensability evaluations are key elements of a transition to the iterative process to answer the question: open-quotes When do we have enough data to support licensing?close quotes

  8. HEDR modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered

  9. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  10. The collaboratory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A open-quotes collaboratoryclose quotes has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students

  11. The collaboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  12. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  13. Radiolab - three different approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Stockfelt; Ansa Lønstrup; Torben Sangild

    2012-01-01

    The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the co...

  14. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  15. Grounded Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani Khorasghani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAccording to social changes in global level, social scientist introduced new theories to explanation of socialphenomena. According to appearance new theories, research methods have changed. The Idea is that,Simultaneity with Appearance post positivist theories, research approaches such a grounded theory hasestablished. This method, acts in the base of qualitative methods and use systematic complex of multipleProcedures to gathering data for theory development upon induction. This method with characteristics as ifflexibility, reflexivity, has caused many of researchers used it. In the present article, we paid to introductionof grounded theory and its critics.

  16. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  17. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  18. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  19. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  20. Proteomics - new analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful

  1. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  2. Management practice: phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Siqueira da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the aim of understanding the lived experiences by managers in relation to organizational changes in an enterprise in the food area, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The role of managers has been constantly evaluated and their capacity of continuous learning and also the ability of transforming the learning in good organizational results is reacquired every instant. In this work, my intention is to show, using an interpretative analysis, real and practical situations, from lived experiences. The methodological way followed was the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, trying to give a global and a contextual treatment to the theme. The results achieved offer subsides for a new look over the management practice and point out the importance of the study of what is lived, as an inspiration source for the strategic decisions in the enterprises.

  3. Integration a functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bichteler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...

  4. Modelling approaches for angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraboletti, G; Giavazzi, R

    2004-04-01

    The development of a functional vasculature within a tumour is a requisite for its growth and progression. This fact has led to the design of therapies directed toward the tumour vasculature, aiming either to prevent the formation of new vessels (anti-angiogenic) or to damage existing vessels (vascular targeting). The development of agents with different mechanisms of action requires powerful preclinical models for the analysis and optimization of these therapies. This review concerns 'classical' assays of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, recent approaches to target identification (analysis of gene and protein expression), and the study of morphological and functional changes in the vasculature in vivo (imaging techniques). It mainly describes assays designed for anti-angiogenic compounds, indicating, where possible, their application to the study of vascular-targeting agents. PMID:15120043

  5. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  6. The Tripod Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2012-01-01

    -and-break decision for a company. However textile design research has shown that experience of emotional value is closely connected to fabric perception, and much literature suggests that textiles are experienced by a combination of sensory evaluation and memory associations. This paper introduces the Tripod...... Approach as a framework that can support designing the stimuli, which can lead to personal experiences of emotional value in relation to applied textiles. It can be used to access the relevant level of entry in the textile design process focusing on appropriate design parameters, and support designing......The term ‘next to my skin’ is frequently used as a way to describe the close bonds between human beings and textiles. It is also widely accepted within the broad field of textile professionals that textile attributes related to emotional value – for example hand, look and drape – can be a make...

  7. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes. PMID:22329705

  8. Investigational approaches for mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle F Surmont

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available MPM is a rare, aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. In view of the poor survival benefit from first-line chemotherapy and the lack of subsequent effective treatment options, there is a strong need for the development of more effective treatment approaches for patients with MPM. This review will provide a comprehensive state of the art of new investigational approaches for mesothelioma. In an introductory section, the aetiology, epidemiology, natural history and standard of care treatment for MPM will be discussed. This review provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving.The evidence was collected by a systematic analysis of the literature (2000–2011 using the databases Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA, Embase (Elsevier, Netherlands, Cochrane Library (Great Britain, National Guideline Clearinghouse (USA, HTA Database (International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment – INAHTA, NIH database (USA, International Pleural Mesothelioma Program – WHOLIS (WHO Database , with the following keywords and filters: mesothelioma, guidelines, treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, review, investigational, drugsCurrently different targeted therapies and biologicals are under investigation for MPM. It is important that the molecular biologic research should first focus on mesothelioma-specific pathways and biomarkers in order to have more effective treatment options for this disease. The use of array technology will be certainly an implicit gain in the identification of new potential prognostic or biomarkers or important pathways in the MPM pathogenesis. Probably a central mesothelioma virtual tissue bank may contribute to the ultimate goal to identify druggable targets and to develop personalized treatment for the MPM patients.

  9. SOME REFLECTIONS ON STRUCTURAL APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuiQingyang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is intended to expound the advantages and disadvantages of the trathtional Structural Approach in the Chinese context and discuss the necessity and feasibility of implementing the Communicative Approach and the Self--service Approach,both of which evaluate highly the position of subjective activity in learning and bring the obligation of professional development back to learners themselves,KEY WORD approach structural communicative self service critique adaptadopt

  10. The high risk location approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The high risk location approach is one of the most traditional ways of improving road safety. This reactive approach tackles unsafe situations at locations with the most crashes. On average, this approach results in an 18% reduction in casualties at such locations. However, in the Netherlands this a

  11. An Institutional Approach to Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Werle, R

    1998-01-01

    Introduces Actor-Centered-Institutionalism (ACI), a variant of the institutionalist approach, to demonstrate the analytic power of conventional social theory in the field of Science, Technology and Society studies. History of the Social Construction of Technology approach; Illustration of the ACI approach; Examples from the process of organized international standardization in telecommunications and information technology.

  12. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  13. APPROACH TO ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ZAMANI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias, also known as organic acidurias, are a group of disorders characterized by increased excretion of organic acids in urine. They result primarily from deficiencies of specific enzymes in the breakdown pathways of amino acids or from enzyme deficiencies in beta oxidation of fatty acids or carbohydrate metabolism. Organic acids also are found in the urine of some patients with mitochondrial disease.Most organic acidemias become clinically apparent during the newborn period or early infancy. After an initial period of well-being, affected children develop a life-threatening episode of metabolic acidosis characterized by an increased anion gap. This presenting episode may be mistaken for sepsis, and if unrecognized, is associated with significant mortality.Children with an organic acidemia are susceptible to metabolic decompensation during episodes of increased catabolism, such as intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery. Parents and clinicians must be well informed about the initial signs of decompensation and trained in applying an emergency regimen . Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware of potential complications and their prevention during anesthesia and surgery.Diagnosis has been facilitated through the use of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry .Prenatal diagnosis is available for most disorders by detection of diagnostic compounds in amniotic fluid; by analysis of enzyme activities in amniocytes or chorionic villi; by molecular analysis; or by a combination of the three . Diagnosis also may be made through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry .Laboratory findings are an essential part of the diagnostic approach to organic acidemias. In most organic acidemias, metabolism of glucose, ketone bodies, and ammonia is deranged primarily or secondarily, in addition to derangement of the acid-base balance. Hypoglycemia, lactic and/or ketoacidosis, and hyperammonemia of varying

  14. Combined approach for gynecomastia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia is a deformity of male chest. Treatment of gynecomastia varied from direct surgical excision to other techniques (mainly liposuction) to a combination of both. Skin excision is done according to the grade. In this study, experience of using liposuction adjuvant to surgical excision was described. Patients and methods: Between September 2012 and April 2015, a total of 14 patients were treated with liposuction and surgical excision through a periareolar incision. Preoperative evaluation was done in all cases to exclude any underlying cause of gynecomastia. Results: All fourteen patients were treated bilaterally (28 breast tissues). Their ages ranged between 13 and 33 years. Two patients were classified as grade I, and four as grade IIa, IIb or III, respectively. The first 3 patients showed seroma. Partial superficial epidermolysis of areola occurred in 2 cases. Superficial infection of incision occurred in one case and was treated conservatively. Conclusion: All grades of gynecomastia were managed by the same approach. Skin excision was added to a patient that had severe skin excess with limited activity and bad skin complexion. No cases required another setting or asked for 2nd opinion. PMID:26955509

  15. Aquatic environmental remediation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant's nuclear accident contaminated a significant portion of Fukushima Prefecture, and environmental remediation activities have been performed. To reduce the human exposure to the radiation induced by the nuclear contamination, one can reduce the radiation level in the environment, and/or eliminate radionuclide pathways to humans. This paper presents some case studies that are relevant to the Fukushima case. These examples include the Chernobyl nuclear accident's environmental and remediation assessments, U.S. Hanford environmental remediation activities, and the pesticide remediation assessment for the James River Estuary, Virginia, U.S.A. 1-D TODAM, 2-D FETRA and 3-D FLESCOT codes have been applied to the surface waters. TODAM code is currently being applied to the Ukedo and Takase rivers in Fukushima to predict cesium-137 migration in these rivers. A lesson learned from these experiences is that to achieve the effective clean-up, remediation decision makers must include knowledgeable scientists and competent engineers, so that environmental remediation activities are based on a scientifically-valid approach for a given contaminated location. Local participation to the remediation decision making is critically important. (author)

  16. APPROACHES TO PUBLIC INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Roxana ULMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both concepts, integrity and public integrity, are always asked qualities in the social and economic environment, but they are never well defined. In this context, finding precise definitions and offering an ample explanation of the concepts are desired and useful for both economic theoretical and practical levels and become the aim of the present paper. Without a good understanding of a concept, no one is capable to attain it. In this context, it is impossible to ask for a public sector of integrity if both public actors and the citizens do not know what it really means. Therefore, the public actors first have to understand what integrity really supposes, and, then, to be capable to respect its principles. Taking into consideration the effects of public integrity or, on its opposite, of the divergence from it, especially represented by the phenomenon of corruption, on the economy at the macro, but also, on the micro level, public integrity in itself becomes a real economic problem that is aimed to be extensively analyzed through our interdisciplinary approach.

  17. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  18. Radiolab - three different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Stockfelt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists

  19. Constructional Approach as Compared with Projectionist Approach to Argument Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴好运

    2016-01-01

    Projectionist accounts of argument structure give verb's semantic representation a central role in sentence interpretation, it is held that the argument structure and alternations related with a verb are always the product of its semantic representation. However, a circularity problem arises. To solve this problem, Goldberg (1995)'s constructional approach proposed that argument structure patterns are linguistic units in their own right. This paper attempts to make a comparison between projectionist approach and constructional approach to argument structure and discuss constructional approach's advantage in reducing verb senses and avoiding circularity.

  20. The Activity-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    McNally, Michael G.; Rindt, Craig

    2008-01-01

    What is the activity-based approach (ABA) and how does it differ from the conventional trip-based model of travel behavior? From where has the activity approach evolved, what is its current status, and what are its potential applications in transportation forecasting and policy analysis. What have been the contributions of activity-based approaches to understanding travel behavior? The conventional trip-based model of travel demand forecasting (see Chapters 2 and 3) has always lacked...

  1. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  2. Approaches to variable pay systems

    OpenAIRE

    García-Hernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The general goal of this thesis is to analyze, in some European countries, the connections of Variable Pay Systems with company behaviour, collective bargaining, wage determination and wage inequality. We introduce three different approaches to Variable Pay Systems. First, a company-industry approach in the case of Spain, using a qualitative methodology and analyzing competitiveness, productivity, unit labor cost and collective agreements. Second, a country-collective bargaining approach in t...

  3. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  4. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  5. A Critique of Interactional Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fang

    2011-01-01

    Interactional approach is a very important theory in second language acquisition, including the input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis. This article first presents an exposition of these two hypotheses, and continues with a critical evaluation of them. Finally, the article concludes with the pedagogical implications of the approach.

  6. ADOPT COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES IN CET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinSitan

    2004-01-01

    How to make CET tailored to the requirements of thesociety is a topic of great significance. This paper is meant toexplore the advantages of adopting communicative approaches inCET( College English Teaching ) by comparing communicativeapproaches with traditional ones and presenting our practice ofemploying communicative approaches as well as the result.

  7. Surgical Approaches to Breast Augmentation: The Transaxillary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Louis L

    2015-10-01

    The transaxillary approach to breast augmentation has the advantage of allowing breast implants to be placed with no incisions on the breasts. There has been a general perception of a lack of technical control compared with the inframammary approach. This article presents the transaxillary approach from the perspective of the technical control gained with the aid of an endoscope, which allows precise creation of the tissue pocket with optimal visualization. The aspects of technique that allow optimal technical control are discussed, in addition to postoperative processes that aid in stabilizing the device position and allow consistent and predictable outcomes.

  8. Integrating Communicative Approaches with Traditional Approaches in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超

    2013-01-01

    Traditional y, English teaching in China is dominated by a teacher-centered, grammar-translation and audio-lingual method and an emphasis on rote learning. In an attempt to find out what are the most appropriate teaching methods for Chinese students in schools, the paper presents that the best method is to integrate communicative approaches to the teaching of English with traditional Chinese methods. It shows that integrating communicative approaches with the traditional approaches can real y help the students develop their communicative competence.

  9. The biogenic approach to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Pamela

    2006-03-01

    After half a century of cognitive revolution we remain far from agreement about what cognition is and what cognition does. It was once thought that these questions could wait until the data were in. Today there is a mountain of data, but no way of making sense of it. The time for tackling the fundamental issues has arrived. The biogenic approach to cognition is introduced not as a solution but as a means of approaching the issues. The traditional, and still predominant, methodological stance in cognitive inquiry is what I call the anthropogenic approach: assume human cognition as the paradigm and work 'down' to a more general explanatory concept. The biogenic approach, on the other hand, starts with the facts of biology as the basis for theorizing and works 'up' to the human case by asking psychological questions as if they were biological questions. Biogenic explanations of cognition are currently clustered around two main frameworks for understanding biology: self-organizing complex systems and autopoiesis. The paper describes the frameworks and infers from them ten empirical principles--the biogenic 'family traits'--that constitute constraints on biogenic theorizing. Because the anthropogenic approach to cognition is not constrained empirically to the same degree, I argue that the biogenic approach is superior for approaching a general theory of cognition as a natural phenomenon. PMID:16628463

  10. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  11. Lexical Approach to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝彦

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0. Introduction Advances in computer analysis of the English language have shown that lexical patterns are widespread in language use. Some researchers call them "lexical phrases" (Nattinger and DeCarrico,1992) or "lexical chunks" (Lewis, 1993); others use the term "multi-word chunks" or just "chunks"of language. Whatever the terms are, they are characteristic of language use and language acquisition and present advantages for language teaching and learning. The lexical approach to English teaching has received interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar-based approaches. The lexical approach concentrates on developing learners' skills in understanding and using words and word combinations.

  12. A Biosemiotic Approach to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    approaches are invaluable. The aim is to find a common platform that serves in treating human persons as undivided wholes. Since semiosis (viz. the meaningful interpretation of cues, signals, events or states) is vital to communication at both levels, the resulting sign-process is a viable choice......By replacing the traditional chemical approach to the understanding of body function by a sign-theoretic or semiotic approach, biosemiotics enters a no-man’s-land between biological and social domains of human life. The aim is not to subsume the social under the biological or vice versa; both...

  13. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  14. System approach to chemistry course

    OpenAIRE

    Lorina E. Kruglova; Valentina G. Derendyaeva

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the raise of chemistry profile for engineers and constructors training, discloses the system approach to chemistry course and singles out the most important modules from the course of general chemistry for construction industry.

  15. Gloss Characterization: a Cyclic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Viénot, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to gloss characterization is described. We examine how information is transferred from the physical domain to the visual domain and how material properties are inferred from a cognitive interpretation, completing the characterization cycle.

  16. New approach to mass formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regge approach to mass formulas is grounded. The main types of interrelations between meson masses are picked out and analysed. The spectrum of vector mesons with the fifth flavour is also evaluated

  17. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  18. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  19. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  20. Theoretical Approaches to HERA Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, C.

    2002-01-01

    A review is presented of the different theoretical models proposed to approach consistently the interplay between soft and hard physics, that can now be studied experimentally at HERA for the first time.

  1. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  2. Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  3. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  4. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  5. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  6. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  7. Four Approaches to Entrepreneurship II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl C.; Nauta, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Four approaches to teaching advanced entrepreneurship in current use are as follows: (1) advanced options such as franchises and buyouts and international entrepreneurship; (2) preentrepreneurship courses; (3) starting a business; and (4) structured experience. (JOW)

  8. Decomposition Approaches for Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kinable, Joris

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation encompasses the development of decomposition approaches for a variety of both real-world and fundamental optimization problems. Many optimization problems comprise of multiple interconnected subproblems, often rendering them too large or too complicated to solve as a single integral problem. Decomposition approaches are required to deal with these problems efficiently. By decomposing a problem into multiple subproblems, efficient dedicated procedures can be employed to solve...

  9. The Database State Machine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pedone, Fernando; Guerraoui, Rachid; Schiper, Andre

    1999-01-01

    Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...

  10. Enactive metaphoric approaches to randomness

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Rojas, Daniela; Soto-Andrade, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Our work aims at developing means to facilitating the access to stochastic thinking, especially for non-mathematically oriented learners. To this end, we draw on metaphoric and enactive approaches to the teaching and learning of randomness. More precisely, we report on a challenging didactical situation implemented in various classrooms, with students and prospective and practicing teachers, concerning problem posing and solving in the context of randomness that is approached through enactive...

  11. What is a Systems Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    What is a systems approach? The first step towards answering this question is an understanding of the history of the systems movement, which includes a survey of contemporary systems discourse. In particular, I examine how systems researchers differentiated their contribution from mechanistic science - but also from holistic doctrines; and identify the similarities and sharpest differences between complex systems and other systems approaches. Having set the scene, the second step involves dev...

  12. Synergistic approach to patient dialysate

    OpenAIRE

    Dragotoiu, A; Checheriţă, AI; Ciocâlteu, A; Rizeanu, S

    2015-01-01

    The stress a patient is subjected to during dialysis treatment can be reduced by using a synergetic approach by the medical team. The integration into therapy of the positive psychical resources such as: active positive coping mechanisms, individual or family mental resilience, improvement of the image and self-esteem, better tolerance to frustration can represent an important part in the improvement of the patient’s quality of life, determination of a positive approach of the situations both...

  13. Bounding approaches to system identification

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric

    1996-01-01

    In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.

  14. A general approach to bosonization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girish S Setulur; V Meera

    2007-10-01

    We summarize recent developments in the field of higher dimensional bosonization made by Setlur and collaborators and propose a general formula for the field operator in terms of currents and densities in one dimension using a new ingredient known as a `singular complex number'. Using this formalism, we compute the Green function of the homogeneous electron gas in one spatial dimension with short-range interaction leading to the Luttinger liquid and also with long-range interactions that lead to a Wigner crystal whose momentum distribution computed recently exhibits essential singularities. We generalize the formalism to finite temperature by combining with the author's hydrodynamic approach. The one-particle Green function of this system with essential singularities cannot be easily computed using the traditional approach to bosonization which involves the introduction of momentum cutoffs, hence the more general approach of the present formalism is proposed as a suitable alternative.

  15. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  16. Thermodynamic approach to biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an approach of biomass transformation in presence of steam, hydrogen or oxygen. Calculation results based on thermodynamic equilibrium are discussed. The objective of gasification techniques is to increase the gas content in CO and H2. The maximum content in these gases is obtained when thermodynamic equilibrium is approached. Any optimisation action of a process. will, thus, tend to approach thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. On the other hand, such calculations can be used to determine the conditions which lead to an increase in the production of CO and H2. An objective is also to determine transformation enthalpies that are an important input for process calculations. Various existing processes are assessed, and associated thermodynamic limitations are evidenced. (author)

  17. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  18. Understanding SARS with Wolfram Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-WeiLI; Yu-XiPAN; YunDUAN; Zhen-DeHUNG; Ming-QingXU; LinHE

    2004-01-01

    Stepping acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as another type of disease has been threatening mankind since late last year. Many scientists worldwide are making great efforts to study the etiology of this disease with different approaches. 13 species of SARS virus have been sequenced. However, most people still largely rely on the traditional methods with some disadvantages. In this work, we used Wolfram approach to study the relationship among SARS viruses and between SARS viruses and other types of viruses, the effect of variations on the whole genome and the advantages in the analysis of SARS based on this novel approach. As a result, the similarities between SARS viruses and other coronaviruses are not really higher than those between SARS viruses and non-coronaviruses.

  19. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  20. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.