WorldWideScience

Sample records for approach lanes

  1. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  2. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  3. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  4. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds

  5. Series approach to the Lane-Emden equation and comparison with the homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es

    2008-10-15

    Series solutions of the Lane-Emden equation based on either a Volterra integral equation formulation or the expansion of the dependent variable in the original ordinary differential equation are presented and compared with series solutions obtained by means of integral or differential equations based on a transformation of the dependent variables. It is shown that these four series solutions are the same as those obtained by a direct application of Adomian's decomposition method to the original differential equation, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Wazwaz's two implementations of the Adomian method based on either the introduction of a new differential operator that overcomes the singularity of the Lane-Emden equation at the origin or the elimination of the first-order derivative term of the original equation. It is also shown that Adomian's decomposition technique can be interpreted as a perturbative approach which coincides with He's homotopy perturbation method. An iterative technique based on Picard's fixed-point theory is also presented and its convergence is analyzed. The convergence of this iterative approach depends on the independent variable and, therefore, this technique is not as convenient as the series solutions derived by the four methods presented in this paper, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Adomian's decomposition method.

  6. Research on TDM approach of sharing BRT-lane supported by vehicle-infrastructure integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongzhao; Ling Yue; Liu Dongxu; Guo Mingfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the availability of the part-time idle bus rapid transit lane (BRT-lane),a time divi-sion multiplexing (TDM) method to share BRT-lane with the vehicles besides BRT buses is proposed based on ve-hicle-road collaboration. The TDM control strategy is established under the circumstance of vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). The algorithm is given to forecast the segmented BRT travel time. According to the real time traffic information,a comprehensive model is given to estimate the vehicles’lane-changing time from/to the BRT-lane to/from its neighbor lane and determine the timing sequence for vehicles collaboration. Finally,the experi-ment demonstrates that the predicted value of the travel time and lane-changing time is much close to the true val-ue. The control strategy of the vehicles collaboration could promise the non-BRT vehicles to share BRT-lane with-out disturbing BRT’s priority.

  7. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  8. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  9. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  10. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  11. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: An eigenvalue approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, Kenny L S; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterised by the polytropic index $n$. Here we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at $n=0$ and $1$ to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of $n$ are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well-defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by $8.1 \\times 10^{-7}$ per cent and $8.5 \\times 10^{-5}$ per cent, respectively, for $n\\in[0,1]$. Even for $n\\in[1,5)$, both percentage errors are still less than $2$ per cent.

  12. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: an eigenvalue approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kenny L. S.; Chan, T. K.; Leung, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterized by the polytropic index n. Here, we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at n = 0 and n = 1 to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of n are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by 8.1 × 10-7 per cent and 8.5 × 10-5 per cent, respectively, for n ∈ [0, 1]. Even for n ∈ [1, 5), both percentage errors are still less than 2 per cent.

  13. Automation of Vehicular Parking Using Loop Detector with single lane traffic: A Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Pavan V N V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With increase in number of vehicle users day by day, traffic and parking of vehicles have become major problems. In this paper, we have designed an automatic vehicular parking system using loop detector which detects the presence of vehicle and displays the corresponding parking slots available in the parking area so that manual risk is reduced. In the past many parking systems were developed using magneto-resistive sensors, IR sensors and image processors. Here we are using low cost loop detector that is also insensitive to any climatic conditions, easy to maintain, long lasting and whose detection range is maximum. Loop detector works on the principle of change in its inductance (due to change in flux density when a metal surface comes closer to it. A better approach was followed in developing the algorithm for parking.

  14. Reducing Traffic Congestions by Introducing CACC-Vehicles on a Multi-Lane Highway Using Agent-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaout, Georges M.; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an ongoing problem of great interest to researchers from different areas in academia. With the emerging technology for inter-vehicle communication, vehicles have the ability to exchange information with predecessors by wireless communication. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of traffic congestion and examine the impact of having CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) embedded vehicle(s) on a highway system consisting of 4 traffic lanes without overtaking. In our model, CACC vehicles adapt their acceleration/deceleration according to vehicle-to-vehicle inter-communication. We analyze the average speed of the cars, the shockwaves, and the evolution of traffic congestion throughout the lifecycle of the model. The study identifies how CACC vehicles affect the dynamics of traffic flow on a complex network and reduce the oscillatory behavior (stop and go) resulting from the acceleration/deceleration of the vehicles.

  15. Lane changing analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S.C.Wong; Rui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the two-lane traffic are studiedby using the lane-changing rules in the car-followingmodels.The simulation show that the frequent lanechanging occurs when the lateral distance in car fol-lowing activities is considered and it gives rise to oscil-lating waves.In contrast,if the lateral distance is notconsidered (or considered occasionally),the lane chang-ing appears infrequently and soliton waves occurs.Thisimplies that the stabilization mechanism no longer func-tions when the lane changing is permitted.Since theoscillating and soliton waves correspond to the unsta-ble and metastable flow regimes,respectively,our studyverifies that a phase transition may occur as a result ofthe lane changing.

  16. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  17. Safety Effectiveness of Offsetting Opposing Left‐Turn Lanes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Bhaven; Appiah, Justice; Khattak, Aemal J.; Rilett, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits to intersection safety of offsetting left-turn lanes by widening the width of the lane-line marking between the left-turn lanes and their adjacent through lanes. The analysis was performed using an empirical Baye’s procedure in order to account for potential bias due to regression-to-the-mean. Results from the analysis of 12 treated intersection approaches and 36 non-treated approaches in Lincoln, Nebraska, suggest statistically significant improvements in sa...

  18. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  20. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  1. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  2. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  3. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane s

  4. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization.

  5. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  6. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  7. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  8. Evaluation Of Lane Use Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The limited funding available for roadway capacity expansion and the growing funding gap, in conjunction with the increasing congestion, creates a critical need for innovative lane use management options. Various cost-effective lane use management strategies have been implemented in the United States and worldwide to address these challenges. However, these strategies have their own costs, operational characteristics, and additional requirements for field deployment. Hence, there is a need fo...

  9. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  10. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  11. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... of freedom in the parallel AES states. This allows us to construct semi-free-start collisions for full Lane-256 with 2^96 compression function evaluations and 2^88 memory, and for full Lane-512 with 2^224 compression function evaluations and 2^128 memory....

  12. Overtaking Safety Evaluation and Setting of Auxiliary Lane on Two-Lane Highway in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking experiments on four two-lane highways were conducted. The data of overtaking conflict time (the time difference between the time of driving back to the original lane and the time of meeting with the first opposing vehicle and experimental drivers’ risk feeling were observed. Membership was adopted to denote the experimental drivers’ risk feelings which also denote the severity of traffic conflict. Membership ranges from 0 to 1 and corresponding risk becomes higher; that is, traffic conflict becomes more serious. According to the observed relationship between overtaking conflict time, and drivers’ risk feeling membership, Cauchy distribution function was adopted as membership function. The thresholds of the severity of traffic conflict were determined through Delphi method. The relationship model among traffic volume, overtaking conflict time and design speed was established according to experimental data. Then the idea of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway in China was presented. And the traffic volume values that need setting auxiliary lane corresponding to different design speed and traffic conflict degree were given according to the established model. It is expected to improve the traffic safety level of two-lane highway in China through setting auxiliary lane.

  13. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  14. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy.

  15. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  16. Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces

  17. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  18. Agent-based modeling of lane discipline in heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailisan, Damian N.; Lim, May T.

    2016-09-01

    Designating lanes for different vehicle types is ideal road safety-wise. Practical considerations, however, require road sharing. Using a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for two vehicle types (cars and motorcycles), we analyzed the interplay of lane discipline, lane changing, and vehicle density. In the absence of lane changing, the transition between free flow and congested states occurs at a higher vehicle (road occupation) density when the ratio of cars to motorcycles is increased. When lane changing is allowed, the smaller motorcycles tend to fill in unused spaces, until the point when the wider cars effectively block their way at high vehicle densities. When the condition of lane discipline is not imposed, i.e. staying wholly within lane boundaries is not required, further improvement in throughput becomes possible at the cost of required driver attentiveness.

  19. Analytic, piecewise solution to the Lane-Emden equation for stars with complex density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The polytropic models of stars are used for a variety of applications in computational astrophysics. These are typically obtained by numerically solving the Lane-Emden equation for a star in hydrostatic equilibrium under assumption that the pressure and density within the star obey the polytropic equation of state. We present an efficient analytic, piecewise differentiable solution to the Lane-Emden equation which allows “stitching” of different polytropes to represent complex pressure and density profiles. This approach can be used to model stars with distinct properties in their cores and envelopes, such as the evolved red giant and horizontal branch stars.

  20. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  1. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  2. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  3. The embeddability of lane detection algorithms on heterogeneous architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Saussard, Romain; Bouzid, Boubker; Vasiliu, Marius; Reynaud, Roger

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Lane detection plays a crucial role for Advanced Driver As-sitance System (ADAS) or autonomous driving applications. Literature shows a lot of lane detection algorithms can work in real time with good results. However, they require much computer processing and cannot be embedded in a vehicle ECU without deep software optimizations. In this paper, we discuss the embeddability of lane detection algorithms by comparing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of functional pe...

  4. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  5. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  6. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  7. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  8. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  9. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  10. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  11. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  12. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  13. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  14. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  15. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  16. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hodas, N O

    2003-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  17. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  18. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  19. Fundamental diagram in traffic flow of mixed vehicles on multi-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi; Masukura, Shuichi

    2008-09-01

    We study the fundamental diagram for traffic flow of vehicular mixture on a multi-lane highway. We present the car-following model of multi-lane traffic in which slow and fast vehicles flow with changing lanes. We investigate the traffic states of the vehicular mixture under the periodic boundary. Two values of the current appear at a density and two current curves are obtained. Vehicles move with changing lanes in the traffic state of high current, while vehicles move without changing lanes in the traffic state of low current. They depend on the density, the fraction of slow vehicles, and the initial condition. In the high-current curve, the jamming transition between the free flow and the jammed state occurs at a low density. The fundamental diagrams (current-density diagrams) are shown for the single-lane, two-lane, three-lane, and four-lane traffics.

  20. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  1. Flow characteristics of Gaoliangjian double-paralleling-lane lock’s lower approach channel%高良涧双线并列船闸下游引航道水流特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤薇; 曲红玲

    2013-01-01

    高良涧扩容船闸和二线船闸并列布置,且共用引航道,下游较短范围内引航道与苏北灌溉总渠交汇,其下游引航道水流条件受双线船闸相互泄水及苏北灌溉总渠泄流的影响变得十分复杂。采用二维水流数学模型计算和分析的手段,进行高良涧船闸各种典型水位组合及运行方式下的下游引航道水流条件的研究,针对存在的水力学问题,结合高良涧船闸的特点,提出便捷有效的工程措施--格栅式分隔堤,研究成果可供工程设计和运行管理参考。%Gaoliangjian lock is composed of the expansion shiplock and the second-line shiplock, which is a type. The double lock shares the lower approach channel and confluences with the North Jiangsu Irrigation Canal at a short distance. The flow conditions in the under approach channel are quite complicated due to the emptying courses of the double lock and the North Jiangsu Irrigation Canal. The flow characteristics under different combinations of typical water levels and operation modes are studied by numerical simulation. Considering the lock features, the currently most convenient and effective structural measure, separation levee, is proposed. The results can be used for the lock design and management.

  2. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  3. Non-lane-based full velocity difference car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dianhai; Tao, Pengfei; Li, Pingfan

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe car following behavior in real world, this paper presents a non-lane-based car following model by incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. And numerical simulation is carried out to validate the analytic results. The property of the model is investigated, and it is found that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion. The results implied that incorporating the lane width effects in car following model not only stabilize traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam, but also lower critical headway and increase capacity. Thus, the lateral separation effects greatly enhance the realism of car following models.

  4. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  5. Lane Tracking with Omnidirectional Cameras: Algorithms and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ShinkoYuanhsien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With a panoramic view of the scene, a single omnidirectional camera can monitor the 360-degree surround of the vehicle or monitor the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the same time. We investigate problems associated with integrating driver assistance functionalities that have been designed for rectilinear cameras with a single omnidirectional camera instead. Specifically, omnidirectional cameras have been shown effective in determining head gaze orientation from within a vehicle. We examine the issues involved in integrating lane tracking functions using the same omnidirectional camera, which provide a view of both the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle. We present analysis on the impact of the omnidirectional camera's reduced image resolution on lane tracking accuracy, as a consequence of gaining the expansive view. And to do so, we present Omni-VioLET, a modified implementation of the vision-based lane estimation and tracking system (VioLET, and conduct a systematic performance evaluation of both lane-trackers operating on monocular rectilinear images and omnidirectional images. We are able to show a performance comparison of the lane tracking from Omni-VioLET and Recti-VioLET with ground truth using images captured along the same freeway road in a specified course. The results are surprising: with 1/10th the number of pixels representing the same space and about 1/3rd the horizontal image resolution as a rectilinear image of the same road, the omnidirectional camera implementation results in only three times the amount the mean absolute error in tracking the left lane boundary position.

  6. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  7. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  8. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Sanches

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%, five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C –min, nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  9. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  10. 8 CFR 287.11 - Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 287.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS... checkpoint. (b) General requirements for Pre-enrolled Access Lane Program. (1) Participation in the Pre... States citizens and members of the classes of aliens which the Commissioner of the Service or...

  11. Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform the group classification of the generalized Lane-Emden system xu′′+nu′+xHv=0,  xv′′+nv′+xgu=0, which occurs in many applications of physical phenomena such as pattern formation, population evolution, and chemical reactions. We obtain four cases depending on the values of n.

  12. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  13. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  14. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  15. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  16. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  17. Exact Solutions of the Isothermal Lane--Emden Equation with Rotation and Implications for the Formation of Planets and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M

    2007-01-01

    We have derived exact solutions of the isothermal Lane--Emden equation with and without rotation in a cylindrical geometry. The corresponding hydrostatic equilibria are most relevant to the dynamics of the protosolar nebula before and during the stages of planet and satellite formation. The nonrotating solution for the mass density is analytic, nonsingular, monotonically decreasing with radius, and it satisfies easily the usual physical boundary conditions at the center. When differential rotation is added to the Lane--Emden equation, an entire class of exact solutions for the mass density appears. We have determined all of these solutions analytically as well. Within this class, solutions that are power laws or combinations of power laws are not capable of satisfying the associated boundary--value problem, but they are nonetheless of profound importance because they constitute "baselines" to which the actual solutions approach when the central boundary conditions are imposed. Numerical integrations that enfo...

  18. Tightly Coupling GPS with Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tightly coupling GPS pseudorange and Doppler measurements with other sensors is a way to increase accuracy and integrity of the positioning information particularly when it is computed autonomously. Highly accurate digital maps are also more and more key components for autonomous vehicle navigation and can enhance the localization system. In this paper, a video camera is used to get relative information with respect to lane markings and dead-reckoning sensors are also ...

  19. Mapping and localization using GPS, lane markings and proprioceptive sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Estimating the pose in real-time is a primary function for intelligent vehicle navigation. Whilst different solutions exist, most of them rely on the use of high-end sensors. This paper proposes a solution that exploits an automotive type L1-GPS receiver, features extracted by low-cost perception sensors and vehicle proprioceptive information. A key idea is to use the lane detection function of a video camera to retrieve accurate lateral and orientation information wit...

  20. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  1. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  2. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  3. Colouring with Children: the case of “Happy lanes- Cirkáló”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szűts-Nowsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a workshop for the process introducing ‘Happy Lanes’ colouring method; a colouring method for design educators for children. It focuses colouring perception in two approaches: from the neuropsychological and neurobiological. While we point on the benefits of the method with help of some special worksheets we analyse the process of solution, step by step, looking at the working of the colouring lanes, as the essence of the method. It stems from Berlyne’s motivation theory relating to the active inference theory, especially predictive coding and free energy principle. Through this method as a map, children can map their way between each and every level of the hierarchical brain system and cortical microcircuits. The colouring process includes two ways in parallel with each other in a top-down system; by creative, independent problem solving. According to the motivation theory the goal of this process is the optimal arousal level, which depend on the stimuli of the environment; in this case, children colour the task with the aid of the colouring lanes. This they do without any help from someone

  4. A new traffic model with the consideration of coupling effect with two lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guang-Han; Sun Di-Hua; He Heng-Pan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model by embedding the two delay time scales con-tinuum traffic model presented by Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in instan-taneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model, the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account. Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow. This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

  5. The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method. The trends for drivers Lane-Changing with regard to remarkable effects in traffic are regarded as a major variable in traffic engineering. As a result, various algorithms have presented most models of Lane-Changing developed by means of lane information and the manner of vehicle movement mainly obtained from images process not much attention is given to the characteristics of driver. Lane change divided into two parts the first one are compulsory lane including lane change to turn left or turn right. The second type of change is optional and lane change to improve driving condition. A low speed car is a good example, in this study, through focused group discussion method, drivers information can be obtained so that driver’s personality traits are taken into consideration. Then drivers are divided into four groups by means of Algorithm clusters. The four Algorithms suggest that phase typed cluster is a more suitable method for drivers classification based on Lane-Changing. Through notarization of different type of scenarios of lane change in Iran following results released. The percentage of drivers for each group is 17/5, 35, 20 and 27/ %, respectively.

  6. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  7. lane-Curvature Method:A New method for Local Obstacle Avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Lee, Sang Kee [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The lane-curvature method (LCM) presented in this paper is anew local obstacle avoidance method for indoor mobile robots. The method combines curvature-velocity method (CVM) with a new directional method called the lane method. The lane method divides the environment into lanes taking the information on obstacles and desired heading of the robot into account; then it chooses the best lane to follow to optimize travel along a desired heading. A local heading is then calculated for entering and following the best lane, and CVM uses this heading to determine the optimal translational and rotational velocities, considering the heading direction, physical limitations, and environmental constraints. By combining both the directional and velocity space methods, LCM yields safe collision-free motion as well as smooth motion taking the dynamics of the robot into account. Experiments using the mobile robot Xavier, show the efficiency of the proposed method. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  8. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  9. A Real-Time System for Lane Detection Based on FPGA and DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Li, Shutao; Sun, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a real-time lane detection system including edge detection and improved Hough Transform based lane detection algorithm and its hardware implementation with field programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP). Firstly, gradient amplitude and direction information are combined to extract lane edge information. Then, the information is used to determine the region of interest. Finally, the lanes are extracted by using improved Hough Transform. The image processing module of the system consists of FPGA and DSP. Particularly, the algorithms implemented in FPGA are working in pipeline and processing in parallel so that the system can run in real-time. In addition, DSP realizes lane line extraction and display function with an improved Hough Transform. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to detect lanes under different road situations efficiently and effectively.

  10. Noether, Partial Noether Operators and First Integrals for the Coupled Lane-Emden System

    OpenAIRE

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry

    2010-01-01

    Systems of Lane-Emden equations arise in the modelling of several physical phenomena, such as pattern formation, population evolution and chemical reactions. In this paper we construct Noether and partial Noether operators corresponding to a Lagrangian and a partial Lagrangian for a coupled Lane-Emden system. Then the first integrals with respect to Noether and partial Noether operators are obtained for the Lane-Emden system under consideration. We show that the first integrals for both the N...

  11. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  12. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... conditional probabilities of the different cues which are estimated from a training set. The importance of the individual visual cues can be computed using a standard measure and the cues can then be combined in an optimal way. In addition we show that when doing 3D reasoning, the uncertainties connected...

  13. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  14. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  15. Lost and Found: The Incredible Life and Times of (Miss) Layle Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of Layle Lane, the granddaughter of free blacks, who was a high school teacher, civil rights pioneer, teacher unionist, socialist activist, political candidate, lifelong pacifist, adventurer, and humanitarian. Lane was also a fierce believer that education was the first step toward political, social, and economic power and…

  16. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  17. Lane Formation Dynamics of Oppositely Self-Driven Binary Particles: Effects of Density and Finite System Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.

  18. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  19. A case study on multi-lane roundabouts under congestion: Comparing software capacity and delay estimates with field data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanwu Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on modern roundabouts performance are mostly based on data from singe lane roundabouts that are not heavily congested. For planners and designers interested in building multilane roundabouts for intersections with potential growth in future traffic, there has been a lack of existing studies with field data that provide reference values in terms of capacity and delay measurements. With the intent of providing such reference values, a case study was conducted by using the East Dowling Road Roundabouts in Anchorage, Alaska, which are currently operating with extensive queues during the evening peak hours. This research used multiple video camcorders to capture vehicle turning movements at the roundabouts as well as the progression of vehicle queues at the roundabout entrance approaches. With these video records, the number of vehicles in the queues can be accurately counted in any single minute during the peak hours. This study shows that unbalanced entrance flow patterns (i.e., one entrance has significant higher flow than others can intensify the queue and delay for the overall roundabouts. Then various software packages including RODEL, SIDRA and VISSIM were used to estimate several performance measurements, such as capacity, queue length, and delay, compared with the collected field data. With the comparison, it is found that all the three software packages overestimate multi-lane roundabout capacity before calibration. With default parameters, SIDRA and VISSIM tend to underestimate delays and queue lengths for the multi-lane roundabouts under congestion, while RODEL results in higher delay and queue length estimations at most of the entrance approaches.

  20. A Study of Lane Differentiation Using An Array of Detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKigney E. A. (Edward A.); Gholkar, R. V. (Rohun V.); Vega, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss a method for locating a radioactive source in the context of determining which lane a source is in on a roadway. This method is appropriate for use over a large range of source velocities, and could provide an advance alarm prior to a vehicle passing a portal monitor. This is a novel method which uses data from the entire array simultaneously to locate the source, rather than relying on only one or two sensors. A description of the underlying method will be given, along with results from five and six detector arrays. The five detector array was used mainly for static tests. The six detector array was used for dynamic tests, including slow movement of a source in a vehicle.

  1. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  2. Structured trajectory planning of collision-free lane change using the vehicle-driver integration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.

  3. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  4. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  5. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  6. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  7. Comparison of color image segmentations for lane following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier

    1993-05-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with unhomogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We identify typical situations which constitute a basis for the realization of an image database. We describe the process of experimentation conceived for the comparative analysis of performances. The analytical results are useful in order to infer a few optimal combinations of techniques driven by the situations, and to define the present limits of the color perception's validity.

  8. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  9. Acquisition of the field measurement data relating to lane change actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Kukida, Shinji; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hagishima, Aya

    2015-11-01

    As a data set for validation of microscopic simulation models, we obtained the fundamental diagram (flux versus density relation), and the relations of velocity versus density, lane usage ratio versus density and lane-changing frequency versus density derived from a single field measurement campaign held at a Japanese urban expressway. The results were drawn from image analysis of video camera data obtained at the site.

  10. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  11. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing

    2007-12-01

    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  12. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  13. Evaluating User Response to In-Car Haptic Feedback Touchscreens Using the Lane Change Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Pitts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interfaces are widely used in modern technology, from mobile devices to in-car infotainment systems. However, touchscreens impose significant visual workload demands on the user which have safety implications for use in cars. Previous studies indicate that the application of haptic feedback can improve both performance of and affective response to user interfaces. This paper reports on and extends the findings of a 2009 study conducted to evaluate the effects of different combinations of touchscreen visual, audible, and haptic feedback on driving and task performance, affective response, and subjective workload; the initial findings of which were originally published in (M. J. Pitts et al., 2009. A total of 48 non-expert users completed the study. A dual-task approach was applied, using the Lane Change Test as the driving task and realistic automotive use case touchscreen tasks. Results indicated that, while feedback type had no effect on driving or task performance, preference was expressed for multimodal feedback over visual alone. Issues relating to workload and cross-modal interaction were also identified.

  14. Tactile stimulations and wheel-rotation responses: Toward augmented lane departure warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eTandonnet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When an on-board system detects a drift of a vehicle to the left or to the right, in what way should the information be delivered to the driver? Car manufacturers have so far neglected relevant results from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience. Here we show that this situation possibly led to the sub-optimal design of a lane departure warning system (AFIL, PSA Peugeot Citroën implemented in commercially available automobile vehicles. Twenty participants performed a two-choice reaction time task in which they were to respond by clockwise or counter-clockwise wheel-rotations to tactile stimulations of their left or right wrist. They performed poorer when responding counter-clockwise to the right vibration and clockwise to the left vibration (incompatible mapping than when responding according to the reverse (compatible mapping. This suggests that AFIL implements the worse (incompatible mapping for the operators. This effect depended on initial practice with the interface. The present research illustrates how basic approaches in Cognitive Science may benefit to Human Factors Engineering and ultimately improve man-machine interfaces and show how initial learning can affect interference effects.

  15. Real-time lane departure warning system based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution and risk evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 宋晓琳; 张桂香

    2014-01-01

    A technology for unintended lane departure warning was proposed. As crucial information, lane boundaries were detected based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution in search bars of given number and then each search bar was tracked using Kalman filter between frames. The lane detection performance was evaluated and demonstrated in ways of receiver operating characteristic, dice similarity coefficient and real-time performance. For lane departure detection, a lane departure risk evaluation model based on lasting time and frequency was effectively executed on the ARM-based platform. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm generates satisfactory lane detection results under different traffic and lighting conditions, and the proposed warning mechanism sends effective warning signals, avoiding most false warning.

  16. An empirical study of phase transitions from synchronized flow to jams on a single-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study empirical data for traffic flow at low velocities in single-lane traffic and compare them with those for multi-lane traffic. It is found that the traffic dynamics are quite different. When the velocities are low in multi-lane traffic, the traffic flow always becomes unstable and develops into jams. In single-lane traffic, some drivers drive in a more relaxed way and stay further back from the preceding car, as they know they cannot overtake the slow vehicle in front of them or at the front of the line. It may also be because they prefer not to follow the preceding vehicle too closely in single-lane traffic, to avoid the incessant deceleration and acceleration. This strategy is feasible because even if the space in front is large, no vehicle could ‘cut in’ in the single lane traffic. This phenomenon is called the ‘moderating effect’, and it harmonizes the traffic flow at low velocities. It is shown that the data points of synchronized flow in single-lane traffic are usually to the left and below those for multi-lane traffic in the flow-density plane. Thus, it is more difficult for the phase transition from synchronized flow to jams to occur in single-lane traffic, as pointed out in Kerner's three-phase traffic theory.

  17. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  18. Lane marking detection by extracting white regions with predefined width from bird's-eye road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadayuki; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Detecting lane markings on roads from in-vehicle camera images is very important because it is one of the fundamental tasks for autonomous running technology and safety driving support system. There are several lane markings detection methods using the width information, but most of these are considered to be insufficient for oblique markings. So, the primary intent of this paper is to propose a detecting lane markings method robust to orientation of markings. In this work, we focus on the width of lane markings standardized by road act in Japan, and propose a method for detecting white lane markings by extracting white regions with constant predefined width from bird's-eye road images after segmentation such as categorical color area one. The proposed method is based on the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The proposed method has a merit that can be measure an exact width for oblique markings on the bird's-eye images because it can be obtained perpendicular width for edge. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by experimental results for 187 actual road images taken from an in-vehicle camera.

  19. Chaotic time series prediction for surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lanes in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; WANG Qi-sheng; YAO Jin-rui; ZHAO Guo-yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measured displacements, the change laws of the effect of distance in phase space on the deformation of mine lane were analyzed and the chaotic time series model to predict the surrounding rocks deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock by nonlinear theory and methods was established. The chaotic attractor dimension(D) and the largest Lyapunov index(Emax) were put forward to determine whether the deformation process of mine lane is chaotic and the degree of chaos. The analysis of examples indicates that when D>2 and Emax>0, the surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock is the chaotic process and the laws of the deformation can still be well demonstrated by the method of the reconstructive state space. Comparing with the prediction of linear time series and grey prediction, the chaotic time series prediction has higher accuracy and the prediction results can provide theoretical basis for reasonable support of mine lane in soft rock. The time of the second support in Maluping Mine of Guizhou, China, is determined to arrange at about 40 d after the initial support according to the prediction results.

  20. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.

  1. Traffic of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A: effects of lane changing

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Kinesins are biomolecular motors which move on cylindrical nano-tubes called microtubules. A normal microtubule consists of more than one protofilament on which the equispaced motor binding sites form a periodic array. The collective movement of the kinesins on a microtubule is, therefore, analogous to vehicular traffic on multi-lane highways where each protofilament is the analogue of a single lane. We extend a recent model of the traffic of single-headed kinesin KIF1A [{\\it Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 75}, 041905 (2007)}] by incorporating processes which correspond to shifting of the motor proteins from one protofilament to another. On the basis of analytical treatment of our model, we predict the effects of lane changing on the flux of the KIF1A motors. Our quantitative predictions can be tested, in principle, by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments with fluorescently labelled KIF1A molecules.

  2. A model for the evolution of traffic jams in multi-lane

    CERN Document Server

    Berthelin, Florent

    2011-01-01

    In [7], Berthelin, Degond, Delitala and Rascle introduced a traffic flow model describing the formation and the dynamics of traffic jams. This model consists of a Pressureless Gas Dynamics system under a maximal constraint on the density and is derived through a singular limit of the Aw-Rascle model. In the present paper we propose an improvement of this model by allowing the road to be multi-lane piecewise. The idea is to use the maximal constraint to modelize the number of lanes. We also add in the model a parameter {\\alpha} which modelize the various speed limitations according to the number of lanes. We present the dynamical behaviour of clusters (traffic jams) and by approximation with such solutions, we obtain an existence result of weak solutions for any initial data.

  3. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  4. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  5. Cellular Automaton Models of Highway Traffic Flow Considering Lane-Control and Speed-Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱勇生; 李文俊; 曾俊伟; 王敏; 杜加伟; 广晓平

    2011-01-01

    As two kinds of management modes of highway tramc control, lane-control, and speed-control produce different effect under different conditions. In this paper, traffic flow cellular automaton models for four-lane highway system with two opposing directions under the above two modes are established considering car and truck mixed running. Through computer numerical simulating, the fundamental diagrams with different parameters are obtained, and after the analysis of density-flux diagrams, the variation discipline of flux with traffic density under different control models is gained. The results indicate that, compared with lane-control, utilization ratio of road can be further improved with speed-control when the truck number increases. The research result is of great significance for reasonable providing theoretical guidance for highway traffic control.

  6. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  7. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  8. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  9. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  10. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  11. A viscous continuum traffic flow model with consideration of the coupling effect for two-lane freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.

  12. 双车道公路设置附加车道交通量条件研究%Traffic Volume Conditions of Setting Auxiliary Lane on Two-lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国柱; 翟露露; 秦丽辉; 王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce traffic accidents and improve operating efficiency on two-lane highway, the concept of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway is proposed, and the traffic volume conditions of setting up auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are studied. Data is obtained through vehicle experiment on two-lane highway, and the relational model among the traffic conflict time, the traffic volume and the design speed on two-lane highway is established. Based on the established model, the different conditions of traffic volume of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are obtained. It shows that auxiliary lane should be set when traffic volume is more than 495 veh/h/ln and 454 veh/h/ln respectively on two-lane highway with the design speed of 80 km/h and 60km/h. It isn't recommend to set auxiliary lane on two-lane highway with the design speed of 40 km/h because the benefit is not obvious.%为了减少双车道公路交通事故数量、提高运行效率,提出了双车道公路设置附加车道的理念,基于试验数据开展了双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件研究.通过双车道公路实车实验获得的基础数据,建立了双车道公路交通冲突时间与交通量、设计速度的关系模型.依据构建的模型,给出了对应不同设计速度的双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件.基于样本数据的研究结果表明:设计速度为80 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于495 veh/h/ln时,应设置附加车道;设计速度为60 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于454 veh/h/ln,应设置附加车道;设计速度为40 km/h及以下的双车道公路,设置附加车道效益不明显,不建议设置.

  13. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  14. When do drivers abort an overtaking maneuver 5 on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Overtaking on two-lane roads is a complex driving maneuver. Drivers who desire to overtake a lead vehicle need to evaluate the available gaps in the opposite direction and accept a sufficient gap to successfully complete the overtaking maneuver. However, often drivers realize that the gap they acce

  15. Approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane Emden equation in a spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moustafa Aly; Al-Zeghayer, Yousef

    2015-10-01

    This paper obtains an approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane-Emden equation that models a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. The approximate solution is obtained by perturbation methods in terms of small and large distance parameters. The approximate solution is compared with the numerical solution. The approximate solution obtained is valid for all values of the distance parameter.

  16. Shape-dependence of the barrier for skyrmions on a two-lane racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Single magnetic skyrmions are localized whirls in the magnetization with an integer winding number. They have been observed on nano-meter scales up to room temperature in multilayer structures. Due to their small size, topological winding number, and their ability to be manipulated by extremely tiny forces, they are often called interesting candidates for future memory devices. The two-lane racetrack has to exhibit two lanes that are separated by an energy barrier. The information is then encoded in the position of a skyrmion which is located in one of these close-by lanes. The artificial barrier between the lanes can be created by an additional nanostrip on top of the track. Here we study the dependence of the potential barrier on the shape of the additional nanostrip, calculating the potentials for a rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross section, as well as interpolations between the first two. We find that a narrow barrier is always repulsive and that the height of the potential strongly depends on the shape of the nanostrip, whereas the shape of the potential is more universal. We finally show that the shape-dependence is redundant for possible applications.

  17. A parallel code for multiprecision computations of the Lane-Emden differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Geroyannis, Vassilis S

    2016-01-01

    We compute multiprecision solutions of the Lane-Emden equation. This differential equation arises when introducing the well-known polytropic model into the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for a nondistorted star. Since such multiprecision computations are time-consuming, we apply to this problem parallel programming techniques and thus the execution time of the computations is drastically reduced.

  18. "Go West, Young Man!" - Praktikum an der Lane Medical Library der Universität Stanford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuß, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of a five weeks internship at Lane Medical Library which is part of Stanford University, California. The story depicts personal impressions and reports on the university, on the library's history, organisation and its future development.

  19. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  20. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  1. Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.

  2. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  3. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  4. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  5. Evaluation of Single Vehicle Data in Dependence of the Vehicle-Type, Lane, and Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tilch, Benno; Helbing, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study dependencies of fundamental diagrams, time gap distributions, and velocity-distance relations on vehicle types, lanes and/or measurement sites. We also propose measurement and aggregation methods that have more favourable statistical properties than conventional methods.

  6. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  7. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  8. Geophysical characterization of transtensional fault systems in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, M.; Keranen, K. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Feldman, J. D.; Keller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) and Walker Lane belt (WL) accommodate ~25% of plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Faults within the Mina deflection link the ECSZ and the WL, transferring strain from the Owens Valley and Death Valley-Fish Lake Valley fault systems to the transcurrent faults of the central Walker Lane. During the mid to late Miocene the majority of strain between these systems was transferred through the Silver Peak-Lone Mountain (SPLM) extensional complex via a shallowly dipping detachment. Strain transfer has since primarily migrated north to the Mina Deflection; however, high-angle faults bounding sedimentary basins and discrepancies between geodetic and geologic models indicate that the SPLM complex may still actively transfer a portion of the strain from the ECSZ to the WL on a younger set of faults. Establishing the pattern and amount of active strain transfer within the SPLM region is required for a full accounting of strain accommodation, and provides insight into strain partitioning at the basin scale within a broader transtensional zone. To map the active structures in and near Clayton Valley, within the SPLM region, we collected seismic reflection and refraction profiles and a dense grid of gravity readings that were merged with existing gravity data. The primary goals were to determine the geometry of the high-angle fault system, the amount and sense of offset along each fault set, connectivity of the faults, and the relationship of these faults to the Miocene detachment. Seismic reflection profiles imaged the high-angle basin-bounding normal faults and the detachment in both the footwall and hanging wall. The extensional basin is ~1 km deep, with a steep southeastern boundary, a gentle slope to the northwest, and a sharp boundary on the northwest side, suggestive of another fault system. Two subparallel dip-slip faults bound the southeast (deeper) basin margin with a large lateral velocity change (from ~2

  9. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  10. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  11. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  12. New Galerkin operational matrices for solving Lane-Emden type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Doha, E. H.; Saad, A. S.; Bassuony, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with introducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n=3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  13. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  14. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  15. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  16. Approximate Analytical Solution to the Fractional Lane-Emden Equation of the Polytropic Gas Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, Mohamed I

    2016-01-01

    Lane-Emden equation could be used to model stellar interiors, star clusters and many configurations in astrophysics. Unfortunately, there is an exact solution only for the polytropic index n=0,1 and 5. In the present paper, a series solution for the fractional lane-Emden equation is presented. The solution is performed in the frame of modified Rienmann liouville derivatives. The results indicate that the series converges for the polytropic index range 0<=n <= 4.99 with fractional parameter \\alpha spreads over all range 0<\\alpha <= 1. Comparison with the numerical solution revealed a good agreement with a maximum relative error 0.001. The obtained results recover the well-known series solutions when \\alpha=1.

  17. NEW GALERKIN OPERATIONAL MATRICES FOR SOLVING LANE-EMDEN TYPE EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with intro - ducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n = 3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  18. Performance analysis and comparison of PTOP and LANE for IP transmission over ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Junaid A.; Al-Irhayim, Sufyan; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi; Wajdi, Yahya

    1998-12-01

    Due to its traffic control and performance assurance characteristics, ATM is being employed as the core network in most campuses. However, bulk of the workstations remain on Ethernet, generating IP traffic that passes through ATM using special schemes such as PTOP or LANE. In such a network, the performance is affected due to the extra overheads in multiple conversions between cells and packets and managing virtual circuits. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of PTOP and LANE in passing the IP traffic under various conditions. This study helps in understanding the various performance issues in these environments in order to define the end-to-end quality of service for Ethernet-ATM networks.

  19. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  20. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  1. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  2. Three new species of Calliceratomyia Lane (Diptera: Ditomyiidae) from Neotropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Heron; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-02-03

    Three new species of the ditomyiid genus Calliceratomyia Lane, so far known only from the type-species from southeastern Brazil, are described from Mexico. The new species-Calliceratomyia papaveroi sp. n., Calliceratomyia pantelhomyia sp. n. and Calliceratomyia zayolli sp. n.-are described based on adult males collected with Malaise traps in the States of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Hidalgo, Mexico. The descriptions are illustrated and the diagnosis of the genus is revised.

  3. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...governance in Nigeria, these considerations suggest that Ghana may be a more attractive partner. In examining the Caspian Region, the major energy...lanes as supply lines. Because they facilitate delivery of the resources necessary to fuel continued economic growth, they are far more important than

  4. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  6. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  7. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  8. Method of planning a reference trajectory of a single lane change manoeuver with Bezier curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, D.; Ślaski, G.

    2016-09-01

    For a comprehensive simulation of vehicle steering process it is vital to model the decision process of planning a trajectory shape and process of the selected trajectory. A single lane change manoeuver is only slightly restricted by the road geometry. There are also other requirements of a possible trajectory of movement, such as the continuity of change (derivative) of curvature, maximizing the passenger's comfort measured with appropriate indicators based on variables of motion dynamics or parameters of motion trajectory which influence that dynamic. This article presents a suggested method of automatic generation of trajectory of single lane change manoeuver. The proposed method can be used as an integral part of driver models and is based on a combination of two symmetrical Bezier curves optionally supplemented with a straight lane connector. The method meets the requirements of a trajectory shape, which results from optimizing the value of parameters controlling Bezier curve based on minimizing the curvature and the resulting lateral acceleration while preserving the continuity of curvature derivative of the planned trajectory.

  9. Beliefs and behaviours relevant to the road safety effects of profile lane-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julie; Murphy, Susanne; Job, R F Soames

    2008-11-01

    Audio-tactile lane-marking (ATLM) is designed to alert inattentive drivers when they deviate from their lane, and appears to reduce crashes. Research into cognitive-behavioural mechanisms underlying, or possibly undermining, the efficacy of ATLM, is limited. We surveyed 775 randomly selected drivers (42% female, up to 75+ years) regarding the profile line-marking (PLM) employed in Australia (and in some European countries). Respondents perceived advantages of PLM in terms of lane-keeping and visibility. Respondents reported avoiding edge-line PLM, so that it may result in driving too close to untreated centre-line. Findings generally allayed concerns, on the basis of risk homeostasis theory, that PLM may increase risky driving. Perceived efficacy of PLM was not associated with increased drink-driving or speeding, but was associated with increased driving while fatigued. Findings suggest that the efficacy of PLM may be increased by employing PLM on both edge- and centre-lines, by exaggerating the audio-tactile effects of PLM that cause drivers to avoid it, and by discouraging the belief that it is safe to drive while fatigued when PLM is present.

  10. Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Di Silvestro, Giacomo; La Cava, Grazia; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, approximately 60% of road accident fatalities occur on two-lane rural roads. Thus, research to develop and enhance explanatory and predictive models for this road type continues to be of interest in mitigating these accidents. To this end, this paper describes a novel and extensive data collection and modeling effort to define accident models for two-lane road sections based on a unique combination of exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables directly related to the safety performance. The first part of the paper documents how these were identified for the segmentation of highways into homogeneous sections. Next, is a description of the extensive data collection effort that utilized differential cinematic GPS surveys to define the horizontal alignment variables, and road safety inspections (RSIs) to quantify the other road characteristics related to safety. The final part of the paper focuses on the calibration of models for estimating the expected number of accidents on homogeneous sections that can be characterized by constant values of the explanatory variables. Several candidate models were considered for calibration using the Generalized Linear Modeling (GLM) approach. After considering the statistical significance of the parameters related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors, and goodness of fit statistics, 19 models were ranked and three were selected as the recommended models. The first of the three is a base model, with length and traffic as the only predictor variables; since these variables are the only ones likely to be available network-wide, this base model can be used in an empirical Bayesian calculation to conduct network screening for ranking "sites with promise" of safety improvement. The other two models represent the best statistical fits with different combinations of significant variables related to exposure, geometry, consistency and context factors. These multiple variable models can be used, with

  11. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Jetto; H.Ez-Zahraouy; A.Benyoussef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road.The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle.The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out.We are interested in the relaxation time τ,i.e.,which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane.Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model,we have found two states,namely,the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane,and the trapped state in which τ diverges.We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability.In the second situation,we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task.Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase,two different states can be distinguished.One is the critical state,in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out.The other is the safe state,in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out.In order to be in the safe state,we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane.Furthermore,this critical distance depends on the density of cars,and it follows an exponential law.

  12. New Fast Lane towards Discoveries of Clusters of Galaxies Inaugurated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    . As of March 2003, there were only 5 known clusters in the literature at such a large redshift with enough spectroscopically measured redshifts to allow an estimate of the velocity dispersion. But the VLT allowed obtaining the dispersion in a distant cluster in 2 hours only, raising great expectations for future work. 700 spectra... Marguerite Pierre is extremely content : Weather and working conditions at the VLT were optimal. In three nights only, 12 cluster fields were observed, yielding no less than 700 spectra of galaxies. The overall strategy proved very successful. The high observing efficiency of the VLT and FORS support our plan to perform follow-up studies of large numbers of distant clusters with relatively little observing time. This represents a most substantial increase in efficiency compared to former searches. The present research programme has begun well, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of this new multi-telescope approach and its very high efficiency. And Marguerite Pierre and her colleagues are already seeing the first tantalising results: it seems to confirm that the number of clusters 7,000 million years ago is little different from that of today. This particular behaviour is predicted by models of the Universe that expand forever, driving the galaxy clusters further and further apart. Equally important, this multi-wavelength, multi-telescope approach developed by the XMM-LSS consortium to locate clusters of galaxies also constitutes a decisive next step in the fertile synergy between space and ground-based observatories and is therefore a basic building block of the forthcoming Virtual Observatory. More information This work is based on two papers to be published in the professional astronomy journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics (The XMM-LSS survey : I. Scientific motivations, design and first results by Marguerite Pierre et al., astro-ph/0305191 and The XMM-LSS survey : II. First high redshift galaxy clusters: relaxed and collapsing systems

  13. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  14. Visual object-oriented application for lane following on intelligent highway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChunyan; WangWi; LuJian; ChangYulin

    2003-01-01

    A visual object-oriented software for lane following on intelligent highway system (IHS) is proposed. According to object-oriented theory, 3 typical user services of self-check, transfer of human driving and automatic running and abnormal information input from the sensors are chosen out. In addition, the functions of real-time display, information exchanging interface, determination and operation interweaving in the 3 user services are separated into 5 object-oriented classes.Moreover, the 5 classes are organized in the visual development environment. At last, experimental result proves the validity and reliability of the control application.

  15. Dibujando un nuevo paradigma: de Golden Lane (1952) a A Journey from A to B (1972)

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila Castellanos, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis tiene como objeto principal evidenciar la relación, aparentemente inexistente, entre el dibujo de Alison y Peter Smithson para la propuesta de concurso de Golden Lane en 1952 y el dibujo de 1972 del grupo italiano Superstudio titulado A Journey from A to B. Serán otros cuatro dibujos principales -Alison y Peter Smithson, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Yona Friedman y Peter Cook- los que servirán para establecer una relación lógica entre los dos citados arriba. En paralelo, la descripción de...

  16. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  17. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  18. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  19. Empirical Study of Accepted Gap and Lane Change Duration within Arterial Traffic under Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated variations in accepted gaps and lane change duration on arterial under recurrent and non-recurrent congestion. Descriptive statistics and best-fit distributions were obtained for the two parameters for both traffic conditions. Hypothesis testing using Mann-Whitney U-Test showed that the means of accepted gaps and lane change durations were statistically different between the two types of traffic’ conditions. The study found that during non-recurrent congestion, drivers on an average accepted smaller gaps but took longer lane change durations. Based on the fact that the data were collected for the same flow-rate (70-90 vehicles/minute in both traffic conditions and based on the literature, the reason for the above findings could be that, drivers get more frustrated during non-recurring congestion that they accept smaller gaps. Drivers visiting the study location for game day (non-recurrent exhibit different driver behavioral characteristics when compared to regular commuters (recurrent which could have also contributed to the statistical differences in the lane changing characteristics of two types of congestion. These findings have direct implications on the lane changing parameters used in microscopic traffic simulation and also help transportation planners and managers to understand driver behavior during recurrent and non-recurrent congestion and better manage the facilities.

  20. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  1. 多车道公路的交通通行能力%Traffic Capacity of Multi- lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静宇

    2012-01-01

    According to traffic capacity theory of multi - lane highway, and annual traffic volume forecast result of project vision in Highway Capacity Manual, peak rate and number of lane required by design project are calculat- ed, and number of lane required by construction project is finally determined through calculation of maximum traffic capacity and service level analysis.%根据《道路通行能力手册》中多车道公路通行能力理论及项目远景年交通量预测成果,计算高峰流率、设计工程项目所需车道数;通过最大通行能力计算及服务水平分析,最终确定工程项目的所需车道数。

  2. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  3. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  4. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  5. Lane mark identification method based on the trait of edge%基于边界特征的车道标识线检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仕照; 钱鹰

    2011-01-01

    Accurate detection of lane marks is the most important issue to realize vehicle automatic navigation and safety driving assistant, in order to get an ideal lane marks' edge, binarizizing and morphological processing the lane image based on lane edge features, realizing accurate edge detection of the lane area, finally, locat the lane marks by Hough transform and complete with lane marks identification. Experiments show that the method can exactly get identification of lane marks on the complex environment and has good robustness and reliability.%车道标识线的准确检测是实现车辆自动导航和车辆安全辅助驾驶的首要问题,为了得到较理想的车道的标线边缘.利用车道的边缘特征对车道图像进行二值化和形态学处理,对车道区域实现准确的边缘检测,最后利用Hough变换定位出车道标识线,完成对车道标识线的识别。实验表明,该方法能实现对复杂环境下车道标识线的准确识别,具有较好的鲁棒性和可靠性。

  6. Psicologia social e processo grupal: a coerência entre fazer, pensar sentir em Sívia Lane Social psychology and group process: coherence between doing, thinking and feeling in Sílvia Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da concepção histórica e dialética de processo grupal proposta por Sílvia Lane, que utiliza como base para suas reflexões os pressupostos de materialismo dialético quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e a realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. O que pretendemos enfatizar neste artigo é a produção sobre grupo presente em sua obra que foi se construindo no decorrer das décadas de 1980 e 1990, sintetizada no texto O processo grupal. Neste sentido, busca-se trazer as contribuições presentes no conjunto de sua obra, sistematizadas em artigos, coletâneas e livros, em que Sílvia Lane discute a articulação de algumas categorias fundamentais para a análise do processo grupal e suas implicações teóricas, metodológicas e prático-políticas.The present article discusses historic and dialectical conceptions of group process by Sílvia Lane, that uses like base for her reflections the presuppositions of dialectical materialism, when the author considers the personal aspects, the group characteristics, the subjective existence and objective reality and the historical character of the group. This article intends to emphasize the production written by Sílvia Lane about group between 1980 and 1990 summaried in the text The group process. In this direction, it searchs to bring the contributions in her work through articles, collections and books that Sílvia Lane discusses some fundamental categories to the analysis of group process and their theoretical and methodological evolvement and practical-politics.

  7. Lane Community College Student Follow-Up Study, Spring 2001. 1999-2000 Students: One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Sylvia J.

    This 2001 follow-up study conducted in the spring of 2001 and reported in the fall of 2001,targeted 2 groups of former Lane Community College (LCC) (Oregon) students. Surveys were mailed to all 1990-2000 graduates (students who earned a degree or certificate). The second group contacted were students who had achieved no formal award (NFA). These…

  8. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  9. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task involv

  10. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  11. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  12. APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE ISOTHERMAL LANE EMDEN EQUATION IN A SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Aly Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo obtiene una soluci ́on anal ́ıtica aproximada p ara la ecuaci ́on isoterma de Lane-Emden que modela una esfera isot ́ermica au togravitante. La soluci ́on aproximada se obtiene en t ́erminos de par ́ametro s de distancias peque ̃nos y grandes por el m ́etodo de perturbaciones. La soluci ́on apr oximada se compara con la soluci ́on n ́umerica. La soluci ́on aproximada obteni da es v ́alida para todos los valores del par ́ametro de distancia.

  13. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  14. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D; Sawhney, K; Nistea, I; Alcock, S G; Pape, I; Sutter, J; Alianelli, L; Evans, G

    2016-05-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  15. Spring-block model for a single-lane highway traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jarai-Szabo, Ferenc; Neda, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional spring-block chain with asymmetric interactions is considered to model an idealized single-lane highway traffic. The main elements of the system are blocks (modeling cars), springs with unidirectional interactions (modeling distance keeping interactions between neighbors), static and kinetic friction (modeling inertia of drivers and cars) and spatiotemporal disorder in the values of these friction forces (modeling differences in the driving attitudes). The traveling chain of cars correspond to the dragged spring-block system. Our statistical analysis for the spring-block chain predicts a non-trivial and rich complex behavior. As a function of the disorder level in the system a dynamic phase-transition is observed. For low disorder levels uncorrelated slidings of blocks are revealed while for high disorder levels correlated avalanches dominates.

  16. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  17. An interview with Robert S. Lane, Ph.D. Interviewed by Vicki Glaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    Dr. Robert Lane received a B.A. degree in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), an M.A. degree in biology at San Francisco State College, and a Ph.D. in entomology at UCB. While employed as a California State public health biologist he began his long-standing studies of the biology of ticks and the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne disease agents. In 1984, Dr. Lane joined the faculty of UCB as a medical entomologist, a position he has held until the present. The diseases he and his many co-workers have investigated include Colorado tick fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and particularly Lyme disease. Findings from these studies have elucidated the basic transmission cycles of and risk factors for spotted fever-group rickettsiae and Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western United States. Bob is a Fellow of both the California Academy of Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a recipient of a UCB Biology Faculty Research Award and the C.W. Woodworth Award from the Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America, and a member of the Council for the International Congresses of Entomology. Also, he has served as president of the Acarological Society of America, the International Northwestern Conference on Diseases in Nature Communicable to Man, the Northern California Parasitologists, and the Society for Vector Ecology, as well as the Chair of Section D (Medical/Veterinary Entomology), Entomological Society.

  18. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  19. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  20. Study on traffic states and jamming transitions for two-lane highway including a bus by using a model with calibrated optimal velocity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, traffic states and jamming transitions on two-lane highway including a bus are studied by using a car following model with a calibrated optimal velocity function. We derive a new flow-density diagram with four distinctly separated traffic states, which is different from that of the earlier study obtained by applying the OVM with theoretical optimal velocity function. The spatio-temporal diagrams are presented to illustrate phase characteristics of each traffic state. It is found that the phase characteristic features of two of four states are different from any state of the earlier result, and traffic flow of state 2 and state 3 can reproduce some characteristics observed from empirical investigations such as centralized lane-changing, hanging tail of cluster, and synchronized flow. In addition, we have clarified the lane-changing behaviors and their effects on two-lane traffic flow including a bus. It is shown that the velocity oscillations behind the bus can help the lane-changing in state 2 and the behaviors of lane-changing are the important reason of forming of the synchronized flow in state 3. It is also concluded that lane-changing can only improve the current in the region of middle density.

  1. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  2. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  3. 设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转通行能力模型%Capacity Model of the Right-turn Lane at Signalized Intersection With Channelized Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖元文; 荣建; 刘小明

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. Based on the gap acceptance model, this paper proposes a new approach to calculating the capacity of right-turn lane at signalized intersections with channelized islands. This model takes into account the interference of non-motorized traffic enter channelized islands. The non-motorized traffic is treated as the traffic on the major road-a crosswalk, which has great impacts on right-turn vehicles on the minor road-an exclusive right-turn lane. The basic model is modified by introducing the red light effect adjustment coefficient. The new model is calibrated and tested using the field data collected at 6 signalized intersections with ehannelized islands in 4 cities. The average relative error between the calculated value and the observed is 9.28% , which means the proposed method in this paper can better estimate the capacity of an exclusive free right-turn lane under the interference of non-motorized traffic.%为了计算在信号交叉口设置导流岛后右转车道的通行能力,以接受间隙理论模型为基础,给出了针对设置导流岛的信号交叉口右转车道通行能力计算方法.考虑到非机动车进入导流岛对右转车辆产生较大影响,确定以非机动车流为主路,提出红灯效应修正系数,对基础模型进行修正.通过4个城市6个设置导流岛的信号交叉口实测数据进行模型标定和检验.比较模型计算值与实际观测值发现,平均相对误差为9.28%,表明本文所提计算方法能较好地反映非机动车对右转车道通行能力影响的实际情况.

  4. New Type of Roundabout: Dual One-Lane Roundabouts on Two Levels with Right-Hand Turning Bypasses – ’’Target Roundabout’’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of low level traffic safety on multi-lane roundabouts have been resolved in various ways in different countries, usually by using alternative types of roundabouts that reduce the number of conflict points. Alternative types of roundabouts typically differ from "normal" or "standard" roundabouts in one or more design elements, as their implementation purposes could also be specific. Today, several different types of roundabouts are already in use ("mini", "double mini", "dumb-bell", those "with joint splitter islands" ("dog-bone", those "with a spiralling circular carriageway" ("turbo", those "with depressed lanes for right-hand turners" ("flower" etc.. This paper introduces a new type of roundabout, dual one-lane roundabouts on two levels with right-hand turning bypasses, namely the "target roundabout". This paper describes and analyses their design, traffic safety, and capacity characteristics, compared with the standard two–lane roundabouts.

  5. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, Lane, Mutton and Yellowtail Snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Lutjanus synagris snapper (Figure 1) .. (Linnaeus) Other common names . . . Rabirrubia, Preferred common name. . Lane snapper vivaneau quaue jaune...A . a n ( C . L " 1970. Edad y crecimiento del Hollingsworth. 1980. Aging ariaco, Lutjanus synagris red snapper, Lutjanus .’ (Linnaeus), en el...Teleosteers Lutjanus maturation of the Japanese sea synagris . Helgol• Wiss. bass, Lateolabrax japonicus . Meeresunters. 28:90-105. Jpn. J. Ichthyol. rq:243-754

  6. Modeling L1-GPS Errors for an Enhanced Data Fusion with Lane Marking Maps for Road Automated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a method which models the time correlation errors of a standalone L1-GPS receiver by integrating front-view camera measurements map-matched with a lane marking map. An identification method of the parameters of the shaping model is presented and evaluated with real data. The observability of the augmented state vector is demonstrated according to an algebraic definition. A positioning solver based on extended Kalman filtering with measured input is...

  7. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  8. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  9. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  10. Dynamic Steering Control of Battery Operated Car for Lane Keeping using Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project presents simple prototype for driving automation of battery operated cars. The system consists of Decision Making Unit (DMU & Control System Unit (CSU to implement decision given by DMU. DMU performs the task of image acquisition, enhancing, thresholding, noise reduction, calculation of the position of car with respect to lanes and estimation of the desired position. DMU communicate with CSU using UART serial protocol, thereby informing CSU to take necessary control action regarding - speed control & position control of steering wheel. Speed control is an open loop system which controls the two DC motors powering the front wheels of car. Mechanical hardware for position control of steering wheel contains a high torque DC motor which is coupled to steering wheel using gears in mesh configuration. The control algorithm used here is digital PID algorithm. The PID is digitized using trapezoidal approximation, Newton’s backward difference method to approximate integration & differentiation. Feedback signal is generated by 47kΩ potentiometer which gives a output of 0-5 volt. The algorithm based on these methods has been programmed in the Atmega16 which drives the dc motor coupled with steering wheel using L293d motor driver.

  11. X-Ray Emission from a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2015-01-01

    We report the multiband imagery with an emphasis on the X-ray emission properties of a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866. X-ray emission from this galaxy is due to a diffuse component and a substantial contribution from the population of discrete X-ray binary sources. A total of 22 discrete sources have been detected within the optical D25 extent of the galaxy, few of which exhibit spatial association with the globular clusters hosted by this system. Composite spectrum of the diffuse emission from this galaxy was well constrained by a thermal plasma model plus a power law component to represent the emission from unresolved sources, while that of the discrete sources was well fitted by an absorbed power law component of photon index 1.82$\\pm$0.14. X-ray color-color plot for the resolved source was used to classify the detected sources. The cumulative X-ray luminosity function of the XRBs is well represented by a power law function of index of {\\Gamma} ~ 0.82$\\pm$0.12. Optical imagery of NGC 5866 r...

  12. Polynomial-time homology for simplicial Eilenberg-MacLane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krcal, Marek; Sergeraert, Francis

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier paper of Cadek, Vokrinek, Wagner, and the present authors, we investigated an algorithmic problem in computational algebraic topology, namely, the computation of all possible homotopy classes of maps between two topological spaces, under suitable restriction on the spaces. We aim at showing that, if the dimensions of the considered spaces are bounded by a constant, then the computations can be done in polynomial time. In this paper we make a significant technical step towards this goal: we show that the Eilenberg-MacLane space K(Z,1), represented as a simplicial group, can be equipped with polynomial-time homology (this is a polynomial-time version of effective homology considered in previous works of the third author and co-workers). To this end, we construct a suitable discrete vector field, in the sense of Forman's discrete Morse theory, on K(Z,1). The construction is purely combinatorial and it can be understood as a certain procedure for reducing finite sequences of integers, without any re...

  13. Keeping Energy Savings in the LOOP: Mesa Lane Partners Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Mesa Lane Partners (MLP) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to a build a new, low-energy mixed-use building that consumes at least 50% less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA), as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program. The privately developed 46,000-square-foot LOOP project, which is intended to provide affordable off-campus student housing in an underserved community next to University of California at Santa Barbara, will contain more than 7,000 square feet of retail space, a roof deck, an event space, a gym, and 48 apartments. The project developer, MLP, is aiming to exceed CBP requirement, targeting energy consumption that is at least 65% less than that required by the standard. If the LOOP meets this goal, it is expected to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification.

  14. Results of the radiological survey at 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, R.D.; Floyd, L.M.; Carrier, R.F.; Crutcher, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally /sup 232/Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 17 Redstone Lane, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ030), was conducted during 1985 and 1986. Results of the survey demonstrated radionuclide concentrations in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program criteria. The radionuclide distributions are typical of the type of material originating from the MCW site. 4 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Dust and molecular gas in early-type galaxies with prominent dust lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Bureau, Martin; Shabala, Stanislav S; Crockett, R Mark; Silk, Joseph; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon; Keel, William C; Masters, Karen L; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P

    2011-01-01

    We study dust and associated molecular gas in 352 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) with prominent dust lanes. 65% of these 'dusty ETGs' (D-ETGs) are morphologically disturbed, suggesting a merger origin. This is consistent with the D-ETGs residing in lower-density environments compared to a control sample drawn from the general ETG population. 80% of D-ETGs inhabit the field (compared to 60% of the controls) and <2% inhabit clusters (compared to 10% of the controls). Compared to the control sample, D-ETGs exhibit bluer UV-optical colours (indicating enhanced star formation) and an AGN fraction that is more than an order of magnitude greater. The clumpy dust mass residing in large-scale features is estimated, using the SDSS r-band images, to be between 10^{4.5} and 10^{6.5} MSun. Comparison to the total (clumpy + diffuse) dust masses - calculated using far-infrared fluxes of the 15% of the D-ETGs that are detected by IRAS - indicates that only ~20% of the dust resides in these large-scale features. The dus...

  16. A two-lane cellular automaton traffic flow model with the influence of driver, vehicle and road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Han-Tao; Nie, Cen; Li, Jing-Ru; Wei, Yu-Ao

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of one-lane comfortable driving model, this paper established a two-lane traffic cellular automata model, which improves the slow randomization effected by brake light. Considering the driver psychological characteristics and mixed traffic, we studied the lateral influence between vehicles on adjacent lanes. Through computer simulation, the space-time diagram and the fundamental figure under different conditions are obtained. The study found that aggressive driver makes a slight congestion in low-density traffic and improves the capacity of high-density traffic, when the density exceeds 20pcu/km the more aggressive drivers the greater the flow, when the density below 40pcu/km driver character makes an effect, the more cautious driver, the lower the flow. The ratio of big cars has the same effect as the ratio of aggressive drivers. Brake lights have the greatest impact on traffic flow and when the density exceeds 10pcu/km the traffic flow fluctuates. Under periodic boundary conditions, the disturbance of road length on traffic is minimal. The lateral influence only play a limited role in the medium-density conditions, and only affect the average speed of traffic at low density.

  17. Fast learning method for convolutional neural networks using extreme learning machine and its application to lane detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihun; Kim, Jonghong; Jang, Gil-Jin; Lee, Minho

    2017-03-01

    Deep learning has received significant attention recently as a promising solution to many problems in the area of artificial intelligence. Among several deep learning architectures, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) demonstrate superior performance when compared to other machine learning methods in the applications of object detection and recognition. We use a CNN for image enhancement and the detection of driving lanes on motorways. In general, the process of lane detection consists of edge extraction and line detection. A CNN can be used to enhance the input images before lane detection by excluding noise and obstacles that are irrelevant to the edge detection result. However, training conventional CNNs requires considerable computation and a big dataset. Therefore, we suggest a new learning algorithm for CNNs using an extreme learning machine (ELM). The ELM is a fast learning method used to calculate network weights between output and hidden layers in a single iteration and thus, can dramatically reduce learning time while producing accurate results with minimal training data. A conventional ELM can be applied to networks with a single hidden layer; as such, we propose a stacked ELM architecture in the CNN framework. Further, we modify the backpropagation algorithm to find the targets of hidden layers and effectively learn network weights while maintaining performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is effective in reducing learning time and improving performance.

  18. Analysis of a novel two-lane lattice model on a gradient road with the consideration of relative current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin-Liang; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel hydrodynamic lattice model is proposed by considering of relative current for two-lane gradient road system. The stability condition is obtained by using linear stability theory and shown that the stability of traffic flow varies with three parameters, that is, the slope, the sensitivity of response to the relative current and the rate of lane changing. The stable region increases with the increasing of one of them when another two parameters are constant. By using nonlinear analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries, and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations are derived to describe the phase transition of traffic flow. Their solutions present the density wave as the triangular shock wave, soliton wave, and kink-antikink wave in the stable, metastable, and unstable region, respectively, which can explain the phase transitions from free traffic to stop-and-go traffic, and finally to congested traffic. To verify the theoretical results, a series of numerical simulations are carried out. The numerical results are consistent with the analytical results. To check the novel model, calibration are taken based on the empirical traffic flow data. The theoretical results and numerical results show that the traffic flow on the gradient road becomes more stable and the traffic congestion can be efficiently suppressed by considering the relative current and lane changing, and the empirical analysis shows that the novel lattice model is reasonable.

  19. Individual differences in cognitive functioning predict effectiveness of a heads-up lane departure warning for younger and older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Sager, Lauren; Hacker, Sarah; Lester, Benjamin; Dawson, Jeffrey; Rizzo, Matthew; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Foley, James

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of an idealized lane departure warning (LDW) was evaluated in an interactive fixed base driving simulator. Thirty-eight older (mean age=77years) and 40 younger drivers (mean age=35years) took four different drives/routes similar in road culture composition and hazards encountered with and without LDW. The four drives were administered over visits separated approximately by two weeks to examine changes in long-term effectiveness of LDW. Performance metrics were number of LDW activations and average correction time to each LDW. LDW reduced correction time to re-center the vehicle by 1.34s on average (95% CI=1.12-1.57s) but did not reduce the number of times the drivers drifted enough in their lanes to activate the system (LDW activations). The magnitude of reductions in average correction RT was similar for older and younger drivers and did not change with repeated exposures across visits. The contribution of individual differences in basic visual and motor function, as well as cognitive function to safety gains from LDW was also examined. Cognitive speed of processing predicted lane keeping performance for older and younger drivers. Differences in memory, visuospatial construction, and executive function tended to predict performance differences among older but not younger drivers. Cognitive functioning did not predict changes in the magnitude of safety benefits from LDW over time. Implications are discussed with respect to real-world safety systems.

  20. 山区公路避险车道设计%Design of Emergency Escaping Lane of Mountainous Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武生; 张作刚

    2012-01-01

    Emergency escaping lane as a last ditch passive emergency measures,is designed for a runaway vehicle to emergency escaping and secure parking. This article unifies the domestic and foreign references、the authors performed emergency escaping lane design document, systematically summarizes the emergency escaping Lane in the necessity of establishment、 location、geometry parameters、supporting traffic and safety facilities etc.%避险车道作为一种不得已而为之的被动应急措施,就是专为失控车辆紧急避险、安全停车而设置的休止车道.结合国内外参考文献、作者完成的避险车道设计文件,系统地总结了避险车道的设置必要性、设置位置、几何结构参数、配套交通与安全设施等等.

  1. Spontaneous phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow in traffic on a single-lane highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Zhang, H M; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow complexity comes from the car-following and lane-changing behavior. Based on empirical data for individual vehicle speeds and time headways measured on a single-lane highway section, we have studied the traffic flow properties induced by pure car-following behavior. We have found that a spontaneous sudden drop in velocity could happen in a platoon of vehicles when the velocity of the leading vehicle is quite high (~70 km/h). In contrast, when the velocity of the leading vehicle in a platoon slows down, such a spontaneous sudden drop of velocity has not been observed. Our finding indicates that traffic breakdown on a single-lane road might be a phase transition from free flow to synchronized flow (F→S transition). We have found that the flow rate within the emergent synchronized flow can be either smaller or larger than the flow rate in the free flow within which the synchronized flow propagates. Our empirical findings support Kerner's three-phase theory in which traffic breakdown is associated with an F→S transition.

  2. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF.

  3. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  4. Penny Lane et Strawberry Field(s : réel, identité et fantasmagorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gensane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les chansons « Penny Lane » et « Strawberry Fields Forever » permettent d’appréhender le thème de l’enfance chez les Beatles. De manière très différente, John Lennon et Paul McCartney s’appuient sur une visite de deux lieux réels liverpooliens pour mettre en résonance leurs visions fantasmagoriques du passé, et pour exploiter la langue (qu’ils travaillent et qui les travaille dans une perspective authentiquement artistique.

  5. On the motion and geometry of the Sierra Nevada Great Valley micro-plate: Implications for Walker Lane tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Great Valley (SNGV) micro-plate, a.k.a. the Fresno block, has long been recognized as a tectonically stable entity within the Pacific North America plate boundary zone. Some early geodetic studies have confirmed and defined its rigid behavior. However, those studies were based on a very limited amount of geodetic station velocities, and were unable to assess the extent of rigidity towards the edges of the block. The San Andreas and Garlock fault systems define the western and southern edges of the block, but no such features are readily recognizable to the north and east, along the Walker Lane belt. A better assessment of the location of the boundary or transition between the stable SNGV block and the Walker Lane is important for three reasons. It will provide a better understanding of what controls Walker Lane development and evolution, it will provide important boundary conditions in understanding the present-day kinematics of the Walker Lane, and it is contributes to the assessment of seismic hazard levels for the Reno-Carson City area. We analyze data from all the available GPS sites in the greater SNGV region, including data from the SCIGN, BARD and BARGEN networks, semi-continuous data from our own MAGNET network, and campaign-style data (e.g., USGS, SCEC). Also we have started to analyze regional PBO sites, however time-series for most of those sites are at present too short to infer reliable velocity estimates. We use the GIPSY OASIS II software which employs precise point positioning using dual-frequency carrier phase and pseudorange data, and the precise orbit, clock, and reference frame transformation products publicly available from JPL. The analysis includes carrier phase ambiguity resolution and regional filtering. Using these velocities we perform a kinematic analysis of the station velocity solution, solving for an angular velocity that best describes the motion of the SNGV. We analyze the residuals to investigate where the SNGV

  6. 考虑交通障碍的双车道扩展交通流模型%Extend Two-lane Traffic Flow Model with a Blockage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建锋; 赵靖

    2012-01-01

    借助智能交通系统(ITS),把扩展的车辆跟驰模型应用于双车道,建立根据确定规则进行换道的扩展交通流跟驰模型.通过改变发车车头间距,在开放边界条件下左车道有交通事故发生时,重现实际交通中的交通流现象.数值模拟发现:双车道交通流模型能够有效地抑制交通流阻塞,提高交通流量.%The extended car-following model is applied into two-lane system based on intelligent transportation system application (ITS). Then, an extended model of two-lane traffic in which vehicles change the lane by a deterministic rule is presented. The typical traffic induced by a car accident on the left lane under the open boundary is investigated. The simulation results suggest that the two-lane traffic model can suppress the traffic jam and enhance the traffic flow effectively.

  7. A new scenario based approach for designing driver support systems applied to the design of a lane change support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.; Voort, M.C. van der; Arem, B. van

    2010-01-01

    Designing a new driver support system that meets the expectations of drivers is a difficult and time-consuming process. Despite the availability of various types of design support, it has essentially remained a process in which designers are forced to make assumptions about what other people want. T

  8. Nonlinear Asymptotic Stability of the Lane-Emden Solutions for the Viscous Gaseous Star Problem with Degenerate Density Dependent Viscosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Xin, Zhouping; Zeng, Huihui

    2016-11-01

    The nonlinear asymptotic stability of Lane-Emden solutions is proved in this paper for spherically symmetric motions of viscous gaseous stars with the density dependent shear and bulk viscosities which vanish at the vacuum, when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the stability regime {(4/3, 2)}, by establishing the global-in-time regularity uniformly up to the vacuum boundary for the vacuum free boundary problem of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Poisson systems with spherical symmetry, which ensures the global existence of strong solutions capturing the precise physical behavior that the sound speed is {C^{{1}/{2}}}-Hölder continuous across the vacuum boundary, the large time asymptotic uniform convergence of the evolving vacuum boundary, density and velocity to those of Lane-Emden solutions with detailed convergence rates, and the detailed large time behavior of solutions near the vacuum boundary. Those uniform convergence are of fundamental importance in the study of vacuum free boundary problems which are missing in the previous results for global weak solutions. Moreover, the results obtained in this paper apply to much broader cases of viscosities than those in Fang and Zhang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 191:195-243, 2009) for the theory of weak solutions when the adiabatic exponent {γ} lies in the most physically relevant range. Finally, this paper extends the previous local-in-time theory for strong solutions to a global-in-time one.

  9. Aerometrics' laser-based lane-tracker sensor: engineering and on-the-road evaluation of advanced prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Carlos A.; Tapos, Francis M.; Alayleh, Mehyeddine M.; Bachalo, William D.

    1997-02-01

    Aerometrics initiated and continues on the development an innovative laser-diode based device that provides a warning signal when a motor-vehicle deviates from the center of the lane. The device is based on a sensor that scans the roadway on either side of the vehicle and determines the lateral position relative to the existing painted lines marking the lane. The principles of operation of the sensor, and the results of Aerometrics' early testing were presented last year in this forum. This paper presents Aerometrics' continuing efforts in bringing the technology to market. New prototypes have been developed and tested. Aerometrics' engineering efforts and the use of latest technologies have resulted in a 24-fold reduction in sensor volume when compared to their predecessors and similar reductions in weight. The current prototype measures less than 9 cm X 8 cm X 7 cm, and can be easily fit within the cavity of rear-view mirror holders used in most present-day vehicles. Also, advances in signal conditioning and processing have improved the reliability of the sensor. Results of continuing testing of the sensor will be presented.

  10. 景德镇里弄文化的保护和发展%Protection and Development of Jingdezhen Lanes Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵浩政; 杨敏

    2015-01-01

    景德镇里弄是景德镇千年传统陶瓷生产方式发展的历史印记和特色遗产,景德镇里弄文化是景德镇陶瓷文化的重要组成部分,传承和保护景德镇里弄文化对于整理、创新新时期景德镇陶瓷文化和打造陶瓷文化产业都具有积极的意义。本文概述了景德镇里弄发展的历史和现状,阐述了景德镇里弄文化的历史内涵和时代价值,最后提出了保护和发展景德镇里弄文化的几点基本思路,具体涉及特色里弄修复、里弄特色生活方式再现以及里弄特色陶瓷文化产业开发等几个方面。%Lanes are a distinctive symbol of Jingdezhen ceramic history and local heritage. Jingdezhen lanes culture is an essential part of its ceramic culture. The heritage and protection of Jingdezhen lanes will have positive inlfuence on sorting and innovating Jingdezhen ceramic culture and developing ceramic industry in such a new period. This paper summarizes the history and present conditions of lanes, describing their cultural content and enormous value. In the end, it puts forward several basic ideas for their protection and development, involving building rules and regulations, repairs of unique lanes and exploitation of lanes culture.

  11. Research of Driver's Lane Change Decision-making Mechanism%驾驶人车道变换决策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 石磊磊; 张琼

    2011-01-01

    The decision-making stage is of great importance to the entire lane change process, but the correlational research on the decision stage is scarce. After defining the lane change scene, based on drivers' perception of external information, driving expectation, integrated cognitive judgment and game theory, the decision-making formation mechanism is analyzed given the traffic conflict exists. By introducing game theory-related knowledge, the non-cooperative mixed strategy game between the object vehicle and the following vehicle in the target lane was further discussed, and both drivers in the game competing for the critical conflict point in the lane change decision-making process. Then, the benefits and Nash equilibrium solution of the participants in the game were deeply researched. Analysis shows that lane-changing decision is composed of information perception and three judgment-decision processes, the factors which would affect decision-making level including information source characteristics, the ability of drivers' perception and comprehensive cognitive judgment, driving behavior characteristics and so on. The Nash equilibrium solution of the non-cooperative mixed strategy game is codetermined by driving safety, traveling time and the importance degree of the incomes.%决策阶段对整个换道过程的安全性有重要影响,但目前缺乏对该阶段的深入研究.界定车道变换研究场景,基于驾驶人对外界信息的感知特性、驾驶期望、综合认知判断以及博弈理论等,分析交通冲突存在前提下驾驶人车道变换决策形成机制.引入博弈理论相关知识,进一步探讨换道决策机制中对象车与目标车道后随车对于临界冲突点进行的非合作混合战略博弈,对博弈双方驾驶人的收益以及纳什均衡解进行深入探析.研究表明车道变换决策机制由信息感知及三次判断决策过程耦合而成,影响驾驶人决策水平的因素包括信息源特征、驾

  12. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  13. Environmental Impacts of ETC Lane Operation%ETC系统运行的环境影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瀚博; 余志; 刘永红; 蔡铭

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of ETC systematic operation, micro-scale simulation tool PARAMICS and the comprehensive tailpipe emission model CMEM were used to develop an operation model for toll stations. To make the simulation results realistic, a lane changing model was developed using the API function provided in PARAMICS, and the key parameters were also adjusted. On this basis, fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions were selected as indices to make quantitative analysis on the operation of toll stations. Considering influences of traffic flow, passing speed and ETC vehicle rate, the environmental effects of ETC lane and toll station were analyzed. The results showed that the total fuel consumption of vehicles in the ETC lane increased linearly with increase of throughput, and the total fuel consumption and emissions decreased rapidly with the increase of passing speed. East Xingang toll station on Huanan expressway was selected for a case study, and a recommendation for ETC system implementation was provided.%为了评估ETC系统运行的环境影响,采用PARAMICS微观仿真平台,结合综合尾气排放模型(CMEM),建立收费站交通运行模型.通过PARAMICS提供的API函数对车辆换道模型进行建模,并对仿真平台的关键参数进行校验,使仿真结果符合收费站的实际运行情况.在此基础上,从油耗和尾气排放量等方面对收费站运行情况进行定量分析.针对车道流量、车辆通过速度以及ETC车辆比例等因素,研究ETC车道以及收费站运行过程的环境影响.结果发现,通过ETC车道的车辆油耗总量随流量增长呈线性增长趋势,通过速度的提高使通过车辆的油耗总量和尾气排放量快速下降.最后选择华南快速干线新港东收费站进行实例分析并提出实施ETC系统的改进建议.

  14. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang;

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  15. A Review of the Evidence Base of Functional Assessment-Based Interventions for Young Students Using One Systematic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brenna K.; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Fettig, Angel; Lane, Kathleen Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This review of the literature was conducted to explore the evidence base for functional assessment-based interventions (FABIs) for one systematic approach developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007). Specifically, this review examined the evidence base for this systematic approach to FABI for young students by applying quality…

  16. On the size of the third homotopy group of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The nonabelian tensor square G \\otimes G of a group G of |G| = pn and |G'| = pm (p prime and n,m \\ge 1) satisfies a classic bound of the form |G \\otimes G|\\le pn(n-m). This allows us to give an upper bound for the order of the third homotopy group p3(SK(G,1)) of the suspension of an Eilenberg--MacLane space K(G,1), because p3(K(G,1)) is isomorphic to the kernel of k : x \\otimes y \\in G \\otimes G \\mapsto [x,y] \\in G'. We prove that |G \\otimes G| \\le p(n-1)(n-m)+2, sharpening not only...

  17. Modeling High-occupancy/toll Lanes in US%美国高承载率车道拥挤收费方案建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文博

    2015-01-01

    High occupancy/toll lanes (HOT) have become an increasingly popular countermeasure to manage the highway congestion in US. In order to draw lessons from the experiences and theories of HOT lanes, the paper presents the concept and literature of HOT lanes, and then establishes a bi-level programming model to simulate the interactions between the HOT lane operators and users. The upper-level model simulates how the operators develop the pricing strategies with various objectives, and the lower-level model addresses how the individual travelers respond to the price strategies and traffic conditions. The paper designs eighteen scenarios to analyze the highway performances of various HOT operations. Results show that, HOT lanes show better congestion-mitigating effects than the conventional measures;the homogeneity assumption tends to underestimate the effectiveness of HOT lanes; and different policy objectives have significant influences on the HOT lane operations.%近年来HOT车道(即高承载率车道拥挤收费方案)已成为美国重要的道路拥挤收费策略.为引鉴其实施经验和管理理论,首先介绍了HOT车道概念与特征,然后采用交通行为建模方法构建了HOT车道管理者与出行者互馈决策的双层规划模型.上层模型模拟管理者的定价策略;下层交通均衡模型模拟个体出行者根据收费水平和交通状态变化而调整出行选择的行为.根据实施方案和应用条件,设计算例分析评价18种可能情形下HOT车道的拥挤管理效果.结果表明,较传统拥挤管理策略,HOT车道缓堵效果更高;同类出行者假设可能会低估HOT车道的缓堵效果;不同的政策目标下HOT车道的实施效果差异显著.

  18. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  19. EFFECT OF CONGESTION ON FUEL COST AND TRAVEL TIME COST ON MULTI-LANE HIGHWAYS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Errampalli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicles normally move at their free speeds when it is least impeded due to traffic flow under lean traffic (free flow conditions. As traffic flow increases, the vehicles cannot sustain their free speeds due to interactions from other vehicles in the traffic stream. In addition to that the vehicles that are operating in the congested traffic conditions will consume more fuel than those operating in steady state traffic conditions for the same average speed. This leads to increase in travel time and fuel consumption of the vehicles and thereby adding to total road user cost (RUC. On the contrary, fuel consumption is also high at very high speeds under free flow traffic flow conditions leading to increase RUC. Considering these scenarios, the travel time and fuel cost of the vehicle due to the congestion and free flow conditions (uncongested has to be necessarily modelled in order to estimate realistic assessment of RUC on Indian highways. In the present study, the congestion cost relationships have been developed between Congestion Factor, a ratio of cost under congestion and steady state conditions and Volume-Capacity Ratio by considering various vehicle types plying on varying widths of multi-lane highways (four, six and eight lane divided carriageways through the collection of exhaustive time related and fuel related data. Time related data was collected through questionnaire survey method whereas fuel consumption data was collected using advanced sophisticated fuel flow measuring equipment (V-Box. The developed equations have been successfully applied to demonstrate their applicability in terms of estimating realistic effect of congestion on time and fuel cost by considering a section on NH-2 in Delhi. The analysis shows that the congestion effect is more significant on fuel cost for heavy commercial vehicles whereas it is more prominent on time cost for passenger vehicles. However, the congestion effect on combined fuel and time cost is

  20. The Effect of Sharrows, Painted Bicycle Lanes and Physically Protected Paths on the Severity of Bicycle Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Wall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted individual and ecologic analyses of prospectively collected data from 839 injured bicyclists who collided with motorized vehicles and presented to Bellevue Hospital, an urban Level-1 trauma center in New York City, from December 2008 to August 2014. Variables included demographics, scene information, rider behaviors, bicycle route availability, and whether the collision occurred before the road segment was converted to a bicycle route. We used negative binomial modeling to assess the risk of injury occurrence following bicycle path or lane implementation. We dichotomized U.S. National Trauma Data Bank Injury Severity Scores (ISS into none/mild (0–8 versus moderate, severe, or critical (>8 and used adjusted multivariable logistic regression to model the association of ISS with collision proximity to sharrows (i.e., bicycle lanes designated for sharing with cars, painted bicycle lanes, or physically protected paths. Negative binomial modeling of monthly counts, while adjusting for pedestrian activity, revealed that physically protected paths were associated with 23% fewer injuries. Painted bicycle lanes reduced injury risk by nearly 90% (IDR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.33. Holding all else equal, compared to no bicycle route, a bicycle injury nearby sharrows was nearly twice as likely to be moderate, severe, or critical (adjusted odds ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.91–4.15. Painted bicycle lanes and physically protected paths were 1.52 (95% CI 0.85–2.71 and 1.66 (95% CI 0.85–3.22 times as likely to be associated with more than mild injury respectively.

  1. The application of active-source seismic imaging techniques to transtensional problems the Walker Lane and Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Anna Marie

    The plate margin in the western United States is an active tectonic region that contains the integrated deformation between the North American and Pacific plates. Nearly focused plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates within the northern Gulf of California gives way north of the Salton Trough to more diffuse deformation. In particular a large fraction of the slip along the southernmost San Andreas fault ultimately bleeds eastward, including about 20% of the total plate motion budget that finds its way through the transtensional Walker Lane Deformation Belt just east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Fault-bounded ranges combined with intervening low-lying basins characterize this region; the down-dropped features are often filled with water, which present opportunities for seismic imaging at unprecedented scales. Here I present active-source seismic imaging from the Salton Sea and Walker Lane Deformation Belt, including both marine applications in lakes and shallow seas, and more conventional land-based techniques along the Carson range front. The complex fault network beneath the Salton Trough in eastern California is the on-land continuation of the Gulf of California rift system, where North American-Pacific plate motion is accommodated by a series of long transform faults, separated by small pull-apart, transtensional basins; the right-lateral San Andreas fault bounds this system to the north where it carries, on average, about 50% of total plate motion. The Salton Sea resides within the most youthful and northerly "spreading center" in this several thousand-kilometer-long rift system. The Sea provides an ideal environment for the use of high-data-density marine seismic techniques. Two active-source seismic campaigns in 2010 and 2011 show progression of the development of the Salton pull-apart sub-basin and the northerly propagation of the Imperial-San Andreas system through time at varying resolutions. High fidelity seismic imagery

  2. Similar and Contrasting Response of Rifting and Transtension in the Gulf of California and Walker Lane to Preceding Arc Magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C. D.; Faulds, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Gulf of California (GC) and Walker Lane (WL) have undergone strikingly similar development with strike- slip faulting following initial extension. They differ significantly in the amount of Pacific-North American plate motion taken up by each: essentially all relative motion in the GC and ~25% in the WL. In both areas, ancestral arc magmatism preceded and probably focused deformation, perhaps because heating and/or hydration weakened the lithosphere. However, differences in migration of the Rivera (RTJ) and Mendocino triple junctions (MTJ) related to differences in the orientation of plate boundaries determined how strike-slip faulting developed. Abrupt southward jumps in the RTJ led to abrupt cessation of magmatism over arc lengths of as much as 1000 km and initiation of east-northeast extension within the future GC. The best known jump was at ~13 Ma, but an earlier jump occurred at ~18 Ma. Arc magmatism has been best documented in Baja California, Sonora, and Nayarit, although Baja constituted the most-trenchward fringe of the ancestral arc. New and published data indicate that Sinaloa underwent a similar history of arc magmatism. The greatest volume of the arc immediately preceding RTJ jumps was probably in mainland Mexico. Arc magmatism shut off following these jumps, extension began in the future GC, and strike-slip faulting either followed or accompanied extension in the GC. In contrast, the MTJ migrated progressively northward. New and published data indicate magmatism generally shut off coincident with this retreat, but distinct nodes or zones of magmatism, presumably unrelated to subduction, persisted or initiated after arc activity ceased. We have suggested that the WL has grown progressively northward, following the retreating arc, and that the northern WL is its youngest part. However, the timing of initiation of strike-slip faulting in most of the WL is poorly known and controversial. Testing our hypothesis requires determining initiation and

  3. A new approach to e-commerce customs control in China: Integrated supply chain - A practical application towards large-scale data pipeline implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hu (Rong); Yao-Hua Tan (Yao Hua); F. Heijmann (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDevelopments in e-commerce are presenting new challenges in customs control and China's customs agency is developing a new approach to how it addresses these challenges. China Customs has adopted an integrated supply chain approach to secure international trade lanes and to facilitate le

  4. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 09 March 1988 to 10 March 1988 (NODC Accession 8800094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  5. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIOT LANE using BT and XBT casts in the NW Atlantic Ocean for 1987-05-31 (NODC Accession 8700225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC Harriot Lane in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean and TOGA Area - Atlantic...

  6. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC HARRIET LANE using BT and XBT casts in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean from 21 July 1988 to 18 August 1988 (NODC Accession 8800256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC HARRIET LANE in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from...

  7. Modeling the Impact of Alternative Immunization Strategies: Using Matrices as Memory Lanes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J Alonso

    Full Text Available Existing modeling approaches are divided between a focus on the constitutive (micro elements of systems or on higher (macro organization levels. Micro-level models enable consideration of individual histories and interactions, but can be unstable and subject to cumulative errors. Macro-level models focus on average population properties, but may hide relevant heterogeneity at the micro-scale. We present a framework that integrates both approaches through the use of temporally structured matrices that can take large numbers of variables into account. Matrices are composed of several bidimensional (time×age grids, each representing a state (e.g. physiological, immunological, socio-demographic. Time and age are primary indices linking grids. These matrices preserve the entire history of all population strata and enable the use of historical events, parameters and states dynamically in the modeling process. This framework is applicable across fields, but particularly suitable to simulate the impact of alternative immunization policies. We demonstrate the framework by examining alternative strategies to accelerate measles elimination in 15 developing countries. The model recaptured long-endorsed policies in measles control, showing that where a single routine measles-containing vaccine is employed with low coverage, any improvement in coverage is more effective than a second dose. It also identified an opportunity to save thousands of lives in India at attractively low costs through the implementation of supplementary immunization campaigns. The flexibility of the approach presented enables estimating the effectiveness of different immunization policies in highly complex contexts involving multiple and historical influences from different hierarchical levels.

  8. Reach Extension and Capacity Enhancement of VCSEL-Based Transmission Over Single-Lane MMF Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Motaghiannezam, S. M. Reza; Kocot, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines several techniques for expanding the carrying capacity of multimode fiber (MMF) using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The first approach utilizes short wavelength division multiplexing in combination with MMF optimized for operation between 850...... of a standard OM3 MMF to more than 2.1 GHz·km for standard MMF is presented. A statistical model is used to predict the bandwidth enhancement of installed MMF and indicates that significant link extension can be achieved using selective modal launch techniques. These results demonstrate the continued...... effectiveness of VCSEL-based MMF links in current and future data center environments....

  9. A lane-level LBS system for vehicle network with high-precision BDS/GPS positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem.

  10. Safety evaluation of intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for left-turn using field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yue

    2017-03-01

    As a newly proposed unconventional intersection design, the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL) intersection is found to be effective in increasing the intersection capacity with high level of application flexibility, especially under heavy left-turn traffic conditions. However, the operational safety of EFL is of most concern to the authority prior to its implementation. This paper evaluates the safety of the EFL intersections by studying the behavior of left-turn maneuvers using field data collected at 7 locations in China. A total of 22830 left-turn vehicles were captured, in which 9793 vehicles turned left using the mixed-usage area. Four potential safety problems, including the red-light violations, head-on collision risks, trapped vehicles, and rear-end crash risks, were discussed. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the safety risk between the EFL intersection and the conventional one. Results indicate that the safety problems of EFL intersections mainly lie in higher percentages in red-light violations at the pre-signal (1.83% higher), wrong-way violation problems during the peak hours (the violation rate reaches up to 11.07%), and the lower travel speeds in the mixed-usage area (18.75% lower). Such risks can be counteracted, however, by providing more guiding information, installing cameras to investigate and punish violation maneuvers, and adjusting design parameter values for layout design and signal timing, respectively.

  11. Late Neogene slip transfer and extension within the curved Whisky Flat fault system central Walker Lane, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biholar, Alexander Kenneth Casian

    In Whisky Flat of west-central Nevada, northwest-striking faults in the Walker Lane curve to east-northeast orientations at the northern limits of the Mina deflection. This curve in strike results in the formation of ˜685 m deep depression bounded by north-south convex to the east range-front faults that at the apex of fault curvature are bisected at a high angle by a structural stepover. We use the vertical offset of a late Miocene erosional surface mapped in the highlands and inferred from gravity depth inversion in the basin to measure the magnitude of displacement on faults. A N65°W extensional axis determined through fault-slip inversion is used to constrain the direction in displacement models. Through the use of a forward rectilinear displacement model, we document that the complex array of faults is capable of developing with broadly contemporaneous displacements on all structures since the opening of the basin during the Pliocene.

  12. Design of Control and Monitoring System to Avoid Inter-Ship Collisions in West Shipping Lane Tanjung Perak Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina P. Sari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of several ship accidents in narrow waters of Madura strait which is the west shipping lane of Tanjung Perak Surabaya has inspired the research on the design of a control system on the ship to avoid any collision between ships. The existence of automatic control with the autopilot is required to minimize the occurrence of collisions between ships In this final study investigated the application of fuzzy logic to control the yaw angle on the vessel MV Karana Sembilan. Fuzzy logic used is Sugeno Takagi type with the input of the error yaw, yaw rate and distance of the ship with a disturbance. Tests conducted with a control system without disturbance, with disturbance, and the presence of obstacles in front of the ship. Performance of control system is obtained by using the disturbance, the fuzzy appearance is 2:41 hm distance position, the speed of 7.5 knots and 0.5 error, then the resulting yaw angle is 6580. Results control with fuzzy syncronized with monitoring at M&C system in visual basic. The view of the monitoring, 3 types of scenarios obtained. For the first scenario, which is created with the control on it, produces the best results of the avoidance, if compared to the second scenario, with trajectory and control anti-collision cross, and if compared with the third scenario that has no built control system with decision-making on it.

  13. 基于Kalman滤波器的车道保持辅助系统研究%ON LANE-KEEPING-ASSIST SYSTEM BASED ON KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 张志伟

    2014-01-01

    以非线性车辆动力学模型作为系统被控对象,利用Matlab/Simulink软件设计一种基于Kalman滤波算法的车道保持驾驶辅助系统。运用Kalman算法估计车辆行驶状态信息,并利用“预瞄-跟随”驾驶员模型-车辆模型-控制器所组成的驾驶员模型在回路仿真的方式对所设计系统进行验证。结果显示所设计的车道保持辅助系统能有效提高车辆路径跟踪能力。%We take nonlinear vehicle dynamic model as the controlled object of the system,use Matlab/Simulink software to have designed a lane-keeping-assist system for driving which is based on Kalman filter algorithm.The Kalman algorithm is employed to evaluate the driving state information of the vehicle,and the driver model consisting of pre-targeting-following driver model,vehicle model and controller is utilised to verify the designed system in means of driver-in-the-loop simulation.Result demonstrates that the designed lane-keeping-assistance system can effectively improve the vehicle lane-following capability.

  14. Study of highway lane-changing mo del under rain weather%雨天高速公路车辆换道模型研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫华; 颜冉; 冯忠祥; 王锟

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall decreases road adhesion coefficient and sight distance of drivers, these can easily lead to traffic accidents which affect the road traffic efficiency. To study the vehicle lane-changing behavior under rainfall conditions, the adhesion coefficient parameter and drivers’ reaction delay time parameter are introduced into the safety distance model. Based on the relationship between rainfall intensity and the water film thickness as well as the relationship among the road adhesion coefficient, water film thickness, and vehicle speed, the influence of rainfall on the road adhesion coefficient is quantified. And based on the relationship between visibility distance under rainfall condition and safe distance upon stopping sight distance, the influence of rainfall on drivers’ reaction delay time is quantified. Therefore, the safety distance is different under different rainfall conditions and vehicle speed, it no longer is a fixed value like in other lane-changing models by quantifying the two parameters. The improved lane-changing model is established by considering the influence of the speed difference on vehicle lane-changing behavior; the speed difference is not only existing between the research vehicle and the adjacent lane vehicle ahead, but also between the research vehicle and the adjacent lane after the car. And the safety distance model including the two parameters is embedded in the improved lane-changing model by the lane-changing rules. For the three-lane traffic, the lane-changing rules which take into consideration the safety distance and the speed difference are established respectively for each lane, and the simulation analysis is conducted using cellular automata based on the above mentioned rules. Simulation results show that in the medium density the lane-changing rates in the rain condition are significantly lower compared with sunny days, the biggest drop is about 25%. Through comparison and analysis of the space-time diagrams and the

  15. 一种军警与ETC混合的车道系统%Design of Military-police and ETC Mixed Lane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦凯; 吴倩岚

    2012-01-01

    目前,高速公路为军警车开辟的专用车道车流量明显不足,资源浪费严重。为提升高速公路收费站的整体通行能力,基于电子不停车收费的理念以及军警车道的特殊性,提出军警与ETC混合的车道系统设计方案,结合车牌识别与ETC技术,实现军警与ETC混合的车道应用。%Currently,the traffic of dedicated lane for the military-police vehicle is obviously insufficient,which has lead to a big waste of resources.In order to enhance the overall capacity of the highway toll station,this paper puts forward a new design of military-police and ETC mixed lane system based on the electronic toll collection and the specificity requirements of military-police.The design combines with license plate recognition and ETC technology,which finally achieve the mixed application of military/ police and ETC lane.

  16. Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model to Evaluate "Lane-Like Segregation" of Pedestrian Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Teknomo, Kardi; Inamura, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    One of the objectives of the pedestrian analysis is to evaluate the effects of proposed policy on the pedestrian facilities before its implementation. The implementation of a policy without pedestrian analysis might lead to a very costly trial and error due to the implementation cost (i.e. user cost, construction time and cost, etc.). On the other hand, using good analysis tools, the trial and error of policy could be done in the analysis level. Once the analysis could prove a good performance, the implementation of the policy is straightforward. The problem is how to evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively toward the behavior of pedestrians before its implementation. Since the interaction of pedestrians cannot be well address using a macroscopic level of analysis, a microscopic level of analysis is the choice. However, the analytical solution of the microscopic pedestrian model is very difficult and simulation models are more practical approach. To evaluate the impact of the policy quantitatively to...

  17. Video-based lane detection and tracking algorithm%基于视频序列的车道线检测和跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淋; 梁华为; 王智灵; 邓耀

    2013-01-01

    The lane detection is a critical technology for unmanned driving system and a series of driving assistance systems.Traditional lane detection algorithms are easily disturbed by the other traffic lines on the road.A new method for lane detection and tracking is put forward in this paper.First,the adaptive image threshold algorithm is adopted for lane features extraction.By means of setting the ROI twice and planning the tracking region,the ROI decreases gradually.At last,the feature points in the ROI are transformed from the image coordinate system to the real-world coordinate system before they are used to accomplish curve fitting through least square method.Experiments under various conditions,such as highway and urban environments,show that the method proposed in this paper is able to accurately recognize the lane marks in real time and effectively eliminate the disturbance of the other traffic line markings.%车道线检测是无人驾驶系统以及一系列辅助驾驶系统的关键技术环节.传统的车道线检测方法容易受到其他交通标志线干扰,提出了一种新的车道线检测与跟踪方法.该方法首先使用自适应阈值算法提取特征,通过ROI二次设置以及跟踪区域规划,逐步减小感兴趣区域,最后将感兴趣区域内的特征点从图像坐标系转换到世界坐标系下,以最小二乘方法进行曲线拟合.在高速公路及城区道路等多种工况下的实验表明,提出的方法能够正确实时的识别出车道线,有效的消除了其他交通标线的干扰.

  18. AnovoCare Nursing Home, Stockhole Lane, Cloghran, Swords, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reynolds, A

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to establish the feeding history, presentation, management and rate of resolution for an Irish cohort of children with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) attending a hospital-based outpatient service. This was a cohort study consisting of two parts: a retrospective chart review and a follow-up questionnaire. Fifty-one infants (male: 61%, n=31) were enrolled. Twenty-one (41%) had IgE-mediated allergy. Twenty-nine (57%) had non-IgE mediated allergy. Twenty-two (49%) had tried ≥3 different formulas prior to diagnosis. Of the children who had reached two years, the overall rate of tolerance was 53% (IgE: 35%, non-IgE: 67%). Mild cases of CMPA can be managed in the community. Potential severe complications include faltering growth and anaphylaxis. CMPA should be managed using a multi-disciplinary approach. Increased awareness of CMPA may speed diagnosis and decrease the use of inappropriate formulas.

  19. Life in the fast lane for protein crystallization and X-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy; Lin, Dawei; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Gavira, Jose A.; Ng, Joseph D. (UAH); (NASA); (Georgia)

    2010-07-20

    The common goal for structural genomic centers and consortiums is to decipher as quickly as possible the three-dimensional structures for a multitude of recombinant proteins derived from known genomic sequences. Since X-ray crystallography is the foremost method to acquire atomic resolution for macromolecules, the limiting step is obtaining protein crystals that can be useful of structure determination. High-throughput methods have been developed in recent years to clone, express, purify, crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein gene product rapidly using automated devices, commercialized kits and consolidated protocols. However, the average number of protein structures obtained for most structural genomic groups has been very low compared to the total number of proteins purified. As more entire genomic sequences are obtained for different organisms from the three kingdoms of life, only the proteins that can be crystallized and whose structures can be obtained easily are studied. Consequently, an astonishing number of genomic proteins remain unexamined. In the era of high-throughput processes, traditional methods in molecular biology, protein chemistry and crystallization are eclipsed by automation and pipeline practices. The necessity for high-rate production of protein crystals and structures has prevented the usage of more intellectual strategies and creative approaches in experimental executions. Fundamental principles and personal experiences in protein chemistry and crystallization are minimally exploited only to obtain 'low-hanging fruit' protein structures. We review the practical aspects of today's high-throughput manipulations and discuss the challenges in fast pace protein crystallization and tools for crystallography. Structural genomic pipelines can be improved with information gained from low-throughput tactics that may help us reach the higher-bearing fruits. Examples of recent developments in this area

  20. Life in the fast lane for protein crystallization and X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy; Lin, Dawei; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Gavira, Jose A.; Ng, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    The common goal for structural genomic centers and consortiums is to decipher as quickly as possible the three-dimensional structures for a multitude of recombinant proteins derived from known genomic sequences. Since X-ray crystallography is the foremost method to acquire atomic resolution for macromolecules, the limiting step is obtaining protein crystals that can be useful of structure determination. High-throughput methods have been developed in recent years to clone, express, purify, crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein gene product rapidly using automated devices, commercialized kits and consolidated protocols. However, the average number of protein structures obtained for most structural genomic groups has been very low compared to the total number of proteins purified. As more entire genomic sequences are obtained for different organisms from the three kingdoms of life, only the proteins that can be crystallized and whose structures can be obtained easily are studied. Consequently, an astonishing number of genomic proteins remain unexamined. In the era of high-throughput processes, traditional methods in molecular biology, protein chemistry and crystallization are eclipsed by automation and pipeline practices. The necessity for high-rate production of protein crystals and structures has prevented the usage of more intellectual strategies and creative approaches in experimental executions. Fundamental principles and personal experiences in protein chemistry and crystallization are minimally exploited only to obtain "low-hanging fruit" protein structures. We review the practical aspects of today's high-throughput manipulations and discuss the challenges in fast pace protein crystallization and tools for crystallography. Structural genomic pipelines can be improved with information gained from low-throughput tactics that may help us reach the higher-bearing fruits. Examples of recent developments in this area are reported from

  1. Life in the fast lane for protein crystallization and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy; Lin, Dawei; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Gavira, José A; Ng, Joseph D

    2005-07-01

    The common goal for structural genomic centers and consortiums is to decipher as quickly as possible the three-dimensional structures for a multitude of recombinant proteins derived from known genomic sequences. Since X-ray crystallography is the foremost method to acquire atomic resolution for macromolecules, the limiting step is obtaining protein crystals that can be useful of structure determination. High-throughput methods have been developed in recent years to clone, express, purify, crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein gene product rapidly using automated devices, commercialized kits and consolidated protocols. However, the average number of protein structures obtained for most structural genomic groups has been very low compared to the total number of proteins purified. As more entire genomic sequences are obtained for different organisms from the three kingdoms of life, only the proteins that can be crystallized and whose structures can be obtained easily are studied. Consequently, an astonishing number of genomic proteins remain unexamined. In the era of high-throughput processes, traditional methods in molecular biology, protein chemistry and crystallization are eclipsed by automation and pipeline practices. The necessity for high-rate production of protein crystals and structures has prevented the usage of more intellectual strategies and creative approaches in experimental executions. Fundamental principles and personal experiences in protein chemistry and crystallization are minimally exploited only to obtain "low-hanging fruit" protein structures. We review the practical aspects of today's high-throughput manipulations and discuss the challenges in fast pace protein crystallization and tools for crystallography. Structural genomic pipelines can be improved with information gained from low-throughput tactics that may help us reach the higher-bearing fruits. Examples of recent developments in this area are reported from

  2. Trypsin from the processing waste of the lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) and its compatibility with oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espósito, Talita S; Marcuschi, Marina; Amaral, Ian P G; Carvalho, Luiz B; Bezerra, Ranilson S

    2010-05-26

    A trypsin from the viscera of the lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) was purified by heat treatment, fractionation with ammonium sulfate and affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 28.4 kDa (SDS-PAGE). The purified enzyme was capable of hydrolyzing the specific substrate for trypsin benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BApNA) and was inhibited by benzamidine and tosyl lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), synthetic trypsin inhibitors and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), which is a serine-protease inhibitor. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 9.0 and 45 degrees C and retained 100% of the activity after incubation at the optimal temperature for 30 min. At a concentration of 10 mM, activity was slightly activated by Ca(2+) and inhibited by the following ions in decreasing order: Cd(2+) > Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+) > Al(3+). The effects of Ba(2+), K(1+) and Li(1+) proved to be less intensive. Using 1% (w/v) azocasein as substrate, the enzyme revealed high resistance (60% residual activity) when incubated with 10% H(2)O(2) for 75 min. The enzyme retained more than 80% activity after 60 min in the presence of different surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80 and sodium choleate). The alkaline protease demonstrated compatibility with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL), such as Bem-te-vi, Surf and Ala, retaining more than 50% of initial activity after 60 min at 25 degrees C and 30 min at 40 degrees C. The thermostability and compatibility of this enzyme with commercial detergents suggest a good potentiality for application in the detergent industry.

  3. Lidar-Based Mapping of Late Quaternary Faulting Along the Grizzly Valley Fault, Walker Lane Seismic Belt, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, C. S.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J.; Glick, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Grizzly Valley fault (GVF) is located within the northern Walker Lane, a zone of right-lateral shear between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range in Plumas County. The GVF extends southeasterly from near Mt. Ingalls along the eastern side of Lake Davis. It may partially connect with the Hot Creek fault within Sierra Valley and extend south to Loyalton with an overall approximate length of 50 km. Comparison of high-resolution topography developed from LiDAR data with published bedrock geologic mapping documents the presence of geomorphic features that provide information on fault activity of the GVF. Field mapping verified tectonically deformed and offset late Quaternary surfaces identified on bare-earth LiDAR imagery across the GVF within glacial deposits on the eastern margin of Lake Davis, and alluvial deposits in Sierra Valley. Along the GVF, conspicuous geomorphic and hydrologic features include scarps in alluvial surfaces, elongated depressions aligned with adjacent linear escarpments, truncated bedrock spurs, closed depressions, linear swales, right-lateral deflections of creeks and river courses, and shutter ridges, as well as springs and linear seeps consistent with right-lateral strike-slip faulting. The discontinuous nature of observed fault traces combined with the apparent down-to-the-west offset of alluvial surfaces at the southern and northern ends of the eastern margin of Lake Davis are consistent with a broad bend or step over in the fault. Scarp profiles of apparently faulted surfaces extracted from LiDAR data document vertical offsets of up to 14 m. Our study suggest that the GVF is an oblique, right-lateral fault that has been active in the late Quaternary. This study complements on-going investigations by DWR to assess the impact of seismic hazards on State Water Project infrastructure.

  4. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels ~ 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of

  5. A province-scale block model of Walker Lane and western Basin and Range crustal deformation constrained by GPS observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Bormann, J.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Walker Lane in the western Great Basin of the western United States is an 800 km long and 100 km wide zone of active intracontinental transtension that absorbs ~10 mm/yr, about 20% of the Pacific/North America plate boundary relative motion. Lying west of the Sierra Nevada/Great Valley microplate (SNGV) and adjoining the Basin and Range Province to the east, deformation is predominantly shear strain overprinted with a minor component of extension. The Walker Lane responds with faulting, block rotations, structural step-overs, and has distinct and varying partitioned domains of shear and extension. Resolving these complex deformation patterns requires a long term observation strategy with a dense network of GPS stations (spacing ~20 km). The University of Nevada, Reno operates the 373 station Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada transtension (MAGNET) semi-continuous network that supplements coverage by other networks such as EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory, which alone has insufficient density to resolve the deformation patterns. Uniform processing of data from these GPS mega-networks provides a synoptic view and new insights into the kinematics and mechanics of Walker Lane tectonics. We present velocities for thousands of stations with time series between 3 to 17 years in duration aligned to our new GPS-based North America fixed reference frame NA12. The velocity field shows a rate budget across the southern Walker Lane of ~10 mm/yr, decreasing northward to ~7 mm/yr at the latitude of the Mohawk Valley and Pyramid Lake. We model the data with a new block model that estimates rotations and slip rates of known active faults between the Mojave Desert and northern Nevada and northeast California. The density of active faults in the region requires including a relatively large number of blocks in the model to accurately estimate deformation patterns. With 49 blocks, our the model captures structural detail not represented in previous province-scale models, and

  6. Analysis of Drivers' Lane Changing Decision-making Mechanism and Its Visual Characteristics%驾驶人换道决策机制及视觉特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 郭应时

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze drivers' behavior characteristics before lane changing, and extract the characterization parameters reflecting the lane changing intent, experiments in real environment were designed. Based on drivers' perception of external information and judgment, the formation mechanism of lane changing decision making was analyzed in detail. According to drivers' fixation characteristics on rearview mirror, lane changing intent time window was determined, characterization parameters reflecting drivers' lane changing intent were extracted subsequently. The results show that lane-changing decision is composed of information perception and three judgment-decision processes, that drivers' lane changing intent time window is about 5 s, and that fixation frequencies on rearview mirrors and blind areas, as well as fixation duration and proba-biliies on related lanes could effectively characterize drivers' lane changing intent.%为透析换道前驾驶人行为机理,提取可以体现驾驶人换道意图的表征参数,设计真实道路条件下的实车试验,对换道决策机制进行深入研究.基于驾驶人对外界信息的感知特性、判断决策等,分析驾驶人车道变换决策的形成机理.依据换道前驾驶人对后视镜的注视特性确定换道意图时窗,进一步提取驾驶人车道变换意图表征指标.分析表明,换道决策由信息感知及3个判断决策过程复合而成,驾驶人换道意图表征时窗约为5 s;后视镜及视野盲区注视频次,当前车道与目标车道的注视时间及注视概率等指标都可以用来有效表征驾驶人的车道变换意图.

  7. Influence of inherited features on the boundaries and fault patterns of the Transtensional Gulf of California to Walker Lane/Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhoefer, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Basin and Range (BR) includes a continuous belt from the Gulf of California extensional province of Mexico through Southwestern USA to the Walker Lane and northern BR. This includes the core extensional to transtensional belt that lies east of the Pacific - North America (PAC-NAM) plate boundary. Much of the BR is the result of the westward to northwestward motion of the Baja California and Sierra Nevada microplates away from North America during PAC-NAM motion. These microplates are parts of the Cretaceous batholith and the eastern edge of the batholiths define the western edge of the BR. The transtensional faulting of eastern Baja California and Walker Lane are remarkably similar and show down-to-the-east normal faults along the batholith boundary. To the east are linked normal and strike-slip faults, the latter striking from parallel to relative motion of the microplates to nearly parallel to the batholith boundary. The Walker Lane boundary has domains of strain partitioning and other domains with northwesterly regional shear and no partitioning. Why certain areas are partitioned is not known, but secondary inherited structures may play a role. The eastern edge of the BR is dominated by the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Colorado Plateau and is more variable in faulting patterns because the boundary is more variable in shape, the previous geologic history is more complex, and most extension occurred just before and in the early stage of PAC-NAM motion. The Sierra Madre is likely underlain by a large batholith formed during caldera eruptions in the Oligocene; this batholith roughly parallels the Cretaceous batholith on the Baja California microplate and the SE BR is dominated by early extensional faults. The southern and western edges of the Colorado Plateau form the eastern boundary of the BR in the north with mainly ENE-directed core complexes in pre-17-15 Ma PAC-NAM history. Extension near Las Vegas 17 - ~10 Ma was westward and the inherited NE

  8. Development of adjustment functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments on rural two-lane roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to evaluate the safety effectiveness of specific single treatment on roadways by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs). However, there is a need to also assess safety effects of multiple treatments since multiple treatments are usually simultaneously applied to roadways. Due to the lack of sufficient CMFs of multiple treatments, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides combining method for multiple CMFs. However, it is cautioned in the HSM and related sources that combined safety effect of multiple CMFs may be over or under estimated. Moreover, the literature did not evaluate the accuracy of the combining method using CMFs obtained from the same study area. Thus, the main objectives of this research are: (1) to estimate CMFs and crash modification functions (CM Functions) for two single treatments (shoulder rumble strips, widening (1-9ft) shoulder width) and combination (installing shoulder rumble strips+widening shoulder width) using the observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) method and (2) to develop adjustment factors and functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments based on the accuracy of the combined CMFs for multiple treatments estimated by the existing combining method. Data was collected for rural two-lane roadways in Florida and Florida-specific safety performance functions (SPFs) were estimated for different crash types and severities. The CM Functions and adjustment functions were developed using linear and nonlinear regression models. The results of before-after with EB method show that the two single treatments and combination are effective in reducing total and SVROR (single vehicle run-off roadway) crashes. The results indicate that the treatments were more safety effective for the roadway segments with narrower original shoulder width in the before period. It was found that although the CMFs for multiple treatments (i.e., combination of two single treatments) were generally

  9. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday and Saturday, Dec. 3-4, 8 pmTwo Great Sheep两支绵羊 (Liang Zhi Mian Yang)Director: Liu Hao Genre: Comedy, Drama Produced: 2004 Running time- 98 minutesDeshan (Sun Yunkun) is an old farmer living at the outskirts of a remote village situated in an extremely poor mountainous area. He farms the harsh soil of his homeland, barely managing to scrape together enough food to feed himself and his wife. He shares a hard, but serene, destiny with his fellow villagers until the government intervenes in his life in the manner of a

  10. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday & Saturday, October 8-9, 8pmSouth of the CloudsYun De Nan Fang 云的南方Director: Zhu Wen Starring: Li Xuejian and Jin Zi Produced: 2004, 100 minutesA work of stringent and serene intelligence, South of the Clouds combines a sense of absurdity with delicate sadness and a feeling of tragic necessity. The hero is an affable, usually disoriented middle-aged widower who, encouraged by his daughter, makes a trip to the Yunnan Province of Southern

  11. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Directed: Dayyan EngStarring: Gong Beibei, Wu Chao, Li Yixiang and Zhou KuiProduced: 2001, 11 minutes A woman drives a bus along deserted country roads, and she picks up a young man alongthe way. Although the man tries to talk to the driver, she's not interested. Eventually, two robbersclimb into the bus, steal the passengers' money, and drag the driver behind some bushes,where they rape her. Only one passenger—the young man—tries to protect her. The remaining passengers sit

  12. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday & Saturday,Sept.10-11,8 pmMaster of Everything自娱自乐Director:Xin LeeStarring:John Lone,Coco Lee,Tao HongProduced:2004,97 minutes Based an true events, "Master of Everything" mixes two of the most popularfilm genres in Asia-comedy and kung-fu.

  13. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday and Saturday, July 2-3, 8pmMama’s Go/aJin Wa Wa 金娃娃Director: Joanne Cheng Produced: 2003, 92 minutesFilmed in the historical town of Lijiang, "Mama’s Gold" tells the moving story of one woman (Mama) and her 300 once destitutechildren, ranging in age from 2 to 18 and originating from 14 different ethnic groups, all survivors of devastating earthquakes and poverty stricken regions of rural China.Based on the conflict between Mama and her American donor who took Mama to Chinese court, the film reveals the complex multi-cultural worlds of both children and adults who unfortunately shared little in common. Told through the filmmaker ’s point of view, the film examines life in the orphanage and visits the Children’s mountain homes. The film captures the emotional journey of Mama and her children who desperately need each other.Cheng also directed, wrote, produced the award-winning China Gold Rush, an inter-cultural documentary on changing lives in millennium China. Cheng went to college in the

  14. Charry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Friday and Saturday,May7-8,8:00pm In Expectation亚山云雨(Wu Shan Yun Yu)Director:Zhang MingActors:Zhang Xianmin,Zhong Ping and Li BingProduced:1996,90 minutes Set against the backdrop of the Three Gorges Dam,this film follows the intertwined lives of three people, a boat signal pilot,an innkeeper,and a policeman.Mai.Qiang,a signal pilot,leads a

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, lane, mutton, and yellowtail snappers. [Lutjanus griseus; Lutjanus synagris; Lutjanus analis; Ocyurus chrysurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortone, S.A.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-06-01

    These four snapper species have similar morphologies as well as life history and environmental requirements. With some exceptions they are restricted to tropical and subtropical coastal areas of the western Atlantic. Adults often associate with coral reef and other hard-bottom communities. Juveniles and pre-adults usually inhabit shallow, inshore areas and are often found in seagrass beds. Reproduction usually takes place offshore in the warmer months of the year. Fecundity is positively related to female body size, but there is substantial variation both within and among the species. Juveniles obtain adult body proportions at about 50 mm SL. Approximate total maximum lengths of adults are 900 mm for gray snapper, 446 mm for lane snapper, and 750 mm for mutton and yellowtail snappers. Otoliths are the most preferred body part used to determine age. Most snappers attain sexual maturity after 3 to 5 years at a size range of 180 to 350 mm FL. Males mature at a smaller size than females. Recent commercial catches of gray and lane snappers have been increasing, whereas mutton and yellowtail snappers show no clear trends. Sport fishing probably has a substantial impact on the stocks of all four species. All four snappers feed predominantly on small benthic fishes and crustaceans, but yellowtail snapper feed on more pelagic animals. Upper water temperature tolerance limits are 27.2 to 32.5/sup 0/C and lower limits are 11 to 14/sup 0/C.

  16. Analysis of the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixing traffic flow in a two-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yong-Sheng; Shi Pei-Ji; Zeng Qiong; Ma Chang-Xi; Lin Fang; Sun Peng; Yin Xiao-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Based on the existing classical cellular automaton model of traffic flow,a cellular automaton traffic model with different-maximum-speed vehicles mixed on a single lane is proposed,in which public transit and harbour-shaped bus stops are taken into consideration. Parameters such as length of cellular automaton,operation speed and random slow mechanism are re-demarcated. A harbour-shaped bus stop is set up and the vehicle changing lane regulation is changed.Through computer simulation,the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixed traffic flow and traffic capacity is analysed. The results show that a public transport system can ease urban traffic congestion hut creates new jams at the same time,and that the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on traffic capacity is considerable. To develop urban traffic,attention should be paid to the occupation rate of public transit vehicles and traffic development in a haphazard way should be strictly avoided.

  17. Experimental Study of Drivers' Overtaking Behavior on Two-lane Highways%双车道公路驾驶员超车行为试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江

    2013-01-01

    By high-accuracy GPS dynamic data acquisition instrument,the author designed the experimental plan of drivers' overtaking on the two-lane highways with the drivers' perceive to measure the overtakable gap and the returnable gap.The experimental results could be used as the basis for the study of two-lane highways' capacity,drivers' overtaking behavior,the design of overtaking sight distance and intelligent transportation system.%通过利用高精度全球定位系统(global positioning system,GPS)动态数据采集仪,结合驾驶员超车过程的感受度,设计了双车道公路上测量可回车车头时距和可超车车头时距的试验方案,获得的实验数据可为研究双车道公路通行能力、驾驶员超车行为、设计超车视距以及构建智能交通系统提供实测数据依据.

  18. Paleomagnetism of the Stanislaus Group, CA reveals revised stratigraphy, Walker Lane kinematics, and radio-isotopic constraints on C5 magnetic subchrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, C. J.; Wright, T. J.; Fischer, C. P.; Busby, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Paleomagnetic study of the c.a. 9.2-10.3 Ma Stanislaus Group of intercalated latite (trachyandesite) lavas, ignimbrites and accessory sediments at three localities in Mono county California reveals: 1) a detailed, revised stratigraphy for the Stanislaus group, 2) kinematic constraints on the part of the Walker Lane since Stanislaus group emplacement, and 3) two age-constrained magnetic subchrons during chron C5N recorded by latites that had previously only been identified in seafloor magnetic anomalies. The revised stratigraphy results from detailed magnetostratigraphy combined with previous 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic constraints and stratigraphic studies. We find the lowermost unit, Table Mountain Latite, to consist of 23 or more individual lava flows falling into 5 magnetic (mostly normal) polarity zones, indicating that these rocks span at least 40,000 years of geologic time, based on the expected duration of magnetic reversals. Overlying Table Mountain Latite is the reversed-polarity Tollhouse Flat member of the Eureka Valley Tuff as described by previous authors. In the Sweetwater Roadless Area, thought to be proximal to the Stanislaus eruptive center, latite lava of both normal and reversed polarity are emplaced ontop of the Tollhouse Flat Member. Normal-polarity By Day member and normal-polarity Upper Member lie at very top of entire sequence. We find no field evidence for the normal polarity Dardanelle Formation latite flow at the top of the Group as had been previously reported by other workers. Instead, the Dardanelle formation member likely corresponds to the latite lava(s) between the By Day and Tollhouse Flat Eureka Valley Tuff. Based on previous 40Ar/39Ar dating, the two reversed zones within our magnetostratigraphy correspond to two of the proposed reversed subchrons/excursions during chron C5N. Direct dating of these reversed units may lead to future improvements to the magnetic polarity timescale for C5N. Our paleomagnetic results from three study

  19. Research on the Design Method of HOV Lane Based on the Basic Section of Urban Arterial Road in China%我国城市快速路基本路段HOV车道设置方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓社军; 陈峻; 李春燕; 毕昕

    2013-01-01

      为了研究高占有率(HOV)车道在我国城市道路中的设置方案,本文以城市快速路基本路段为研究对象,并选择了南京市的两条典型路段进行道路条件与交通条件的调查与分析。选取路段平均速度、延误时间以及运送能力为指标,分别设计了7种车道数分配方案,并运用 VISSIM 仿真软件进行现状和仿真对比分析,研究设置HOV车道的方法。结果表明,在双向六车道的城市快速路基本路段中单独设置一条3+型HOV专用道或者一条3+型HOV专用道和一条公交专用道的组合时,能够最大化提高整个路段的运营效率;双向八车道条件下,当公交和货车比例都相对较低,而小汽车和中客车所占比例相对较高时,设置HOV车道时的利用率可能相对较低,而建立公交专用道则比较合理。%To find how to design the high occupance vechicle lanes (HOV) in the city of China, the traffic and road conditions of the two typical road basic sections of a urban arterial of Nanjing were surveyed. Seven combinations of different function lanes have been designed based on the indexes of section average velocity, time delay and transport capacity VISSIM software was used to simulate the seven projects. The result proved that it would be more efficiency when one 3+HOV lane or one 3+HOV lane combined with one bus-only lane is designed under the condition of bidirectional six traffic lanes in the basic section of urban arterial road.It would be more efficiency to set the bus-only lane than the HOV lane when the rate of the bus and van is lower compare with the car and carpool.

  20. A Recognition Model of Lane Change Intention Based on Driver's Decision Mechanism%基于驾驶人决策机制的换道意图识别模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪捷; 刘志强

    2016-01-01

    According to the producing mechanism of driver's lane change decision, desired speed satisfaction, risk perception coefficient and change feasibility coefficient are put forward and quantified as the identification parameters of lane change decision. The results of analyzing real vehicle test data indicate that quantitative indicators have different correlation with lane change decision, and there is a significant difference among the beginning of lane changing, lane keeping and transition state stage. Fuzzy neural network model is established to identify driver's lane change intention by using desired speed satisfaction, risk perception coefficient and feasibility coefficient of lane change as the input feature index. The research results show that the model accuracy in the early stage of lane change is 89.93%, and the false alarm rate is 9.52%, which both are better than BP neural network model by taking the collision time TTC as input vectors and the Logistic model by using RV, RP and RS as variables. It shows that the model has a good predictive accuracy.%依据驾驶人换道决策的产生机制,提出速度期望满足度、危险感知系数和换道可行性系数作为换道决策的识别指标并确定其量化方法.通过实车试验数据的分析表明:量化指标与换道决策存在不同程度的相关性;同时在换道初期、车道保持及过渡状态阶段存在显著差异.以速度期望满足度、危险感知系数和换道可行性系数为特征输入参数,建立基于模糊神经网络的驾驶人换道意图识别模型,进行驾驶人换道意图的识别.结果表明,该模型在换道初期的预测准确率达到89.93%,虚警率为9.52%,优于以碰撞时间TTC为输入指标的BP神经网络模型,以及以RV、RP、RS为变量的Logistic模型,说明模型具有较好的预测准确性.

  1. Autobot Evolution: A Futuristic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Hariharan#

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SCABOR is an approach for the 3-D lane detection and autonomous driving. Its main attribute is to diagnose the metrology of roads. It has a wide significance in determining the basic structure, the presence of humps and dips and gives a clear and cache information of the way .Our view on this paper is to apply SCABOR along with the application of the GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM in autonomous driving system for safe and fast driving. Here the SCABOR technology’s currentapplication is outlined and its use has been extended to traffic system. We have suggested a unique method for flexible driving. We also suggest ways in which SCABOR technology can be enhanced forfuture applications. Among the significant advantages, these techniques perform well even in high risk zones and congested areas with up to 100% accuracy where many other techniques fail.

  2. A Lean Approach to Improving SE Visibility in Large Operational Systems Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    engineering activities in such instances. An initial generalization of pull concepts using a standard kanban approach was developed. During the development... Kanban -based Scheduling System (KSS) (Turner, Lane, et al. 2012). The second phase of this research is describing an implementation of the KSS concept...software and systems engineering tasks and the required capabilities. Because kanban concepts have been primarily used with single level value streams

  3. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  4. A nonclassical Radau collocation method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index 4.75 ≤ α < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirani, M. D.; Maleki, M.; Kajani, M. T.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index α when 4.75 ≤ α ≤ 5 is introduced. The method is based upon nonclassical Gauss-Radau collocation points and Freud type weights. Nonclassical orthogonal polynomials, nonclassical Radau points and weighted interpolation are introduced and are utilized in the interval [0,1]. A smooth, strictly monotonic transformation is used to map the infinite domain x ∈ [0,∞) onto a half-open interval t ∈ [0,1). The resulting problem on the finite interval is then transcribed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations using collocation. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  5. Lane Design for National and Provincial Highway Pavement Maintenance%国省道路面大中修分车道设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春林

    2014-01-01

    Along with the improvement of road network,large and medium-sized maintenance is to be the main task in the future of national and provincial highway maintenance department.In this paper, through a provincial road repairing project,according to the radically different diseases situation and traffic axle loads in left and right pavement,the lane design concept was put forward for national and provincial highway pavement maintenance.%随着路网的完善,国省道公路大中修是未来公路养护部门的主要工作。通过某省道大中修工程,根据左右幅病害及交通轴载完全不同的现状,提出国省道路面大中修分车道设计理念。

  6. Research of Lane Line Detection in the Vision Navigation of Unmanned Vehicle%无人驾驶汽车视觉导航中车道线检测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广飞; 李晓明; 武潇

    2015-01-01

    为了提高无人驾驶汽车视觉导航系统中车道线检测的准确性和实时性,在对车道线检测技术进行深入研究的基础上,提出一种能快速准确检测出车道线的新算法。首先采用分块思想将RGB图像中与道路无关的区域去除,以缩短数据处理时间。然后对余下的RGB图像进行灰度化处理,接着用中值滤波法消除随机噪声,再用最大类间方差法(Otsu法)初步得到二值图像。最后对二值图像利用数学形态学进一步边缘细化,使位于车道线上的每个像素行只有一个像素特征点,再采用Hough变换检测出车道线。Matlab仿真结果表明,此算法能够快速准确地检测出车道线,较传统检测算法具有更强准确性和实时性。%In order to improve accuracy and real-time of lane line detection in vision navigation system of unmanned vehicle,based on an in-depth study of the lane line detection technique,a new algorithm for fast and accurate detection of lane is introduced. Firsly,through the use of block theory, the road independent region of RGB image is removed,to shorten the data processing time. And then after the graying of the rest of RGB image,the median filtering method is used to eliminate the random noise,the Method of Maximum Classes Square Error(Method of Otsu)is introduced to obtain the binary image. Finally,edge thinning based on mathematical morphology is proposed to make each pixel row of each lane only left one characteristic pixel. And the lane line detection based on Hough transformation is carried out. The Matlab simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can detect lane line quickly and accurately,compared with the traditional method has better accuracy and real-time.

  7. 基于自然驾驶数据的驾驶员紧急变道行为开环模型%Open-loop model of drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior based on the naturalistic driving data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱西产; 刘智超; 李霖

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe drivers’ behavior when driver takes an emergency lane-change action, an open-loop model was proposed based on the naturalistic driving data which was colected by the program named China pilot Field Operation Test. Almost 228 lane-change use cases were extracted from the naturalistic driving data. Steering wheel angle rate combined with steering wheel angle were used as iflters to classify the different emergency degrees of lane-change. The duration of drivers’ emergency lane-change was studied based on a liner dependency between the maximum values of both steering wheel angle and steering wheel angle rate. Parameters were iftted by the 50th percentile of the naturalistic driving data colected from lane-change scenarios .The model can be applied in research of Chinese drivers’ behavior and its values have been proved by both signiifcant test and correlation test. The results of tests show that coherence of the outputs from real driver and the model is good, so the model can wel describe Chinese drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior.%基于“中国大型实车路试先行实验(China Pilot-FOT)”所采集的自然驾驶数据,提出了一种开环模型,它可以描述驾驶员紧急变换车道行为。将方向盘转角和方向盘转角变化率作为变道紧急程度的筛选条件,从中筛选出228例紧急变换车道工况。基于最大方向盘转角与最大方向盘转角变化率的线性关系,分析了紧急变换车道的持续时间。利用其中50百分位驾驶数据,来拟合模型参数。使用相关性和显著性检验,验证了真实驾驶数据与驾驶计算模型的关系。结果表明:该模型的输出结果与真实驾驶员操作结果一致性良好。因此,该模型可以描述中国一般驾驶员紧急变道行为。

  8. Study of Superstructure of Two-Lane Suspension Bridge with Integral Cross Section%整体式断面双车道索道桥上部结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景天虎; 马小龙; 刘均利; 莫时旭

    2016-01-01

    为寻求整体式断面双车道索道桥上部结构的可行布置形式,采用考虑索梁组合结构几何非线性的空间有限元法,对几种桥面系构造方案的结构特性进行研究。研究结果表明:对于双车道索道桥,活载单车道偏载是比活载双车道同时偏载更为不利的荷载工况;在活载作用下,整个桥面系在横桥向不再保持线性变位;简单地采用横向线性扩展车道宽度的措施来构造双车道索道桥上部结构方案,将很难满足结构横倾稳定性要求;主索在横桥向的不同分布是影响索道桥结构抗扭能力的最主要因素;在桥面中央布置适量的主索对优化横梁内力分布状况是有益的。%To find a rational superstructure configuration for two‐lane suspension bridges with integral cross section ,the spatial finite element method taking into consideration of non‐linearity of cable‐beam composite structure was employed and the structural features of different bridge deck system schemes were studied .The results of the study demonstrate that for a two‐lane suspension bridge ,the load case of single‐lane unbalanced live loads is much more unfavorable than that of two‐lane unbalanced live load .Under the action of live loads ,the overall bridge deck system no longer exhibits linear variation in the transverse bridge direction .To form the superstructure of the two‐lane suspension bridge simply via linear expansion of traffic lanes in the transverse direc‐tion is hard to meet the demands of the transverse overturning stability of the structure .How to arrange the main cables in the transverse direction is the key concerning the torsional capacity of a suspension bridge .Installing a proper amount of main cables in the central part of the bridge deck is good to optimize the internal force distribution in the floor beams .

  9. Surface faulting and paleoseismic history of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area, west-central Nevada, and implications for modern tectonics of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.W.; DePolo, C.M.; Ramelli, A.R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake (Ms 7.2) was one of the largest historical events in the Walker Lane region of western Nevada, and it produced a complicated strike-slip rupture pattern on multiple Quaternary faults distributed through three valleys. Primary, right-lateral surface ruptures occurred on north-striking faults in Monte Cristo Valley; small-scale lateral and normal offsets occurred in Stewart Valley; and secondary, normal faulting occurred on north-northeast-striking faults in the Gabbs Valley epicentral region. A reexamination of the surface ruptures provides new displacement and fault-zone data: maximum cumulative offset is estimated to be 2.7 m, and newly recognized faults extend the maximum width and end-to-end length of the rupture zone to 17 and 75 km, respectively. A detailed Quaternary allostratigraphic chronology based on regional alluvialgeomorphic relationships, tephrochronology, and radiocarbon dating provides a framework for interpreting the paleoseismic history of the fault zone. A late Wisconsinan alluvial-fan and piedmont unit containing a 32-36 ka tephra layer is a key stratigraphic datum for paleoseismic measurements. Exploratory trenching and radiocarbon dating of tectonic stratigraphy provide the first estimates for timing of late Quaternary faulting along the Cedar Mountain fault zone. Three trenches display evidence for six faulting events, including that in 1932, during the past 32-36 ka. Radiocarbon dating of organic soils interstratified with tectonically ponded silts establishes best-fit ages of the pre-1932 events at 4, 5,12,15, and 18 ka, each with ??2 ka uncertainties. On the basis of an estimated cumulative net slip of 6-12 m for the six faulting events, minimum and maximum late Quaternary slip rates are 0.2 and 0.7 mm/yr, respectively, and the preferred rate is 0.4-0.5 mm/yr. The average recurrence (interseismic) interval is 3600 yr. The relatively uniform thickness of the ponded deposits suggests that similar

  10. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs and electric bicycles (EBs. In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic.

  11. 寺河矿西三盘区集中胶带巷的优化设计%Optimal design of central belt Lane of third pannel in the west of ShiHe coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆阳

    2016-01-01

    本文通过对巷道开拓方式的选择及设备选型等关键环节论述,介绍西三盘区集中胶带巷设计过程。%The key links of the way of the roadway development and equipment selection were discussed. And the design process of t central belt Lane of third panel were introduced in this paper.

  12. Design and Implementation of Lane System Based on C++%基于C++的车道系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井福荣

    2015-01-01

    Information system is designed to help the highway toll station in the background of integrated operations management, to achieve the background service center and the information of the various toll stations to synchronize and intelligent management. Each enterprise should strengthen management of Information real-time and synchronization and improve work efficiency. This pa?per presents the design and implementation of lane real-time intercom system is to achieve real-time synchronization for each charge of site information and the rear service center, to ensure that the background service center and each site of barrier free com?munication.%信息系统旨在帮助高速公路收费站的后台一体化运营管理,实现后台服务中心与各个收费站点的信息的同步和智能化的管理.信息的实时与同步是每个企业增强管理、提高工作效率的基础,该文设计实现的车道实时对讲系统就是做到每个收费站点的信息与后方服务中心的实时同步,确保后台服务中心与各个站点的无障碍交流.

  13. Genetic diversity and morphological characterization of half-sib families of Heliconia bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Peterson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F R A; Moraes Filho, R M; Martins, L S S; Montarroyos, A V V; Loges, V

    2016-06-20

    The Neotropical Heliconia genus contains highly diversified plants and up to 220 species have been reported from the north of Mexico to the South of Brazil. Heliconia are cultivated as ornamental garden plants and as cut flowers. All species can be propagated by seeds or vegetatively, through rhizomes. Depending on the species, an individual plant can spread and form large clonal populations. H. bihai L., H. chartacea Lane ex Barreiros, and H. wagneriana Petersen are among the most cultivated Heliconia species. However, they still have undesirable characteristics that could be improved for the international market. This study aimed to characterize 15 half-sib families originating from commercial cultivations, by morphological and molecular markers. The genetic diversity (ĤE), considering all individuals of the three species was 0.103. For H. bihai half-sib families, the value of ĤE was 0.242, showing high genetic diversity. The ĤE value for H. chartacea was 0.068, indicating low genetic diversity. All individuals of H. wagneriana showed the same band patterns, suggesting that the two parental plants were propagated vegetatively from the same plant and may have undergone some endogamic crossings. These results showed that molecular characterization can differentiate individuals closely related as half-siblings for H. bihai and H. chartacea, despite the low variation observed with morphological descriptors. The high genetic diversity observed in H. bihai half-sibling genotypes can provide valuable resources for breeding programs.

  14. Study on the safety interchange spacing of a six-lane expressway%双向六车道高速公路立交安全间距研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武

    2016-01-01

    采用 VISSIM 仿真软件,对双向六车道高速公路相邻立交接入点净间距与行车冲突之间的关系进行了仿真分析。以冲突率为行车安全的评价指标,建立冲突率与接入点间距之间的关系模型。再根据冲突率安全阈值,确定不同设计速度下的双向六车道高速公路相邻立交安全间距,为高速公路规划设计提供了参考。%The relationship between the access point spacing of the six-lane expressway and traffic conflicts was simulated with the VISSIM micro-simulation software.By using traffic conflict rate as the evaluation index of traffic safety,the relationship between the traffic conflict rate and the interchange spacing was then established.The safety values of the inter-change spacing on the six-lane expressway are given on the basis of the safety threshold of traf-fic conflict rate,which can provide a reference for the six-lane expressway plan and design.

  15. 车道线识别中的自适应Canny边缘检测及改进研究%Achievement and Improvement of Adaptive Canny Operator in Lane Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳舟; 闫豪杰; 辛乐

    2012-01-01

    针对Canny边缘检测阈值在车道线识别中不易选取的问题,提出了基于Otsu算法实现自适应Canny边缘检测的方法.实验验证表明,其对远视野道路图像可以获得良好的边缘检测效果,而对近视野道路图像效果较差.进一步提出了目标区域补偿策略改进上述算法.结合Hough变换算法,实现了车道线的识别.实验结果表明,改进的算法可以达到实时获取车道线的要求.%For the difficulty of selecting the segmentation threshold in the process of Canny operator-based lane I-dentification, a method of adaptive segmentation threshold in virtue of Otsu algorithm is proposed. Experiments to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm show that it can get good binarization results for far field images, but unavailability for close vision images. Therefore, further improvement is made by proposing a target area compensation strategy. Finally, combining with Hough transform, the lane recognition is ultimately achieved. The Experimental results show that the improved algorithm meet real-time performance of lane detection and identification.

  16. Mixed Traffic Flow Capacity of More Major Lanes Unsignalized Intersection%主路多车道无信号交叉口混合交通流的通行能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新现

    2008-01-01

    Highway capacity is defined as maximum volume of traffic flow through the particular highway section under given traffic conditions,road conditions and so on.Highway construction and management is judged by capacity standard.The reasonable scale and time of highway construction,rational network structure and optimal management mode of highway network can be determined by analyzing the fitness between capacity and traffic volume.All over the world,highway capacity is studied to different extent in different country. Based on the gap acceptance theory,the mixed traffic flow composed of two representative vehicle types heavy and light vehicles is analyzed with probability theory.Capacity model of the minor mixed traffic flows crossing m major lanes,on which the traffic flows fix in with M3 distributed headway,on the unsignalized intersection is set up,and it is an extension of minor lane capacity theory for one vehicle-type and one major-lane traffic flow.

  17. Microcanonical and canonical approach to traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Surda, Anton

    2007-01-01

    A system of identical cars on a single-lane road is treated as a microcanonical and canonical ensemble. Behaviour of the cars is characterized by the probability of car velocity as a function of distance and velocity of the car ahead. The calculations a performed on a discrete 1D lattice with discrete car velocities. Probability of total velocity of a group of cars as a function of density is calculated in microcanonical approach. For a canonical ensemble, fluctuations of car density as a function of total velocity is found. Phase transitions between free and jammed flow for large deceleration rate of cars and formation of queues of cars with the same velocity for low deceleration rate are described.

  18. 基于双层规划的城市公交专用道优化设计%Optimum design of city bus lane based on bi-level programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 龙建成

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bus service level ,more and more cities have opened the bus lanes . But the bus lanes will aggravate the car right ,thus the relationship between the car and the bus should be balanced scientifically from the perspective of overall system .In order to guarantee the min-imum travel cost of the traveler ,and considering the travel selection behavior of the traveler ,a bi-lev-el programming model for bus lane network optimization is built from the perspective of the whole city traffic network .According to the flow characteristic of the car and the bus on the road with bus lanes , the impedance function based on bus lane network is proposed and the dual-mode traffic assignment model is established .The lower-layer flow assignment and the bi-level programming model are solved by using the Frank-Wolfe algorithm and the genetic algorithm respectively .Finally ,the example anal-ysis with real traffic network is carried out to verify the validity of the proposed model and algorithm .%为了提高公交车的服务水平,很多城市开辟了公交专用道,由于公交专用道的设置会降低小汽车的路权,必须从系统整体的角度来设置公交专用道以科学权衡小汽车与公交车的路权分配。文章从城市交通网络的整体出发,以出行者总体出行成本最小为目标,充分考虑出行者的出行选择行为,提出了城市公交专用道优化设计的双层规划模型;结合设置公交专用道的路段上公交车与小汽车的流量特性,提出了基于公交专用道网络的道路阻抗函数,构造双模式交通分配模型;分别使用Frank-Wolfe算法和遗传算法进行下层流量分配和双层规划模型的求解,并运用交通网络进行实例分析,验证了所提模型和算法的有效性。

  19. 城市快速路匝道及变速车道控制参数研究%Study on Control Parameters for Ramp and Speed-change Lane of Urban Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫阳

    2016-01-01

    从分析出入口特性出发,寻找了确定匝道及变速车道控制参数的影响因素,解析了匝道设计速度和停车视距对匝道曲线最小半径、交通流率和匝道设计速度对变速车道长度和渐变段长度的影响机理.基于运动学原理、交通流理论、概率论等知识,建立了匝道及变速车道控制参数的计算模型.分析和计算结果表明:匝道设计速度宜按照匝道形式及两端连接道路的性质分级确定;对结构物形式匝道,满足停车视距要求的曲线最小半径比满足横向力系数要求的大;对双车道加速车道和宽度渐变段,在考虑交通流率影响状况下的长度计算值均比现行规范的要求值大.%From analyzing the characteristics of entrance/exit, the influencing factors for determining control parameters of ramp and speed-change lane are found out. The mechanisms of effect of ramp design speed and stopping sight distance on the minimum ramp radius as well as the effects of traffic flow rate and ramp design speed on the lengths of speed-change lane and width-transition are resolved. Based on kinematics theory, traffic flow theory and probability theory, the calculation models of control parameters for ramp and speed-change lane are set up. The result of analysis and calculation shows that ( 1 ) the design speed of ramp is suitable to be classified according to the patterns and properties of roads on both ends connected by ramp;( 2 ) the minimum curve radius of structure pattern ramp stopping sight distance is greater than that that meets the demands of side-way force coefficient; the calculated values of length for two-lane acceleration lane and width-transition under traffic flow rate affecting are greater than that required in current specifications.

  20. 环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为研究%Car Following Behavior of Roundabout Entrance Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金勇; 刘岩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究环形交叉口入口道车辆跟驰行为,依据实地交通调查的数据,利用线性跟驰模型和回归分析方法对环形交叉口入口道跟驰车辆进行分析,分析结果表明:环形交叉口入口道的车辆跟驰行为是符合线性跟驰模型的,但是有别于普通道路上的车辆跟驰行为,其反应强度系数λ的值在0.2 ~1.0之间,λ值为0.38出现的概率比较大,占40%,进行稳定性分析可知车间距的摆动处于基本稳定和衰减摆动两种状态,是符合局部稳定性的.%The car-following behavior of roundabout entrance lane is studied by using liner car-following and regression models for obtaining the car-following behavior to match the liner car-following behavior. However, it is different from the behavior on the road. The value of reaction intensity factor is between 0. 2 to 1. 0,and the value 0. 38 appears relatively more often and accounting for 40%. The swing of car space headway is between stable status and decay swing with the stability analysis,and it is consistent with local stability.

  1. A study on single lane-change manoeuvres for determining rearward amplification of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi; He, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers issued a test procedure, SAE-J2179, to determine the rearward amplification (RA) of multi-trailer articulated heavy vehicles (MTAHVs). Built upon the procedure, the International Organization for Standardization released the test manoeuvres, ISO-14791, for evaluating directional performance of MTAHVs. For the RA measures, ISO-14791 recommends two single lane-change manoeuvres: (1) an open-loop procedure with a single sine-wave steering input; and (2) a closed-loop manoeuvre with a single sine-wave lateral acceleration input. For an articulated vehicle with active trailer steering (ATS), the RA measure in lateral acceleration under the open-loop manoeuvre was not in good agreement with that under the closed-loop manoeuvre. This observation motivates the research on the applicability of the two manoeuvres for the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS. It is reported that transient response under the open-loop manoeuvre often leads to asymmetric curve of tractor lateral acceleration [Winkler CB, Fancher PS, Bareket Z, Bogard S, Johnson G, Karamihas S, Mink C. Heavy vehicle size and weight - test procedures for minimum safety performance standards. Final technical report, NHTSA, US DOT, contract DTNH22-87-D-17174, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Report No. UMTRI-92-13; 1992]. To explore the effect of the transient response, a multiple cycle sine-wave steering input (MCSSI) manoeuvre is proposed. Simulation demonstrates that the steady-state RA measures of an MTAHV with and without ATS under the MCSSI manoeuvre are in excellent agreement with those under the closed-loop manoeuvre. It is indicated that between the two manoeuvres by ISO-14791, the closed-loop manoeuvre is more applicable for determining the RA measures of MTAHVs with ATS.

  2. Probability-based Delay Model for Signalized Intersections with A Short Right-turn Lane%基于概率的右转短车道信号控制交叉口延误模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宗忠; 马艳; 高鸿雁; 苏洁

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the modeling of vehicle delays at signalized intersections with a short right-turn bay which is commonly seen in urban traffic. The model is developed considering the stochastics of traffic volume variation which can result in uncertain blockage occurrences to the short right-turn bay. The proposed model enhances the existing methodologies documented in the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM 2010) which treats the short bay as an exclusive full lane. The model incorporates probabilistic theories and intersection characteristics, thus providing an improved approach to delay estimation by considering the short-bay storage length, traffic flow rate, and signal timing. The proposed model is validated using the SimTraffic microscopic simulation model, which is calibrated using field data obtained at a real-world intersection site. Based on the model, it is found that the short-bay length strongly influences the right-turn vehicle delays. In addition, allowing right-turn-on-red (RTOR) can ease the over-saturation problem and reduce the approach delay substantially, especially when the short-bay length is less than 2-vehicle storage length.%研究城市道路中常见的右转短车道信号控制交叉口车辆延误模型.该模型考虑了交通流变化随机性导致的右转短车道交通阻滞问题,改进了现行美国通行能力手册(HCM 2010)中将短车道视为独立进口车道的计算方法.本文应用概率论方法并结合交叉口特性,同时考虑了短车道、交通流率和信号配时等因素影响,提出了一种改进的交叉口延误估计方法.通过使用SimTraffic微观仿真模型,应用交叉口获得的实测数据对模型进行参数标定,验证了模型的有效性.研究结果表明,短车道对右转车辆延误有显著影响.尤其在短车道长度小于2辆标准车长的情况下,允许红灯右转(Righe-turn-on-red, RTOR)可以有效缓解过饱和交通流问题并减少交叉口实际延误.

  3. Research of content determination of lactose in the raw milkby Lane-Eynon's method%莱因-埃农氏法测定原料乳中乳糖含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珍菊; 林芳栋

    2012-01-01

    将莱因-埃农氏法引入原料乳中乳糖含量的测定,在现有基础上考察了莱因-埃农氏法在原料乳中测定乳糖含量的沉淀剂使用量、精密度、重复性等。由实验结果可知,莱因一埃农氏法的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.398%,精密度高,重复性实验的RSD为1.374%,重复性好,加标回收率为100.34%,乳糖盲样测定结果也与实际相符,用该方法进行原料乳中乳糖的测定是切实可行的。%Lane-Eynon's method was introduced in the determination of lactose content in raw milk. On the basis of the existing study,the research on lactose content in raw milk by Lane-Eynon's method was carried out. The precipitation agent usage,precision and repeatability of this method were measured. The precision and repeatability of the Lane-Eynon was well,with RSD 0.398%, 1.374% respectively. The average recovery was 100.34% ,the result of the milk blind samples was consistent with the actual value,so it was feasible to determine the content of lactose in the raw milk.

  4. Study on the Implementation of Lane Changing Model Based on Vehicle Trajectory%基于车辆运行轨迹的换道执行模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志学; 王昊

    2015-01-01

    In the lane changing model of lane changing execution phase ,the target vehicle not only by the lane in front of the vehicle impact ,but also the influence of the target before and after the vehicle lane .Firstly ,in this paper the traditional car following model is improved ,get the Double‐Head fol‐lowing model .And the study of the target vehicle trajectory ,the target vehicle trajectory is divided into the forward direction and the vertical direction and displacement ,relative speed ,acceleration . Based on the vehicle track different longitudinal velocity analysis found that ,the target vehicle lateral velocity is influenced by the longitudinal velocity and lateral displacement ,with the increase of the lat‐eral displacement of the target vehicle in the driveway ,the vehicle in front attention will be reduced gradually .%在换道模型中,换道执行阶段目标车辆既受到本车道前方车辆影响,又受到目标车道前后车辆的影响。文中对传统的跟驰模型进行改进,得到双车头跟驰模型,并对目标车辆运行轨迹进行研究,将目标车辆轨迹分为前进方向和垂直方向,以及与之相对应的位移、速度、加速度等。通过对不同纵向速度车辆轨迹分析发现,目标车辆横向速度受到纵向速度及横向位移的影响,随着横向位移的增大,目标车辆对本车道前方车辆关注度将逐渐降低,当完全跨越车道线时,目标车辆将不在关注原车道前方车辆,而转变为目标车道跟驰。

  5. 行进在快车道上的中国环境社会学%China Environmental Sociology Stepping onto Express Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪大用; 龚文娟

    2015-01-01

    本文基于对2011—2014年中国环境社会学研究成果的再分析,指出中国环境社会学已经行驶在快车道上,呈现出加速发展之势,在环境与社会的关系以及环境问题的社会原因、社会影响和社会应对等方面都取得了一些有价值的研究成果. 未来中国环境社会学研究需要保持清醒、冷静的头脑,进行必要的、建设性的反思,进一步完善学术对话机制、加强基础理论与方法研究,在经验研究中更加重视信息技术革命背景下的环境传播、环境政策发展过程及其实践分析等领域,并以一种更加积极乐观而又科学客观的态度,进一步加强对特定地区、特定行业和企业实施环境治理成功经验的调查研究和理论总结.%Based on re-analysis to China's environmental sociology research in 2011—2014, the article points out that China's environmental sociology has already stepped onto an express lane, showing a trend of accelerated development, achieving some valuable research findings in relationship between environment and society, social causes of, impact and reactions to environmental problems. Future studies need to done with consciousness and reasonability, with necessary and constructive reflection, to further improve the academic dialogue mechanism, strengthen research in basic theories and research methods. While in empirical studies, more attention should be attached to environment communication, environmental policy development and practice analysis under the IT revolution background. A more positive and optimistic but scientific and objective attitude should be developed to make further research and a theoretical summary to successful practice of environmental management in particular areas, industries and enterprises.

  6. Translation vs. Rotation: The Battle for Accommodation of Dextral Shear at the Northern Terminus of the Central Walker Lane, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Faulds, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Positioned between the Sierra Nevada microplate and Basin and Range in western North America, the Walker Lane (WL) accommodates ~20% of the dextral motion between the North American and Pacific plates on predominately NW-striking dextral and ENE to E-W-striking sinistral fault systems. The Terrill Mountains (TM) lie at the northern terminus of a domain of dextral faults accommodating translation of crustal-blocks in the central WL and at the southeast edge of sinistral faults accommodating oroclinal flexure and CW rotation of blocks in the northern WL. As the mechanisms of strain transfer between these disparate fault systems are poorly understood, the thick Oligocene to Pliocene volcanic strata of the TM area make it an ideal site for studying the transfer of strain between regions undergoing differing styles of deformation and yet both accommodating dextral shear. Detailed geologic mapping and paleomagnetic study of ash-flow tuffs in the TM region has been conducted to elucidate Neogene strain accommodation for this transitional region of the WL. Strain at the northernmost TM appears to be transferred from a system of NW-striking dextral faults to a system of ~E-W striking sinistral faults with associated CW flexure. A distinct ~23 Ma paleosol is locally preserved below the tuff of Toiyabe and provides an important marker bed. This paleosol is offset with ~6 km of dextral separation across the fault bounding the NE flank of the TM. This fault is inferred as the northernmost strand of the NW-striking, dextral Benton Spring fault system, with offset consistent with minimums constrained to the south (6.4-9.6 km, Gabbs Valley Range). Paleomagnetic results suggest counter-intuitive CCW vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks south of the domain boundary in the system of NW-striking dextral faults, similar to some other domains of NW-striking dextral faults in the northern WL. This may result from coeval dextral shear and WNW-directed extension within the left

  7. Switching gears and changing lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammock, Earlene C.

    2002-01-01

    From musing over Shakespeare's fine lines and metaphors to teaching technical writing and editing, and finally, to cranking out scientific and technical documents, writing articles, and editing publications-how'd a nice girl like me end up in a place like this? Twice, after having prepared for an academic career of teaching and research, I found myself in a technical communications position-first, at the University of Texas at El Paso College of Engineering and later, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. What happened?

  8. Wall Street Crosses Memory Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O. I.; Iliewa, Zwetelina; Jaroszek, Lena

    Witnessing stock-market history in the making creates a vivid story, but does not provide valuable information. However, finance professionals extrapolate from personally witnessed returns, which we show by using a unique dataset about the timing of their career start in the finance industry. Thi...... which witnessed returns might affect expected returns, a judgmental bias appears most plausible....

  9. 注浆工艺在平煤六矿暗轨猴车联络巷的应用%Application of Grouting Processing in PingMei Sixth Mine Dark Rail-monkey Car Contact Lane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广金; 任名扬

    2013-01-01

    平顶山矿区是我国地质条件复杂的矿区之一.受围岩破碎、软岩流变等地质条件的影响,平煤股份六矿三水平暗轨猴车联络巷位于为软岩巷道,围岩松散破碎,围岩主要以泥岩、砂质泥岩为主,为满足矿井发展需要三水平暗轨猴车道进行底板注浆.在分析了巷道岩性的基础上,提出了注浆管初注和内注式锚杆二次注浆施工方案,并进行了实地试验.%Pingdingshan Coal Mine is one .of China's complex geological conditions. Affected by the broken country rock, soft rock rheology and geological conditions, six mine in Pingdingshan shares three-level dark rail—monkey car contact lane belong to soft rock tunnel, and the surrounding rock is broken and loose, country rock gives priority to mudstone, sandy mudstone. To meet the development of mine, we need to conduct bottom grouting to three-level dark rail-monkey car contact lane. Based on the analysis of roadway lithology, grouting pipe eariy injection and injection anchor secondary grouting construction program was proposed, and field trial was carried out.

  10. 基于紧急变道策略的汽车主动避障安全车距模型%A Vehicle Safety Distance Model for Collision Avoidance System Based on Emergency Lane Change Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边明远

    2012-01-01

    基于最佳路径规划策略,提出了一种结合车辆纵向速度调节控制和车道变换操作的车辆紧急避障方法,建立了紧急车道变换工况下的安全车距模型,分析了不同制动作用调整车速时间对车辆变道行驶轨迹和安全车距的影响。通过对在同车道前方静态障碍物工况进行仿真,验证了所提出的安全车距模型的有效性。%As the basis of determining the safe driving active risk avoidance control, the determination of the situation of the vehicle, and the fundamental of motive collision warning/collision avoidance (CW/CA) safety distance is one crucial part of the auto- ning strategy, an obstacle avoidance solution was propos sys ed tem. Based on the optimal trajectory plan- by means of longitudinal veloc and emergency lane change movement. The safety distance model based on emergency ity adjusting lane-change vehicle motion was put forward, and the influence from the different vehicle speed adjusting time on vehicle trajectory and safety distance was analyzed. The validity of the model was demonstrated by the simulation results for statistics obstacle avoidance situation.

  11. Research on Relationship of Traffic Condition and Traffic Safety of Two-Lane Highway in Plane Areas%平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王蓉蓉; 路维; 胡江碧

    2012-01-01

    On the bais of traffic accident data of the two-lane highway in plane areas, the influence of vertical-section, cross-section and intersection with the traffic accidents, and contrasting the analysis with conclusion abroad are discussed , then a conclusion on the relationship of the traffic condition and the traffic safety of two-lane highway in plane areas is got, a traffic safety prediction model is established,so it has important significance on the upgrading the highway safety.%以平原区双车道公路交通事故资料为基础,分析了道路平曲线和纵断面线形及交叉口等因素与交通事故的关系,将分析结论和国外研究结果相对比,得出我国平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系,并建立交通安全性预测模型,对提升我国双车道公路安全性具有重要的意义.

  12. Assessing the Bicycle Network in St. Louis: A PlaceBased User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Boettge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To transition towards sustainability and increase low-impact transportation, city planners are integrating bicycle infrastructure in urban landscapes. Yet, this infrastructure only promotes cycling according to how well it is sited within a specific city. How to best site bicycle facilities is essential for sustainability planning. We review approaches to assessing and siting new bicycle facilities. Following sustainability science, we argue that active cyclists should be consulted to incorporate users’ site-specific knowledge into bicycle infrastructure assessments. We then pilot an approach that surveys cyclists concerning level of stress along routes ridden in St. Louis, MO, USA. Among the active cyclists surveyed (n = 89, we found stress correlates with speed limit, roadway classification, and number of lanes. Although cyclists surveyed in St. Louis prefer roads with bike lanes over roads with sharrows or no infrastructure, the presence of bicycle infrastructure had no correlation with reported levels of stress. The piloted survey and spatial analytic tool are transferable to other localities. For planners, the maps generated by this participant data approach identify high-stress routes as targets of new infrastructure or information to direct cyclists to safer routes. For bicyclists, the maps generated identify low-stress routes for recreation and commuting.

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-10

    In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOE’s Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics’ eW® Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical

  14. 基于 VANET环境高速公路车辆换道安全车距研究%Research on Safety Distance between Lane-changing Vehicles on Expressways Based on the VANET Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 林加华

    2016-01-01

    高速公路具有车速快、车辆多的特点,由于车辆换道发生追尾的交通事故,造成的经济损失较为惨重。本文基于VANET环境,在典型的换道场景中,利用V2 V通信的技术,根据汽车动力学原理,通过对换道的4个阶段的分析研究,提出了车辆从本车道变换到目标车道,与目标车道的前车应保持的换道安全车距模型,最后在NCTUNS网络仿真软件下建立了仿真实验环境。实验结果表明,换道安全车距模型是正确的,具有较好的实用性,可为汽车自动驾驶、辅助驾驶或预警系统的应用奠定基础。%Fast and crowded,vehicles on expressways easily run into each other when changing lanes, resulting in huge losses. This paper presents a research based on the VANET environment where the V2V communication technology is employed to analyze the four stages of a typical lance changing operation to suggest a safety distance model for a vehicle attempting to change from the current lane to the destination one according to theories of vehicle dynamics. Finally,a simulation experimental environment is set up with the help of the network simulation tool ! NCTUNS. Results of the experiment show that the model of safety distance for lane changing vehicles is workable and practical and can thus be applied to automatic drive,assisted drive and the collision warning systems of vehicles.

  15. 盾构隧道内部双层车道板结构受力分析%Mechanical Analysis of Double-Decked Traffic Lane Slabs in Shield Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晨; 张开银; 黄俊

    2016-01-01

    To ease traffic pressure, a double-decked traffic lane structure is to be adopted for the Nanjing Weisan Road river-crossing tunnel. However, in light of the defined tunnel space, difficulties with construction organization and a tight work schedule, prefabricated structures are to be used in this project. Specifically, the columns and the longitudinal beams (including brackets) will be cast in situ at first, then the upper traffic lane slabs will be prefabri⁃cated and installed on the longitudinal beams with the brackets, and finally the reserved steel bars of the longitudi⁃nal beams will be welded and concreted to the traffic lane slabs. To verify the bearing capacity of the prefabricated structure, a load test was carried out showing that the integral rigidity and the bearing capacity of the structure both meet the design requirements. Thus, it is determined that adopting a prefabricated structure in a large-diameter shield tunnel is an innovative design and construction method, which can not only save construction costs, but also shorten construction time.%基于缓解交通压力的考虑,南京纬三路过江通道工程盾构隧道内部采用双层车道结构。由于隧道内部空间狭小,施工组织困难,工期要求紧,因此工程采用预制结构。首先现浇车道板立柱和车道纵梁(含牛腿),然后预制上层车道板,并安放在车道纵梁牛腿上,焊接车道纵梁和车道板预留钢筋并进行浇筑以形成整体。为了验证隧道内部双层车道预制化结构的承载能力,对其进行了荷载试验,结果表明内部车道结构刚度和承载能力均满足设计要求。大直径盾构隧道内部预制结构是一种创新的设计和施工方法,可实现节约投资造价、节省工期等社会经济效益。

  16. Study on Synergy Problem of Dynamic Lane-use Assignment and Signal Control at Intersections%交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾滢; 杨晓光; 马莹莹

    2009-01-01

    基于信号控制交叉口时空关系分析,综合运用交通流理论和信号控制技术,建立了动态车道功能与信号相位组合模型,用Visual Basic语言编制程序对该模型求解.为验证模型的有效性,应用该模型对实际案例进行了优化,并通过交通仿真软件VISSIM分别对优化前后的方案进行了仿真对比分析.仿真结果表明:交叉口动态车道功能与信号控制存在协同作用,与仅改善车道功能或信号控制相比,实现两者的协同能有效提高交叉口时空资源的利用率,使关键状态参量如延误与排队长度显著降低.%Based on the analysis of space-time relation of signalized intersections,an integrated model for lane-use assignment and signal phase was established using the traffic flow theory and signal control technology synthetically.In order to solve the model,a program was developed through Visual Basic programming.Actual road intersections were optimized by the program and optimal solutions were generated.Then both the origin plan and the optimal solutions were simulated with VISSIM to verify the model.The simulation results show that there is synergetic effect between dynamic lane-use assignment and signal control.Different from improving lane-use assignment or signal plan alone,synergy cann effectively improve the utilization of space-time resources at intersections,thus reducing the key traffic state parameters such as delay and queue length.

  17. THE BPMN APPROACH OF THE UNIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRȊMBEI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a new vision about the enterprise modelling in the context of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and the university area. Although the flow objects, artefacts, connecting objects and swim lanes are very used in the process of Enterprise Modelling, they have specific roles in the university information systems. The paper will reveal a specific approach of BPMN in the context of university information systems based on a comparative analysis of some representative universities from United States and Central Europe. Our ideas are argued with a practical case study that includes 4 realistic and complex systems: study programs and curriculum, students’ admission, student roadmap, students’ exchange. The future directions of the article are some visions of BPMN orchestration of a SOA-based architecture for Student Record Systems.

  18. Influences of Loads on Vehicles and Lanes on Reliability of Bridge Structures%车辆荷载和车道荷载对桥梁结构可靠度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名扬; 王起才

    2012-01-01

    公路桥梁结构的整体计算采用车道荷载,结构的局部计算采用车辆荷载,车辆荷载与车道荷载的作用不得叠加.将采用这2种荷载设计的结构进行可靠度对比,结果表明,按车辆荷载设计的结构满足正常使用功能的可靠度偏低,更容易发生损坏,这些损坏会影响到结构的正常使用.提出通过调整重型车辆通过桥梁时的交通行驶规则,增大结构按正常使用极限状态设计时车辆荷载的代表值,从而提高按车辆荷载设计的结构可靠度.%Integral calculation for highway bridge structures adopts loads on lanes, local calculation for structures employs loads on vehicles, and the effects of loads on vehicles and lanes should not be superimposed. This paper compares reliabilities of structures designed by means of these two loads, the result show that the reliability of structures designed based on loads on vehicles to satisfy normal functions of use is lower and easier to damages, which will affect normal use of structures. The paper proposes to increase effect values of actions of loads on vehicles during design in limit state of normal use by adjusting traffic driving rules as heavy vehicles pass bridges so as to improve reliability of structures designed on the basis of loads on vehicles.

  19. The Mathematical Model Analysis of the Urban Road Capacity When the Lane is Occupied%车道被占用后道路通行能力变化的数学模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜秀清; 孟浩然

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a quantitative analysis of the impact of traffic lane occupancy on the actual urban road capacity. Under the given conditions, based on the analysis and process of the video-gathered data by the software such as EXCEL and prighin8.5, this paper constructs sine function model to describe the changing situations of road capacity, and establishes ball accumulation model to simulate the different impacts on the road capacity from different lane occupancy situation. Thus, under the given conditions, it analyzes the relations among the queue length of vehicles and actual road capacity of accident section, lasting time of the accident and the traffic flow on the upper reaches of the road.%为了定量研究车道被占用对城市道路实际通行能力的影响。本文根据所给条件,运用EXCEL和origin8.5等软件对视频采集的数据进行分析和处理,构建正弦函数模型描述道路通行能力的变化情况,建立小球堆积模型模拟不同车道被占用对道路通行能力的影响差异。并由此分析了在给定条件下车辆排队长度与事故横断面实际通行能力、事故持续时间、路段上游车流量间的关系。

  20. 基于车道线检测与图像拐点的道路能见度估计%Visibility estimation on road based on lane detection and image inflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洪军; 陈阳舟; 郜园园

    2012-01-01

    为了解决传统的能见度仪价格昂贵、采样有限,以及现有的一些视频测量手段需人工标记物、稳定性差等问题,基于车道线检测与图像拐点提出一种通过固定摄像机识别雾天天气并计算道路能见度的算法.与以往研究不同,在交通模型增加了均质雾天因素.该算法主要分为三步:首先,计算场景活动图,利用区域搜索算法(ASA)结合纹理特征提取待识别区域,如果在待识别区域内像素自项向下以双曲线形式变化则判断当前天气为雾天,同时计算区域内图像亮度曲线的拐点;其次,基于可伸缩窗算法检测车道线,提取车道线端点并标定摄像机;最后,结合图像拐点以及摄像机参数计算大气消光系数,根据国际气象组织给出的能见度定义计算能见度.通过三种场景下的能见度检测,实验结果表明,该算法与人眼观测效果一致,准确率高于86%,检测误差在20 m以内,鲁棒性好.%The traditional visibility meters are expensive, their sampling is limited, and some of the existing video measurement methods need artificial markers and are of poor stability. In order to solve these problems, a new algorithm for weather recognition and traffic visibility estimation through fixed camera was proposed based on lane detection and image inflection. Different from previous research, our traffic model added homogenous fog factor in traffic scenes. The algorithm consisted of three steps. Firstly, calculate the scene activity map. With the help of the Area Search Algorithm ( ASA) combined with texture features, extract area for identifying. The current weather condition is foggy if the pixels from top to bottom in the extracted area change in hyperbolic fashion. At the same time calculate inflection point of image brightness curve in the extracted area. Secondly, detect traffic lane based on the retractable window algorithm, extract the lane' s endpoint and calibrate the fixed camera

  1. The Outburst Elimination Technique Research of Floor Drainage Lane with High Concentrated of Gas%高瓦斯矿井底抽巷区域消突技术实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the upper corner gas concentration exceeds the limit in working face of Henan Da Yu Gou coal group co., LTD. Huatai coal mine,to carry out floor drainage lane、wear layer drilling floor drainage lane and floor drainage lane wear layer anti-reflection unloading hydraulic punching in for drilling measures at 12 mining area in 12030 and 12070 working face. Through the analysis of bottom engineering drainage area disappear Can increase the porosity Water permeability and wettability of二 1 coal from the physical and mechanical properties. Improve the gas extraction rate, Better to solve the problem of working face and the upper corner gas concentration is too large, Multiple tectonic highlight the mine safety and efficiency into production provides the practical experience and theoretical reference.%为解决河南大峪沟煤业集团有限责任公司华泰煤矿工作面上隅角瓦斯浓度超限的问题,在12采区12030和12070工作面下部开展底板抽放巷、底板抽放巷穿层钻孔、并对底板抽放巷穿层钻孔进行水力冲孔卸压增透等措施。通过分析底抽巷区域消突工程可以从物理力学性质上增大二1煤层的孔隙率、透水性和润湿性。较大程度的提高了瓦斯抽采率,较好的解决了工作面和上隅角瓦斯浓度过大,为多构造突出矿井的安全高效生产提供了实践经验和理论参考。

  2. Optimization and its Extension on the Impact Model of Urban Road' s Traffic Capacity at Lane Occupied%城市道路通行能力影响模型优化及其推广

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪仁兴; 沈婷; 胡静雅; 陈靖倩

    2015-01-01

    In china, traffic congestion has become a serious problem in today's increasingly prominent on growing probloms of urban traffic. But, many older urban road planning form earlier, the existing urban road construction is so far as behind the economic development at present,. Among them, the lane occupied has become the big-gest problem of the traffic congestion, including traffic problem, street parking, lane construction and so on. This paper aims to take advantage of the knowledge of traffic flow theory, by SPSS and MATLAB software, the actual traffic jam road traffic capacity is examined, using the real scene of the accident, as reflected in the video data acquisition and analysis, inspired by the classic logistic population model, a block growth model is proposed and established. The relationship about vehicle queue length, time duration, traffic capacity and traffic flow is obtained. Meanwhile, according to the people's traffic expectations, we established model about vehicle queue length and its influencing factors in response to urban road occupied, and given timing program and traffic organ-ization scheme of upstream crossing signal lights. The use of block growth model can effectively optimize urban road capacity, ease urban traffic pressure and improve the traffic environment.%利用交通流理论等知识,借助于SPSS和MATLAB软件,考察实际交通堵塞道路的通行能力,通过对真实事故现场数据的采集分析,受经典的logistic人口模型启发,提出并建立了阻滞增长模型,得到了拥堵时车辆排队长度与持续时间、通行能力、车流量之间的关系.建立了城市道路被占时的车辆排队长度和其影响因子探究的数学模型,给出了上游路口信号灯配时方案和交通组织方案.运用阻滞增长模型可有效优化城市道路通行能力,缓解城市交通压力,改善交通环境.

  3. Research on Length of Blocked Road Section for Maintenance of Two-lane Highway in Mountain Area Based on Vissim%基于Vissim的山区双车道公路养护作业封闭段长度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文亮; 刘振清; 贺玉龙; 高发亮

    2012-01-01

    建立山区双车道公路养护作业区Vissim仿真模型,通过信号灯控制通行时间,模拟在不同封闭段长度下车辆的运行状态,对行程延误、排队长度、停车次数和停驶车辆百分比等参数进行分析,得出山区双车道公路单车道封闭,短期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于200 m,长期养护作业封闭段长度不宜大于2500 m,这为山区双车道公路养护作业区设置和交通组织提供理论依据.%The simulation model of maintenance area for two-lane highway in mountain area was established based on Vissim. The model can simulate vehicles' running state with different lengths of blocked road section through signal lamp controlling time, and can analyze parameters such as trip delay, queuing length, number of stops and the percentage of suspended vehicles. The result shows that the blocked single-lane section length for short-term maintenance of two-lane highway in mountain area should be less than 200 m and that for long-term maintenance should be less than 2500 m. It provided a theoretical basis of setting maintenance area and transportation organizations for two-lane highway in mountain area.

  4. Evaluation on Comprehensive Benefits of Exclusive Bus Lane Settings:Taking Jingtong Express-way as an Example%公交专用车道设置综合效益评估--以京通快速路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文聪; 缪芳

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the lack of evaluation standard for setting exclusive bus lanes, this paper analyzes the operation costs before and after setting exclusive bus lanes from the perspectives of individual travel cost and social cost. Focusing on the direct benefits of exclusive bus lanes, the paper discusses the operation costs and benefits through analyzing the change of traffic parameters before and after setting exclusive bus lanes. By evaluating the changes of transport capacity, time cost and energy cost, the paper quantifies these indicators into monetary values. Finally, a case study using Jingtong Expressway as an example is conduct-ed.%为解决当前公交专用车道设置缺乏评估标准的问题,从个人出行成本和社会成本两个角度出发,对公交专用车道设置前后交通运营成本组成进行分析。在此基础上,重点针对公交专用车道运营的直接效益,通过分析公交专用车道设置前后交通运行参数的变化,分别对运营产出和运营成本进行综合分析,评估公交专用车道设置前后的运能总量、时间及能源消耗成本的变化,并将其折算成货币指标,实现评估指标的定量化。最后,以京通快速路为例进行了评估实证分析。

  5. 信号交叉口公交专用进口道设置条件与效果分析%Setting Condition and Effect Analysis of Bus Lanes at Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斌; 牛惠民

    2011-01-01

    分析了已有公交优先策略评价与仿真方法的局限性,考虑不同的交通需求水平与信号配时参数,将车均延误、人均延误和车辆排队长作为单个信号交叉口运行评价指标,以三相位十字信号交叉口为例,利用Simio仿真分析了公交专用进口道设置前后上述评价指标的变化规律.结果可用于交叉口公交优先信号配时参数的优化.%The limitations of evaluation and simulation methods for the existed bus priority strategy are analyzed. Average vehicle delay, average delay of customers and queue length are taken as evaluation indexes. Considering different traffic demand and signal timing parameters, a simulation example of a three-phase signalized intersection is presented to experiment and analyze the change rule of evaluation index with and without bus lanes, respectively by using the object-oriented simulation software Simio. The study results can be used in optimization signal timing parameters of signalized intersection based on bus priority.

  6. Ancient and Modern Association of "Encountering Complex" --Another Interpretation of DAI Wangshu's Rain Lane%“邂逅情结”的古今联通——戴望舒《雨巷》的另一解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张细珍

    2012-01-01

    Besides the "clove complex" and "rain lane complex", DAI Wangshu's Rain Lane has the "encoun- tering complex". It not only associates the mental expectation of ancient and modern scholars, but also implies the emotional tanglement of the poet at that time; in addition, it activates current readers' imagination. "Encountering complex" is the reality of a man living in the world, and is the reflection of self-comfort of DAI Wangshu. Essentially, DAI Wangshu can not walk out of the rain lane in his mind.%戴望舒《雨巷》除具有“丁香情结”、“雨巷情结”,还蕴涵“邂逅情结”。它既联通古今文人的心理期待,又隐含诗人当时的情感纠结,还激活当今读者的生命想象。“邂逅情结”是人之为人的一种存在境遇,是戴望舒自我安慰的理想投射。究其本质,他走不出自己心灵的雨巷。

  7. Hybrid ICA-Bayesian network approach reveals distinct effective connectivity differences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D; Burge, J; Lane, T; Pearlson, G D; Kiehl, K A; Calhoun, V D

    2008-10-01

    We utilized a discrete dynamic Bayesian network (dDBN) approach (Burge, J., Lane, T., Link, H., Qiu, S., Clark, V.P., 2007. Discrete dynamic Bayesian network analysis of fMRI data. Hum Brain Mapp.) to determine differences in brain regions between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls on a measure of effective connectivity, termed the approximate conditional likelihood score (ACL) (Burge, J., Lane, T., 2005. Learning Class-Discriminative Dynamic Bayesian Networks. Proceedings of the International Conference on Machine Learning, Bonn, Germany, pp. 97-104.). The ACL score represents a class-discriminative measure of effective connectivity by measuring the relative likelihood of the correlation between brain regions in one group versus another. The algorithm is capable of finding non-linear relationships between brain regions because it uses discrete rather than continuous values and attempts to model temporal relationships with a first-order Markov and stationary assumption constraint (Papoulis, A., 1991. Probability, random variables, and stochastic processes. McGraw-Hill, New York.). Since Bayesian networks are overly sensitive to noisy data, we introduced an independent component analysis (ICA) filtering approach that attempted to reduce the noise found in fMRI data by unmixing the raw datasets into a set of independent spatial component maps. Components that represented noise were removed and the remaining components reconstructed into the dimensions of the original fMRI datasets. We applied the dDBN algorithm to a group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and 35 matched healthy controls using an ICA filtered and unfiltered approach. We determined that filtering the data significantly improved the magnitude of the ACL score. Patients showed the greatest ACL scores in several regions, most markedly the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres. Our findings suggest that schizophrenia patients exhibit weaker connectivity than healthy controls in multiple regions

  8. An extended master-equation approach applied to aggregation in freeway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-Wei; Lin Bo-Liang; Huang Yong-Chang

    2008-01-01

    We restudy the master-equation approach applied to aggregation in a one-dimensional freeway,where the decay transition probabilities for the jump processes are reconstructed based on a car-following model. According to the reconstructed transition probabilities,the clustering behaviours and the stochastic properties of the master equation in a one-lane freeway traffic model are investigated in detail.The numerical results show that the size of the clusters initially below the critical size of the unstable cluster and initially above that of the unstable cluster all enter the same stable state,which also accords with the nucleation theory and is known from the result in earlier work.Moreover,we have obtained more reasonable parameters of the master equation based on some results of cellular automata models.

  9. 弯道不分道跑项目一组双线跑理论与应用%The Theory and Practice for Double Starting Lines for Race Events with One Lane in Bend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武玉元

    2012-01-01

      In local sports meeting, especially track and field sports meeting in primary and middle schools, there is only one starting line for race events with only one lane in bend, push ,tread, collision ,injury and fouls are always resulted for large number of runners crowd on one starting line. The paper explores double starting lines theory based on 《Regulations of Track and Field Events 2010-2011》and 《Standard Manual of Track and Field Facilities and Equipment 2008 》, hoping to improve athletes’ sport competing level, avoid accidents, ensure the success of track and field sports meeting%  基层运动会,特别是中小学田径运动会,弯道不分道跑项目一般只设一条起跑线,在起跑出发阶段常常因参赛人数过多而出现运动员相互拥挤、踩踏、冲撞,造成受伤和犯规现象,不利于田径运动的开展,本文以《田径竞赛规则2010-2011》、《田径场地设施标准手册2008》为依据,探讨弯道不分道跑项目一组双线跑理论与应用,以期提高运动员竞技运动水平,避免伤害事故的发生,确保田径运动会成功举办。

  10. 甲基二氯硅烷-甲基乙烯基二氯硅烷-甲苯三元体系等压汽液平衡%Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for Methyldichlorosi lane+Methylvinyldichlorosilane+Toluene and Constituent Binary Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余淑娴; 余祖兵; 邱祖民; 孙(韦华)

    2003-01-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for a ternary system of methyldichlorosilane + methylvinyldichlorosi-lane + toluene and constituent binary systems were measured at 101.3kPa using a new type of magnetical pump-ebulliometer. The equilibrium compositions of the vapor phase of binary systems were calculated indirectly fromthe total pressure-temperature-liquid composition (pTx). The experimental data were correlated with the Wilsonand NRTL(non-random two liquid) equations. The parameters of the Wilson model were employed to predict theternary VLE data. The calculated boiling points were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  11. 基于IPA分析法的景区旅游形象游客感知研究--以三坊七巷历史文化街区为例%Research on Perceived Destination Image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on IPA Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓薇

    2014-01-01

    运用IPA分析法对三坊七巷旅游形象的游客感知进行了实证研究,结果表明:游客总体满意度较好;历史名人文化、节事活动、景区内部交通等感知要素游客评价满意度高于重要性,是景区竞争优势,今后可继续强化;传统坊巷格局、外部交通通达性、景区游览接待设施等感知因素亟待改进;核心区域延续性、旅游资源特色、餐饮价格等感知要素由于游客的期望值低,景区对这些服务可考虑采取适度发展的策略。%Taking Three Lanes and Seven Alleys as a case study, the paper determined the effects of 22 factors on the perceived image of the destination.Through the data collected from questionnaire, a quantitative demon-strative study has been conducted on perceived destination image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.The study conclusion indicates that overall customer satisfaction is good.Tourists are satisfied with historical celebrity cul-ture, festival activities and interior traffic of tourist spots;the layout of traditional lanes and alleys, the exterior traffic and infrastructure are in urgent need to be improved based on the undesirable percieved image;the conti-nuity of core tourist region, characteristics of the tourist resources and food prices can be given moderate attention to as expectations are low in these respects.The study conclusion can provide guidance for sustainable develop-ment of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.

  12. 浅析基于车道事件的ETC服务性信息构建%Elementary Analysis of ETC Service Information Struction Based on Toll Lane Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭裕安; 翦俊

    2012-01-01

    随着我国ETC系统的大范围推广.从不同类型用户群体中所衍生出来的各种服务性需求越趋多样。但是由于目前系统缺乏为各类用户提供1种有针对性的信息交互渠道.从而大大影响系统整体的应用、运营和维护效率,这也成为制约我国ETC事业进一步发展和推广的一大瓶颈。文章针对上述问题,利用从ETC车道所采集到的各类多源异构数据,从中分析、挖掘及提炼出一些有价值的服务性信息,这不仅有利于现有ETC服务体系的完善。也为本行业及其他增值服务拓展了一条崭新发展渠道。%With the ETC system promoted widely in China,the service demand derived from the different types of user group became more multiplex. But due to the lack of a targeted channel for transferring the information to all types of users,the system's efficiency about application,operation and maintenance should be influenced,which had become the bottleneck constrainting the further development and extension of ETC industry. Therefore, in view of the mentioned problem,the paper described a way to analyze and extract some valueable service information from the heterogeneous data collected in ETC lane,which were not only benefit to improve the existing service system,but also to provide a new way for the expansion of this industry and other value-added services.

  13. Collision-f ree path planning for lane keeping system of intelligent vehicle%智能车辆车道保持系统中避障路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明磊; 陈无畏; 王家恩

    2014-01-01

    文章针对车道保持系统在运行中存在障碍物的情况,基于多传感器对智能车辆的局部避障路径规划问题进行了研究。首先利用单目视觉传感器检测可通行道路的边界线,根据道路信息得到车辆行驶的目标路径并生成虚拟障碍物;然后利用激光测距雷达与视觉传感器相结合的信息探测道路中可能存在的障碍物信息;最后将传感器感知的实际障碍物与虚拟障碍物相结合,采用改进的向量场直方图方法进行局部避障路径规划。仿真实验结果表明该避障路径规划算法是有效的。%Considering the possibility of obstacles existing on the road w hen the lane keeping system is utilized for the driver assistance ,the multisensory fusion based local collision-free path planning of the intelligent vehicle is studied .Firstly ,the traversable road boundaries are detected by using a monocu-lar vision sensor and a target path and virtual obstacles are generated by combining the detected boundaries and the road information consequently .Secondly ,the possible real obstacles existing on the road are detected by using the fusion information from laser ranging radar and vision sensors .Fi-nally ,the real obstacles detected by sensors are combined with virtual obstacles ,and a local collision-free path is planned by using improved vector field histogram (VFH) method .The results of simula-tion experiment indicate the validity of the proposed collision-free path planning method .

  14. 公交车停靠诱发交通瓶颈的元胞自动机模拟%Investigation on traffic bottleneck induce by bus stopping with a two-lane cellular automaton model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆定; 董力耘; 戴世强

    2009-01-01

    利用双车道元胞自动机模型,研究公交车停靠对道路混合交通流的影响.针对港湾式和非港湾式两种不同公交车站设置,在开放边界下模拟了公交车停靠所产生的交通瓶颈问题,给出了车辆入流概率.公交车比例相平面上的相图,区分了自由流相和拥挤相,研究了相图各区中公交车站附近的平均密度和速度分布图,比较了两种公交车站情况下的道路交通流的动力学特征.研究发现,当公交车比例较小时,与非港湾式车站相比,港湾式车站可以显著改善车站处的交通状况.%In this paper, the influence of typical bus stops on traffic flow is investigated with the cellular automaton traffic model. For on-line and off-line bus stops, a two-lane cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the traffic bottleneck induced by bus stopping under the open boundary condition. The phase diagram in the phase plane of injection probability and bus fraction is provided and two phases, i.e., the free flow phase and congested flow phase, are distinguished. The distributions of the mean density and velocity near the bus stop in different traffic phases are given and the comparison of dynamical characteristics of traffic flows is made for different types of bus stops. It is found that using the off-line bus stop can significandy improve the traffic flow in its neighboring region, compared with the on-line bus stop in the case of small fraction of buses.

  15. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  16. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles...

  17. UV-CURED FINISHING WORKS FOR LANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Research Institute, under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. EPA, conducted a study to identify wood furniture manufacturing facilities that had converted to low-VOC/HAP wood furniture coatings and to develop case studies for those facilities. This article addresse...

  18. Educational Marketing Methods at Lane Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Casey

    Peter Drucker defined marketing as "the promotion of a product or service from its inception through every step of its evolution and distribution until it reaches the satisfied customer." Inherent in this definition are the four components of marketing: pricing, product, place, and promotion. The product itself is the most important element and…

  19. No reserved communication lanes for high energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  20. Visualization Mapping Approaches for Developing and Understanding OER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Connolly

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources (OER can be described in numerous ways (Creative Commons, 2012. In this visualization based context, however, OER can be defined as …teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge. (Hewlett Foundation, 2007 This definition emphasizes some of the aspects highlighted in this article, namely that an OER approach has also been taken to capture and visualize OER materials. In addition reference is made to the forthcoming paper, “How Diagrams Aid Teaching and Learning in STEM Subjects as Exemplified by the Teaching and Learning of Systems Thinking in Practice” (Lane, 2012, in press, which outlines how the educational process often involves a mediated discourse between teachers and learners to aid sense or meaning for both parties.

  1. A Study of the Tourists’ Cultural Perception of the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on Network Text Analysis%基于网络文本分析的三坊七巷游客文化感知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小娜; 郑向敏

    2015-01-01

    Using network text analysis and software of ROST Content Mining, the paper explores thetourists’ cultural awareness of theTh-ree Alleys and Seven Lanes. The results of the study are as follows: visitors’ awareness of theThree Alleys and Seven Lanes is generally positive, material cultural awareness is stronger than intangible culture, and awareness of diet culture is the strongest in the material cultural awareness. The perception of the craft is mainly showed in non-material cultural awareness, while tourists’cultural perception is different.%本文运用网络文本分析法,以各大旅游网站中相关游记与评论等数据为样本,使用ROST Content Mining软件探索三坊七巷游客的文化感知。研究结果如下:游客对三坊七巷文化的整体印象较好;物质文化感知强于非物质文化感知;物质文化感知中对饮食文化感知最强;非物质文化感知方面主要表现为对手工艺品的感知;游客的文化感知存在差异。

  2. A simulator study investigating how motorcyclists approach side-road hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, Elizabeth; Stedmon, Alex W; Saikayasit, Rossukorn; Crundall, David

    2013-03-01

    The most common form of motorcycle collision in the UK occurs when another road user fails to give way and pulls out from a side road in front of an oncoming motorcyclist. While research has considered these collisions from the car driver's perspective, no research to date has addressed how motorcyclists approach these potential hazards. This study conducted a detailed analysis of motorcyclist speed and road position on approach to side-roads in a simulated suburban setting. Novice, Experienced and Advanced riders rode two laps of a simulated route, encountering five side-roads on each lap. On the second lap, a car emerged from the first side-road in a typical 'looked but failed to see' accident scenario. Three Experienced riders and one Novice rider collided with the hazard. The Advanced rider group adopted the safest strategy when approaching side-roads, with a lane position closer to the centre of the road and slower speeds. In contrast, Experienced riders chose faster speeds, often over the speed limit, especially when approaching junctions with good visibility. Rider behaviour at non-hazard junctions was compared between laps, to investigate if riders modified their behaviour after experiencing the hazard. Whilst all riders were generally more cautious after the hazard, the Advanced riders modified their behaviour more than the other groups after the hazard vehicle had pulled out. The results suggest that advanced training can lead to safer riding styles that are not acquired by experience alone.

  3. 视觉注意模型的道路监控视频关键帧提取%Key frame extraction based on the visual attention model for lane surveillance video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云鹏; 张三元; 王仁芳; 张引

    2013-01-01

    针对道路监控视频提出一种基于视觉注意模型的关键帧提取算法.首先采用自顶向下的方法,通过运动检测获取运动目标,以车牌和车辆最佳清晰度位置作为注意度评价标准,提取运动目标位置显著度;然后在运动目标内部采用自底向上的方法,提取运动目标的运动方向和强度显著度;接着用一种简单有效的车辆位置优先的自适应线性混合模式合成视觉注意度,并在时间方向上生成最终的视觉注意度曲线;最后求出视觉注意度曲线的导数曲线,自适应滤波处理后,在正值到负值变化的零交叉点中选取显著度最高的图像作为关键帧.实验结果表明,本文算法提取的关键帧不但包括了所有经过监控的车辆最佳或接近最佳清晰度的位置,而且还能包括道路停车、超速和逆向行驶等各种交通事件,符合交通观察者的视觉特性,同时也有利于进一步对关键帧进行车辆静态特征的提取,以形成交通视频的特征数据库.%A key frame extraction algorithm based on the visual attention model is proposed for lane surveillance video.First,the top-down method is used to detect moving objects whose position saliency is decided by the clearest position of license plates and vehicles.Then,within the moving objects,the bottom-up method is used to calculate the moving orientation and moving intensity saliency of these moving objects.Next,the visual attention curve is fused by a simple adaptive linear mode.Last a derivative curve is generated,from which the frame with the most salient value in those zero-crossing points from the positive to the negative on the derivative curve is selected as key frame.Experiments show that the key frames extracted by the proposed algorithm not only include the optimal or suboptimal positions of all passed vehicles,but also include on-street parking,speeding,reverse driving,and other traffic incidents.The results are consistent with the

  4. a Novel Approach to Camera Calibration Method for Smart Phones Under Road Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bijun; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Maosheng; Guo, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the `Tuzhi' self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  5. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  6. 智慧景区服务创新研究--以福州三坊七巷为例%Research on Service Innovation of Smart Scenic Spot:A Case Study of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys in Fuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁秋妹; 陈章旺

    2014-01-01

    以服务主导逻辑作为技术导向型和需求导向型结合的理论平台,阐释智慧旅游的服务内涵及其对智慧景区服务创新的影响,并以此为基础构建出智慧景区服务创新的概念模型。最后,以三坊七巷智慧景区的建设为例,研究从服务游客与居民、服务行政管理部门、服务旅游业态等3方面进行服务创新,改善旅游服务品质与效率,提升游客体验满意度,保障居民安全,进而保持三坊七巷景区旅游业态的持续竞争力,促进福州旅游产业的转型升级。%The theory of logicof service-dominant is both technology-oriented and demand-oriented, covering the exposition of smart tourism service as well as its effect on the innovation of smart scenic spot service. Based on the above theory, this paper is devoted to depicting the conceptual model of smart tourism service innovation. Three Lanes and Seven Alleys are quoted to show the service innovation.And with the implementation of these efforts, quality and efficiency of tourism can be the key for customers satisfaction which leads to the ultimate goal of maintaining the competitive edge of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys scenic as well as upgrading the transformation of tourism industry in Fuzhou.

  7. Potential cellular and regenerative approaches for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Lane

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Emma L Lane, Olivia J Handley, Anne E Rosser, Stephen B DunnettBrain Repair Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, CF10 3US, UKAbstract: Parkinson’s disease is most commonly treated with a range of pharmacotherapeutics, with the more recent introduction of surgical techniques including deep-brain stimulation. These have limited capabilities to improve symptoms of the disease in more advanced stages, thus new therapeutic strategies including the use of viral vectors and stem cells are in development. Providing a continuous supply of dopamine to the striatum in an attempt to improve the treatment of motor symptoms using enzymes in the dopamine synthesis and machinery is one approach. Alternatively, there are tools which may serve to both protect and encourage outgrowth of surviving neurons using growth factors or to directly replace lost innervation by transplantation of primary tissue or stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons. We summarize some of the potential therapeutic approaches and also consider the recent EU directives on practical aspects of handling viral vectors, cells and tissues, and in the running of clinical trials in Europe which impact on their development.Keywords: transplantation, viral vector, stem cells, ethics, European Union directive

  8. Monitoring Anthropogenic Ocean Sound from Shipping Using an Acoustic Sensor Network and a Compressive Sensing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter; Philip, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Wang, Lian

    2016-03-22

    Monitoring ocean acoustic noise has been the subject of considerable recent study, motivated by the desire to assess the impact of anthropogenic noise on marine life. A combination of measuring ocean sound using an acoustic sensor network and modelling sources of sound and sound propagation has been proposed as an approach to estimating the acoustic noise map within a region of interest. However, strategies for developing a monitoring network are not well established. In this paper, considerations for designing a network are investigated using a simulated scenario based on the measurement of sound from ships in a shipping lane. Using models for the sources of the sound and for sound propagation, a noise map is calculated and measurements of the noise map by a sensor network within the region of interest are simulated. A compressive sensing algorithm, which exploits the sparsity of the representation of the noise map in terms of the sources, is used to estimate the locations and levels of the sources and thence the entire noise map within the region of interest. It is shown that although the spatial resolution to which the sound sources can be identified is generally limited, estimates of aggregated measures of the noise map can be obtained that are more reliable compared with those provided by other approaches.

  9. TEACHING THE SOCIAL SKILLS TO THE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS THROUGH DIRECT INSTRUCTION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil ALPTEKİN

    2012-03-01

    , 120; Goldstein vd. 2002, 5; Sucuoğlu ve Özokçu, 2005, 58-61. So, it is necessary to provide students with social skills required with structured training practices to ensure the mentally retarded students to be accepted socially and participate in social environments (McLane 1998, 16; Bremer ve Smith 2004, 76; Siperstein ve Rickards, 2004, 76; Avcıoğlu, 2005, 17. Training practices based on the cognitive process approach and direct instruction approach are utilized for providing mentally handicapped students with social skills. Based on the said approaches, cooperative teaching and peer tutoring are variation thereof in social skills training. (Rosenshine 1982, 63; Collet–Klingenberg ve Chadsey–Rush 1991, 258-270; Güzel 1998, 31-34; Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 31-39; Dağseven 2008, 46-60. Direct instruction approach is an effective teaching method which is commonly-used for social skills training (Çiftçi ve Sucuoğlu 2004, 32. Social skills such as sharing, thanking are taught through direct instruction approach and complex social skills such as expressing feelings are taught, as well (Vaughn vd. 2003, 1; Dağseven 2008, 46. Students are motivated about the target skills to be taught through the direct instruction approach by explaining the information about where the skills will be used. Social skills to be taught by the teacher or any other person are exemplified or watched in video and thereby become a model. Guided practices by which some of social skills are performed by just recalling them in order to perform without a model for the student are included. Students are liberated by including the practices where recalls are excluded (Baumann 1985, 2 Gresham 1988, 35; Güzel 1998, 33; Çakır 2006, 26-39; Dağseven 2008, 47. In this study, instruction plan for thanking which is presented together with direct instruction approach is developed. Therefore, books on social skills (Gresham 1988, 31-41; Rutherford vd. 1998, 356; Goldstein vd. 2002, 178

  10. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  11. A method to accurately quantitate intensities of (32)P-DNA bands when multiple bands appear in a single lane of a gel is used to study dNTP insertion opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-dG adduct by Sulfolobus DNA polymerases Dpo4 and Dbh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholder, Gabriel; Loechler, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Quantitating relative (32)P-band intensity in gels is desired, e.g., to study primer-extension kinetics of DNA polymerases (DNAPs). Following imaging, multiple (32)P-bands are often present in lanes. Though individual bands appear by eye to be simple and well-resolved, scanning reveals they are actually skewed-Gaussian in shape and neighboring bands are overlapping, which complicates quantitation, because slower migrating bands often have considerable contributions from the trailing edges of faster migrating bands. A method is described to accurately quantitate adjacent (32)P-bands, which relies on having a standard: a simple skewed-Gaussian curve from an analogous pure, single-component band (e.g., primer alone). This single-component scan/curve is superimposed on its corresponding band in an experimentally determined scan/curve containing multiple bands (e.g., generated in a primer-extension reaction); intensity exceeding the single-component scan/curve is attributed to other components (e.g., insertion products). Relative areas/intensities are determined via pixel analysis, from which relative molarity of components is computed. Common software is used. Commonly used alternative methods (e.g., drawing boxes around bands) are shown to be less accurate. Our method was used to study kinetics of dNTP primer-extension opposite a benzo[a]pyrene-N(2)-dG-adduct with four DNAPs, including Sulfolobus solfataricus Dpo4 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Dbh. Vmax/Km is similar for correct dCTP insertion with Dpo4 and Dbh. Compared to Dpo4, Dbh misinsertion is slower for dATP (∼20-fold), dGTP (∼110-fold) and dTTP (∼6-fold), due to decreases in Vmax. These findings provide support that Dbh is in the same Y-Family DNAP class as eukaryotic DNAP κ and bacterial DNAP IV, which accurately bypass N(2)-dG adducts, as well as establish the scan-method described herein as an accurate method to quantitate relative intensity of overlapping bands in a single lane, whether generated

  12. 个人极端暴力事件的网络舆情传播研究*--以“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件为例%The Research of Network Public Opinion of Individual Extreme Violence Event---Taking the Event of "Being Beat of Chengdu Female Driver Because of Her Change of Lanes" for Instance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武桥; 黄永林

    2015-01-01

    The event that " Chengdu female driver was beat because she changes lanes" was spread broadly, became the focus of public o-pinion of every kind of news media public,and attracted the attention of network public opinion to the problem of individual extreme vio-lence in a society. The study of network transmission through the event of " being beat of the Chengdu female driver because of her change of lanes" found that: the mainstream network media played a dominant role in the report guidance of the social public security issues, and showed clear positive effects in the public opinion guidance and the support against violence and uncivilized phenomena. However, the media was in a passive position on the agenda setting, was insufficient in the guidance of public opinion and the netizen emotions. It will be the trend to enhance the sense of responsibility of the mainstream network media on social responsibility, raise the degree of media cred-ibility, improve the media's information accuracy, and give full play to the advantages of the platform.%“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件满城风雨,成为各新闻媒体舆论聚集的焦点,并引起网络舆论对社会个人极端暴力事件的高度关注。通过对“成都女司机变道被暴打”事件的网络传播研究发现:主流网络媒体在社会公共安全问题报道议题引导上占主导地位,在舆论引导、声援反暴力、反不文明现象作用明显。但是在议程设置上处于被动地位、引导舆论上仍存发力不足、网民情绪引导上缺乏力度,而增强主流网络媒体的社会责任意识、提高媒体公信力、提高信息准确性、发挥平台优势将是大势所趋。

  13. A Study of the Cultural Implication of the Architectural Decoration in Dongjiaomin Lane of Beijing, the Chinese Embassy District in Early Twentieth Century%20世纪初北京东交民巷使馆区建筑装饰的文化意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小彤; 万辉

    2016-01-01

    20世纪初北京作为政治权力中心风云变幻,中国传统思想文化与外来思想文化在建筑领域上发生摩擦直至交融,使北京20世纪初的建筑表现出绚丽多彩的形式。东交民巷使馆区正是北京这一时期极具代表性的建筑之一,是文化融合的历史证明,其建筑装饰又是这一时期的一大特色,具有重要的历史参考价值及文化教育意义。%At the beginning of the 20th century, Beijing, the center of political power, was admits the winds of changes. Having undergone constant conflictions, Chinese traditional culture mingled with foreign culture in the field of architecture and buildings in Beijing then appeared in colorful forms. Those in the embassy district in Dongjiaomin Lane of Beijing are one kind of the most representative buildings in the period, which are the historical evidence of the cultural integration. The architectural decoration here is of significance in historical reference and cultural education.

  14. The study on development route of culture creative industry in historic districts-Taking Kuanzhai lane as example%历史街区文化创意产业发展路径初探——以成都宽窄巷子为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋捷; 周波

    2011-01-01

    Creative economy is a vane of economic development in the 21st century,the developing mode in the historic districts also takes economic benefits as the direction, but native culture is fading in this process. Through analyzing the key element of cultural of Kuanzhai lane in Chengdu,and thinking about its development of industry,this text tries to do some research about the developing route of culture creative industry based on culture heritage and human geosraphy in historic districts.%创意经济是21世纪经济发展的风向标,历史街区的改造也正朝着以经济效益为导向的方式发展,而本土原生文化在这一过程中却逐渐消失.通过对成都宽窄巷子的文化要素分析,及其对产业发展状况的思考,对基于文化遗产、人文地理的文化创意产业在历史街区中的发展路径作一些探讨.

  15. 液压钻车与履带式挖掘机配套技术在大断面岩巷掘进中的应用%Application of Hydraulic Drilling and Supporting Technologies Crawler Excavators in Heavy Section Rock Lane Boring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常春锋

    2013-01-01

      五阳煤矿的现有资源濒临枯竭,扩区工程迫在眉睫,如何实现大断面岩巷的快速掘进,直接决定了扩区的开发进度。五阳煤矿以中央胶带大巷为试点,通过引入全液压钻车与履带式挖掘机等设备,经过优化爆破参数、改良施工工序和合理安排劳动组织等方法,在大断面岩巷炮掘方面实现了大的提升。%The current resources of Wuyang Coal Mine have become critically depleted ,and expanding area engineering was imminent , it directly determines the progress of the development of expansion by how to realize the rapid excavation of large cross section rock roadway.It makes central belt roadway of Wuyang Coal Mine a experimental unit ,and it optimized blasting parameters and improved construction process and made reasonable arrangement of labor organization and other methods ,and it achieved a big promotion of heavy section rock lane blasting.

  16. Sub-lane Design Concept with Tongguan to Xi’an Highway Widened Project%潼(关)~西(安)高速公路改扩建工程分车道设计理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋玲; 常文军

    2015-01-01

    针对目前我国高速公路改扩建工程中关于如何合理的利用旧路,减少资源浪费走可持续性发展方向的问题,本文结合潼关至西安改扩建工程,通过对交通量预测的详细分析,提出了分车道设计的原则,为路面结构设计提供有利的依据。%Considering a series of questions reveal in highway expansion projects rational exploitation old pavement, and reducing the waste of resources follow the direction of sustainable development, this article couples with the highway project of Tongguan to Xi’an, proposes road sub-lane design principles by detailed analyses traffic forecasting, which provide a favourable basis for the road structural design.

  17. No man is an island. A personal tribute to Bob Blanchard and ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Robert John

    2015-07-01

    I first met Bob Blanchard at an international conference in Paris some 40 years ago. We collaborated intensively during the late 1980s/early 1990s on the ethopharmacology of antipredator defence in wild and laboratory rats, and remained good friends until his untimely passing in November 2013. Bob will undoubtedly be remembered as one of the most influential behavioural neuroscientists of the 20th century and, with Caroline, the most eloquent advocate of ethoexperimental approaches to the study of behaviour. In this brief trip down memory lane, I describe when and where Bob and I first met and how, over a lengthy period, he directly and indirectly helped shape my own research career. His profound influence in this regard is illustrated by reference to not only our collaborative research on antipredator behaviour but also my other work on the ethopharmacology of agonistic behaviour, social conflict analgesia, anxiety, and appetite. The element common to all of this work has been ethoexperimental analysis and, for teaching me the true value of this approach, I shall always remain indebted to the big man. Literally and figuratively, Bob was most certainly larger than life.

  18. Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  19. A Judge Model of the Impact of Lane Closure Incident on Individual Vehicles on Freeways Based on RFID Technology and FOA-GRNN Method%基于RFID技术和FOA-GRNN理论的高速公路道路关闭交通事件对车辆影响的判断模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史东亚; 陆键; 陆林军

    2012-01-01

    In order to compensate the disadvantage of AID based on traditional traffic statistics technology can detect the incident but can't identify whether the individual vehicle is affected by the incident, this article presents a judge model of impact of lane closure incident on individual vehicles on freeways based on RFID technology and FOA-GRNN method. This model uses GRNN to classify the traffic information collected by RFID, uses FOA to optimize the spread value of GRNN. With VISSIM simulation, results shows that the model has the feature of high DR, low FAR, and can quickly detect the vehicle influenced by incident to support traffic evanesce.%为弥补基于传统交通信息采集技术的高速公路交通事件检测算法仅能判断交通事件发生与否而无法判断车辆个体是否受到交通事件影响的不足,作者提出了一种基于RFID和FOA-GRNN的高速公路交通事件对车辆影响的判断模型.该模型使用RFID获取关键交通信息,利用广义回归神经网络对交通信息进行归类,应用果蝇优化算法获取广义回归神经网络的最佳平滑参数值.用VISSIM进行了仿真,对模型进行了验证,结果表明该判断模型具有检测率高、误警率低的特点,能迅速判断出受到交通事件影响的车辆,为交通疏导工作提供支持.

  20. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  1. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  2. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  3. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  4. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  5. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  6. Understanding Modern Maritime Piracy: A Complex Adaptive System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Mediterranean Sea comprised the majority of the shipping lanes; the historical Barbary States included Morocco , Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli (the latter two...with the modern day names of Tunisia and Libya, respectively). The Mediterranean coastal area of Morocco , Algeria, and Tunis were primarily rocky...and high, while the coastal area of Tripoli was mainly low with reefs and shoal water extending well offshore . The coastal climate was mild with

  7. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海娜

    2015-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  8. The TLC Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  9. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  10. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  11. Articulating Design Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techni...

  12. Modular Approach for Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  13. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  14. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  15. Otoplasty: A graduated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M

    1999-01-01

    Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone.

  16. Hormonal approach in Hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Nusratuddin

    2015-01-01

    Hinsutism is a clinical sign that primarily indicate androgen excess and open caused hy relatively benign junctional conditions. Hirsutism requires a careful and systematic clinical evaluation coztoleal with a rational approach to treatment. Initiate therapy only in patients who give informed consent after a complete explanation of the potential benejits and risks of a particular treatment and alternative approaches. The goals ofthe correct management of hirsutism are to ame...

  17. The electronic approach VSCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  18. Sustainable fashion: New approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2013-01-01

    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  19. Effect of Simple Plastic-film Greenhouse on Environmental Factors in Crown of Lane Late Navel Orange in Winter%简易塑料大棚对冬季晚棱脐橙树冠内环境因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锋先; 管冠; 谢金招; 钟八莲

    2015-01-01

    Taking 4-year-old lane late navel orange as research material , the author used a simple plastic-film greenhouse to study the change characteristics of temperature and humidity in the crown of tree .The results showed that the temperature and hu-midity in the tree crown in the simple plastic greenhouse were closely relevant to those in the open air ( the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.7359 and 0.7489, respectively), the average temperature in greenhouse was 1.6℃higher, and the humidity was slightly low-er than those in the open air .The temperature gap between inside and outside of greenhouse was averagely 4.8℃( high inside and low outside) in daytime, and -1.2℃in night.Both the temperature rising in daytime and the temperature inversion in night hap-pened in the greenhouse , which were not affected by the types of weather .%以4年生枳壳砧晚棱脐橙树为试验材料,采用简易塑料大棚设施栽培模式,研究了设施条件下树冠内环境因子的变化特征,结果表明:简易塑料大棚树冠内温湿度与外界大气环境温湿度密切相关(相关系数R2分别为0.7359和0.7489),大棚内平均温度提高约1.6℃,湿度略有下降。对白天和夜晚设施内外温度差的分析表明,白天设施内平均增温4.8℃,晚上则恰好相反,内外温差为-1.2℃;设施内白天升温和夜间“逆温”现象并存,且不受天气类型的影响。

  20. 从戴望舒诗歌中的女性形象看其诗歌创作心理--以《雨巷》为例兼谈其他诗歌%The Poetry Creation Psychology of Dai Wang-shu from the Female Images in his Poems-Taking Rain Lane as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀昭

    2014-01-01

    The lilac girl in Dai Wang-shu’s Rain Lane has multiple meanings:it is the symbol of the melancholy, the embodiment of poet's political ideal and hope, and the self portrait of poet;the creation of image is influenced by Chinese and Western poetry. In addition, the other female characters in Dai Wang-shu’s poetry are lover’s silhouette in the poet's heart. They reflect the abstract worship of women. Investigating its reason, the cultural psychology of female images creation in Dai Wang-shu's poetry are as follows. Firstly, they are affected by the personality liberation and individualism of May Fourth. Secondly, they are the explicit manifestation of femininity in men's soul. Thirdly, they are the potential influences of the modern intellectuals who can't get rid of the mental habits and traditional culture of group consciousness.%戴望舒的《雨巷》中“丁香姑娘”具有多重内涵:既象征愁怨,也是诗人政治理想和希望的化身,还是诗人的自画像;其意象的创造受中西诗学的影响。此外,戴望舒其他诗歌中的女性形象既是诗人心中恋人的剪影,也体现了对女性的抽象崇拜。究其原因,戴望舒诗歌女性形象创造的文化心理为:首先受到五四个性解放思潮和个体本位思想的影响,其次是男人心灵深处女性气质的外显,再次是现代知识分子无法摆脱群体意识的精神习惯和传统文化的潜在影响。

  1. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  2. Embedded Star Formation in S4G Galaxy Dust Lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra M; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H; Teich, Yaron; Popinchalk, Mark; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Comeron, Sebastien; Efremov, Yuri N; Gadotti, Dimitri A; de Paz, Armando Gil; Hinz, Joannah L; Ho, Luis C; Holwerda, Benne; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Regan, Michael W; Salo, Heikki; Seibert, Mark; Sheth, Kartik

    2013-01-01

    Star-forming regions that are visible at 3.6 microns and Halpha but not in the u,g,r,i,z bands of the Sloan Digital Sky survey (SDSS), are measured in five nearby spiral galaxies to find extinctions averaging ~3.8 mag and stellar masses averaging ~5x10^4 Msun. These regions are apparently young star complexes embedded in dark filamentary shock fronts connected with spiral arms. The associated cloud masses are ~10^7 Msun. The conditions required to make such complexes are explored, including gravitational instabilities in spiral shocked gas and compression of incident clouds. We find that instabilities are too slow for a complete collapse of the observed spiral filaments, but they could lead to star formation in the denser parts. Compression of incident clouds can produce a faster collapse but has difficulty explaining the semi-regular spacing of some regions along the arms. If gravitational instabilities are involved, then the condensations have the local Jeans mass. Also in this case, the near-simultaneous a...

  3. Talbot Lodge Nursing Home, Kinsealy Lane, Malahide, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.

  4. Hook or hatchet – Lover 's Lane, love scene epilogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Myth of a couple who escape death in a chance encounter with the psychopath with a hook instead of a hand, is one of the ten classic urban legends that have been brought to public attention by folklorists during the sixth and seventh decade of the twentieth century. Eminent Anglo-American folklorists dedicated entire papers, or significant portion in their works to this tale, as a contribution to the study of urban legends as a folk genre. In this essay, the legend of the hook is closely linked with the boyfriend's' death legend, its hermetic interpretation, and contextualization in the social reality of sexual relations at the time in which it occurs.

  5. Eyrefield Manor Nursing Home, Church Lane, Greystones, Wicklow.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2010-01-01

    The computational prediction of transcription start sites is an important unsolved problem. Some recent progress has been made, but many promoters, particularly those not associated with CpG islands, are still difficult to locate using current methods. These methods use different features and training sets, along with a variety of machine learning techniques and result in different prediction sets.

  6. TLC City West, Cooldown Commons, Fortunestown Lane, Citywest, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  7. Bandon Community Hospital, Hospital Lane, Cloughmacsimon, Bandon, Cork.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Petticrew, Mark

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that the alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to influence policy and undermine public health, and that every opportunity should be taken to scrutinise such activities. This study analyses a controversial Diageo-funded \\'responsible drinking\\' campaign ("Stop out of Control Drinking", or SOOCD) in Ireland. The study aims to identify how the campaign and its advisory board members frame and define (i) alcohol-related harms, and their causes, and (ii) possible solutions.

  8. Careers in Auto Racing: Work in the Fast Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, William

    2009-01-01

    Long before most people had seen an automobile, thrill-seekers across the globe were driving cars competitively. The speed of racecars has accelerated steadily, as has the popularity of the sport. In public opinion polls of sports popularity, in fact, auto racing consistently finishes near the top. Racecar drivers may be the star of their event,…

  9. St. Joseph's Centre, Crinken Lane, Shankill, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2011-08-09

    Abstract Background The development of the Nisin Inducible Controlled Expression (NICE) system in the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris represents a cornerstone in the use of Gram-positive bacterial expression systems for biotechnological purposes. However, proteins that are subjected to such over-expression in L. lactis may suffer from improper folding, inclusion body formation and\\/or protein degradation, thereby significantly reducing the yield of soluble target protein. Although such drawbacks are not specific to L. lactis, no molecular tools have been developed to prevent or circumvent these recurrent problems of protein expression in L. lactis. Results Mimicking thioredoxin gene fusion systems available for E. coli, two nisin-inducible expression vectors were constructed to over-produce various proteins in L. lactis as thioredoxin fusion proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that our novel L. lactis fusion partner expression vectors allow high-level expression of soluble heterologous proteins Tuc2009 ORF40, Bbr_0140 and Tuc2009 BppU\\/BppL that were previously insoluble or not expressed using existing L. lactis expression vectors. Over-expressed proteins were subsequently purified by Ni-TED affinity chromatography. Intact heterologous proteins were detected by immunoblotting analyses. We also show that the thioredoxin moiety of the purified fusion protein was specifically and efficiently cleaved off by enterokinase treatment. Conclusions This study is the first description of a thioredoxin gene fusion expression system, purposely developed to circumvent problems associated with protein over-expression in L. lactis. It was shown to prevent protein insolubility and degradation, allowing sufficient production of soluble proteins for further structural and functional characterization.

  10. St. Joseph's Centre, Crinken Lane, Shankill, Co. Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, S

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used and effective means of providing long-term nutrition in patients with inadequate oral intake. The demand for this intervention has risen steadily since the early 1990s. Endoscopists who perform PEG insertion have become increasingly concerned about inappropriate use of this intervention.

  11. No reserved communication lanes for high energy (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Pitrelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The American particle physics community is in jeopardy and may end up drowning in a boundless sea trying to grasp at non-existing funds, dragging US physics and science as a whole to the bottom. This is a price the most powerful and high-tech country of the world cannot afford, as warned by the editors of a report published in late April by the National Academy of Sciences1. Behind so much alarm is the International Linear Collider (ILC – a large particle accelerator facility which, according to the report, should be built on American territory, if research on the elementary constituents of nature is to survive in the United States. The ILC will probably cost a total of five hundred million dollars in the first five years, whereas billions will have to be invested in the subsequent seven years. Hardly impressive, however, if compared with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC, the biggest and costliest machine ever conceived in the history of science. Devised to describe the first instants of the universe, as many will recall, the SSC project was severely hampered by political and bureaucratic plots in 1993, when the Clinton administration decided to halt work on the accelerator, after ten years and approximately two billion dollars already spent.

  12. St Martha's Nursing Home, Love Lane, Clybee, Charleville, Cork.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bidwell, Posy

    2012-12-17

    BACKGROUND: Between 2000 and 2010, Ireland became increasingly dependent on foreign-trained doctors to staff its health system. An inability to train and retain sufficient doctors to meet demand is the primary reason for the dependence on foreign-trained doctors. By 2008 the proportion of foreign-trained doctors was the second highest in the OECD. This increased dependence on international medical migration has both national and international policy implications. METHODS: Registration data were obtained from the Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) for a 10-year period: 2000-2010. Data indicate country of qualification but not nationality. The total number of registrants and entrants (n) was determined for each year. Immigration data were also obtained on the number of work visas issued to doctors. Registration and visa data were then compared in order to estimate doctor migration to Ireland 2000-2010. RESULTS: The proportion of foreign-trained doctors rose from 13.4% of all registered doctors in 2000 to 33.4% by 2010. The largest increase was in foreign-trained doctors from outside the EU, rising from 972 (7.4%) in 2000 to 4740 (25.3%) of registered doctors in 2010. The biggest source country in 2000 was Pakistan. By 2010, South Africa had become the biggest source country. The number of foreign-trained doctors from other EU countries doubled from 780 in 2000 to 1521 in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Registration data are likely to over-estimate and visa data under-estimate the numbers of doctors actively working in Ireland. However, they serve to illustrate Ireland\\'s rapidly increasing and potentially unsustainable reliance on foreign-trained doctors; and to highlight the need for better data to measure migratory flows. Improved measurement of health worker migration is necessary both for national workforce planning and to fulfil the requirements of the WHO Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel.

  13. QoS- unbroken traffic lane streaming in Road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present situation travel becomes the biggest hassle for everyone. In this proposed research paper I have used GPS system to find out the shortest path to make your travel at ease. Through this navigation process it is clear-cut for us to find out right path. In this process, it is possible for an individual to analyse the exact shortest route from multiple paths. With the information from the satellite it depicts the image of the route for the travel. Besides it bestows the time and speed for us. If an individual is planning to travel from one node to another node it requires the information for one to decide to analyse the routes to reach the destination without any difficulty. By using our proposed system one is facing any problem while travelling in certain route it is easy for the particular individual to analyse the route map information precisely so that it makes the person to reach the any place within devastate their time they can reach with no trouble. This advanced system which facilitates to understand the route links which gives clear information about the instantaneous routes which makes you to trip inthe future without any difficulties.

  14. In the fast lane: large-scale bacterial genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Tamás; Burland, Valerie; Pósfai, György

    2012-07-31

    The last few years have witnessed rapid progress in bacterial genome engineering. The long-established, standard ways of DNA synthesis, modification, transfer into living cells, and incorporation into genomes have given way to more effective, large-scale, robust genome modification protocols. Expansion of these engineering capabilities is due to several factors. Key advances include: (i) progress in oligonucleotide synthesis and in vitro and in vivo assembly methods, (ii) optimization of recombineering techniques, (iii) introduction of parallel, large-scale, combinatorial, and automated genome modification procedures, and (iv) rapid identification of the modifications by barcode-based analysis and sequencing. Combination of the brute force of these techniques with sophisticated bioinformatic design and modeling opens up new avenues for the analysis of gene functions and cellular network interactions, but also in engineering more effective producer strains. This review presents a summary of recent technological advances in bacterial genome engineering.

  15. DOE ZERH Case Study: Addison Homes, Cobbler Lane, Simpsonville, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed humid climate that got a HERS 41 without PV, with 2x4 16” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam, a sealed conditioned crawl space insulated on inside with 2 inches poly iso, a vented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass, a central heat pump with fresh air intake.

  16. FastLane: Agile Drop Notification for Datacenter Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    gifts from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAP, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, FitWave, General Electric, Hortonworks, Huawei ...Google, SAP, Cisco, Clearstory Data, Cloudera, Ericsson, Facebook, FitWave, General Electric, Horton- 12 works, Huawei , Intel, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle

  17. Different phylogenomic approaches to resolve the evolutionary relationships among model fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrisolo, Enrico; Kuhl, Heiner; Forcato, Claudio; Vitulo, Nicola; Reinhardt, Richard; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2010-12-01

    Comparative genomics holds the promise to magnify the information obtained from individual genome sequencing projects, revealing common features conserved across genomes and identifying lineage-specific characteristics. To implement such a comparative approach, a robust phylogenetic framework is required to accurately reconstruct evolution at the genome level. Among vertebrate taxa, teleosts represent the second best characterized group, with high-quality draft genome sequences for five model species (Danio rerio, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Oryzias latipes, Takifugu rubripes, and Tetraodon nigroviridis), and several others are in the finishing lane. However, the relationships among the acanthomorph teleost model fishes remain an unresolved taxonomic issue. Here, a genomic region spanning over 1.2 million base pairs was sequenced in the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax. Together with genomic data available for the above fish models, the new sequence was used to identify unique orthologous genomic regions shared across all target taxa. Different strategies were applied to produce robust multiple gene and genomic alignments spanning from 11,802 to 186,474 amino acid/nucleotide positions. Ten data sets were analyzed according to Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor joining methods. Extensive analyses were performed to explore the influence of several factors (e.g., alignment methodology, substitution model, data set partitions, and long-branch attraction) on the tree topology. Although a general consensus was observed for a closer relationship between G. aculeatus (Gasterosteidae) and Di. labrax (Moronidae) with the atherinomorph O. latipes (Beloniformes) sister taxon of this clade, with the tetraodontiform group Ta. rubripes and Te. nigroviridis (Tetraodontiformes) representing a more distantly related taxon among acanthomorph model fish species, conflicting results were obtained between data sets and methods, especially with respect

  18. Concept for estimating mitochondrial DNA haplogroups using a maximum likelihood approach (EMMA)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Alexander W.; Dür, Arne; van Oven, Mannis; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The assignment of haplogroups to mitochondrial DNA haplotypes contributes substantial value for quality control, not only in forensic genetics but also in population and medical genetics. The availability of Phylotree, a widely accepted phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA lineages, led to the development of several (semi-)automated software solutions for haplogrouping. However, currently existing haplogrouping tools only make use of haplogroup-defining mutations, whereas private mutations (beyond the haplogroup level) can be additionally informative allowing for enhanced haplogroup assignment. This is especially relevant in the case of (partial) control region sequences, which are mainly used in forensics. The present study makes three major contributions toward a more reliable, semi-automated estimation of mitochondrial haplogroups. First, a quality-controlled database consisting of 14,990 full mtGenomes downloaded from GenBank was compiled. Together with Phylotree, these mtGenomes serve as a reference database for haplogroup estimates. Second, the concept of fluctuation rates, i.e. a maximum likelihood estimation of the stability of mutations based on 19,171 full control region haplotypes for which raw lane data is available, is presented. Finally, an algorithm for estimating the haplogroup of an mtDNA sequence based on the combined database of full mtGenomes and Phylotree, which also incorporates the empirically determined fluctuation rates, is brought forward. On the basis of examples from the literature and EMPOP, the algorithm is not only validated, but both the strength of this approach and its utility for quality control of mitochondrial haplotypes is also demonstrated. PMID:23948335

  19. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  20. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  1. Approaches to Methadone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses methadone treatment in Copenhagen – as it is described by methadone users and staff at different outpatient centres. The starting point is a theoretical model distinguishing between two different approaches to methadone treatment: ‘palliative’ and ‘curative’. Included...... in the model are three dimensions (1) treatment goals at the methadone centres (abstinence vs. stabilisation) (2) treatment focus (focus on addiction vs. focus on the consequences of addiction) and (3) conceptualisation of methadone (methadone as similar to or different from heroin). The paper shows...... that there is a discrepancy between the attitudes of the staff and those of the users. While the staff favour an almost clear-cut palliative approach to methadone treatment, defining curative goals as both unrealistic and as belonging to the past, the users prefer an approach that does not exclude the goal of abstinence...

  2. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  3. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Radiolab - three different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2012-01-01

    different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further...... object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1) a process...

  5. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  6. Marxian Approaches to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  7. Islamic approach in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2014-02-01

    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

  8. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  9. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  10. Adopting a Pluricentric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerckvoorde, Colette

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

  11. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  12. The Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary mora

  13. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  14. Case Histories of Landslide Impact: A Database-driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    frequented highway in NW Germany. Landslide problems at this site started with road construction in the early 1880s and were related to multiple event clusters, especially those in the years 1936-1937 (n = 4), 1961 (n = 2), 1970-1974 (n = 5), and 1999-2001 (n = 7). The most frequently applied mitigation measures were rudimentary and less expensive, including (i) removal of loose rock and vegetation (1924, 1936, 1961-1962, 1994), (ii) rock blasting (1936), (iii) catch barriers (1937, 1994), and (iv) temporary or perpetual closure of traffic lanes (1982, 1994). A series of destructive landslides forced decision-makers to launch an expensive slope stabilization project in 2001 that resulted in costs of USD 7.1 million. After finalization of the project no further landslide problems have been reported for this site. References Corominas, J., van Westen, C., Frattini, P., Cascini, L., Malet, J.-P., Fotopoulou, S., Catani, F., Van Den Eeckhaut, M., Mavrouli, O., Agliardi, F., Pitilakis, K., Winter, M.G., Pastor, M., Ferlisi, S., Tofani, V., Hervás, J., Smith, J.T., 2014. Recommendations for the quantitative analysis of landslide risk. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 73, 209-263. Damm, B., Klose, M., 2014. Landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany: a tool for analysis of mass movement processes and impacts. In: Sassa, K., Canuti, P., Yin, Y. (Eds.), Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment. Volume 2: Methods of Landslide Studies. Springer, Berlin, pp. 787-792. Klose, M., Damm, B., Terhorst, B., 2014. Landslide cost modeling for transportation infrastructures: a methodological approach. Landslides, DOI 10.1007/s10346-014-0481-1.

  15. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  16. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  17. A Personal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellyn Weir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the process of taking a personal approach to my son’s problems with computer games. As a psychology student, I should have been in a good position to explore the paradoxical emotions and this situation of conflict. Yet I was also aware that relating closely to the people we are studying has long been a taboo even in qualitative research. I nevertheless adopted a collaborative methodology in which I balanced a dual role of parent and researcher. Taking a personal approach, allowing intimate, reciprocal negotiation, I was not only able to put this taboo to the rare empirical test but also achieved an insight that would otherwise have not been available to me. By engaging in dialogue and encouraging the ability to object, a first-person plural (We, position was achieved in which an understanding of this situation developed and has transferred to our everyday lives.

  18. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

  19. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  20. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  1. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  2. The Branding Management Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKOUBI; Mohamed Lamine

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract]We wil try to present,through the display of the various branding concepts and theories, the different branding management approaches.This wil present the different visions of the discipline depending on the author to try and demonstrate their differences,at first, and their complementarities at last to help the different branding management practitioners (brand managers,marketing managers,advertisers,media-planners……) apprehend the right brand positioning strategy to engage.

  3. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing environmental and legislative demands to reduce energy consumption, not only new constructions but also the existing urban fabric is about to change radically in the coming decades. Existing buildings cannot simply be restored but must undergo a transformation to comply with ...... the building envelope as an aesthetic ‘gesture’, this paper discusses the architectural challenges related to energy renovation in a Danish context and tectonic design method as an approach to these challenges in everyday practice....

  4. APPROACHES FOR SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  5. Multivariate Bioclimatic Ecosystem Change Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    conclude that an analogous patch did not exist. It must exist somewhere, but some of the other MVA techniques were restricted by the mathematical ...found that the Primarily Analogous Multivariate approach developed during this research clearly distinguished itself from the other five approaches in...Principally Analogous Multivariate (PAM) approach ............................................... 29 4.6.1 Introduction to the PAM approach

  6. ESTCP Pilot Program - Classification Approaches in Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    This figure plots the results for analysis of EM61-MK2 data from both the cart and array using the UX-Analyze module of Oasis montaj . As can be seen...module of Oasis montaj . The cart data were collected using tighter lane spacing than would be standard for a detection-only survey (0.5-m spacing in...Analyze module of the Geosoft software Oasis montaj . Each anomaly can be analyzed to extract features such as size, depth, aspect ratio, and

  7. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  8. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agresta Ferdinando

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal

  9. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  10. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  11. The collaboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  12. [Regenerative approach for COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    No treatment to cure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is available. Regenerative medicine is one of promising areas for this intractable disease. Several reagents and growth factors are known to promote lung regeneration in small animal models. However, regenerative medicines for human lungs are not achieved yet. Recent advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering have expanded our understanding of lung endogenous stem cells, and this new knowledge provides us with new ideas for future regenerative therapy for lung diseases. Although lungs are the most challenging organ for regenerative medicine, our cumulative knowledge of lung regeneration and of endogenous progenitor cells makes clear the possibilities for regenerative approach to COPD.

  13. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea NAGY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.

  14. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  15. Papilledema. An updated approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaney González Yglesias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The term papilledema refers to the edema that appears in the optic papilla after intracranial hypertension. Some of its most frequent causes are intracranial lesions, hydrocephaly, thrombosis venous sinus and meningitis. The increase of intracranial tension is related with the results of the eye´s fundus examination, which are classified differently: incipient, established, chronic, and atrophic, depending on its severity or development. It is indispensable to carry out imaging tests before performing lumbar puncture. This article is an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of this gnoseological entity.

  16. [Cystic pyeloureteritis. Our approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; González de Garibay, A S; Ruiz Rubio, J L; Sebastián Borruel, J L

    1992-05-01

    We report a case of massive cystic pyeloureteritis that had been diagnosed by ureterorenoscopy in a patient with recurrent urinary infection and episodes of nephritic colic. The reports published in the literature indicate there is no specific treatment for this disease whose etiology is unknown. Its pathogenesis has not been well-established and it is difficult to distinguish from other urothelial filling defects. Although it has also been reported that it may progress to malignancy, we believe that the therapeutic approach should be conservative.

  17. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine

    2014-01-01

    -based. Based on a presentation of ¿Health and Local Community¿, a supersetting initiative addressing the prevention of lifestyle diseases in a Danish municipality, the paper discusses the potentials and challenges of supporting local community interventions using the supersetting approach......BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...

  18. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  19. Interstage Flammability Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jeffrey K.; Eppard, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The Interstage of the Ares I launch platform houses several key components which are on standby during First Stage operation: the Reaction Control System (ReCS), the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) and the J-2X with the Main Propulsion System (MPS) propellant feed system. Therefore potentially dangerous leaks of propellants could develop. The Interstage leaks analysis addresses the concerns of localized mixing of hydrogen and oxygen gases to produce deflagration zones in the Interstage of the Ares I launch vehicle during First Stage operation. This report details the approach taken to accomplish the analysis. Specified leakage profiles and actual flammability results are not presented due to proprietary and security restrictions. The interior volume formed by the Interstage walls, bounding interfaces with the Upper and First Stages, and surrounding the J2-X engine was modeled using Loci-CHEM to assess the potential for flammable gas mixtures to develop during First Stage operations. The transient analysis included a derived flammability indicator based on mixture ratios to maintain achievable simulation times. Validation of results was based on a comparison to Interstage pressure profiles outlined in prior NASA studies. The approach proved useful in the bounding of flammability risk in supporting program hazard reviews.

  20. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  1. Modular Approach to Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Ganguly, Samiran; Datta, Supriyo

    2015-06-11

    There has been enormous progress in the last two decades, effectively combining spintronics and magnetics into a powerful force that is shaping the field of memory devices. New materials and phenomena continue to be discovered at an impressive rate, providing an ever-increasing set of building blocks that could be exploited in designing transistor-like functional devices of the future. The objective of this paper is to provide a quantitative foundation for this building block approach, so that new discoveries can be integrated into functional device concepts, quickly analyzed and critically evaluated. Through careful benchmarking against available theory and experiment we establish a set of elemental modules representing diverse materials and phenomena. These elemental modules can be integrated seamlessly to model composite devices involving both spintronic and nanomagnetic phenomena. We envision the library of modules to evolve both by incorporating new modules and by improving existing modules as the field progresses. The primary contribution of this paper is to establish the ground rules or protocols for a modular approach that can build a lasting bridge between materials scientists and circuit designers in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics.

  2. Study on the Method of Reversible Approach Guidance at the Signalized Intersection Base on PARAMICS%基于PARAMICS的信号交叉口可变进口道诱导方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东明; 成卫; 潘云伟; 肖海承

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of science and technology to make intelligent transportation as an effective means to solve traffic problems, for the traffic flow phenomenon of morning and afternoon peak hour traffic and the direction of imbalance at intersection,the thought of traffic guidance is induced, made use of variable approach to solve traffic congestion during peak periods at the signalized intersection ,given the way of the data acquisition and the conditions of lanes change. Variable Message Sign (VMS) is used to display the information of lanes change in a timely manner,with the actual the intersection model is established,the same time,with rich API of the microscopic traffic simulation software-paramics to achieve the model simulation, the comparison and evaluation results are presented. The results show that the using of variable approach can significantly improve the intersection level of service.%科学技术的快速发展使智能交通成为解决交通问题的有效手段.针对交叉口交通流量呈现潮汐性、方向不均衡性的现象,运用交通诱导的思想,提出利用可变进口道解决高峰时段信号交叉口交通拥堵的方法.给出了数据采集的途径和变化车道的条件.采用VMS(可变情报板)及时展示车道变化信息,结合实际,建立交叉口模型,并通过微观交通仿真软件PA-RAMICS丰富的API功能,实现对模型的仿真验证.列出对比评价结果,结果表明进行可变进口道诱导之后,交叉口的服务水平明显提高.

  3. Advanced intelligence and mechanism approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yixin

    2007-01-01

    Advanced intelligence will feature the intelligence research in next 50 years.An understanding of the concept of advanced intelligence as well as its importance will be provided first,and detailed analysis on an approach,the mechanism approach.suitable to the advanced intelligence research will then be flolowed.And the mutual relationship among mechanism approach,traditional approaches existed in artificial intelligence research,and the cognitive informatics will be discussed.It is interesting to discover that mechanism approach is a good one to the Advanced Intelligence research and a tmified form of the existed approaches to artificial intelligence.

  4. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  5. Integration a functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bichteler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    This book covers Lebesgue integration and its generalizations from Daniell's point of view, modified by the use of seminorms. Integrating functions rather than measuring sets is posited as the main purpose of measure theory. From this point of view Lebesgue's integral can be had as a rather straightforward, even simplistic, extension of Riemann's integral; and its aims, definitions, and procedures can be motivated at an elementary level. The notion of measurability, for example, is suggested by Littlewood's observations rather than being conveyed authoritatively through definitions of (sigma)-algebras and good-cut-conditions, the latter of which are hard to justify and thus appear mysterious, even nettlesome, to the beginner. The approach taken provides the additional benefit of cutting the labor in half. The use of seminorms, ubiquitous in modern analysis, speeds things up even further. The book is intended for the reader who has some experience with proofs, a beginning graduate student for example. It might...

  6. Editorial: Approaching 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl

    2012-02-01

    With this issue, beginning Volume 121, the editorial team shifts from the strong leadership of David Watson to a team under my direction. Approaching 125 years of publication, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology has earned its place as the preeminent outlet for research in psychopathology. With gratitude to the newly assembled team of associate editors (AEs), consulting editors, and ad hoc reviewers, I look forward to guiding the journal through this next term. Nine well-respected scholars have agreed to serve as AEs: Timothy Brown, Laurie Chassin, Jeff Epstein, Jutta Joormann, Pamela Keel, Kate Keenan, Scott Lilienfeld, Angus MacDonald, and Michael Young. The new team is dedicated to working tirelessly to maintain and enhance the journal's esteemed tradition of excellence. Given the well-established strengths of the journal, I will not suggest any fundamental changes.

  7. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    countries acknowledged as forerunners in gender equality, which also have ‘fairly strong’ parliamentary standing committees. The results show that both committees on gender equality can be regarded as ‘feminist’ in character and both interact with relevant civil society organisations. Their impact......Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...... as measured by legislative outputs and oversight differs, however, in line with differing committee system characteristics: the Finnish committee has more impact on legislative outputs while the Danish committee has more impact on overseeing government....

  8. Material Modelling - Composite Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    , and internal stresses caused by drying shrinkage with experimental results reported in the literature on the mechanical behavior of mature concretes. It is then concluded that the model presented applied in general with respect to age at loading.From a stress analysis point of view the most important finding......This report is part of a research project on "Control of Early Age Cracking" - which, in turn, is part of the major research programme, "High Performance Concrete - The Contractor's Technology (HETEK)", coordinated by the Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997.A composite......-rheological model of concrete is presented by which consistent predictions of creep, relaxation, and internal stresses can be made from known concrete composition, age at loading, and climatic conditions. No other existing "creep prediction method" offers these possibilities in one approach.The model...

  9. Therapeutic approaches for shankopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Bey, Alexandra L; Chung, Leeyup; Krystal, Andrew D; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the current treatments for these disorders are mostly focused on behavioral and educational approaches. The considerable clinical and molecular heterogeneity of ASD present a significant challenge to the development of an effective treatment targeting underlying molecular defects. Deficiency of SHANK family genes causing ASD represent an exciting opportunity for developing molecular therapies because of strong genetic evidence for SHANK as causative genes in ASD and the availability of a panel of Shank mutant mouse models. In this article, we review the literature suggesting the potential for developing therapies based on molecular characteristics and discuss several exciting themes that are emerging from studying Shank mutant mice at the molecular level and in terms of synaptic function.

  10. [Orthopedic approach to asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardinet, Etienne; Duhart, Anne-Marie

    2002-06-01

    Asymmetry being a clinical manifestation of various pathologies, the orthopedic attitude greatly varies from one practitioner to another. Thanks to a better knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, the orthopedic approach in some particular cases reveals very effective, either alone or together with other therapeutics. In mandibular laterodeviations most often consecutive to a maxillary contraction, the best treatment is to expand maxilla which will allow a mandibular centric repositioning. This therapy is often achieved early to limit the asymmetric expression of growth and normalize the dental eruption. In unilateral condylar hypoplasias of variable extension, from a simple defect in condylar growth to a hemifacial microsomia, the therapeutic attitude has mostly evolved. A surgical orthodontic protocol can integrate an increasingly significant orthopedic phase in the course of time. Some authors show that a surgical case may be treated originally only with the help of orthopedics. The devices used are of activator or hyperpropulsor type. In unilateral condylar hyperplasias, orthopedic therapy must be considered with reservations.

  11. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... zero while the polarization field per polariton is essentially the excitonic dipole moment per unit volume. From the wave function of the polariton it is seen that in a very broad spectral range around the resonance the polariton is essentially an exciton that travels through the crystal with the speed...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...

  12. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  13. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  14. Management practice: phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Siqueira da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the aim of understanding the lived experiences by managers in relation to organizational changes in an enterprise in the food area, located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The role of managers has been constantly evaluated and their capacity of continuous learning and also the ability of transforming the learning in good organizational results is reacquired every instant. In this work, my intention is to show, using an interpretative analysis, real and practical situations, from lived experiences. The methodological way followed was the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, trying to give a global and a contextual treatment to the theme. The results achieved offer subsides for a new look over the management practice and point out the importance of the study of what is lived, as an inspiration source for the strategic decisions in the enterprises.

  15. Approaching attometer laser vibrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembe, Christian; Kadner, Lisa; Giesen, Moritz [Research and Development, Polytec GmbH, Polytec Platz 1-7, 76337 Waldbronn (Germany)

    2014-05-27

    The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of RF-MEM resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in nowadays systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of a very tiny structure. Thus, noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only possible path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity amplification of our approach.

  16. SOME REFLECTIONS ON STRUCTURAL APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuiQingyang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is intended to expound the advantages and disadvantages of the trathtional Structural Approach in the Chinese context and discuss the necessity and feasibility of implementing the Communicative Approach and the Self--service Approach,both of which evaluate highly the position of subjective activity in learning and bring the obligation of professional development back to learners themselves,KEY WORD approach structural communicative self service critique adaptadopt

  17. A Narrative Approach to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anne

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I present a narrative approach to environmental education research. This approach evolved through a dynamic interplay between research questions, theory, experience, conversation, and reflection. I situate the approach with respect to narrative inquiry and clarify the key conceptual metaphors underpinning my study, including…

  18. Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roa Ruben

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Family and community medicine assumes a new epistemological landmark that also provides the use of instruments and tools related to it. This care model permits carrying out a visit where all categories which the health-disease process is expressed are present. Family Medicine intends to combine both visions and, for such, it gifts elements to incorporate disease as an essential part of our patient's approach systematic being the main focus the approach by problems, which is nothing but that which concerns the individual, his family or the physician, or all of them, and at times there will be nuisances while at other times, there will be diseases, and mil in other instances, all of them will co-exist. It is known that the impact of a health problem on an individual affects not only himself, but also his surroundings. In turn, the environment around this individual can act as the origin or perpetuator of the crisis, or else serve to help in solving the conflict. Distinct tools serve the purpose of knowing the context in which health crisis is developed, such as: genogram, individual and family vital cycle. Every time two people communicate, the agreement or disagreement generate possible variables. In the physician-patient relationship, this is no exception. Values, beliefs, feelings, and information of each individual different and physicians not necessarily in agreement in several issues during a visit. The objective is the need to achieve a minimum of agreements so that this visit has therapeutic effectiveness, thus being if/rpm -taw to find a common territory. Relations in general involve power; care, feelings, trust and goals. The objective in this type of relationship must be obviously shared ly both and cannot be any other than that of achieving, the highest level of health to our patient. So, our specialty, considered of low complexity, becomes a highly cognitive complexity, special and there is no doubt that it is a lot easier to handle

  19. APPROACH TO ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ZAMANI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias, also known as organic acidurias, are a group of disorders characterized by increased excretion of organic acids in urine. They result primarily from deficiencies of specific enzymes in the breakdown pathways of amino acids or from enzyme deficiencies in beta oxidation of fatty acids or carbohydrate metabolism. Organic acids also are found in the urine of some patients with mitochondrial disease.Most organic acidemias become clinically apparent during the newborn period or early infancy. After an initial period of well-being, affected children develop a life-threatening episode of metabolic acidosis characterized by an increased anion gap. This presenting episode may be mistaken for sepsis, and if unrecognized, is associated with significant mortality.Children with an organic acidemia are susceptible to metabolic decompensation during episodes of increased catabolism, such as intercurrent illness, trauma, or surgery. Parents and clinicians must be well informed about the initial signs of decompensation and trained in applying an emergency regimen . Surgeons and anesthesiologists should be aware of potential complications and their prevention during anesthesia and surgery.Diagnosis has been facilitated through the use of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and tandem mass spectrometry .Prenatal diagnosis is available for most disorders by detection of diagnostic compounds in amniotic fluid; by analysis of enzyme activities in amniocytes or chorionic villi; by molecular analysis; or by a combination of the three . Diagnosis also may be made through newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry .Laboratory findings are an essential part of the diagnostic approach to organic acidemias. In most organic acidemias, metabolism of glucose, ketone bodies, and ammonia is deranged primarily or secondarily, in addition to derangement of the acid-base balance. Hypoglycemia, lactic and/or ketoacidosis, and hyperammonemia of varying

  20. Text Steganographic Approaches: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents three novel approaches of text steganography. The first approach uses the theme ofmissing letter puzzle where each character of message is hidden by missing one or more letters in a wordof cover. The average Jaro score was found to be 0.95 indicating closer similarity between cover andstego file. The second approach hides a message in a wordlist where ASCII value of embedded characterdetermines length and starting letter of a word. The third approach conceals a message, withoutdegrading cover, by using start and end letter of words of the cover. For enhancing the security of secretmessage, the message is scrambled using one-time pad scheme before being concealed and cipher text isthen concealed in cover. We also present an empirical comparison of the proposed approaches with someof the popular text steganographic approaches and show that our approaches outperform the existingapproaches.

  1. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  2. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

  3. APPROACHES TO PUBLIC INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Roxana ULMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Both concepts, integrity and public integrity, are always asked qualities in the social and economic environment, but they are never well defined. In this context, finding precise definitions and offering an ample explanation of the concepts are desired and useful for both economic theoretical and practical levels and become the aim of the present paper. Without a good understanding of a concept, no one is capable to attain it. In this context, it is impossible to ask for a public sector of integrity if both public actors and the citizens do not know what it really means. Therefore, the public actors first have to understand what integrity really supposes, and, then, to be capable to respect its principles. Taking into consideration the effects of public integrity or, on its opposite, of the divergence from it, especially represented by the phenomenon of corruption, on the economy at the macro, but also, on the micro level, public integrity in itself becomes a real economic problem that is aimed to be extensively analyzed through our interdisciplinary approach.

  4. The Community Reinforcement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Robert J; Smith, Jane Ellen; Lash, Denise N

    2003-01-01

    This chapter reviews two behavioral substance abuse treatments: The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). Both of these programs were built on the concept that an individual's recovery is greatly affected by his or her unique environment. This environment, or reinforcing "community," is composed of family, friends, work/school, social activities, and perhaps spiritual affiliations. CRA, the first of these two programs to be developed, was created specifically for the problem drinker (Hunt & Azrin, 1973). The goal of CRA is to rearrange multiple aspects of an individual's "community" so that a clean and sober lifestyle is more rewarding than one that is dominated by alcohol and drugs. Subsequently, CRAFT was developed for the many individuals with substance abuse problems who are vehemently opposed to treatment (Institute of Medicine, 1990). CRAFT works through concerned family members and friends of these treatment refusers in an effort to get them to seek therapy (Sisson & Azrin, 1986). Descriptions and the empirical support for CRA and CRAFT follow.

  5. Radiolab - three different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Stockfelt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The three papers in this ‘suite’ have a special background and context. At the 2010 conference SoundActs in Aarhus the three panellists were each given the task to provide a paper with an analysis of the same sound object, thus exhibiting and contrasting different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further contextual investigation. This object was chosen for several reasons. First of all, it is brief (less than 17 seconds, which meant that it was possible to make a detailed analysis; at the same time, though, it is relatively complex, which means that it can accommodate three different analyses. It is a sound object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1 a process analysis, observing analytical listening strategies towards the constructed object, 2 a vocal analysis, regarding the sound object as a polyphony of voices, and 3 a contextual analysis, framing the sound object as a radio signature. Ola Stockfelt analyses the sound object as something that is constructed via his own repeated listening process – as a scholarly-analytical analysis of the subjective act of creating meaning. He draws on presumptions and prejudices, demonstrating the impossibility of a purely structural listening. The analysis relates these hermeneutical reflections to formal musicological observations of harmony, timbre, space and rhythm in some detail. Ansa Lønstrup’s paper analyses the sound object as a polyphony of voices. Her analysis is inspired by two phenomenologists

  6. Constructional Approach as Compared with Projectionist Approach to Argument Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴好运

    2016-01-01

    Projectionist accounts of argument structure give verb's semantic representation a central role in sentence interpretation, it is held that the argument structure and alternations related with a verb are always the product of its semantic representation. However, a circularity problem arises. To solve this problem, Goldberg (1995)'s constructional approach proposed that argument structure patterns are linguistic units in their own right. This paper attempts to make a comparison between projectionist approach and constructional approach to argument structure and discuss constructional approach's advantage in reducing verb senses and avoiding circularity.

  7. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  8. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  9. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach.

  10. Managerial Approach to Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria MORA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration,starting from the distinction identified by someauthors between management and administration.The paper has a twofold structure: in the firstsections it provides a theoretical conceptualframework for approaching the issue of themanagerial approach to public administration;in the following sections, the authors discuss themanagerial approach with regard to the Romanianadministrative sector. In the conclusion section,the paper tries to offer an answer to the questionwhere do we stand as a country with regard tothe implementation of the managerial approachin public administration. While some progress hasbeen made, there are nonetheless steps that stillneed to be taken..

  11. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  12. A Variational Approach to an Inhomogeneous Second-Order Ordinary Differential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the coupled inhomogeneous Lane-Emden system from the Lagrangian formulation point of view. The existence of multiple positive solutions has been discussed in the literature. Here we aim to classify the system with respect to a first-order Lagrangian according to the Noether point symmetries it admits. We then obtain first integrals of the various cases which admit Noether point symmetries.

  13. ESTCP Pilot Program. Classification Approaches in Munitions Response, San Luis Obispo, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Parsons and SAIC was performed using a freely available module of Oasis montaj . The cart data were collected using tighter lane spacing than would be...available UX-Analyze module of the Geosoft software Oasis montaj . Each anomaly can be analyzed to extract features such as size, depth, aspect...likely munitions or nonhazardous items. This process can be conducted in the commercially available Geosoft software package Oasis montaj as part of

  14. Recent approaches to immune networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Neumann, A.U.; Perelson, A.S.; Segel, L.A.; Weisbuch, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Jerne (1974) proposed that the immune system has important network characteristics that are similar in many respects to neural networks. This paper outlines some recent approaches taken by the authors and their colleagues toward the analysis of immune networks. Other approaches have been omitted owi

  15. ADOPT COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHES IN CET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinSitan

    2004-01-01

    How to make CET tailored to the requirements of thesociety is a topic of great significance. This paper is meant toexplore the advantages of adopting communicative approaches inCET( College English Teaching ) by comparing communicativeapproaches with traditional ones and presenting our practice ofemploying communicative approaches as well as the result.

  16. Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Robert

    The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…

  17. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  18. A Critique of Interactional Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fang

    2011-01-01

    Interactional approach is a very important theory in second language acquisition, including the input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis. This article first presents an exposition of these two hypotheses, and continues with a critical evaluation of them. Finally, the article concludes with the pedagogical implications of the approach.

  19. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  20. Integrating Communicative Approaches with Traditional Approaches in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超

    2013-01-01

    Traditional y, English teaching in China is dominated by a teacher-centered, grammar-translation and audio-lingual method and an emphasis on rote learning. In an attempt to find out what are the most appropriate teaching methods for Chinese students in schools, the paper presents that the best method is to integrate communicative approaches to the teaching of English with traditional Chinese methods. It shows that integrating communicative approaches with the traditional approaches can real y help the students develop their communicative competence.

  1. Surgical Approaches to Breast Augmentation: The Transaxillary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Louis L

    2015-10-01

    The transaxillary approach to breast augmentation has the advantage of allowing breast implants to be placed with no incisions on the breasts. There has been a general perception of a lack of technical control compared with the inframammary approach. This article presents the transaxillary approach from the perspective of the technical control gained with the aid of an endoscope, which allows precise creation of the tissue pocket with optimal visualization. The aspects of technique that allow optimal technical control are discussed, in addition to postoperative processes that aid in stabilizing the device position and allow consistent and predictable outcomes.

  2. Lexical Approach to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝彦

    2001-01-01

    @@ 0. Introduction Advances in computer analysis of the English language have shown that lexical patterns are widespread in language use. Some researchers call them "lexical phrases" (Nattinger and DeCarrico,1992) or "lexical chunks" (Lewis, 1993); others use the term "multi-word chunks" or just "chunks"of language. Whatever the terms are, they are characteristic of language use and language acquisition and present advantages for language teaching and learning. The lexical approach to English teaching has received interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar-based approaches. The lexical approach concentrates on developing learners' skills in understanding and using words and word combinations.

  3. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  4. THE APPROACHING TRAIN DETECTION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bibikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with detection algorithm for rail vibroacoustic waves caused by approaching train on the background of increased noise. The urgency of algorithm development for train detection in view of increased rail noise, when railway lines are close to roads or road intersections is justified. The algorithm is based on the method of weak signals detection in a noisy environment. The information statistics ultimate expression is adjusted. We present the results of algorithm research and testing of the train approach alarm device that implements the proposed algorithm. The algorithm is prepared for upgrading the train approach alarm device “Signalizator-P".

  5. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  6. A Biosemiotic Approach to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    approaches are invaluable. The aim is to find a common platform that serves in treating human persons as undivided wholes. Since semiosis (viz. the meaningful interpretation of cues, signals, events or states) is vital to communication at both levels, the resulting sign-process is a viable choice......By replacing the traditional chemical approach to the understanding of body function by a sign-theoretic or semiotic approach, biosemiotics enters a no-man’s-land between biological and social domains of human life. The aim is not to subsume the social under the biological or vice versa; both...

  7. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  8. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  9. An Approach to Interface Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Hald, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    may contain the re-use of existing modules). The interface synthesis approach describes the basic transformations needed to transform the server interface description into an interface description on the client side of the communication medium. The synthesis approach is illustrated through a point......Presents a novel interface synthesis approach based on a one-sided interface description. Whereas most other approaches consider interface synthesis as optimizing a channel to existing client/server modules, we consider the interface synthesis as part of the client/server module synthesis (which......-to-point communication, but is applicable to synthesis of a multiple client/server environment. The interface description is based on a formalization of communication events....

  10. Classical approach in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Solov'ev, Evgeni A

    2010-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom recently discovered with the help of Poincar$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$ section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treating as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semicla...

  11. Radiological Approach to Forefoot Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Chung Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forefoot pain is a common clinical complaint in orthopaedic practice. In this article, we discuss the anatomy of the forefoot, clinical and radiological approaches to forefoot pain, and common painful forefoot disorders and their associated radiological features.

  12. Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis: an alternative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Percival, R.; Hargreaves, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of necrotizing fasciitis are presented. The initial management of necrotizing fasciitis remains undisputed. However, following a limited success with a conventional treatment policy, a more radical approach with immediate skin grafting following debridement is suggested.

  14. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  15. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  16. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  17. Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Allan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue l...... of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures....... life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive...... structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance...

  18. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  19. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  20. The Database State Machine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Database replication protocols have historically been built on top of distributed database systems, and have consequently been designed and implemented using distributed transactional mechanisms, such as atomic commitment. We present the Database State Machine approach, a new way to deal with database replication in a cluster of servers. This approach relies on a powerful atomic broadcast primitive to propagate transactions between database servers, and alleviates the need for atomic comm...