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Sample records for approach including back-translation

  1. Zooming of states and parameters using a lumping approach including back-translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirstrand Mats

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology models tend to become large since biological systems often consist of complex networks of interacting components, and since the models usually are developed to reflect various mechanistic assumptions of those networks. Nevertheless, not all aspects of the model are equally interesting in a given setting, and normally there are parts that can be reduced without affecting the relevant model performance. There are many methods for model reduction, but few or none of them allow for a restoration of the details of the original model after the simplified model has been simulated. Results We present a reduction method that allows for such a back-translation from the reduced to the original model. The method is based on lumping of states, and includes a general and formal algorithm for both determining appropriate lumps, and for calculating the analytical back-translation formulas. The lumping makes use of efficient methods from graph-theory and ϵ-decomposition and is derived and exemplified on two published models for fluorescence emission in photosynthesis. The bigger of these models is reduced from 26 to 6 states, with a negligible deviation from the reduced model simulations, both when comparing simulations in the states of the reduced model and when comparing back-translated simulations in the states of the original model. The method is developed in a linear setting, but we exemplify how the same concepts and approaches can be applied to non-linear problems. Importantly, the method automatically provides a reduced model with back-translations. Also, the method is implemented as a part of the systems biology toolbox for matlab, and the matlab scripts for the examples in this paper are available in the supplementary material. Conclusions Our novel lumping methodology allows for both automatic reduction of states using lumping, and for analytical retrieval of the original states and parameters without performing a

  2. Spinal neuronal correlates of tapentadol analgesia in cancer pain: A back-translational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Patel, Ryan; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes. S...... to the mechanistic understanding of cancer-induced bone pain and support the sparse clinical data indicating a possible use of the drug as a therapeutic alternative for cancer patients with metastatic pain complication.......Background Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes....... Strong opioids are a mainstay of treatments but side effects are problematic and can compromise optimal pain control. Tapentadol is a novel dual-action drug, both stimulating inhibitory μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and mediating noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI) leading to activation of the inhibitory...

  3. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  4. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302100

  5. Back Translation in the Study of Chinese Subtitles in English Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁

    2014-01-01

    Back translation is a common technique to assess the accuracy of translation. The aim of the paper is to check the ap-propriateness of back translation for movie subtitling purposes. To achieve this aim, some Chinese sentences with problems in their translations were randomly selected from Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone to be tested through back translation tech-nique. An analysis the versions of the sentences proved that back translation is an appropriate technique for translating movie sub-titles.

  6. Back-translation for discovering distant protein homologies in the presence of frameshift mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frameshift mutations in protein-coding DNA sequences produce a drastic change in the resulting protein sequence, which prevents classic protein alignment methods from revealing the proteins' common origin. Moreover, when a large number of substitutions are additionally involved in the divergence, the homology detection becomes difficult even at the DNA level. Results We developed a novel method to infer distant homology relations of two proteins, that accounts for frameshift and point mutations that may have affected the coding sequences. We design a dynamic programming alignment algorithm over memory-efficient graph representations of the complete set of putative DNA sequences of each protein, with the goal of determining the two putative DNA sequences which have the best scoring alignment under a powerful scoring system designed to reflect the most probable evolutionary process. Our implementation is freely available at http://bioinfo.lifl.fr/path/. Conclusions Our approach allows to uncover evolutionary information that is not captured by traditional alignment methods, which is confirmed by biologically significant examples.

  7. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    asymmetries. The paper contributes theoretically in its innovative use of perspectivist theory in relation to text, and in identifying that the insights of polyocularity could valuably inform a new health communication paradigm, as current health communication paradigms do not fully recognize patients......Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper......’ perspectives. Apart from its theoretical contributions, the paper includes guidelines to support the production of PILs where patients’ perspectives are included. The guidelines are informed by practices that have characterised previous polyocular communication events, as well as research into how to maximize...

  8. Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O

    2009-12-16

    Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the

  9. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  10. Including the customer in efficiency analysis: evidence of a hybrid relational-transactional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Joseph; Shale, Estelle; Dyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper illustrates the effect of including the customer as a resource in efficiency measurement. Variations in counting the customer illustrate the different impacts on efficiency between a transactional and a relational approach to bank branch marketing. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to analyse the efficiency of the branch network under consideration. This technique, while well established in the bank branch eff...

  11. Including 'positive handling strategies' within training in behaviour management: the 'Team-Teach' approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Carol; S. Pike

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on aspects of an evaluation of ‘Team-Teach’ - a ‘whole setting holistic’ approach to behaviour management in a range of child-care environments. A distinctive feature of Team-Teach is that it includes both training in de-escalation skills and physical interventions, known as ‘positive handling strategies’. The approach is clearly structured and calibrated against level of risk. It includes accreditation and re-accreditation of trainers. Findings from four case study educa...

  12. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  13. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches for...... including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g/d and...

  14. Overloads Management in Active Radial Distribution Systems: an Optimization Approach Including Network Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Bilibin, Ilya; Capitanescu, Florin; Sachau, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the real-time overloads management in active radial distribution systems that host a significant amount of distributed generators (DGs). In order to possibly reduce the amount of generation curtailed to remove congestion, and hence harvest as much renewable energy as possible, we propose a centralized optimization approach that includes the option to use remotely controlled grid switches and breakers so as to transfer distributed generation between feeders. To mitigate t...

  15. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik;

    2013-01-01

    to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of...... soybean production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20, 100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0–100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the...

  16. Extending the direct statistical approach to include particle bifurcation between the splitting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) to surface splitting and Russian Roulette (RR) is one of the current routes toward automatism in Monte Carlo and is currently applied to fixed source particle transport problems. A general volumetric particle bifurcation capability has been inserted into the Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) surface parameter and cell models. The resulting extended DSA describes the second moment and time functions in terms of phase-space surface splitting/Russian roulette parameters (surface parameter model) or phase-space cell importances (cell model) in the presence of volumetric particle bifurcations including both natural events [such as (n,xn) or gamma production from neutron collisions] and artificial events (such as DXTRAN). At the same time, other limitations in the DSA models (concerning tally scores direct from the source and tracks surviving an event at which a tally score occurs) are removed. Given the second moment and time functions, the foregoing surface or cell parameters may then be optimized

  17. Nonlinear Modeling of a High Precision Servo Injection Molding Machine Including Novel Molding Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.

  18. Modifications of the Fourier approach for magnetic field calculations to include axial shields in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli and Morini have used an analytical method for calculating values and distribution of the magnetic field in superconducting magnets. Using Fourier series the magnetic field is determined by carrying out a series expansion of the current density distribution of the system of coils. This Fourier method can be modified to include axial iron to a far greater accuracy (for finite permeability) by incorporating the image series approach of Caldwell and Zisserman. Also an exact solution can be obtained for the case of infinite permeability. A comparison of the results derived from the expansion of Martinelli and Morini with the exact solution of Caldwell and Zisserman shows excellent agreement for the iron-free case but the accuracy deteriorates as the permeability μ/sub z/ increases. The exact solution should be used for infinite permeability and also gives satisfactory results for permeability μ/sub z/ >100. A symmetric geometry is used throughout the communication for simplicity of presentation

  19. Novel pigment approaches in optically variable security inks including polarizing cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingqiu; Wilson, Robert; Hochbaum, Aharon; Carter, John

    2002-04-01

    Optical variable pigment technologies for markings and inks have increased in use as overt protection methods for document and product security. These technologies use optical reflective effects including interference technologies that create angular dependent color changes. Novel developments in different inorganic and organic pigments offer potentially new optical performance for both overt and covert security applications. These developments may lead to unique signature pigment formats that can verify origin and authenticity. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (CLC) pigment approaches utilize both angular dependent color flop and the unique polarization properties to potentially develop markings with both overt and covert detection mechanisms. Continuous improvement in these technologies may lead to new visible and non-visible applications that when integrated with the graphic design will provide novel protection and graphic impact.

  20. Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Grell, Gilbert; Winter, Bernd; Seidel, Robert; Aziz, Emad F; Aziz, Saadullah G; Kühn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the Restricted Active Space Self-Consistent Field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence and core photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the $\\text{[Fe(H}_2\\text{O)}_6\\text{]}^{2+}$ complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approx...

  1. Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the restricted active space self-consistent field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence- and core-level photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the [Fe(H2O)6]2+ complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approximation demonstrates distinct deviations from experiments

  2. Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grell, Gilbert; Bokarev, Sergey I., E-mail: sergey.bokarev@uni-rostock.de; Kühn, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Winter, Bernd; Seidel, Robert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, D-14159 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Saadullah G. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-08-21

    X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the restricted active space self-consistent field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence- and core-level photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approximation demonstrates distinct deviations from experiments.

  3. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  4. An approach for including resolved resonance interference effects in multigroup scale methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current work, an equivalence approach is proposed to improve resolved resonance absorption calculation in the SCALE modular code system, where toe cross sections generated using multiregion option of this code system ignore the lattice geometry effects. This approach is applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution by collision probability method is possible. The VEGAKENO code, based ob this approach calculates the desired one-parameter representation of the resonance absorption (dilution cross section σ sub 0) by making the equivalence approximation. This approximation states that the resonance self-shielding factor in the whole effective resonance intervals for each resonance nuclide in each resonance region of a heterogeneous media is the same as in the homogeneous media containing a pseudo moderator material with a cross section σ sub 0. Effective resonance interval around the resolved resonance base energy, at which the VEGAKENO calculates self-shielding factor for absorption in heterogeneous and equivalent homogeneous media, is based on NITAWL algorithm that selects a factor s/2 of practical width, or ten times the Doppler width. The proposed approach was benchmarked for recent exercise that represents a system with a fuel double heterogeneity, i.e., fuel in solid form (pellets) surrounded by fissile material in solution. (author)

  5. Optical scatterometry with analytic approaches applied to periodic nano-arrays including anisotropic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhalim, I.

    2007-06-01

    Optical scatterometry is being used as a powerful technique for measurement of sub-wavelength periodic structures. It is based on measuring the scattered signal and solving the inverse scattering problem. For periodic nano-arrays with feature size less than 100nm, it is possible to simplify the electromagnetic simulations using the Rytov near quasi-static approximation valid for feature periods only few times less than the wavelength. This is shown to be adequate for the determination of the structure parameters from the zero order reflected or transmitted waves and their polarization or ellipsometric properties. The validity of this approach is applied to lamellar nano-scale grating photo-resist lines on Si substrate. Formulation for structures containing anisotropic multilayers is presented using the 4x4 matrix approach.

  6. Phase-field approach to polycrystalline solidification including heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusztai, Tamas; Toth, Gyula I; Koernyei, Laszlo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tegze, Gyoergy; Bansel, Gurvinder; Fan, Zhungyun; Granasy, Laszlo [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Laszlo.Granasy@brunel.ac.uk, E-mail: grana@szfki.hu

    2008-10-08

    Advanced phase-field techniques have been applied to address various aspects of polycrystalline solidification including different modes of crystal nucleation. The height of the nucleation barrier has been determined by solving the appropriate Euler-Lagrange equations. The examples shown include the comparison of various models of homogeneous crystal nucleation with atomistic simulations for the single-component hard sphere fluid. Extending previous work for pure systems (Granasy et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 035703), heterogeneous nucleation in unary and binary systems is described via introducing boundary conditions that realize the desired contact angle. A quaternion representation of crystallographic orientation of the individual particles (outlined in Pusztai et al 2005 Europhys. Lett. 71 131) has been applied for modeling a broad variety of polycrystalline structures including crystal sheaves, spherulites and those built of crystals with dendritic, cubic, rhombo-dodecahedral and truncated octahedral growth morphologies. Finally, we present illustrative results for dendritic polycrystalline solidification obtained using an atomistic phase-field model.

  7. Some Geometric Evolution Equations Arising as Geodesic Equations on Groups of Diffeomorphisms Including the Hamiltonian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Michor, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    This is the extended version of a lecture course given at the University of Vienna in the spring term 2005. The main aim of this course was to understand the papers \\cite{10} and \\cite{11} and to give a complete account of existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the members of higher order of the hierarchies of Burgers' equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, including their derivation and all the necessary background, both on the circle and on the real line in the setting of rapidl...

  8. Including the monetary part in macro accounting: A ‘modern’ approach to the macroeconomic accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic output is placed at the heart of the macroeconomics. To calculate the output one needs to achieve simplifying a high level complexity of economic relationships to form a system. On the flip side, the model should be enough elaborated to be able to reflect the important relationships. In this manner, the classical macroeconomic identity as Keynes suggested is simple enough to understand the main elements but it does not show the financial parts of transactions. Not having the monetary part of the economy it lacks the coherence. With the financial and economic crises getting more frequent, more endeavour to build a more inclusive and coherent macroeconomic system has been observed. However, there are large variety in different options of simplifying and simulating complex relationships among the real and monetary part of the modern economies.  Our paper tries to set an analysis comparing some of the recent prominent ideas in building balance sheet and transaction flow matrix in regard to macroeconomic accounting system. We can conclude the new achievement of including the monetary transactions in the frame causes a compromise from the simplicity for a coherent and more complete picture of macro economy.

  9. 林语堂《苏东坡传》文化专有项的回译研究%A Research on Back Translation of Cultural-loaded Items in Lin Yutang’s The Gay Genius:the Life and Times of Su Tungpo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗明月; 冯智强

    2014-01-01

    Based on Liu Miqing’s classification of linguistic symbols of cultural information,this thesis makes a comparative research on back translation of cultural-loaded items in Lin Yutang’s TheGayGenius:TheLifeandTimesofSuTungpo.It analyzes the main translation strategies adopted by these two translators and also points out the merits and demerits of these two Chinese versions.Subj ective and obj ective factors affecting the process of back-translation are also dis-cussed,with the purpose of providing some suggestions for translators and enriching the study on back-translation.%以刘宓庆的语言文化信息符号的分类为框架,对《苏东坡传》的两个中译本在还原中国文化专有项方面进行了对比研究,分析其翻译策略及方法,总结其成功与不足,并随文探讨了影响回译的主客观因素,以期为译者的翻译实践提供一些建议并在一定程度上丰富回译研究。

  10. A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nind, M.; Wearmouth, J.; Collins, J.; Hall, K; Rix, J.; Sheehy, K.

    2004-01-01

    The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education, and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education itself is incr...

  11. A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...

  12. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method

    CERN Document Server

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Tarek, Merzouki; Hambli, Ridha; Ali, Mkaddem

    2014-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand its mechanical behaviour and its remodelling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network computation and homogenisation equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained neural network simulation. Finite element (FE) calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house neural network program; (iii) in steps 2 to 10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenisation equations are used to perform the computation at the higher s...

  13. ANFIS-based approach to studying subthreshold behavior including the traps effect for nanoscale thin-film DG MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Bentrcia; F.Djeffal; E.Chebaaki

    2013-01-01

    A fuzzy framework based on an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to evaluate the relative degradation of the basic subthreshold parameters due to hot-carrier effects for nanoscale thin-film double-gate (DG) MOSFETs.The effect of the channel length and thickness on the resulting degradation is addressed,and 2-D numerical simulations are used for the elaboration of the training database.Several membership function shapes are developed,and the best one in terms of accuracy is selected.The predicted results agree well with the 2-D numerical simulations and can be efficiently used to investigate the impact of the interface fixed charges and quantum confinement on nanoscale DG MOSFET subthreshold behavior.Therefore,the proposed ANFIS-based approach offers a simple and accurate technique to study nanoscale devices,including the hot-carrier and quantum effects.

  14. ANFIS-based approach to studying subthreshold behavior including the traps effect for nanoscale thin-film DG MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuzzy framework based on an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to evaluate the relative degradation of the basic subthreshold parameters due to hot-carrier effects for nanoscale thin-film double-gate (DG) MOSFETs. The effect of the channel length and thickness on the resulting degradation is addressed, and 2-D numerical simulations are used for the elaboration of the training database. Several membership function shapes are developed, and the best one in terms of accuracy is selected. The predicted results agree well with the 2-D numerical simulations and can be efficiently used to investigate the impact of the interface fixed charges and quantum confinement on nanoscale DG MOSFET subthreshold behavior. Therefore, the proposed ANFIS-based approach offers a simple and accurate technique to study nanoscale devices, including the hot-carrier and quantum effects. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Iwamoto-Harada coalescence/pickup model for cluster emission: state density approach including angular momentum variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones) are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and - at the same time - it stimulated further developments of the model. However - to the best of our knowledge - no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work) pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain. (author)

  16. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  17. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  18. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m5) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 21A' state of SO2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  19. Prediction of the laser-induced plasma characteristics in laser welding: a new modelling approach including a simplified keyhole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the laser-induced plasma encountered in laser welding are investigated using a new three-dimensional modelling approach. A simplified keyhole model is employed to couple with our previous plasma plume model, and thus both the plasma inside a blind keyhole and the plasma plume issuing from the keyhole can be treated simultaneously. Investigations include the effects on the laser-induced plasma characteristics of many factors, including the velocity of metal vapour leaving from the keyhole bottom, the velocity of the shielding gas injected coaxially with the laser beam, the velocity and location of the assisting gas injected laterally with respect to the workpiece, and the energy absorption and radiation heat loss of the laser-induced plasma. Typical computed distributions of temperature, velocity and vapour concentration within the plasma are presented with the continuous-wave CO2 laser welding of iron workpiece as the calculation example. It is shown that the high-temperature core of the laser-induced plasma is mostly located inside the blind keyhole or near the keyhole top for the cases under study. The metal-vapour/shielding-gas momentum ratio plays an important role in determining the height of the plasma plume, and the plume height decreases with increasing shielding-gas velocity. The laterally injected assisting gas may also significantly affect the laser-induced plasma characteristics and thus can be used to control the unfavourable effect of the laser-induced plasma on the laser welding process. The predicted temperatures of the laser-induced plasma are reasonably consistent with corresponding experimental data

  20. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. PMID:24123969

  1. An Asset Pricing Approach to Testing General Term Structure Models including Heath-Jarrow-Morton Specifications and Affine Subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel

    techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most......We develop a new empirical approach to term structure analysis that allows testing for time-varying risk premia and for the absence of arbitrage opportunities based on the drift restriction within the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework. As in the equity case, a zero intercept condition is...... tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...

  2. Reconsidering adolescent subjectivity: a 'practice-near' approach to the study of adolescents, including those with severe learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Stephen; Hingley-Jones, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to explore new approaches to working with young people that are relevant to changed techno-social contexts. Firstly an emerging theory of adolescent development is elaborated, based on the notion of subjectivation, which takes into account new contexts and thinking about the development and experiences of young people and which is oriented towards inclusive practice. Secondly, appropriate practice-near methods for exploring and empirically assessing the applicability of this...

  3. Single-particle potential in a chiral approach to nuclear matter including short-range NN-terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a recent chiral approach to nuclear matter of Lutz et al. (Phys. Lett. B 474,7(2000)) by calculating the underlying (complex-valued) single-particle potential U(p,kf)+iW(p,kf). The potential for a nucleon at the bottom of the Fermi sea, U(0,kf0)=- 20.0 MeV, comes out as much too weakly attractive in this approach. Even more seriously, the total single-particle energy does not rise monotonically with the nucleon momentum p, implying a negative effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface. Also, the imaginary single-particle potential, W(0,kf0)=51.1 MeV, is too large. More realistic single-particle properties together with a good nuclear-matter equation of state can be obtained if the short-range contributions of non-pionic origin are treated in mean-field approximation (i.e. if they are not further iterated with 1π-exchange). We also consider the equation of state of pure neutron matter anti En(kn) and the asymmetry energy A(kf) in that approach. The downward bending of these quantities above nuclear-matter saturation density seems to be a generic feature of perturbative chiral pion-nucleon dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Numerical approach of cyclic behaviour of 316LN stainless steel based on a polycrystal modelling including strain gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-local polycrystal approach, taking into account strain gradients, is proposed to simulate the 316LN stainless steel fatigue life curve in the hardening stage. Material parameters identification is performed on tensile curves corresponding to several 316LN polycrystals presenting different grain sizes. Applied to an actual 3D aggregate of 316LN stainless steel of 1200 grains, this model leads to an accurate prediction of cyclic curves. Geometrical Necessary Dislocation densities related to the computed strain gradient are added to the micro-plasticity laws. Compared to standard models, this model predicts a decrease of the local stresses as well as a grain size effect. (authors)

  5. New analytical approach to calibrate the co-axial HPGe detectors including correction for source matrix self-attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To calibrate the co-axial HPGe semiconductor detectors, we introduce a new theoretical approach based on the Direct Statistical method proposed by Selim and Abbas (1995, 1996) to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency for cylindrical detectors. The present method depends on the accurate analytical calculation of the average path length covered by the photon inside the detector active volume and the geometrical solid angle Ω, to obtain a simple formula for the efficiency. In addition, the self attenuation coefficient of the source matrix (with a radius greater than the detector's radius), the attenuation factors of the source container and the detector housing materials are also treated by calculating the average path length within these materials. 152Eu aqueous radioactive sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. Remarkable agreement between the measured and the calculated efficiencies was achieved with discrepancies less than 2%. - Highlight: ► A new analytical approach for calculation of the FEPE is deduced. ► Separate calculation of factors which related to photon attenuation is introduced. ► The method depends on the calculation of the average path length. ► 152Eu aqueous sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. ► Remarkable agreement between measured and calculated efficiencies was achieved.

  6. An Approach for Including Uncertainty in Integrated Water Resources Assessments within Large River Basins of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D.

    2015-12-01

    There are many large basins in southern Africa that are mostly ungauged but may have some streamflow observations either on the main river or on tributaries. Many of the streamflow records are, however, of poor quality or impacted by largely unquantified and non-stationary development impacts. All water resources assessments are therefore uncertain and model setups are difficult to validate in traditional ways. The paper presents a method for practical uncertainty assessment using a semi-distributed (sub-basin) model. The method uses a 2-stage approach where the first stage involves obtaining 'behavioural' parameter sets to represent the incremental natural streamflow for each sub-basin. The criteria for 'behavioural' are based on a series of constraints on model output that can be developed from the available gauged data or from regional assessments of natural hydrological functioning. The second stage simulates the whole basin based on sampling the 'behavioural' incremental flow parameter sets, as well as samples of additional individual parameter values representing downstream routing parts of the model and development impacts. One of the perceived advantage of the method is that all the ensembles at the total basin outlet are made up of behavioural inputs for all sub-basins. The method is also flexible in terms of the uncertainty range of the constraints, which might be expected to be narrow (low uncertainty) in well gauged sub-basins, or areas where our understanding of flow regime characteristics is good, but much wider (higher uncertainty) in other parts of the basin. The paper briefly explains the approach and discusses some of the issues associated with its application using examples from southern Africa.

  7. Comprehensive MR angiography of the lower limbs: a hybrid dual-bolus approach including the pedal arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.; Coblenz, G.; Cherevatyy, O.; Brunner, H.; Froehner, S.; Wedell, E.; Christopoulos, G. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Karg, G. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to include the pedal vasculature into the coverage of peripheral multistation magnetic resonance angiography (3DceMRA). A total of 216 patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease were examined with a modified hybrid dual-bolus technique. The cruropedal arteries were acquired first with two sagittal slabs and time-resolved 3D sequences. Then the aortofemoral vessels were visualized using the bolus-chase technique and a second contrast injection. Interventional procedures were performed in 104 patients, and in 69 of those, the cruropedal vessels were also examined with digital subtraction angiography (iaDSA). Using 3DceMRA, the cruropedal arteries were displayed with both excellent and good quality in 95% (205/216 cases), and without any venous overlay in 94% (203/216 cases). The aortofemoral vessels were not jeopardized by the first contrast injection. With iaDSA as the standard of reference, observed sensitivity of 3DceMRA was found in ranges from 80% (29%, 99%) to 100% (86%, 100%) for assessing significant stenoses, and observed specificity ranged between 93% [80%, 98%] and 100% (82%, 100%). In conclusion, hybrid dual-bolus 3DceMRA significantly reduces the limitations of standard single-bolus 3DceMRA in anatomic coverage and temporal resolution of the cruropedal arteries, thus providing high-quality images of the entire peripheral vasculature. (orig.)

  8. Clinical Immunology Review Series: an approach to the patient with recurrent orogenital ulceration, including Behçet's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogan, M T

    2009-04-01

    Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet\\'s disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter\\'s syndrome, Crohn\\'s disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet\\'s syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet\\'s disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.

  9. Quality assurance (QA) training at Westinghouse including innovative approaches for achieving an effective QA programme and establishing constructive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience of the Westinghouse Water Reactors Division with indoctrination and training of quality engineers includes training of personnel from Westinghouse divisions in the USA and overseas as well as of customers' personnel. A written plan is prepared for each trainee in order to fit the training to the individual's needs, and to cover the full range of information and activities. The trainee is also given work assignments, working closely with experienced quality engineers. He may prepare inspection plans and audit check lists, assist in the preparation of QA training modules, write procedures, and perform supplier surveillance and data analyses, or make special studies of operating systems. The trainee attends seminars and special courses on work-related technical subjects. Throughout the training period, emphasis is placed on inculcating an attitude of team work in the trainee so that the result of the training is the achievement of both quality and productivity. Certification is extended (given that education/experience/skill requirements are met) to such functions as mechanical equipment quality engineering, electrical equipment quality engineering, and start-up and testing quality engineering. A well-trained quality engineer is equipped to provide technical assistance to other disciplines and, through effective co-operation with others, contributes to the success of the organization's endeavours. (author)

  10. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  11. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  12. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  13. Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N.

    1974-01-01

    Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

  14. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method

    OpenAIRE

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Tarek, Merzouki; Hambli, Ridha; Ali, Mkaddem

    2013-01-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand its mechanical behaviour and its remodelling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network computation and homogenisation equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the e...

  15. A combined multibody and finite element approach for dynamic interaction analysis of high-speed train and railway structure including post-derailment behavior during an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined multibody and finite element approach is given to solve the dynamic interaction of a Shinkansen train (high-speed train in Japan) and the railway structure including post-derailment during an earthquake effectively. The motion of the train is expressed in multibody dynamics. Efficient mechanical models to express interactions between wheel and track structure including post-derailment are given. Rail and track elements expressed in multibody dynamics and FEM are given to solve contact problems between wheel and long railway components effectively. The motion of a railway structure is modeled with various finite elements and rail and track elements. The computer program has been developed for the dynamic interaction analysis of a Shinkansen train and railway structure including post derailment during an earthquake. Numerical examples are demonstrated.

  16. Deformation integrity monitoring for GNSS positioning services including local, regional and large scale hazard monitoring - the Karlsruhe approach and software(MONIKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, R.

    2007-05-01

    GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference

  17. Estimating ancestral distributions of lineages with uncertain sister groups: a statistical approach to Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis and a case using Aesculus L. (Sapindaceae) including fossils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.J. HARRIS; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple statistical approach for using Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (DIVA) software to infer biogeographic histories without fully bifurcating trees. In this approach, ancestral ranges are first optimized for a sample of Bayesian trees. The probability P of an ancestral range r at a node is then calculated as P(rY)= Σnt=1 F(rY)tPt where Y is a node, and F(rY) is the frequency of range r among all the optimal solutions resulting from DIVA optimization at node Y, t is one of n topologies optimized, and Pt is the probability of topology t. Node Y is a hypothesized ancestor shared by a specific crown lineage and the sister of that lineage "x", where x may vary due to phylogenetic uncertainty (polytomies and nodes with posterior probability <100%). Using this method, the ancestral distribution at Y can be estimated to provide inference of the geographic origins of the specific crown group of interest. This approach takes into account phylogenetic uncertainty as well as uncertainty from DIVA optimization. It is an extension of the previously described method called Bayes-DIVA, which pairs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with biogeographic analysis using DIVA. Further, we show that the probability P of an ancestral range at Y calculated using this method does not equate to pp* F(rY) on the Bayesian consensus tree when both variables are < 100%, where pp is the posterior probability and F(rY) is the frequency of range r for the node containing the specific crown group. We tested our DIVA-Bayes approach using Aesculus L., which has major lineages unresolved as a polytomy. We inferred the most probable geographic origins of the five traditional sections of Aesculus and ofAesculus californica Nutt. and examined range subdivisions at parental nodes of these lineages.Additionally, we used the DIVA-Bayes data from Aesculus to quantify the effects on biogeographic inference of including two wildcard fossil taxa in phylogenetic analysis. Our analysis resolved the

  18. An Ab Initio QM/MM-Based Approach to Efficiently Evaluate Vertical Excitation Energies in Condensed Phases Including the Nonequilibrium Solvation Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    An efficient quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics-based approach is presented to calculate a vertical excitation energy of a chromophore in condensed phases including the nonequilibrium solvation effect. The electronic polarization of a medium and the related nonequilibrium solvation effect associated with the vertical excitation are described using a polarizable solvent model. By virtue of the mean-field approximation, the target energy can be completely separated into classical and quantum mechanical parts, which enables us to efficiently evaluate the vertical excitation energy with a high-level quantum mechanical method. The method is applied to N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline in a variety of solutions at the MRMP2/CASSCF level, showing quantitative agreement with the experimental reports. The observed large bathochromic shifts are analyzed by focusing on the induction effects of the solvents. PMID:26501431

  19. Multi-locus tree and species tree approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type species of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the species level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and species tree estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted species and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or species. This is in line with a narrow species concept, i.e. that a downy mildew species is associated with only a particular host plant genus or species. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent species from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. PMID:25772799

  20. Which percentile-based approach should be preferred for calculating normalized citation impact values? An empirical comparison of five approaches including a newly developed citation-rank approach (P100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bornmann; L. Leydesdorff; J. Wang

    2013-01-01

    For comparisons of citation impacts across fields and over time, bibliometricians normalize the observed citation counts with reference to an expected citation value. Percentile-based approaches have been proposed as a non-parametric alternative to parametric central-tendency statistics. Percentiles

  1. [Experimental Approach to Analysis of the Relationship between Food Environments and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Including Cardiac Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver, and Fatigue Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro

    2015-01-01

    The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The

  2. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  3. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  4. Polyphasic Approach Including MALDI-TOF MS/MS Analysis for Identification and Characterisation of Fusarium verticillioides in Brazilian Corn Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Susane; Porto Carneiro-Leão, Mariele; Ferreira de Oliveira, Benny; Souza-Motta, Cristina; Lima, Nelson; Santos, Cledir; Tinti de Oliveira, Neiva

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG)5 and (GACA)4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol) and B2 (705.83 g/mol). PMID:26927172

  5. Polyphasic Approach Including MALDI-TOF MS/MS Analysis for Identification and Characterisation of Fusarium verticillioides in Brazilian Corn Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG5 and (GACA4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol and B2 (705.83 g/mol.

  6. Comparative efficacy and safety of the left versus right radial approach for percutaneous coronary procedures: a meta-analysis including 6870 patients

    OpenAIRE

    S.L. Xia; Zhang, X. B.; Zhou, J. S.; Gao, X.

    2015-01-01

    The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy...

  7. Comparative efficacy and safety of the left versus right radial approach for percutaneous coronary procedures: a meta-analysis including 6870 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Xia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy time [standardized mean difference (SMD=-0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI=-0.19 to -0.09; P<0.00001] and contrast volume (SMD=-0.07, 95%CI=-0.12 to -0.02; P=0.009. There were no significant differences in rate of procedural failure of the left and the right radial approaches [risk ratios (RR=0.98; 95%CI=0.77-1.25; P=0.88] or procedural time (SMD=-0.05, 95%CI=0.17-0.06; P=0.38. Tortuosity of the subclavian artery (RR=0.27, 95%CI=0.14-0.50; P<0.0001 was reported more frequently with the right radial approach. A greater number of catheters were used with the left than with the right radial approach (SMD=0.25, 95%CI=0.04-0.46; P=0.02. We conclude that the left radial approach is as safe as the right radial approach, and that the left radial approach should be recommended for use in percutaneous coronary procedures, especially in percutaneous coronary angiograms.

  8. Signal transduction profile of chemical sensitisers in dendritic cells: an endpoint to be included in a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification?

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, BM; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, A.; Duarte, CB; Lopes, MC; Cruz, MT

    2011-01-01

    The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico...

  9. Brine migration resulting from CO2 injection into saline aquifers – An approach to risk estimation including various levels of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Oladyshkin, Sergey;

    2012-01-01

    features such as caprock properties, faults, and distinct geological layers. This is considered in this work by 6 different scenarios having different characteristic geological features. On the other hand, Monte Carlo methods are a classical approach to address statistical uncertainty. This is not feasible...... study provides estimates of the risk of brine discharge into freshwater aquifers due to CO2 injection into geological formations and resultant salt concentrations in the overlying drinking water aquifers....

  10. Signal transduction profile of chemical sensitisers in dendritic cells: An endpoint to be included in a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico assays. The argument subjacent to the development of in vitro dendritic cell (DC)-based assays is that sensitiser-induced changes in the DC phenotype can be differentiated from those induced by irritants. This assumption is derived from the unique capacity of DC to convert environmental signals encountered at the skin into a receptor expression pattern (MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, chemokine receptors) and a soluble mediator release profile that will stimulate T lymphocytes. Since signal transduction cascades precede changes in surface marker expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion, these phenotypic modifications are a consequence of a signal transduction profile that is specifically triggered by sensitisers and not by irritants. A limited number of studies have addressed this subject and the present review attempts to summarise and highlight all of the signalling pathways modulated by skin sensitisers and irritants. Furthermore, we conclude this review by focusing on the most promising strategies suitable for inclusion into a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification.

  11. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...

  12. Crystal structure, electron-density distribution and ion-diffusion pathway of ceramic materials investigated by multiple approaches including neutron and X-ray diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structure is the fundamental information in the materials science, chemistry, physics and geoscience. Electron-density distribution of ceramic materials is important, because most of material properties are governed by the electronic states. Ion-diffusion pathway is useful to understand the ion conduction mechanism. In the present paper the author briefly reviews his group's recent research works on the crystal structure, thermal expansion, electron-density distribution and ion-diffusion pathway of some ceramic materials investigated by multiple approaches such as synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, electron diffraction, first-principles electronic calculations, maximum-entropy method (MEM) and bond valence method. The crystal structure should be examined by multiple methods, because invalid structure sometimes gives good Rietveld fit. (author)

  13. The Fisheries Information System of Ifremer: a multidisciplinary monitoring network and an integrated approach for the assessment of French fisheries, including small-scale fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Dintheer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, Ifremer has been implemented a Fisheries Information System (FIS), in strong collaboration with the DPMA (Direction of fisheries and aquaculture of the French Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries). The FIS aims at building an operational and multidisciplinary monitoring network for scientific purposes, allowing a comprehensive view of fishery systems including their biological, technical, environmental and economical components. The objectives of the FIS are (i) to provide t...

  14. Use of a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach including organic matter isotopes for quantifying nutrient contributions from agricultural vs wastewater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living

  15. Habitability of Super-Earth Planets around Main-Sequence Stars including Red Giant Branch Evolution: Models based on the Integrated System Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cuntz, M; Schroeder, K -P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study published in Astrobiology, we focused on the evolution of habitability of a 10 M_E super-Earth planet orbiting a star akin to the Sun. This study was based on a concept of planetary habitability in accordance to the integrated system approach that describes the photosynthetic biomass production taking into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. In the present study, we pursue a significant augmentation of our previous work by considering stars with zero-age main sequence masses between 0.5 and 2.0 M_sun with special emphasis on models of 0.8, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 M_sun. Our models of habitability consider again geodynamical processes during the main-sequence stage of these stars as well as during their red giant branch evolution. Pertaining to the different types of stars, we identify so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zones (pHZ) determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. We obtain various sets of solution...

  16. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  17. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  18. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  19. Novel CIC point mutations and an exon-spanning, homozygous deletion identified in oligodendroglial tumors by a comprehensive genomic approach including transcriptome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Eisenreich

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglial tumors form a distinct subgroup of gliomas, characterized by a better response to treatment and prolonged overall survival. Most oligodendrogliomas and also some oligoastrocytomas are characterized by a unique and typical unbalanced translocation, der(1,19, resulting in a 1p/19q co-deletion. Candidate tumor suppressor genes targeted by these losses, CIC on 19q13.2 and FUBP1 on 1p31.1, were only recently discovered. We analyzed 17 oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas by applying a comprehensive approach consisting of RNA expression analysis, DNA sequencing of CIC, FUBP1, IDH1/2, and array CGH. We confirmed three different genetic subtypes in our samples: i the "oligodendroglial" subtype with 1p/19q co-deletion in twelve out of 17 tumors; ii the "astrocytic" subtype in three tumors; iii the "other" subtype in two tumors. All twelve tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion carried the most common IDH1 R132H mutation. In seven of these tumors, we found protein-disrupting point mutations in the remaining allele of CIC, four of which are novel. One of these tumors also had a deleterious mutation in FUBP1. Only by integrating RNA expression and array CGH data, were we able to discover an exon-spanning homozygous microdeletion within the remaining allele of CIC in an additional tumor with 1p/19q co-deletion. Therefore we propose that the mutation rate might be underestimated when looking at sequence variants alone. In conclusion, the high frequency and the spectrum of CIC mutations in our 1p/19q-codeleted tumor cohort support the hypothesis that CIC acts as a tumor suppressor in these tumors, whereas FUBP1 might play only a minor role.

  20. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  1. A numerical approach for the direct computation of flows including fluid-solid interaction: Modeling contact angle, film rupture, and dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, K.; Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient method for including fluid-solid interactions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. This method is found to be as powerful as our earlier formulation [K. Mahady et al., "A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries," J. Comput. Phys. 294, 243 (2015)], while outperforming the earlier method in terms of computational efficiency. The performance and efficacy of the presented method are demonstrated by computing contact angles of droplets at equilibrium. Furthermore, we study the instability of films due to destabilizing fluid-solid interactions, and discuss the influence of contact angle and inertial effects on film breakup. In particular, direct simulation results show an increase in the final characteristic length scales when compared to the predictions of a linear stability analysis, suggesting significant influence of nonlinear effects. Our results also show that emerging length scales differ, depending on a number of physical dimensions considered.

  2. Identification of novel mutations including a double mutation in patients with inherited cardiomyopathy by a targeted sequencing approach using the Ion Torrent PGM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cao, Hong; Song, Yindi; Feng, Yue; Ding, Xiaoxue; Pang, Mingjie; Zhang, Yunmei; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Jiahuan; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-06-01

    knowledge. This patient provided us with more information regarding the genotype-phenotype correlation between mutations of MYH7 and PRKAG2. Taken together, these findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying inherited cardiomyopathy. The mutations identified in this study may be further investigated in the future in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with inherited cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, our findings indicated that sequencing using the Ion Torrent PGM system is a useful approach for the identification of pathogenic mutations associated with inherited cardiomyopathy, and it may be used for the risk evaluation of individuals with a possible susceptibility to inherited cardiomyopathy. PMID:27082122

  3. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards

  4. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com [Regulation Directive Medical Physics, Russell, KY (United States); Wilkinson, Jeffrey D. [Medtronic, Inc., Mounds View, MN (United States); Mallick, Avishek [Department of Mathematics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  5. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled Development of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. The ACCE method: an approach for obtaining quantitative or qualitative estimates of residual confounding that includes unmeasured confounding [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/54j

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Nonrandomized studies typically cannot account for confounding from unmeasured factors.    Method:  A method is presented that exploits the recently-identified phenomenon of  “confounding amplification” to produce, in principle, a quantitative estimate of total residual confounding resulting from both measured and unmeasured factors.  Two nested propensity score models are constructed that differ only in the deliberate introduction of an additional variable(s that substantially predicts treatment exposure.  Residual confounding is then estimated by dividing the change in treatment effect estimate between models by the degree of confounding amplification estimated to occur, adjusting for any association between the additional variable(s and outcome.   Results:  Several hypothetical examples are provided to illustrate how the method produces a quantitative estimate of residual confounding if the method’s requirements and assumptions are met.  Previously published data is used to illustrate that, whether or not the method routinely provides precise quantitative estimates of residual confounding, the method appears to produce a valuable qualitative estimate of the likely direction and general size of residual confounding.   Limitations:  Uncertainties exist, including identifying the best approaches for: 1 predicting the amount of confounding amplification, 2 minimizing changes between the nested models unrelated to confounding amplification, 3 adjusting for the association of the introduced variable(s with outcome, and 4 deriving confidence intervals for the method’s estimates (although bootstrapping is one plausible approach.   Conclusions:  To this author’s knowledge, it has not been previously suggested that the phenomenon of confounding amplification, if such amplification is as predictable as suggested by a recent simulation, provides a logical basis for estimating total residual confounding. The method

  8. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample – A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Karolina; Nilsonne, Gustav; Howner, Katarina; Tamm, Sandra; Caman, Shilan; Wang, Hui-Xin; Ingvar, Martin; Edens, John F.; Gustavsson, Petter; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Petrovic, Predrag; Fischer, Håkan; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R’s reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227) in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i) the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), (ii) self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii) additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R. PMID:27300292

  9. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  11. A New Neural Network Approach Including First-Guess for Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water Path, Surface Temperature and Emissivities Over Land From Satellite Microwave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Rothstein, M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of microwave observations over land to determine atmospheric and surface parameters is still limited due to the complexity of the inverse problem. Neural network techniques have already proved successful as the basis of efficient retrieval methods for non-linear cases, however, first-guess estimates, which are used in variational methods to avoid problems of solution non-uniqueness or other forms of solution irregularity, have up to now not been used with neural network methods. In this study, a neural network approach is developed that uses a first-guess. Conceptual bridges are established between the neural network and variational methods. The new neural method retrieves the surface skin temperature, the integrated water vapor content, the cloud liquid water path and the microwave surface emissivities between 19 and 85 GHz over land from SSM/I observations. The retrieval, in parallel, of all these quantities improves the results for consistency reasons. A data base to train the neural network is calculated with a radiative transfer model and a a global collection of coincident surface and atmospheric parameters extracted from the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data and from microwave emissivity atlases previously calculated. The results of the neural network inversion are very encouraging. The r.m.s. error of the surface temperature retrieval over the globe is 1.3 K in clear sky conditions and 1.6 K in cloudy scenes. Water vapor is retrieved with a r.m.s. error of 3.8 kg/sq m in clear conditions and 4.9 kg/sq m in cloudy situations. The r.m.s. error in cloud liquid water path is 0.08 kg/sq m . The surface emissivities are retrieved with an accuracy of better than 0.008 in clear conditions and 0.010 in cloudy conditions. Microwave land surface temperature retrieval presents a very attractive complement to the infrared estimates in cloudy areas: time record of land

  12. Tools for voltage stability analysis, including a probabilistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, X.; Martins, N.; Bianco, A.; Pinto, H.J.C.P. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M.V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, P.; Santos, M.G. dos [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews some voltage stability analysis tools that are being used or envisioned for expansion and operational planning studies in the Brazilian system, as well as, their applications. The paper also shows that deterministic tools can be linked together in a probabilistic framework, so as to provide complementary help to the analyst in choosing the most adequate operation strategies, or the best planning solutions for a given system. (author) 43 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Otto

    2003-04-11

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces for introducing assessment and testing strategies e.g. using a limited number of tests and/or alternative test methods are: (a) animal welfare considerations; (b) new scientific knowledge i.e. introducing tests for new endpoints and tests for better understanding of mode of action; and (c) lack of testing capacity/reduction of required resources economically as well as time wise. PMID:12676447

  14. Design of single fission structures: Minimalist diabatic approach including overlap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlas, Zdeněk; Michl, Josef

    Santiago: -, 2014. IC123. [WATOC 2014. Congress of the World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists /10./. 05.10.2014-10.10.2014, Santiago] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : singlet fission * chromophores * diabatic basis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for...

  16. Modeling Insurgent Dynamics Including Heterogeneity. A Statistical Physics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Manrique, Pedro; Hui, Pak Ming

    2013-05-01

    Despite the myriad complexities inherent in human conflict, a common pattern has been identified across a wide range of modern insurgencies and terrorist campaigns involving the severity of individual events—namely an approximate power-law x - α with exponent α≈2.5. We recently proposed a simple toy model to explain this finding, built around the reported loose and transient nature of operational cells of insurgents or terrorists. Although it reproduces the 2.5 power-law, this toy model assumes every actor is identical. Here we generalize this toy model to incorporate individual heterogeneity while retaining the model's analytic solvability. In the case of kinship or team rules guiding the cell dynamics, we find that this 2.5 analytic result persists—however an interesting new phase transition emerges whereby this cell distribution undergoes a transition to a phase in which the individuals become isolated and hence all the cells have spontaneously disintegrated. Apart from extending our understanding of the empirical 2.5 result for insurgencies and terrorism, this work illustrates how other statistical physics models of human grouping might usefully be generalized in order to explore the effect of diverse human social, cultural or behavioral traits.

  17. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures.

  18. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  19. Including heavy flavour production in PDF fits

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Cooper-Sarkar

    2007-01-01

    AT HERA heavy quarks may contribute up to 30% of the structure function $F_2$. The introduction of heavy quarks requires an extension of the DGLAP formalism. The effect of using different heavy flavour number schemes, and different approaches to the running of $\\alpha_s$, are compared using the ZEUS PDF fit formalism. The potential of including charm data in the fit is explored, using $D^*$ double differential cross-sections rather than the inclusive quantity $F_2^{c\\bar{c}}$.

  20. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture......). Mammals and birds have traditionally been proposed as umbrella or flagship species (‘‘species that needs such large tracts of habitat that saving it will automatically save many other species’’––Simberloff 1998), to identify areas suitable as nature reserves (Kerr 1997; Sergio et al. 2005)....

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...... with future explicitly present in the formalism and influencing in principle the past is not excluded phenomenologically, because the effects are argued to be very small in the present era. Furthermore, we explicitly derive the Hamiltonian for the future state via a path integral, and confirm that it...

  2. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  3. Brake assembly including torque monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a brake assembly for selectively braking rotation of an input shaft extending from a control rod drive having a longitudinal centerline axis, the shaft being rotatable for selectively inserting and withdrawing a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a stationary base; an annular bearing mounted to the base; a brake mounted to the bearing; a backing plate mounted to the bearing; a first braking pad fixedly joined to the backing plate; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the input shaft and disposed adjacent to the first pad; a second braking pad disposed adjacent to the rotor disc; and means for selectively clamping the first and second pads against the rotor disc for braking the input shaft; means for torsionally restraining the brake including: a pin extending outwardly from the backing plate toward the base; and a spring extending from the base to the pin and generally perpendicular to the centerline axis; and means for monitoring the angle for monitoring braking torque capability of the brake

  4. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.

  5. Theory of nanorod antenna resonances including end-reflection phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Li, Xiangyin; Bornemann, Jens; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-04-01

    We present a fully analytic theory for nanorod resonances including the phase of reflection from the rounded ends using a transmission line approach. It combines the circuit theory response of spherical nanoparticles with standard transmission line theory using the Sommerfeld wave dispersion. The approach agrees well with comprehensive numerical calculations.

  6. Including Siblings in the Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Juanita N.; Tanis, Heyley J.; Rice, Jennifer B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed. Case examples using a particular intervention approach and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)

  7. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  8. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  9. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  10. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  11. Including Parents in School Governance: Rhetoric or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report a qualitative study exploring how parents have been included in school governance in Hong Kong and in what ways their roles have been evolving in state education. Design/methodology/approach: The qualitative method was adopted in this exploratory study, the findings of which help provide insights for…

  12. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  13. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Includable offenses. 20.32 Section 20.32 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history...

  14. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is considered invasive. Symptoms of pneumonia usually include: Fever and chills Cough Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing Sweating ... the blood. It can cause symptoms such as: Fever and chills Excessive tiredness Pain in the belly Nausea with ...

  15. What Does Long-Term Care Include?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Video: "What Does Long-Term Care Include?" Long-term care involves a variety of services designed to meet a person's health or personal care needs during a short or long period of ...

  16. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  17. Include Passive Solar in Your Renovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Gerald F.; Probasco, Jack F.

    1981-01-01

    A checklist covers potential energy saving modifications in a building scheduled for renovation, and includes suggestions for room utilization, landscaping, and building envelope, solar control, and active system modifications. (Author)

  18. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  19. Including excitons in semiconductor solar cell modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Burgelman, Marc; Minnaert, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Excitons are marginally important in classical semiconductor device physics, and their treatment is not included in standard solar cell modelling. However, in organic semiconductors and solar cells, the role of excitons is essential, as the primary effect of light absorption is exciton generation, and free electrons and holes are created by exciton dissociation. First steps to include excitons in solar cell modelling were presented by Green 1996 and Zhang 1998. Their model was restricted to a...

  20. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  1. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  2. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated....... When an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%....

  3. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  4. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  5. Compendium of practices for including children in family sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2002-01-01

    The approach to involving children in family counselling described here is based on three principles. First, at an ethical level children have a right to participate in the process of solving problems of living which they and their families face. Second, at a pragmatic level counselling has a better chance of success if those involved in the problem, including children, participate in the solution. Third, at a theoretical level, methods of engaging children in counselling must be based on an ...

  6. 42 CFR 409.10 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included services. 409.10 Section 409.10 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Inpatient Hospital Services and Inpatient Critical Access Hospital...

  7. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  8. Holistic Approaches to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The holistic approach to health includes a spectrum of concepts that have an important influence on our health. Elementary school counselors must recognize this previously neglected need for a holistic approach. Stress, relaxation response, biofeedback, and the orthomolecular approach are discussed. (Author/BEF)

  9. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  10. Including knowledge creation & enabling in risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Hop, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution to Statoil Technical Efficiency Programme (STEP), has the thesis looked at how to improve the risk management process in Statoil ASA. Through theoretical research was the primary research question created: “How can knowledge creation & enabling improve our understanding of risk management?” To create a theoretical foundation, the thesis looked at principles, methods, and models for the adequate assessment and management of risk. This includes a new perspective on ri...

  11. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  12. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository

  13. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  14. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  15. 多维正义观视角下的教育政策正义性反思--兼及教育正义的三重维度和两种进路%Relfection of Justice in Education Policy from Perspective of Multi-dimensional Justice View:Including Three Dimensions and Two Approaches of Education Justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡友志

    2015-01-01

    Behind education justice problem and its policy management in the changing era, deep social justice problems worthy of relfection are hidden. The development of the contemporary justice theory provides the ideological resources for the relfections of education policy’s justice from the perspective of institutional ethics. The article constructs a multi-dimensional education justice view based on three dimensions from redistribution, recognition and representation in the contemporary justice theory and two approaches of transcendental institutionalism and realization-comparison. This education justice view contributes to relfection procedural justice in the education policy design, and defends the value of justice construction of educational institution and advocates active elimination of the injustice in the daily education.%变革时代的教育公平问题及其政策治理的背后,隐藏着深刻的值得反思的社会正义问题。当代正义理论的发展,为从“制度伦理”视角反思教育政策正义性提供了思想资源。以当代正义理论的分配、承认与代表权的三重维度,“先验制度主义”和“现实比较主义”的两种进路为基础,建构一种多维的教育正义观,反思教育政策设计的程序正义,为教育制度“正义”构想的价值辩护,并倡导对日常教育生活中“不正义”的积极消除。

  16. Modeling temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces using zonal approach, including sorption phenomena in buildings materials; Modelisation thermo-hydro-aeraulique des locaux climatises selon l'approche zonale (prise en compte des phenomenes de sorption d'humidite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro Mendoca, K.

    2004-05-15

    Building simulation models represent in our days an important tool for building conception and performance analysis. Although moisture interacts in many ways with the whole building affecting therefore its behavior, frequently these models neglects the interactions between them. In addition, in most of them, indoor air conditions are considered uniform, which is a non-realistic assumption in conditioned spaces. In this work, a model to predict temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces, using zonal approach, is proposed. This method is based in dividing spatially a room in a relative small number of zones, typically on the order of tens to hundreds, where the state variables of air are considered uniform, with the exception of pressure that varies hydrostatically. While not as fine-grained as CFD simulation, zonal models do give useful information about temperature and moisture distributions that is important in comfort analysis. The proposed model was structured in three groups of sub-models representing the three building domains: indoor air, envelope and HVAC system. The indoor air sub-model is related to the indoor air space, where airflow speed can be considered weak. The envelope sub-model is related to the radiation exchanges between envelope and its neighborhood, and to the simultaneous heat and mass transfers across the envelope material. This latest can be represented by four sub-models of different complexity levels, with two of them taking into account moisture adsorption and desorption by building materials. Concerning to the HVAC system model, it refers to the whole system that means equipment, control and specific airflow from equipment. All sub-models were coupled into a modular simulation environment, SPARK, well-adapted to compare different models. The applicability of the proposed model is shown by two examples. The first one shows the importance of considering moisture sorption phenomena in the prediction of indoor air conditions

  17. A Reactive Behavior Agent: Including Emotions into a Video Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Laureano-Cruces

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Why we have emotions and how they influence human behavior are two questions we constantly ask ourselves.According to researchers in the field, there are two kinds of information that the person receives to make a decision.This information is integrated to generate a whole. One comes from ourselves it is proprioceptive and refers toemotions; the other one is external, it comes from the environment. Thus, emotions are immersed in different areas ofa person’s life, including social, functional, and cognitive aspects. It has an important role in the decision-makingprocess. It is on this last point that this paper focuses its approach, which consists of including a cognitive structure ofemotions in a reactive behavior in order to enrich behavior, including the information generated through internalevaluation of the external physical stimuli. Our work is based on the OCC theory (named after the name of its authors:Ortony, Collins and Clore. This theory proposes that a decision-making process is affected through differentperspectives: a goals and events, b agents and their actions, and c objects and their capacity for attraction. Thecase study is situated within a scenario that represents an approach that seeks to include a module of emotions withinthe design of the architecture of a videogame.

  18. Including students with disabilities in Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Molina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning Communities is a project for school transformation theobjective of which is to achieve high quality education for all students, avoiding all type of segregation due to students’ level of attainment or other characteristics, and any type of differentiation or acritical adaptation of the curriculum, which may lead to unequal learning results. Students with disabilities have traditionallybeen subject to these types of practices which, nevertheless, have dubious results as far as the learning and social integration of these students is concerned. It is necessary to identify educational strategies which respond to the specific needs of these students within the framework of the same educational environment and the same learning objectives, as is being claimed from the inclusive education perspective. Starting from these premises, in this article we review the Learning Communities model as a school model which contributes to the inclusion of students with disabilities. Firstly, we will define the term “disability” and its educational implications as compared to other concepts which have also been usedin this field. Secondly, we describe some of the characteristics of the learning communities in relation to inclusive education and we focus particularly on the way in which the learning communities approach responds to the specific educational needs of students with disabilities. Finally, we will focus on a specific classroom practice, the interactive groups, and its contributions to the inclusion of students with disabilities.

  19. A kicked quantum system including the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of a quantum particle in a separable one-term potential with three-dimensional form factor is investigated under the influence of an external force which alters the potential strength periodically or quasiperiodically. The unperturbed system possesses one bound state and a continuum of scattering states which has treated almost analytically. First numerical results, fully including the emission channel, indicate, for certain parameter combinations with commensurate or incommensurate frequency ratios, either a regular or an irregular dynamical behaviour of the system. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  20. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  1. Including electronic effects in damage cascade simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for including the effects of electronic losses and electron-phonon coupling in radiation damage simulations has been developed and implemented for 10 keV cascades in Fe. The MD simulations are coupled to a continuum model for the electronic energy and energy lost by the atoms, due to electronic friction and electron-phonon coupling, is gained by electronic system. Electronic energy transport is described by the heat diffusion equation and energy is returned to the lattice via a stochastic force. Thus the temperature of the atomic system is controlled by a Langevin thermostat at the local electronic temperature, which varies with time and space. The results of simulations with this inhomogeneous thermostat are compared with those of homogeneous (constant temperature) thermostat simulations for a range of electron-phonon coupling strengths. The residual defect concentration was found to have a non-monotonic variation with coupling strength.

  2. Input parameters and scenarios, including economic inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    place, a receiving herd needed to be found. The distance, in which the receiving herd should be found, was calculated from movement data for animals and from data from trucks and abattoirs for movements to slaughter and milk tankers. For persons visiting herds, we used a combination of expert opinions......Geographical locations of the farms are the core in these models. We used geographical data, number of animals and specification of herd types for the 50,853 herds in the Danish Husbandry Register (CHR) in 2007. For each herd, the daily probability of moving animals, to another herd or to the......, disease was simulated to spread via direct contacts (movements of animals), indirect contacts (trucks and persons) and local spread (mice, birds, airborne spread in limited distances). Furthermore, in some scenarios airborne spread was included. For all contact types, when a contact was simulated to take...

  3. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  4. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics

  5. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  6. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  7. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  8. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  9. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  10. Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2009-01-01

    A paper presents further results of continuing research reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most recent being Stochastic Representations of Chaos Using Terminal Attractors (NPO-41519), [Vol. 30, No. 5 (May 2006), page 57] and Physical Principle for Generation of Randomness (NPO-43822) [Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), page 56]. This research focuses upon a mathematical formalism for describing post-instability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence as a form of chaos). The formalism involves fictitious control forces that couple the equations of motion of the system with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These stabilizing forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in configuration space (ordinary three-dimensional space as commonly perceived) is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. As a result, the post-instability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable.

  11. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  12. Langevin simulations of QCD, including fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We encounter critical slow down in updating when xi/a -> infinite and in matrix inversion (needed to include fermions) when msub(q)a -> 0. A simulation that purports to solve QCD numerically will encounter these limits, so to face the challenge in the title of this workshop, we must cure the disease of critical slow down. Physically, this critical slow down is due to the reluctance of changes at short distances to propagate to large distances. Numerically, the stability of an algorithm at short wavelengths requires a (moderately) small step size; critical slow down occurs when the effective long wavelength step size becomes tiny. The remedy for this disease is an algorithm that propagates signals quickly throughout the system; i.e. one whose effective step size is not reduced for the long wavelength conponents of the fields. (Here the effective ''step size'' is essentially an inverse decorrelation time.) To do so one must resolve various wavelengths of the system and modify the dynamics (in CPU time) of the simulation so that all modes evolve at roughly the same rate. This can be achieved by introducing Fourier transforms. I show how to implement Fourier acceleration for Langevin updating and for conjugate gradient matrix inversion. The crucial feature of these algorithms that lends them to Fourier acceleration is that they update the lattice globally; hence the Fourier transforms are computed once per sweep rather than once per hit. (orig./HSI)

  13. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Tsang

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  14. Including lifestyle medicine in undergraduate medical curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Phillips

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Currently, there is no model to integrate the discipline of lifestyle medicine (LM into undergraduate medical education. Furthermore, there are no guidelines, validated assessment tools, or evaluation or implementation plans in place. Background: The World Health Organization predicts that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. Fewer than 50% of US primary care physicians routinely provide specific guidance on nutrition, physical activity, or weight control. Methods: We are establishing a plan to integrate LM into medical school education in collaboration with the investing stakeholders, including medical school deans and students, medical curriculum developers and researchers, medical societies, governing bodies, and policy institutes. Three planning and strategy meetings are being held to address key areas of focus – with a particular interest in nutrition, physical activity, student self-care, and behavior change – to develop specific implementation guidelines and landmarks. Results: After the first two meetings, the proposed areas of focus were determined to be: 1 supporting of deans and key personnel, 2 creation of federal and state policy commitments, 3 use of assessment as a driver of LM, 4 provision of high-quality evidence-based curricular material on an easily navigated site, and 5 engaging student interest. Implementation strategies for each focus area will be addressed in an upcoming planning meeting in early 2015. Conclusion: This initiative is expected to have important public health implications by efficiently promoting the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic disease with a scalable and sustainable model to educate physicians in training and practice.

  15. Compact Radar Transceiver with Included Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Matthew; Rincon, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming Synthetic Aperture Radar (DBSAR) is an eight-channel phased array radar system that employs solid-state radar transceivers, a microstrip patch antenna, and a reconfigurable waveform generator and processor unit. The original DBSAR transceiver design utilizes connectorized electronic components that tend to be physically large and heavy. To achieve increased functionality in a smaller volume, PCB (printed circuit board) transceivers were designed to replace the large connectorized transceivers. One of the most challenging problems designing the transceivers in a PCB format was achieving proper performance in the calibration path. For a radar loop-back calibration path, a portion of the transmit signal is coupled out of the antenna feed and fed back into the receiver. This is achieved using passive components for stability and repeatability. Some signal also leaks through the receive path. As these two signal paths are correlated via an unpredictable phase, the leakage through the receive path during transmit must be 30 dB below the calibration path. For DBSAR s design, this requirement called for a 100-dB isolation in the receiver path during transmit. A total of 16 solid-state L-band transceivers on a PCB format were designed. The transceivers include frequency conversion stages, T/R switching, and a calibration path capable of measuring the transmit power-receiver gain product during transmit for pulse-by-pulse calibration or matched filtering. In particular, this calibration path achieves 100-dB isolation between the transmitted signal and the low-noise amplifier through the use of a switching network and a section of physical walls achieving attenuation of radiated leakage. The transceivers were designed in microstrip PCBs with lumped elements and individually packaged components for compactness. Each transceiver was designed on a single PCB with a custom enclosure providing interior walls and compartments to isolate transceiver

  16. Ocean storage, including costs and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effectiveness of ocean storage will have to be based on theoretical understanding and models as there is no way to perform experiments on the required time and space scales for outgassing estimation. Based on observations of tracer behavior, the ventilation time of deep water has been revealed. Calibrated and constrained by these results, most of the OGCMs tell us that CO2 injected into the thermohaline circulation would not come back to the atmosphere in more than several hundred years. There are two types of concepts of ocean storage: one is a lake type concept to keep the CO2 at the ocean floor or a depression site as long as possible, and the other is to inject CO2 into the deep waters so that it is dispersed as quickly as possible. The technological concepts so far for implementation with minimum environmental impacts are much elaborated based on laboratory and computer experiments incorporating the key understanding of the CO2 clathrate properties attained in this decade. The frequently addressed concern of this technology includes the ecological modification of the ocean system. But even in the business-as-usual release of CO2 into the atmosphere, some modification might be foreseen in the deep ocean environment and could be inevitable not caused by the climate change but by the direct influence of the increase in the CO2 concentration in deep waters in future. We cannot stop the CO2 invasion into the deep ocean due to the existing of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere. Whichever release method is used, carbon dioxide we are releasing to the atmosphere now will find its way into the deep oceans. Hence, the right scientific question is whether there exist additional risks to the deep sea environment associated with this technology. If we accept the target of a stabilization level of the atmospheric concentration of CO2, our generation's commitment to the CO2 futures anyway extends to the modification of the deep sea environment induced by the

  17. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate the...... analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice of...

  18. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  19. Sex Classification Using the Three-Dimensional Tibia Form or Shape Including Population Specificity Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzobohatá, Hana; Krajíček, V.; Horák, Z.; Velemínská, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-40. ISSN 0022-1198 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 613012 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forensic science * geometric morphometrics * sex ual dimorphism * optical scanning * computed tomography-derived models * tibia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2014

  20. Data-driven public transport ridership prediction approach including comfort aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Drost, M.; Brands, T.; Yap, M.

    2015-01-01

    The most important aspects on which passengers base their choice whether to travel by public transport are the perceived travel time, costs, reliability and comfort. Despite its importance, comfort is often not explicitly considered when predicting demand for public transport. In this paper, we incl

  1. Five Approaches to Improving the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Including "Designer" Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils or animal fats or used cooking oils by a transesterification reaction with an alcohol, usually methanol, to give the corresponding mono-alkyl esters with glycerol as co-product. With a few exceptions, most common biodiesel feedstocks possess fatty a...

  2. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness. PMID:25027546

  3. The included benefits during the units shutdowns: a new approach of costs reduction and shutdowns control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical context of a nuclear power plant operation encourages the operators to improve the productivity by reducing the maintenance costs as they increase the safety, the reliability and the quality. Two examples are given: the nuclear power plant of Cattenom where the financial gain was 8%, and the nuclear power plant of Nogent during the operation of the tank cover replacement where the dosimetry has been reduced by 15%. (N.C.)

  4. Problembased learning (PBL) including drama games as a motivating learning approach in interprofessional education (IPE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    2014-01-01

    The university have years of experience with interprofessional student groups, from seven different health professions, learning through participating in an interprofessional module. Evaluations have shown a continuos massive challenge concerning the student´s motivation for learning and their...... level of participation in this three-week course of “Conflict management”. To meet these challenges the university started a project within the frame of problembased learning and drama games. The idea was to develop strategies to motivate students and create a dynamic and stimulating learning...... environment and to test this pedagogic experiment within the course. Methods The hypothesis was that if the three-week course was carried out as a PBL course, and if the lecturers were prepared and supervised thoroughly for this method, the students´ motivation and participation would be higher than students...

  5. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  6. Correspondence between future-included and future-not-included theories

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time $T_B$ and the past state at time $T_A$ as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time $t$ of a future-included theory for large $T_B-t$ and large $t-T_A$ corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large $t-T_A$. This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

  7. Transport Phenomena in Thin Rotating Liquid Films Including: Nucleate Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir

    2005-01-01

    In this grant, experimental, numerical and analytical studies of heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk have been conducted. Heat transfer coefficients were measured experimentally in a rotating disk heat transfer apparatus where the disk was heated from below with electrical resistance heaters. The heat transfer measurements were supplemented by experimental characterization of the liquid film thickness using a novel laser based technique. The heat transfer measurements show that the disk rotation plays an important role on enhancement of heat transfer primarily through the thinning of the liquid film. Experiments covered both momentum and rotation dominated regimes of the flow and heat transfer in this apparatus. Heat transfer measurements have been extended to include evaporation and nucleate boiling and these experiments are continuing in our laboratory. Empirical correlations have also been developed to provide useful information for design of compact high efficiency heat transfer devices. The experimental work has been supplemented by numerical and analytical analyses of the same problem. Both numerical and analytical results have been found to agree reasonably well with the experimental results on liquid film thickness and heat transfer Coefficients/Nusselt numbers. The numerical simulations include the free surface liquid film flow and heat transfer under disk rotation including the conjugate effects. The analytical analysis utilizes an integral boundary layer approach from which

  8. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  9. Cellular automata simulation of traffic including cars and bicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Jelena; Ruskin, Heather J.

    2012-04-01

    As 'greening' of all aspects of human activity becomes mainstream, transportation science is also increasingly focused around sustainability. Modal co-existence between motorised and non-motorised traffic on urban networks is, in this context, of particular interest for traffic flow modelling. The main modelling problems here are posed by the heterogeneity of vehicles, including size and dynamics, and by the complex interactions at intersections. Herein we address these with a novel technique, based on one-dimensional cellular automata components, for modelling network infrastructure and its occupancy by vehicles. We use this modelling approach, together with a corresponding vehicle behaviour model, to simulate combined car and bicycle traffic for two elemental scenarios-examples of components that would be used in the building of an arbitrary network. Results of simulations performed on these scenarios, (i) a stretch of road and (ii) an intersection causing conflict between cars and bicycles sharing a lane, are presented and analysed.

  10. Metal ions affecting the gastrointestinal system including the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Declan P; Nepusz, Tamás; Petroczi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the present context, metal ions can be categorized into several classes including those that are essential for life and those that have no known biological function and thus can be considered only as potentially hazardous. Many complexities arise with regard to metal toxicity and there is a paucity of studies relating to many metals which are frequent components of the diet. For many people ingestion of mineral supplements is considered a risk-free health choice despite growing evidence to the contrary. Numerous approaches have been developed to assess risk associated with ingestion of metal ions. These include straightforward estimation of safe limits such as oral reference dose which are often based on data derived from animal experiments. More convoluted approaches such as the Target Hazard Quotient involve assessment of hazard with frequent exposure over long durations such as a lifetime. The latter calculation also affords facile consideration of the effects of many metals together. In many cases, rigorous data are unavailable, hence, large factors of uncertainty are employed to relate risk to humans. Owing to the nature of metal toxicity, data pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract and liver are often acquired from diseases of metal homeostasis or episodes of considerable metal overload. Whilst these studies provide evidence for mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity such as enhancing oxidative stress, extrapolation of these results to healthy individuals or patients with chronic inflammatory diseases is not straightforward. In summary, the diverse nature of metals and their effects on human tissues along with a paucity of studies on the full range of their effects, warrant further in-depth studies on the association of metals to ageing, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. PMID:21473378

  11. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  12. Energy loss in a partonic transport model including bremsstrahlung processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed investigation of the energy loss of gluons that traverse a thermal gluonic medium simulated within the perturbative QCD-based transport model BAMPS (a Boltzmann approach to multiparton scatterings) is presented in the first part of this work. For simplicity the medium response is neglected in these calculations. The energy loss from purely elastic interactions is compared with the case where radiative processes are consistently included based on the matrix element by Gunion and Bertsch. From this comparison, gluon multiplication processes gg→ggg are found to be the dominant source of energy loss within the approach employed here. The consequences for the quenching of gluons with high transverse momentum in fully dynamic simulations of Au+Au collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy of √(s)=200A GeV are discussed in the second major part of this work. The results for central collisions as discussed in a previous publication are revisited, and first results on the nuclear modification factor RAA for noncentral Au+Au collisions are presented. They show a decreased quenching compared to central collisions while retaining the same shape. The investigation of the elliptic flow v2 is extended up to nonthermal transverse momenta of 10 GeV, exhibiting a maximum v2 at roughly 4 to 5 GeV and a subsequent decrease. Finally the sensitivity of the aforementioned results on the specific implementation of the effective modeling of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect via a formation-time-based cutoff is explored.

  13. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  14. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  15. Dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling including turbulent transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, R. L.; Dum, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling has been investigated by means of a two-dimensional two-fluid MHD model including anomalous resistivity. When field-aligned current is generated on auroral field lines, the disturbance propagates toward the ionosphere in the form of a kinetic Alfven wave. When the current exceeds a critical value, microscopic turbulence is produced, which modifies the propagation of the Alfven wave. This process is modeled by a nonlinear collision frequency, which increases with the excess of the drift velocity over the critical value. The system evolves toward an electrostatic structure, with the perpendicular electric field having a shorter scale than the field-aligned current. The approach to a steady state is strongly dependent on the presence or absence of the turbulence and on the boundary conditions imposed in the generator. As current is increased or scale size is decreased, the turbulent region reflects and absorbs most of the Alfven wave energy, decoupling the generator from the ionosphere.

  16. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Case studies: Former centrally planned economics, including the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current conditions at former uranium mining sites in the Russian Federation are a direct consequence of the Soviet era operation of uranium mines without effective management of the environmental and social aspects of production and without remediation of contaminated areas, much less planning and design for remediation and long term containment of wastes. Mining operations without environmental protection or closure plans were the normal operating approach in the USA and other western countries but the resulting problems were being recognized in the 1960s and most of the legacy sites have since been cleaned up. Similar operating conditions without effective pollution control and closure concepts prevailed at uranium sites in other centrally planned economies such as the Central Asian Republics, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary prior to 1990. Currently, many mining areas in eastern and western European countries, including Spain, Hungary and the Czech Republic, have instituted effective remediation standards at major mining sites, including programmes applicable to existing as well as new uranium and other metal mines. These programmes are in areas in which long and active mining traditions provide a set of strong working models for effective environmental controls for current and proposed mines in the Russian Federation and other countries in transition from centrally planned economies. Several community surveys document hundreds of homes with radiation levels as much as 10 to 20 times the level requiring remedial action under international standards acknowledged by Russian investigators. The mining districts of southeastern Chita, (the Russian Federation) including Baley (thorium contamination) and others, reported high indoor radiation areas such as Krasnokamensk and Nerchinsk, which are among the first population exposures to these worldwide problems identified in the Russian Federation. Effective national and international attention to the severity

  18. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  19. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  20. Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    Dada a complexidade dos conflitos e crises, muitos governos e organizações estão, actualmente, num processo de desenvolvimento de conceitos e abordagens à gestão de crises. Não há nenhuma definição comummente aceite para a Comprehensive Approach. O presente trabalho faz uma abordagem ao desenvolvimento do termo, descrevendo e analisando a adopção da Comprehensive Approach a nível multilateral. Actores multinacionais como a ONU, a OTAN e a UE estão a desenvolver novos conceitos para uma apr...

  1. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  2. Narrative approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    -creation between coach and coachee. The conceptual framework will be tested by presenting central results of a research project. The ideas discussed in this chapter expand upon earlier concepts of the narrative approach (mainly formulated by White in 2007) by integrating ideas from phenomenology and experiential...

  3. Including UPFC dynamic phasor model into transient stability program

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Y; Liu, H.; Zhu, H; Li, Y

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel time simulation approach is introduced to implement transient stability analysis with FACTS devices, in which FACTS devices will use dynamic phasor models and interface properly with conventional electromechanical transient-model-based stability program. The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is used as an example to demo the realization of the approach. In the paper, the UPFC dynamic phasor model and control scheme are presented first and followed by the interface for...

  4. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these h...

  5. Technical aspects of innovative nuclear systems including reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    more cost-effective. The 'User' in the IAEA terminology is a wide range meaning. It includes investors, designers/engineers, Utilities, Regulatory Bodies, and Consumers of nuclear power industry useful products. Therefore, there are some contradictions within this society. The Licensing Authorities play specific role as spokesman of community common requirements. Therefore they might become a key persons in search of optimum relationship among all requirements and criteria. 6. The representatives of Licensing Authorities together with Designers, Engineering Organizations, Manufacturers, Economists and Ecologists should participate in discussions of innovative technology proposals just at the earliest possible stages. It will allow them to make their recommendations at the benefit of those technologies that are worth to be further developed. It is assumed expedient to discuss two topics, namely: International co-operation of Licensing Authorities that might facilitate improvement of 'licensing infrastructure' and licensing activity at international level and; Producing of mutually acceptable fundamental principles and approaches as well as, probably, unified standards to be applied to innovative technologies at the international level. The representatives of developing countries - upon the forecast, they will be the main consumers of nuclear technologies of the current century - would become the direct participants of such a co-operation. 7. Careful study of proposals on future nuclear technologies shows that they are allocated, mainly, in the frame of already well known and investigated systems. While having the advantage of high reliability of evaluations, such Projects have predetermined limits of improvement of economical performances and safety. Such Projects could not allow to find a solution for the contradiction that is: to make the new nuclear technology much more safe and, at the same time, more economically competitive rather than the conventional power

  6. Faults of Europe including Turkey (flt4_2l)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs that describe faults found in the surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and...

  7. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  8. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  9. 20 CFR 220.114 - Evaluation of symptoms, including pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of symptoms, including pain. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Medical Considerations § 220.114 Evaluation of symptoms, including pain...'s symptoms, including pain, and the extent to which the claimant's symptoms can reasonably...

  10. Generalization of Markov Monte Carlo reliability analysis to include non-Markovian maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lagrangian approach to Markov Monte Carlo methods for systems reliability analysis is generalized to include non-Markovian phenomena in which system components are replaced. The method is then employed to analyze the unreliability and unavailability of a number of redundant systems in which maintenance is carried out by batch or time replacement of aging components. (orig.)

  11. The Dirac-Brueckner Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmann, R.; Machleidt, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we give a thorough introduction into the Dirac-Brueckner approach including the mathematical details of the formalism involved. Furthermore, we present results for nuclear matter, NN scattering in the nuclear medium, and finite nuclei.

  12. Diakoptical Approach in Telecommunication Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yevsyeyeva, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    A diakoptical approach to tensor methods of telecommunications networks engineering, including design, traffic control and maintenance of QoS, is offered. The using of it increases scalability of tensor methods.

  13. Assessment of speciation techniques including the application of photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes laboratory experiments that compare chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for rapidly characterizing ionic species in detail. These techniques were tested on various radioactive ion systems to develop a rapid, accurate approach to site characterization for use with Remedial Action Programs. Promising techniques were evaluated. 9 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Critical Communicative Methodology: Including Vulnerable Voices in Research through Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia; Christou, Miranda; Holford, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how Critical Communicative Methodology (CCM) has been used successfully to analyse educational inequalities in ways that generate real transformation towards social justice. We begin by arguing that educational research today should employ new methodological approaches that can ensure the inclusion of different voices in…

  15. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  16. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  17. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    particular needs, which teachers must be aware of and deal with. Secondly, I propose a combination of adult learners’ characteristics with ‘teaching orientations’, as a basis for further research on teachers of adults’ professional development. Some of the competencies that teachers need can be taught in......This paper is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Data is collected at a Danish Adult Education Centre. The aim of the study is to understand teachers’ learning experiences. The research...... questions are: How (much) and what do teachers learn from experience? And how do teachers of adults develop their pedagogical approach? I examine the field of adult learners from the teachers’ perspective. Firstly, I identify some of the commonly described characteristics of adults as learners and their...

  18. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directio...

  19. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... humans; and (3) Ornamental fish propagated and reared in an aquatic medium. (b) The aquacultural...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the...

  3. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  5. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  6. Making Way and Making Sense: Including Newcomers in Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet-Shore, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    In our everyday interactions as they unfold in real time, how do we do including? This article examines a specific set of interactional moments when the potential to be included (or not) recurs: when a newcomer arrives to some social scene where two or more already-present persons are actively engaged in some activity and that newcomer displays…

  7. Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

  8. My Approaches to Promote Teaching Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟维

    2014-01-01

    Promoting teaching efficiency is a matter of the utmost concern of all teachers. This paper focuses on the different approaches that the author adopts in her teaching. These approaches include creating learning situations,using humor in teaching.

  9. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  10. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  11. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  12. Day-ahead resource scheduling including demand response for electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Joao; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago;

    2014-01-01

    the intensive use of distributed generation and V2G. The main focus is the comparison of different EV management approaches in the day-ahead energy resources management, namely uncontrolled charging, smart charging, V2G and Demand Response (DR) programs in the V2G approach. Three different DR programs...... optimization. Mixed integer non-linear programming is also used for comparison purposes. Full ac power flow calculation is included to allow taking into account the network constraints. A case study with a 33-bus distribution network and 2000 V2G resources is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed...

  13. The No-Core Gamow Shell Model: Including the continuum in the NCSM

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, B R; Michel, N; Płoszajczak, M

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing an era of intense experimental efforts that will provide information about the properties of nuclei far from the line of stability, regarding resonant and scattering states as well as (weakly) bound states. This talk describes our formalism for including these necessary ingredients into the No-Core Shell Model by using the Gamow Shell Model approach. Applications of this new approach, known as the No-Core Gamow Shell Model, both to benchmark cases as well as to unstable nuclei will be given.

  14. Changing perspectives: including spanish in the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Proskawer Espinosa, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    The use of the learner´s mother tongue in the second language classroom has been a matter of controversy for many years. Although each method/approach claims to have pedagogical foundations for the inclusion or exclusion of the mother tongue, recent research on this topic questions the foundations of those that exclude it and highlights the benefits of its inclusion in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. Furthermore, due to current language policies in some co...

  15. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz Amine; Yamina Mir; Mimoun Zazoui

    2013-01-01

    Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The p...

  16. Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

  17. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Skjoldan, Peter Fisker; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Rubak, Rune; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e...

  18. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David

    2015-01-01

    A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  19. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  20. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... of adults who have ever been diagnosed with emphysema: 3.4 million Percent of adults who have ...

  2. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies › Pets Pets Your Plan Should Include All Family Members The best way to protect your household ... About Us Latest News Search for Jobs Military Families Disaster Relief International Services National Celebrity Cabinet Mission & ...

  3. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  4. Stability and minimum lateral bracing for stepped columns with semi-rigid connections including shear effects: ii) verification and examples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal-Ochoa, Jose Dario

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stability analysis of single-stepped columns with sidesway totally inhibited, partially inhibited, and uninhibited subjected to concentrated axial loads located at the ends and at the intermediate joint including semi-rigid connections and shear force effects are presented using three different approaches in a companion paper. The first two approaches are those by Engesser and Haringx that include the shear component of the applied axial force proportional to the total slope (dy/d...

  5. Interior Models of Saturn: Including the Uncertainties in Shape and Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit

    2013-01-01

    The accurate determination of Saturn's gravitational coefficients by Cassini could provide tighter constrains on Saturn's internal structure. Also, occultation measurements provide important information on the planetary shape which is often not considered in structure models. In this paper we explore how wind velocities and internal rotation affect the planetary shape and the constraints on Saturn's interior. We show that within the geodetic approach (Lindal et al., 1985, ApJ, 90, 1136) the derived physical shape is insensitive to the assumed deep rotation. Saturn's re-derived equatorial and polar radii at 100 mbar are found to be 54,445 $\\pm$10 km and 60,365$\\pm$10 km, respectively. To determine Saturn's interior we use {\\it 1 D} three-layer hydrostatic structure models, and present two approaches to include the constraints on the shape. These approaches, however, result in only small differences in Saturn's derived composition. The uncertainty in Saturn's rotation period is more significant: with Voyager's ...

  6. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Technical approach document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs

  8. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader

    2016-07-01

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  9. When users cannot be included in inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive Design (ID) methods place a strong emphasis on user participation in designing mainstream products. In recent years researchers in the field of assistive technology (AT) have drawn on and contributed to the ID approach. There are good grounds for this association. However, the linkage...... and disabled users make the need for useability and pleasurability even more important since alternative products are comparatively few. This paper examines the workarounds two teams of designers have used to reduce the demands placed on emphysema patients and elderly users during inclusive design processes...

  10. Motivation: included or excluded from E-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cocea, Mihaela; Weibelzahl, S.

    2006-01-01

    The learners’ motivation has an impact on the quality of learning, no matter how it is provided, be it via classroom, e-Learning or blended learning. So far, in e-Learning, motivation has been mainly considered in terms of instructional design. Research in this direction suggests several ways to improve learners’ motivation. However, we claim that even more could be done: while being well known in classical learning, a motivational approach based on self-cognition (self-efficacy, self-regulat...

  11. Qualitative analysis and characterization of two cosmologies including scalar fields

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Genly

    2014-01-01

    The problem of dark energy can be roughly stated as the proposition and validation of a cosmological model that can explain the phenomenon of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This problem is an open discussion topic in modern physics. One of the most common approaches is that of the "Dark Energy" (DE), a matter component still unknown, with repulsive character (to explain the accelerated expansion), which fills about 2/3 of the total content of the Universe. In this thesis are inves...

  12. The involuntary excluder effect: those included by an excluder are seen as exclusive themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Zayas, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    People are highly vigilant for and alarmed by social exclusion. Previous research has focused largely on the emotional and motivational consequences of being unambiguously excluded by others. The present research instead examines how people make sense of a more ambiguous dynamic, 1-person exclusion--situations in which one person (the excluder) excludes someone (the rejected) while including someone else (the included). Using different methodological paradigms, converging outcome measures, and complementary comparison standards, 5 studies present evidence of an involuntary excluder effect: Social perceivers are quick to see included persons as though they are excluders themselves. Included individuals are seen as belonging to an exclusive alliance with the excluder, as liking the excluder more than the rejected, and as likely to perpetuate future exclusion against the rejected. Behavioral evidence reinforced these findings: The included was approached with caution and suspicion. Notably, such perceptions of the included as an excluder were drawn by the rejected themselves and outside observers alike, did not reflect the attitudes and intentions of included persons or those who simulated 1-person exclusion from the vantage point of the included, applied specifically to the included (but not someone who simply witnessed the rejected's rejection), and arose as a consequence of intentional acts of exclusion (and thus, not just because 2 individuals shared an exclusive experience). Consistencies with and contributions to literatures on balance theory, minimal groups, group entitativity, and the ostracism detection system literatures are discussed. PMID:25133726

  13. Multidisciplinary treatment for advanced and recurrent breast cancer including brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Ohno, Tatsuya (Tochigi Cancer Center, Utsunomiya (Japan). Hospital); Takizawa, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Egawa, Sunao; Ogino, Takashi

    1994-06-01

    Between 1986 and 1992, 10 patients (12 lesions) of advanced breast cancer were treated with multidisciplinary treatment including brachytherapy. The lesions treated included 5 primary breast tumors, 3 metastatic lesions in the contra lateral breast, 2 recurrences after external beam irradiation, 1 metastasis to the axillary lymph node and 1 metastasis to the upper arm skin. The interstitial irradiation techniques used were [sup 192]Ir low dose-rate irradiation for 5 lesions and high dose-rate for 7 lesions (including 3 with mould irradiation). External hyperthermia as performed for 6 lesions and interstitial hyperthermia were performed for 4 lesions. The local response was CR for 3 lesions, PRa for 8 lesions, PRb for 1 lesion with the local response rate being 100%. Excellent local control could be achieved by combination external and interstitial irradiation, indicating that radiotherapy is definitely useful for the treatment of advanced breast cancer. (author).

  14. Pediatric deformity treatment update, including 3D correction concepts%Pediatric deformity treatment update,including 3D correction concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randal R. Betz; Patrick J. Cahill; Joshua M. Pahys; Amer F. Samdani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the new developments in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,including 3D correction of deformity,posterior and minimally invasive surgery,and fusionless strategies.

  15. A semi-discretized thin-walled beam element including distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    An advanced thin-walled beam element including distortion of the cross section is presented. The formulation is based on a generalization of the classical Vlasov beam theory for analysis of open and closed thin-walled cross sections by including distortional displacements.The beam element...... formulation utilizes a semidiscretization approach in which the cross section is discretized into wall elements and the analytical solutions of the related GBT beam equations are used as displacement functions in the axial direction. Thus the beam element contains the semi-analytical solutions. In a number of...... related publications the authors have recently presented the semi-discretization approach and the analytical solution of the generalized beam equations. An illustrative example showing the validity and the accuracy of the developed distortional semi-discretized thin-walled beam element is given and it is...

  16. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  18. EC6 safety enhancement - including impact of Fukushima lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enhanced CANDU® 6 (EC6) is the new Generation III CANDU reactor design that meets the most up to date regulatory requirements and customer expectations. EC6 builds on the proven high performance design such as the Qinshan CANDU 6 units and has made improvements to safety and operational performance, and has incorporated extensive operational feedback including Fukushima. The Fukushima Dai-ichi March 11, 2011 event has demonstrated the importance of defence-in-depth considerations for beyond-design basis events, including severe accidents. The EC6 design is based on the defence-in-depth principles and provides further design features that address the lessons learned from Fukushima. (author)

  19. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  20. Habitability of Super-Earth Planets around Other Suns: Models including Red Giant Branch Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    von Bloh, W.; Cuntz, M.; Schroeder, K. -P.; C. Bounama; Franck, S.

    2008-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super- Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production taking into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical p...

  1. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of different irrigants including MTAD under SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Lal Paul; Dibyendu Mazumdar; Abhijit Niyogi; Akash Kr. Baranwal

    2013-01-01

    Context: During biomechanical preparation, a smear layer is formed which occludes the openings of dentinal tubules and disfavors the penetration of irrigants. Hence, such layers should be removed. It becomes more challenging when we approach the apical third of the root canal. Aim: The aim was to compare the efficacy of different irrigants including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), EDTA along with ultrasonication, citric acid, and mixture of tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a dete...

  2. Integrative Therapies for Low Back Pain That Include Complementary and Alternative Medicine Care: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Rose, Kevin; Kadar, Gena E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Systematic review of the literature. Objective: To evaluate whether an integrated approach that includes different Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies combined or CAM therapies combined with conventional medical care is more effective for the management of low back pain (LBP) than single modalities alone. Summary of Background Data: LBP is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet its optimal management is still unresolved. Methods: The PRISMA Sta...

  3. Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and impr...

  4. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He+ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  5. How to include the nonlinear Cox-Voinov law into sloshing dynamics? A weakly non linear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Gallaire, Francois

    2015-11-01

    Fluid sloshing in a glass is a common example of damped oscillator, with the frequency derived in the potential flow limit. The damping rate is then evaluated considering the viscous dissipation at the wall, in the bulk and at the free surface, respectively. This classical theoretical result however differs from what is often seen in the laboratory when the attenuation of gravity waves happens in a small basin. In particular, the damping rate is found to increase as the sloshing amplitude decreases. Here we show that this enhanced damping is due to capillary forces at the contact line between the liquid and the container. The angle θd made by the liquid interface with the container walls (contact angle) is modeled as a non-linear function of the interface speed U, (Cox-Voinov law θd3 α U). We propose a multiple scale expansion scheme to consistently derive an amplitude equation using the Cox-Voinov law as boundary condition at the moving interface. The zero order problem reduces to the classical static meniscus problem, while the first order problem yields an eigenvalue problem defining the viscous sloshing modes. At an higher order, a compatibility condition has to be enforced, yielding an amplitude equation. Solving the later, we recover the expected increase of the damping rate as the sloshing amplitude decreases, an effect thus attributed to capillary effects.

  6. What pedagogical approaches can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms? a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Rix, Jonathan; Hall, Kathy; Nind, Melanie; Sheehy, Kieron; Wearmouth, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a three-year systematic literature review funded by the UK Training and Development Agency for Schools. In order to begin to answer the question posed by the title of this article, the researchers systematically reviewed the literature with reported outcomes for the academic and social inclusion of pupils with special educational needs. This review process led to a focus upon peer-group interactions, the nature of teacher and pupil interactions and wholeclass, subje...

  7. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  8. Including Religion in American History: Some Notes on Student Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Kevin M.; Romanowski, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of teaching religion in U.S. history courses. Discusses problems that teachers encounter when teaching religion, addresses the issue of students resisting learning about religion in the history classroom, and explores how teachers can reduce this resistance. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. Mixture including hydrogen and hydrocarbon having pressure-temperature stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of storing hydrogen that employs a mixture of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon that can both be used as fuel. In one embodiment, the method involves maintaining a mixture including hydrogen and a hydrocarbon in the solid state at ambient pressure and a temperature in excess of about 10 K.

  10. Computer aided design of reentrant coaxial filters including coaxial excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boria, V.; Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced EM based CAD tool is used for the detailed characterisation of a family of reentrant coaxial waveguide filters. The EM analysis includes the effects of tuning screws and of the input/output coaxial excitation. The software is essentially used as an efficient replacement for the tradition

  11. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  12. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  13. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  14. Including Non-Traditional Instrumentation in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. David; Orvis, Jessica N.; Smith, C. Jimmy; Manley, Citabria; Rice, Jeanette K. 2

    2004-01-01

    Non-traditional instrumentation was obtained for Georgia Southern undergraduates to attain fundamental environmental education through unique laboratory experiences. In this context, the method for including a direct mercury analyzer into both major and non-major environmental laboratories is reported.

  15. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  16. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  17. Novel model for wine fermentation including the yeast dying phase

    OpenAIRE

    Borzì, Alfio; Merger, Juri; Müller, Jonas; Rosch, Achim; Schenk, Christina; Schmidt, Dominik; Schmidt, Stephan; Schulz, Volker; Velten, Kai; von Wallbrunn, Christian; Zänglein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model for wine fermentation including a death phase for yeast and the influence of oxygen on the process. A model for the inclusion of the yeast dying phase is derived and compared to a model taken from the literature. The modeling ability of the several models is analyzed by comparing their simulation results.

  18. Ab initio calculation of molecular energies including parity violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach, RHF-CIS, based on the perturbation of the ground state RHF wave function by the CIS excitations, has been implemented for evaluation of energy of parity violating interaction in molecules, Epv. The earlier approach, RHF-SDE, was based on the perturbation of the RHF ground states by the single-determinant ''excitations'' (SDE). The results obtained show the dramatic difference between Epv values in the RHF-CIS framework and those in the RHF-SDE framework: the Epv values of the RHF-CIS formalism are more than one order of magnitude greater compared to the RHF-SDE formalism as well as the corresponding tensor components. The maximal total value obtained for hydrogen peroxide in the RHF-CIS framework is 3.661 X 10-19 EH (DZ** basis set) while the maximal Epv value for the RHF-SDE formalism is just 3.635 X 10-20 EH (TZ basis set). It is remarkable that both in the RFH-CIS and in the RHF-SDE approaches the diagonal tensor components of Epv strictly follow the geometry of a molecule and are always different from zero at chiral conformations. The zeros of the total Epv at chiral geometries are now found to be the results of the interplay between the diagonal tensor components values. We have carried out exhaustive analysis of the RHF-SDE formalism and found that it is not sufficiently accurate for studies of Epv. To this end, we have completely reproduced the previous work, which has been done in the RHF-SDE frame-work, and developed it further, studying how the RHF-SDE results vary when changing size and quality of basis sets. This last resource does not save the RHF-SDE formalism for evaluations of Epv from the general failure. Packages of FORTRAN routines called ENWEAK/RHFSDE-93 and ENWEAK/RHFCIS-94 have been developed which run on top of an ab initio MO package. We used 6-31G and 6-31G**, DZ and DZ**, TZ and TZ**, and (10s, 6p,**) basis sets. We will discuss the importance of the present results for possible measurement of the parity violating energy

  19. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisker Skjoldan, P.

    2011-03-15

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between

  20. Time for Food-Including Nutrition on Physiatrists' Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Rani; Dacey, Marie L; Phillips, Edward M

    2016-04-01

    Unhealthy nutrition is a leading factor in various rehabilitation diagnoses such as stroke and several musculoskeletal complications. Further, the association between nutrition, pain management, and brain plasticity support the importance of having rehabilitation patients follow healthy nutrition guidelines. The goal of this brief report is to emphasize the importance of nutritional counseling to physiatrists and to briefly describe recommended communication skills, behavioral change strategies, and opportunities for interprofessional collaborations. Potential next steps aimed at prescribing nutrition within physiatry clinics are provided. Incorporating healthy nutrition in the physiatrist's personal and professional life presents an opportunity for a meaningful change. Physiatrists can lead the way one bite at a time. The time for a healthy approach to food is now. PMID:27068557

  1. INFORMATION ON FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS INCLUDED IN ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gust

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims at emphasizing several aspects of the recognition, measurement and presentation of information on capital assets and how they are reflected in accounting. In this respect, here is a presentation of the calculation, preparation and regulation of impairment that can affect capital assets and the way accounting entries may influence the financial status and performance of a company. Although the bookkeeping variants of asset impairment, namely the Romanian and the international ones, are different, the information reported in annual financial statements is the same and assets are shown at their fair values. The issues approached in the paper herein are vast and they open new prospects to scientific research.

  2. XFEL OSCILLATOR SIMULATION INCLUDING ANGLE-DEPENDENT CRYSTAL REFLECTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oscillator package within the GINGER FEL simulation code has now been extended to include angle-dependent reflectivity properties of Bragg crystals. Previously, the package was modified to include frequencydependent reflectivity in order to model x-ray FEL oscillators from start-up from shot noise through to saturation. We present a summary of the algorithms used for modeling the crystal reflectivity and radiation propagation outside the undulator, discussing various numerical issues relevant to the domain of high Fresnel number and efficient Hankel transforms. We give some sample XFEL-O simulation results obtained with the angle-dependent reflectivity model, with particular attention directed to the longitudinal and transverse coherence of the radiation output.

  3. Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Dankel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.

  4. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A room temperature liquid Ga–In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. ► Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. ► A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by ∼20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium–indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  5. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  6. The bispectrum of cosmic string temperature fluctuations including recombination effects

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, Donough

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum from cosmic strings, for the first time including the contributions from the last scattering surface, using a well-established Gaussian model for the string energy-momentum correlation functions, and a simplified model for the cosmic fluid. We check our approximation for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution against the bispectrum obtained from the full sky map of the cosmic string ISW signal used by the Planck team, obtaining good agreement. We validate our model for the last scattering surface contribution by comparing the predicted temperature power spectrum with that obtained from a full Boltzmann code treatment applied to the Unconnected Segment Model of a string network. We find that including the last scattering contribution has only a small impact on the upper limit on the string tension resulting from the bispectrum at Planck resolutions, and argue that the bispectrum is unlikely to be competitive with the power spectrum at a...

  7. Topology of dynamical lattice configurations including results from overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Gruber, Florian; Lippert, Thomas; Schäfer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the topological charge density in lattice QCD simulations is affected by violations of chiral symmetry caused by the fermion action. To this end we compare lattice configurations generated with a number of different actions including first configurations generated with exact overlap quarks. We visualize the topological profiles after mild smearing. In the topological charge correlator we measure the size of the positive core, which is known to vanish in the continuum limit. To leading order we find the core size to scale linearly with the lattice spacing with the same coefficient for all actions, even including quenched simulations. In the subleading term the different actions vary over a range of about 10%. Our findings suggest that non-chiral lattice actions at current lattice spacings do not differ much for observables related to topology, both among themselves and compared to overlap fermions.

  8. Management of radioactive waste from reprocessing including disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on a hypothetical scenario including a reactor park of 20 GWe consisting of Pressurised-Water-Reactors with a resulting annual production of 600 tonnes of heavy metal of spent fuel, all aspects of management of resulting wastes are studied. Waste streams from reprocessing include gaseous and liquid effluents, and a number of solid conditioned waste types. Disposal of waste is supposed to be performed either in a near-surface engineered repository, as long as the content of alpha-emitting radionuclides is low enough, and in a deep geological granite formation. After having estimated quantities, cost and radiological consequences, the sensitivity of results to modification in reactor park size, burn-up and the introduction of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) is evaluated

  9. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Devices and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors provides material for a comprehensive upper-level-undergrauate and graduate course on the subject, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. For the interested reader some additional advanced topics are included, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors are included. Also supplied are explicit formulas for many results, to support better understanding. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from ...

  10. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  11. Optimization of pipe networks including pumps by simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Costa A.L.H.; Medeiros J.L.; Pessoa F.L.P.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present an application of the simulated annealing method for the optimal design of pipe networks including pumps. Although its importance, the optimization of pumped networks did not receive great attention in the literature. The proposed search scheme explores the discrete space of the decision variables: pipe diameters and pump sizes. The behavior of the pumps is describe through the characteristic curve, generating more realistic solutions. In order to demo...

  12. Mix design of bituminous materials including reclaimed asphalt pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Vincent; De La Roche, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Reclaimed asphalt, obtained by milling of asphalt road layers can be re-used at once or stored. In the case of storage, an heterogeneity issue may occur when several types of materials, with different origins are mixed. At the scale of a storage zone or a stock pile, composition and properties of the reclaimed asphalts will be different, including variations of the final material properties, constraints for the stock manager, and the necessary adaptation of the manufacturing process. The recl...

  13. DILIGENT - Preliminary training plan (includes training support environment) - M9

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Donatella; Manieri, Andrea; Stein, Adeheit; Niederee, Claudia; Schek, Hans-J?rg; Schuldt, Heiko

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the plans for the DILIGENT intra-project, inter-project and external training activities. It describes the initial strategic and operational plans for each of these types of training (D4.1.2). The report includes a textual description of the training support environment (D4.1.1). For the intra-project training which started at Month 6, it also reports some of the already completed activities.

  14. Include medical ethics in the Research Excellence Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, W.M.; Vernon, B.; Boyd, K; Gillon, R; Farsides, B; Stirrat, G

    2011-01-01

    The Research Excellence Framework of the Higher Education Funding Council for England is taking place in 2013, its three key elements being outputs (65% of the profile), impact (20%), and “quality of the research environment” (15%). Impact will be assessed using case studies that “may include any social, economic or cultural impact or benefit beyond academia that has taken place during the assessment period.”1 Medical ethics in the UK still does not have its own cognate ...

  15. Budgetary Effects of Including the CEC into Dynamic Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; Grethe, Harald

    2002-01-01

    The EU Commission suggests to exclude CEC from the dynamic modulation mechanism, being part of the MTR package. This article looks at the distributional aspects of including the CEC into dynamic modulation. Under the current accession proposal the CEC would account for only 18% of the rural development budget by 2006. If modulation would be realised with the CEC being excluded this share would drop to 14% by 2010. According to the criteria proposed by the Commission for the distribution of th...

  16. Should LSP Dictionaries. also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemarie Gläser

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The paper discusses the question whether an LSP dictionary should take the sociolinguistic stratification of the entire speech community in a particular domain of activity into consideration, and as a consequence, also encompass vocabulary on the lower stylistic levels, such as professional jargon and occupational slang in addition to technical terminology and nomenclature. The author's contention is that by including such vocabulary, an LSP dictionary will be more comprehe...

  17. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  18. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep disturbance, limited performance of cognitive tasks or inadequate cognitive development. Noise can also interfere with intended activities, both in daytime and nighttime. ISO 14'040 also indicated the ...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF INCLUDING BANKRUPTCY ON DYNAMIC INVESTMENT DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Frank S. Novak; Schnitkey, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    This article evaluates the effects of including the costs of bankruptcy in a dynamic model of off-farm investment decisions using a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model which incorporates the stochastic dynamic nature of investment returns and the interrelationships between financial structure and investment decisions. Our results suggest that in the presence of bankruptcy, optimal investment decisions are affected by financial structure and financial market conditions. Ignoring bankrup...

  20. Search for BSM physics including dark matter at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Xiangyang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The increased centre-of-mass energy of the proton-proton collisions of the LHC run 2 gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of particles not foreseen by the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on BSM searches. Although the focus is on searches for production of DM particles, results include searches for heavy resonances in many final states and for production of supersymmetric particles.

  1. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    CERN Document Server

    Spitoni, E

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies, and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if co...

  2. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  3. Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, George S.; Pierce, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

  4. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  5. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  6. 77 FR 9969 - Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol Harris Stafffing Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... on December 29, 2011(76 FR 81988). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol... leased workers from Carol Harris Staffing, Coshocton, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities...

  7. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  8. Cognitive approaches to emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. PMID:24389368

  9. An Approach to Cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Emily C; Rieder, Evan A

    2016-04-01

    The cosmeceutical industry is a multi-billion dollar, consumer-driven market. Products promise highly desirable anti-aging benefits, but are not subject to regulation. We present an introduction to cosmeceuticals for the general and cosmetic dermatologist, including definitions and explanations of key terms, an approach to the evidence base, a dissection of chamomile and green tea, two paradigmatic cosmeceutical products, and a window into the underlying psychology of this vast marketplace. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(4):452-456. PMID:27050700

  10. What is a Systems Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Alex J.

    2008-01-01

    What is a systems approach? The first step towards answering this question is an understanding of the history of the systems movement, which includes a survey of contemporary systems discourse. In particular, I examine how systems researchers differentiated their contribution from mechanistic science - but also from holistic doctrines; and identify the similarities and sharpest differences between complex systems and other systems approaches. Having set the scene, the second step involves dev...

  11. Surgical approaches to the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Emilie V; Steinmann, Scott P

    2009-05-01

    Surgical exposures for complex injuries about the elbow are technically demanding because of the high density of neurologic, vascular, and ligamentous elements around the elbow. The posterior approaches (ie, olecranon osteotomy, triceps-reflecting, triceps-splitting, triceps-reflecting anconeus pedicle flap, paratricipital) include techniques used to navigate the area around the triceps tendon and anconeus muscle. These approaches may be extended to gain access to the entire joint. The ulnar nerve, the anterior and posterior capsules, and the coronoid process are addressed by means of a medial approach. Lateral approaches are useful in addressing pathology at the radial head, capitellum, coronoid process, and anterior and posterior capsules. These approaches may be combined to address complex pathology in the setting of fracture fixation, arthroplasty, and capsular release. PMID:19411644

  12. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  13. Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C

    2013-01-01

    Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders typically occur in previously healthy children. Immune-mediated movement disorders may occur as a postinfectious, paraneoplastic, or idiopathic process. Sydenham chorea (SC) is the classical poststreptococcal movement and psychiatric disorder, and may be associated with other features of rheumatic fever. The outcome is typically good, although residual chorea, psychiatric disturbance, and relapses are possible. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a syndrome of streptococcal-induced tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although a number of investigators have reported an association between streptococcal infection and neuropsychiatric syndromes, the PANDAS hypothesis is controversial. Encephalitis lethargica is an encephalitic illness with parkinsonism, dyskinesias, and psychiatric disturbance as dominant features. The exact disease mechanism is not understood, although an autoimmune process is suspected. NMDA-R encephalitis is a new entity characterized by encephalitis with dramatic psychiatric disturbance, dyskinesias, cognitive alteration, and seizures. Patients have autoantibodies against the NMDA-R that appear to be pathogenic: immune therapies appear warranted to minimize disability. Movement disorders are also described associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. The differential diagnosis and investigation approach of acute-onset movement disorders are also discussed. PMID:23622334

  14. Nuclear data evaluation methodology including estimates of covariances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith D.L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated nuclear data rather than raw experimental and theoretical information are employed in nuclear applications such as the design of nuclear energy systems. Therefore, the process by which such information is produced and ultimately used is of critical interest to the nuclear science community. This paper provides an overview of various contemporary methods employed to generate evaluated cross sections and related physical quantities such as particle emission angular distributions and energy spectra. The emphasis here is on data associated with neutron induced reaction processes, with consideration of the uncertainties in these data, and on the more recent evaluation methods, e.g., those that are based on stochastic (Monte Carlo techniques. There is no unique way to perform such evaluations, nor are nuclear data evaluators united in their opinions as to which methods are superior to the others in various circumstances. In some cases it is not critical which approaches are used as long as there is consistency and proper use is made of the available physical information. However, in other instances there are definite advantages to using particular methods as opposed to other options. Some of these distinctions are discussed in this paper and suggestions are offered regarding fruitful areas for future research in the development of evaluation methodology.

  15. A home health monitoring system including intelligent reporting and alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsden, H; Basilakis, J; Celler, B G; Huynh, K; Lovell, N H

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an intelligent reporting and alerts system that has been designed with a specific goal to address the needs of managing chronic and complex disease through the use of home telecare technology. Our approach has been to develop these tools using as far as possible, open standards. Clinical measurement data gathered using home telecare and stored in a relational database in XML format is extracted and converted into a Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) as defined by the Health Level 7 (HL7) organization. Data trends are presented to the clinician as simple graphs and summary statistics (means, standard deviations) over time for an individual patient. Clinicians may receive this data by display through a Web-interface or by email or faxed reports. A Ripple Down Rules (RDR) knowledge base supports more complex decision-making provided in the Alerts module. The RDR output is incorporated into the output reports as a textual statement, and/or a graphical highlighting of key parameters in the trends images and tables. Rule development and validation is part of ongoing research. PMID:17270948

  16. Plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    > Plasma stabilization due to a nearby conducting wall can provide access to better performance in some scenarios in tokamaks. This was proved by experiments with an essential gain in and demonstrated as a long-lasting effect at sufficiently fast plasma rotation in the DIII-D tokamak (see, for example, Strait et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 430-440). The rotational stabilization is the central topic of this review, though eventually the mode rotation gains significance. The analysis is based on the first-principle equations describing the energy balance with dissipation in the resistive wall. The method emphasizes derivation of the dispersion relations for the modes which are faster than the conventional resistive wall modes, but slower than the ideal magnetohydrodynamics modes. Both the standard thin wall and ideal-wall approximations are not valid in this range. Here, these are replaced by an approach incorporating the skin effect in the wall. This new element in the stability theory makes the energy sink a nonlinear function of the complex growth rate. An important consequence is that a mode rotating above a critical level can provide a damping effect sufficient for instability suppression. Estimates are given and applications are discussed.

  17. Amending Miller's Pyramid to Include Professional Identity Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    In 1990, George Miller published an article entitled "The Assessment of Clinical Skills/Competence/Performance" that had an immediate and lasting impact on medical education. In his classic article, he stated that no single method of assessment could encompass the intricacies and complexities of medical practice. To provide a structured approach to the assessment of medical competence, he proposed a pyramidal structure with four levels, each of which required specific methods of assessment. As is well known, the layers are "Knows," "Knows How," "Shows How," and "Does." Miller's pyramid has guided assessment since its introduction; it has also been used to assist in the assessment of professionalism.The recent emphasis on professional identity formation has raised questions about the appropriateness of "Does" as the highest level of aspiration. It is believed that a more reliable indicator of professional behavior is the incorporation of the values and attitudes of the professional into the identity of the aspiring physician. It is therefore proposed that a fifth level be added at the apex of the pyramid. This level, reflecting the presence of a professional identity, should be "Is," and methods of assessing progress toward a professional identity and the nature of the identity in formation should be guided by currently available methods. PMID:26332429

  18. Developing HYDMN code to include the transient of MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the programs added to HYDMN code (a code for thermal-hydraulic steady state of MNSR) to include the transient of the same MNSR is presented. The code asks the initial conditions for the power (in k W) and the cold initial core inlet temperature (in degrees centigrade). A time-dependent study of the coolant inlet and outlet temperature, its speed, pool and tank temperatures is done for MNSR in general and for the Syrian MNSR in particular. The study solves the differential equations taken from reference (1) by using some numerical methods found in reference (3). The code becomes this way independent of any external information source. (Author)

  19. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Lingam, M

    2014-01-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  20. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.

  1. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  2. Collective Atomic Recoil Lasing Including Friction and Diffusion Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Robb, G R M; Ferraro, A; Bonifacio, R; Courteille, P W; Zimmermann, C; Courteille, Ph.W.

    2003-01-01

    We extend the Collective Atomic Recoil Lasing (CARL) model including the effects of friction and diffusion forces acting on the atoms due to the presence of optical molasses fields. The results from this model are consistent with those from a recent experiment by Kruse et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183601 (2003)]. In particular, we obtain a threshold condition above which collective backscattering occurs. Using a nonlinear analysis we show that the backscattered field and the bunching evolve to a steady-state, in contrast to the non-stationary behaviour of the standard CARL model. For a proper choice of the parameters, this steady-state can be superfluorescent.

  3. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  4. Quasilocal density functional theory for nuclei including pairing correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose first a generalization of the Density Functional Theory leading to single-particle equations of motion with a quasilocal mean-field operator containing a position-dependent effective mass and a spin-orbit potential. Ground-state properties of doubly magic nuclei are obtained within this framework using the Gogny D1S force and compared with the exact Hartree-Fock values. Next, extend the Density Functional Theory to include pairing correlations without formal violation of the particle-number condition. This theory, which is nonlocal, is simplified by a suitable quasilocal reduction. Some calculations to show the ability of this theory are presented. (author)

  5. Constraints on Dark Energy Models Including Gamma Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; SU, MENG; Fan, Zuhui; Dai, Zigao; Zhang, Xinmin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the constraints on the property of dark energy from cosmological observations. Together with SNe Ia Gold sample, WMAP, SDSS and 2dFGRS data, we include 69 long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) data in our study and perform global fitting using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. Dark energy perturbations are explicitly considered. We pay particular attention to the time evolution of the equation of state of dark energy parameterized as $w_{DE}=w_0+w_a(1-a)$ with $a$ the...

  6. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to...... integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  7. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  8. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  9. Visió general de la discussió sobre les àrees d’exclusió del projecte INCLUD-ED General overview of the discussion on exclusion areas in the INCLUD-ED project Visión general de la discusión sobre las áreas de exclusión del proyecto INCLUD-ED

    OpenAIRE

    Carme García; Itxaso Tellado; Tiziana Chiappelli

    2010-01-01

    En aquest article es discuteixen les aportacions que es fan des del projecte INCLUD-ED: Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe sobre la relació que es pot establir entre l’exclusió/inclusió educativa i l’exclusió/inclusió en quatre àrees de la societat: ocupació, habitatge, salut i participació social i política. En particular, es reflexiona sobre els efectes que té tant l’exclusió, com formes de superar-la i promoure la inclusió, en les situacions que han d’afr...

  10. Thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl including new additional results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have been studying the etiology of thyroid cancer development among the exposed people in Hiroshima. In 1993, we have proposed the hypothesis of oncology model of thyroid cancer development in children following the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl, and then related studies has been done in Chernobyl and also in Hiroshima. Following findings are included. Urinary iodine level was lower in Chernobyl than in Hiroshima. Stimulation of ret oncogene in thyroid cancer tissues, and appearance of nuclear abnormalities of thyroid follicular cells were found higher rate among the exposed people. Sensitivity of TSH-receptor in thyroid tissues (TSH-R mRNA expression) was higher while young. Synergistic effect of TSH-R mRNA and ER mRNA expressions were found in both of normal tissues and cancer tissues in thyroid, but it was more apparent in cancer tissues. These findings gave the additional proofs on the hypothesis of thyroid cancer development in Chernobyl. Including these results, we like to present the importance of thyroid for the health of the exposed people in Chernobyl

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL’s clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients’ group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  12. Chemical Compatibility Testing Final Report Including Test Plans and Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an independent assessment of information on mixed waste streams, chemical compatibility information on polymers, and standard test methods for polymer properties. It includes a technology review of mixed low-level waste (LLW) streams and material compatibilities, validation for the plan to test the compatibility of simulated mixed wastes with potential seal and liner materials, and the test plan itself. Potential packaging materials were reviewed and evaluated for compatibility with expected hazardous wastes. The chemical and physical property measurements required for testing container materials were determined. Test methodologies for evaluating compatibility were collected and reviewed for applicability. A test plan to meet US Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency requirements was developed. The expected wastes were compared with the chemical resistances of polymers, the top-ranking polymers were selected for testing, and the most applicable test methods for candidate seal and liner materials were determined. Five recommended solutions to simulate mixed LLW streams are described. The test plan includes descriptions of test materials, test procedures, data collection protocols, safety and environmental considerations, and quality assurance procedures. The recommended order of testing to be conducted is specified

  13. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  14. Control rod calibration including the rod coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a reactor containing more than one control rod, which includes all reactors licensed in the United States, there will be a 'coupling' or 'shadowing' of control rod flux at the location of a control rod as a result of the flux depression caused by another control rod. It was decided to investigate this phenomenon further, and eventually to put calibration table data or formulae in a small computer in the control room, so once could insert the positions of the three control rods and receive the excess reactivity without referring to separate tables. For this to be accomplished, a 'three control- rod reactivity function' would be used which would include the flux coupling between the rods. The function is design and measured data was fitted into it to determine the calibration constants. The input data for fitting the trial functions consisted of 254 data points, each consisting of the position of the reg, shim, and transient rods, and the total excess reactivity. (About 200 of these points were 'critical balance points', that is the rod positions for which reactor was critical, and the remainder were determined by positive period measurements.) Although this may be unrealistic from a physical viewpoint, the function derived gave a very accurate recalculation of the input data, and thus would faithfully give the excess reactivity for any possible combination of the locations of the three control rods. The next step, incorporation of the three-rod function into the minicomputer, will be pursued in the summer and fall of 1984

  15. Evaluation of FEMA-440 for including soil-structure interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khoshnoudian F.; Behmanesh I.

    2010-01-01

    Replacing the entire soil-structure system with a fixed base oscillator to consider the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a common analysis method in seismic design. This technique has been included in design procedures such as NEHRP, ASCE, etc. By defining an equivalent fundamental period and damping ratio that can modify the response of the structure. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of SSI should be reconsidered when a structure undergoes a nonlinear displacement demand. In recent documents on Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs), FEMA-440 (2005), a modified damping ratio of the replacement oscillator was proposed by introducing the ductility of the soil-structure system obtained from pushover analysis. In this paper, the damping defined in FEMA-440 to include the soil-structure interaction effect is evaluated, and the accuracy of the Coefficiem Method given in FEMA-440 and the Equivalent Linearization Method is studied. Although the improvements for Nonlinear Static Procedures (NSPs) in FEMA-440 are achieved for a fixed base SDOF structure, the soil effects are not perfectly obtained. Furthermore, the damping definition of a soil-structure system is extended to structures to consider bilinear behavior.

  16. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a clinical review including Korean cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Woo; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-05-01

    Only 5th decade ago, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was only recognized as disease group of presenting features like peripheral lymphocytosis, organomegaly including of splenomegaly. As understanding of disease biology and molecular diagnostic tools are getting improved gradually, characterization of variation in CLL's clinical courses was facilitated, resulting in better risk stratification and targeted treatments. Consequently multiple new targeted agents have been used in treatment of CLL, it makes improved clinical outcome. Rituximab containing chemoimmunotherapy (combination of rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide) have shown better overall response rate and progression-free survival on fit patients' group in front-line setting, result in standard first-line therapeutic option for CLL. Furthermore, after introducing that the B-cell receptor is crucial for the evolution and progression of CLL, emerging treatments targeting highly activated surface antigens and oncogenic signaling pathways have been associated with several successes in recent decades. These include new anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody (obinutuzumab), the bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor (idelalisib), and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 inhibitor (ABT-199 and ABT-263). So, we discuss not only general pathophysiology of CLL, but also rapidly advancing treatment strategies that are being studied or approved for treatment of CLL. PMID:27044858

  18. Kabuki syndrome: expanding the phenotype to include microphthalmia and anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Terri P; Banka, Siddharth; Reardon, William

    2015-10-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a rare genetic malformation syndrome that is characterized by distinct facies, structural defects and intellectual disability. Kabuki syndrome may be caused by mutations in one of two histone methyltransferase genes: KMT2D and KDM6A. We describe a male child of nonconsanguineous Irish parents presenting with multiple malformations, including bilateral extreme microphthalmia; cleft palate; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; duplex kidney; as well as facial features of Kabuki syndrome, including interrupted eyebrows and lower lid ectropion. A de-novo germline mutation in KMT2D was identified. Whole-exome sequencing failed to reveal mutations in any of the known microphthalmia/anopthalmia genes. We also identified four other patients with Kabuki syndrome and microphthalmia. We postulate that Kabuki syndrome may produce this type of ocular phenotype as a result of extensive interaction between KMT2D, WAR complex proteins and PAXIP1. Children presenting with microphthalmia/anophthalmia should be examined closely for other signs of Kabuki syndrome, especially at an age where the facial gestalt might be less readily appreciable. PMID:26049589

  19. Options for including all lands in a future greenhouse gas accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current framework through which greenhouse gas emissions and removals in the land use sector are accounted under the Kyoto Protocol has several problems. They include a complex structure, onerous monitoring and reporting requirements, and potential for omission of some important fluxes. One solution that may overcome some of these problems is to include all lands and associated processes within a country's jurisdiction, rather than restrict accounting to specific nominated land categories or activities. Ideally, the accounting approach should cover all significant biospheric sources and sinks, avoid biased or unbalanced accounting, avoid leakage and require no arbitrary adjustments to remedy unintended consequences. Furthermore, accounting should focus on the direct human-induced component of biospheric emissions/removals so that debits/credits can be allocated equitably and provide appropriate incentives to adopt land-use management options with beneficial outcomes for the atmosphere. This paper focuses on biospheric emissions and removals resulting from carbon stock changes. It considers four alternative accounting options that include all land areas: Gross-Net Accounting, Net-Net Accounting, Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines and the Average Carbon Stocks approach. Each option is described, and assessed with respect to defined criteria for effectiveness. Gross-Net Accounting and Net-Net Accounting do not adequately distinguish the anthropogenic component of carbon-stock changes from indirect and natural effects, so large undeserved credits or debits could be created. Under Net Accounting with Negotiated Baselines, countries' projected emissions and removals during the commitment period would be taken into account in the negotiation of emissions targets. In the commitment period, countries would then gain credits/debits for biospheric removals/emissions. Difficulties with this approach would lie in reaching agreed baselines for emissions and removals

  20. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  1. Including high-frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Y.; Frieder, C. A.; Martz, T. R.; Ballard, J. R.; Feely, R. A.; Kram, S.; Nam, S.; Navarro, M. O.; Price, N. N.; Smith, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal-resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e.g., tidal) to months (e.g., seasonal), bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age; therefore a density-age relationship was derived for the study region and then combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from autonomous pH sensors deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100 m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO2 increase in the future, with the greatest increase in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

  2. A Model for One-Dimensional Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Short-Range Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ryne, Robert D; Qiang, Ji; Yampolsky, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    A new model is presented for simulating coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in one dimension. The method is based on convolving an integrated Green function (IGF) with the longitudinal charge density. Since it is based on an IGF, the accuracy of this approach is determined by how well one resolves the charge density and not by resolving the single particle wake function. Since short-range wakefield effects are included analytically, the approach can be much more efficient than ordinary (non-IGF) approaches in situations where the wake function and charge density have disparate spatial scales. Two cases are presented: one derived from the full wake including short-range effects, and one derived from the asymptotic wake. In the latter case the algorithm contains the same physics as others based on the asymptotic approximation, but requires only the line charge density and not its derivative. Examples are presented that illustrate the limitations of the asymptotic-wake approximation, and that illustrate how mic...

  3. Visió general de la discussió sobre les àrees d’exclusió del projecte INCLUD-ED General overview of the discussion on exclusion areas in the INCLUD-ED project Visión general de la discusión sobre las áreas de exclusión del proyecto INCLUD-ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme García

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En aquest article es discuteixen les aportacions que es fan des del projecte INCLUD-ED: Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe sobre la relació que es pot establir entre l’exclusió/inclusió educativa i l’exclusió/inclusió en quatre àrees de la societat: ocupació, habitatge, salut i participació social i política. En particular, es reflexiona sobre els efectes que té tant l’exclusió, com formes de superar-la i promoure la inclusió, en les situacions que han d’afrontar les persones que pertanyen a algun dels cinc grups vulnerables que es defineixen en el projecte INCLUD-ED. Es presenta una visió general de l’estat de la qüestió sobre les investigacions i anàlisis de les àrees d’exclusió. Conclou amb unes breus reflexions sobre com superar les situacions d’exclusió i quines alternatives d’actuació s’obren des de l’àmbit educatiu. ____________________________________________ Dans cet article, nous discutons les contributions que fait le projet INCLUD-ED sur la relation que l’on peut établir entre l’exclusion/inclusion éducative et l’exclusion/inclusion dans quatre domaines de la société : emploi, logement, santé et participation sociale et politique. En particulier, nous réfléchissons sur les effets de l’exclusion ainsi que sur les manières de la dépasser et de promouvoir l’inclusion dans les situations que doivent affronter les individus appartenant à l’un des cinq groupes vulnérables qui sont définis dans le projet INCLUD-ED. Nous présentons une vision générale de l’état de la question sur les recherches et les analyses des domaines d’exclusion. L'article conclut avec de brèves réflexions sur la manière de dépasser les situations d’exclusion et sur les alternatives d’intervention qui s’ouvrent dans le domaine éducatif.In this paper, we discuss the contributions of the INCLUD-ED project to the relationship that can be established

  4. Modeling potentiometric measurements in topological insulators including parallel channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Diep, Vinh; Datta, Supriyo; Chen, Yong P.

    2012-08-01

    The discovery of spin-polarized states at the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators (TI) like Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 motivates intense interests in possible electrical measurements demonstrating unique signatures of these unusual states. Here we show that a three-terminal potentiometric set-up can be used to probe them by measuring the voltage change of a detecting magnet upon reversing its magnetization. We present numerical results using a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF)-based model to show the corresponding signal quantitatively in various transport regimes. We then provide an analytical expression for the resistance (the measured voltage difference divided by an applied current) that agrees with NEGF results well in both ballistic and diffusive limits. This expression is applicable to TI surface states, two-dimensional electrons with Rashba spin-split bands, and any combination of multiple channels, including bulk parallel states in TI, which makes it useful in analyzing experimental results.

  5. Extensions of MAD Version 8 to Include Beam Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors describe modifications to MAD version 8.23 to include linear accelerator cavities and beam acceleration. An additional energy variable has been added which is modified as the beam passes through LCAV elements (linear accelerator cavities) and can be used as a constraint in matching commands. The calculation of the beta functions and phase advance is consistent with that in other codes that treat acceleration such as TRANSPORT or DIMAD. These modifications allow this version of MAD to be used for the design and modeling of linacs and the authors present examples from the Next Linear Collider design as well as a muon acceleration complex. The code is available from CERN or SLAC

  6. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  7. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...... for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and...... potential are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration...

  8. Numerical modelling of coal spontaneous combustion with moisture included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisoy, A. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Faculty

    2005-07-01

    A mathematical model for spontaneous combustion of coal with moisture included is presented. The one-dimensional unsteady state model consists of conservation equations for oxygen, water vapour and inherent moisture of coal and energy for both gaseous and solid phases. A first order Arrhenius reaction rate for oxidation under both pore diffusion and chemically controlled reaction regime is considered. The rate of evaporation or condensation is also considered as a function of temperature of coal, water content of coal and gas streams. The equation of the model is solved numerically by the finite difference technique. Influences of different parameters on the process of spontaneous combustion can be examined by using this model. Also the model can be used to simulate full-scale storage conditions. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. OPAL Central Detector (Including vertex, jet and Z chambers)

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the different parts of the tracking system. (This piece includes the vertex, jet and Z chambers) In the picture above, the central detector is the piece being removed to the right.

  10. Modeling of Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depend on the bulk solution composition and concentration

  11. PASCAL for engineers: A course including OMEGASOFT PASCAL for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are the notes of a PASCAL course for controls engineers at CERN. The course starts with 'Standard Pascal' and includes OMEGASOFT Pascal, a powerful extension of Pascal towards real-time and systems applications. It demonstrates how a language such as Pascal, with adequate extensions for systems programming and embedded microprocessor-driven systems, can substantially increase the productivity of programmers and the reliability of their products. Also enhanced will be the legibility of the programs and their maintainability, since programming in Pascal automatically leads to autodocumentation. Simple examples show how OMEGASOFT-PASCAL can be used for efficient programming of embedded systems for real-time data acquisition and control using the MC6809 microprocessor. (orig.)

  12. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  13. Configuration based Collisional-Radiative Model including configuration interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel

    2007-11-01

    Atomic levels mixing through Configuration Interaction (CI) yields important effects. It transfers oscillator strengthes from allowed lines to forbidden lines, and produces strong shift and broadening of line arrays, although the total emissivity is almost insensitive to CI, being proportional to the average wave number. However for hi Z material, like Xe or Sn (potential xuv-ray source for micro-lithography), a non-LTE calculation accounting for all relevant levels wiill be untractable with billions of states. The model we constructed, CAVCRM (caf'e-crème), is a non-LTE C.R.M. where states are configurations but it includes C.I. to give full richness of spectral quantities, using the latest version of the HULLAC-v9 suite of codes and our newly developped algorithm for large set of states with as many as 50,000 states [1]. [1] M.Klapisch et al, this conference

  14. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  15. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  16. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  17. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  18. Time-dependent accident sequences including human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During an accident, transitions between plant states can occur due to operator intervention and the failure of systems while running. The latter cause of transition is much less likely than the first, which includes errors of commission and omission as well as recovery of lost functions. A methodology has been developed to model these transitions in the time domain. As an example, it is applied to the analysis of Three-Mile-Island-type accidents. Statistical evidence is collected and used in assessing the frequency of stuck-open power-operated relief valves at Babcock and Wilcox plants as well as the frequency of misdiagnosis. Statistical data are also used in modeling the timing of operator actions during the accident, i.e., turning off and on the high-pressure injection system and closing the block valves

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  20. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  1. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  2. Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic, analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature. All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation. It is unique, and it is unavoid...

  3. Recent progress and advances in iterative software (including parallel aspects)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, G.; Young, D.M.; Kincaid, D. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the workshop is to provide a forum for discussion of the current state of iterative software packages. Of particular interest is software for large scale engineering and scientific applications, especially for distributed parallel systems. However, the authors will also review the state of software development for conventional architectures. This workshop will complement the other proposed workshops on iterative BLAS kernels and applications. The format for the workshop is as follows: To provide some structure, there will be brief presentations, each of less than five minutes duration and dealing with specific facets of the subject. These will be designed to focus the discussion and to stimulate an exchange with the participants. Issues to be covered include: The evolution of iterative packages, current state of the art, the parallel computing challenge, applications viewpoint, standards, and future directions and open problems.

  4. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  5. The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics

  6. CHIONANTHUS (OLEACEAE IN SULAWESI, INDONESIA, INCLUDING THREE NEW SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH KIEW

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KIEW, R. 2015. Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi, Indonesia, including three new species. Reinwardtia 14(2: 287 ‒295. ― The genus Chionanthus (Oleaceae in Sulawesi is revised. Nine species are described of which C. kostermansiiKiew, C. sordidus Kiew and C. sulawesicus Kiew are new species. Four species are endemic, C. celebicus Koord., C.sordidus, C. stenurus (Merr. Kiew and C. sulawesicus. The geographic range of C. cordulatus Koord. extends to Borneoand Mollucas, while C. kostermansii also occurs in Sumbawa and Flores, and the range of C. rupicolus (Lingelsh.Kiew extends to Sumbawa, Mollucas, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.Kiew and C. ramiflorus Roxb. are both widespread species, the former from Sumatra to New Guinea and the latter fromcontinental Asia to the Solomon Islands. A key to identify the species is provided. Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord.remains incompletely known.

  7. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  8. Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Quartin, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.

  9. Goldilocks Models of Higher-Dimensional Inflation (including modulus stabilization)

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mechanics of inflation in simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like in that they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size, yet simple enough to solve the full 6D field equations using basic tools. The solutions are not limited to the effective 4D regime with H m_KK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict eta ~ 0 hence n_s ~ 0.96 and r ~ 0.096 and so are ruled out if tensor modes remain unseen. Analysis of general parameters is difficult without a full 6D fluctuation calculation.

  10. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  11. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  12. SIMS analysis of insulating multilayer including silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a new sample preparation method for thick insulating samples in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. In power semiconductor devices, impurity analyses in passivation layers and sealing resins are very important. SIMS analyses are suitable for this purpose, but in SIMS analysis of insulating samples, charging up would be a serious problem. Previous methods are not efficient enough to avoid the charging up of thick insulating sample, such as passivation layers. In this new technique of sample preparation, we made trenches by a FIB Ga beam, and filled them up with Pt. Including these Pt lines into the raster area, the charge of the sample can flow away through these lines during SIMS analysis. We applied this method to SiN/Si samples and confirmed that embedded Pt lines were effective for preventing the charging up

  13. Leach method including means to protect ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for recovering uranium and/or related values which include means for protecting ion-exchange resins in the recovery operation from oxidative degradation due to contact with hydrogen peroxide. A guard chamber is positioned in the elution circuit so that barren eluant, after it is stripped of its uranium and/or related values by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, will flow through the chamber. The guard chamber contains catalytic material, e.g. activated carbon, which decomposes hydrogen peroxide upon contact into water and oxygen. The barren eluant, after it passes through the catalytic material, is used to make up fresh eluant for reuse in the recovery method without the risk of the fresh eluant causing oxidative degradation of the resins

  14. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  15. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  16. Epithelioid Schwannomas: An Analysis of 58 Cases Including Atypical Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jesse; Gardner, Jerad M; Edgar, Mark; Weiss, Sharon W

    2016-05-01

    The histologic features and outcome of 58 cases of epithelioid schwannoma were studied to determine the significance of atypical histologic features. Cases were retrieved from personal consultation files from 1999 to 2013. Patients (31 male and 26 female patients) ranged in age from 14 to 80 years (median, 38 y). Two patients had schwannomatosis 1. Tumors developed in the dermis/subcutis (n=56) or muscle (n=2) of the upper extremity (34.5%), lower extremity (34.5%), thorax/abdomen/back (18%), and less common anatomic locations including the scalp, neck, lip, and breast. They ranged in size from 0.25 to 4.5 cm (median, 2.0 cm). Typically circumscribed and surrounded by a perineurium, they comprised single or small groups of epithelioid schwann cells with a moderate amphophilic cytoplasm and occasional nuclear pseudoinclusions. Stroma varied from myxoid to hyalinized, often with thick-walled vessels (55 cases). Mitotic rate ranged from 0 to 9 mitoses/10 high-power field (HPF) (2.37 mm) in the most active areas (mean, 2 to 3 mitoses/10 HPFs). Thirteen cases (22%) were "atypical," defined by a high mitotic rate (≥3 mitoses per 10 HPFs) and nuclear size variation (≥3:1). All (56/56) expressed S100 protein; type IV collagen invested groups or individual cells (16/17). Melanoma markers were negative, except for melan A (1 case). Follow-up in 39 patients (median, 78 mo; range, 6 to 174 mo) indicated that 31 (79%) were alive without disease (including 9/13 atypical cases; median, 78 mo), 7 (18%) were alive with unknown status, and 1 patient had died of unrelated causes. One tumor recurred, but none metastasized. Epithelioid schwannomas, even those with atypical features, are benign and do not constitute a histologic continuum with epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which typically occur in deep soft tissues and have more anaplastic features. PMID:26752543

  17. Core training in surgery: what does it need to include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, John R

    2006-12-01

    Core training for surgeons in any surgical specialty should include education in the relevant basic science knowledge, training in fundamental diagnostic skills, the development of surgical technical skills and considerable experience in patient care. However, for a number of reasons it is no longer acceptable to guide such training based only on such broad goals, not the least of which is the advent of resident duty-hour limitations that make it unrealistic to expect residents to simply acquire, by random observation and participation, all of the important elements of their future practices. Rather, it is necessary to provide a curriculum of learning opportunities specifically structured to allow them to gain the requisite knowledge and skills. Thus, the curriculum for the core surgical training of future vascular surgeons should be based on a very specific learning objectives, stating what information is to be learned or what action is to be done, under what conditions they are to be performed, and what criteria will be used to ascertain the acquisition of the necessary knowledge or skill. Next, the best methods of instruction, including reading materials, lectures, and exposure to specific surgical procedures must be defined and the appropriate instructional materials identified, selecting the best of existing materials or, if necessary, creating them. Finally, the residents' acquisition of knowledge and skills must be assessed. Previously this occurred through a loose combination of performance evaluations from clinical rotations, faculty group discussions, and annual in-training exams culminated in the American Board of Surgery certification process. Now evaluation must relate to specific educational objectives. This is all a daunting task currently being undertaken by vascular surgery program directors, albeit with input from the Residency Review Committee and the Vascular Surgery Board of the American Board of Surgery. Eventually, overall surgical curriculum

  18. Solving the high energy evolution equation including running coupling corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the solution of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation with the recently calculated running coupling corrections [I. I. Balitsky, Phys. Rev. D 75, 014001 (2007). and Y. Kovchegov and H. Weigert, Nucl. Phys. A784, 188 (2007).]. Performing a numerical solution we confirm the earlier result of Albacete et al. [Phys. Rev. D 71, 014003 (2005).] (obtained by exploring several possible scales for the running coupling) that the high energy evolution with the running coupling leads to a universal scaling behavior for the dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude, which is independent of the initial conditions. It is important to stress that the running coupling corrections calculated recently significantly change the shape of the scaling function as compared to the fixed coupling case, in particular, leading to a considerable increase in the anomalous dimension and to a slow-down of the evolution with rapidity. We then concentrate on elucidating the differences between the two recent calculations of the running coupling corrections. We explain that the difference is due to an extra contribution to the evolution kernel, referred to as the subtraction term, which arises when running coupling corrections are included. These subtraction terms were neglected in both recent calculations. We evaluate numerically the subtraction terms for both calculations, and demonstrate that when the subtraction terms are added back to the evolution kernels obtained in the two works the resulting dipole amplitudes agree with each other. We then use the complete running coupling kernel including the subtraction term to find the numerical solution of the resulting full nonlinear evolution equation with the running coupling corrections. Again the scaling regime is recovered at very large rapidity with the scaling function unaltered by the subtraction term

  19. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  20. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  1. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  2. Dynamic 2D-barcodes for multi-device Web session migration including mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a novel Web architecture that supports session migration in multi-device Web applications, particularly the case when a user starts a Web session on a computer and wishes to continue on a mobile phone. The proposed solution for transferring the needed session identifiers...... across devices is to dynamically generate pictures of 2D-barcodes containing a Web address and a session ID in an encoded form. 2D-barcodes are a cheap, fast and robust approach to the problem. They are widely known and used in Japan, and are spreading in other countries. Variations on the topic are...... covered in the article, including a possible migration from a mobile device to a computer (opposite direction), and between two or more mobile phones (possibly back and forth). The results show that this HCI approach is inexpensive, efficient, and works with most camera-phones on the market; the author...

  3. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  4. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  5. Seabrook Station Level 2 PRA Update to Include Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ground-breaking study was recently completed as part of the Seabrook Level 2 PRA update. This study updates the post-core damage phenomena to be consistent with the most recent information and includes accident management activities that should be modeled in the Level 2 PRA. Overall, the result is a Level 2 PRA that fully meets the requirements of the ASME PRA Standard with respect to modeling accident management in the LERF assessment and NRC requirements in Regulatory Guide 1.174 for considering late containment failures. This technical paper deals only with the incorporation of operator actions into the Level 2 PRA based on a comprehensive study of the Seabrook Station accident response procedures and guidance. The paper describes the process used to identify the key operator actions that can influence the Level 2 PRA results and the development of success criteria for these key operator actions. This addresses a key requirement of the ASME PRA Standard for considering SAMG. An important benefit of this assessment was the identification of Seabrook specific accident management insights that can be fed back into the Seabrook Station accident management procedures and guidance or the training provided to plant personnel for these procedures and guidance. (authors)

  6. Developing standard transmission system for radiology reporting including key images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of hospital information system and Picture Archiving Communication System is not new in the medical field, and the development of internet and information technology are also universal. In the course of such development, however, it is hard to share medical information without a refined standard format. Especially in the department of radiology, the role of PACS has become very important in interchanging information with other disparate hospital information systems. A specific system needs to be developed that radiological reports are archived into a database efficiently. This includes sharing of medical images. A model is suggested in this study in which an internal system is developed where radiologists store necessary images and transmit them is the standard international clinical format, Clinical Document Architecture, and share the information with hospitals. CDA document generator was made to generate a new file format and separate the existing storage system from the new system. This was to ensure the access to required data in XML documents. The model presented in this study added a process where crucial images in reading are inserted in the CDA radiological report generator. Therefore, this study suggests a storage and transmission model for CDA documents, which is different from the existing DICOM SR. Radiological reports could be better shared, when the application function for inserting images and the analysis of standard clinical terms are completed

  7. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  8. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence. PMID:15072737

  9. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  10. A design of a computer complex including vector processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We, members of the Computing Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute have been engaged for these six years in the research of adaptability of vector processing to large-scale nuclear codes. The research has been done in collaboration with researchers and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer. In this research, forty large-scale nuclear codes were investigated from the viewpoint of vectorization. Among them, twenty-six codes were actually vectorized and executed. As the results of the investigation, it is now estimated that about seventy percents of nuclear codes and seventy percents of our total amount of CPU time of JAERI are highly vectorizable. Based on the data obtained by the investigation, (1)currently vectorizable CPU time, (2)necessary number of vector processors, (3)necessary manpower for vectorization of nuclear codes, (4)computing speed, memory size, number of parallel 1/0 paths, size and speed of 1/0 buffer of vector processor suitable for our applications, (5)necessary software and operational policy for use of vector processors are discussed, and finally (6)a computer complex including vector processors is presented in this report. (author)

  11. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  12. Including test errors in evaluating surveillance test intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the risk impact of surveillance requirements defined in Technical Specifications, both the beneficial and negative effects of surveillance should be considered. The negative effect of surveillance testing can be caused by test errors, e.g., human errors of omission or commission including potential for common cause failures. As a consequence of the negative effect, the performance of periodic testing can have adverse impact on safety. This paper defines the various negative effects of surveillance testing from a risk perspective, and then presents a methodology to quantify the negative risk impact, i.e., the risk penalty or risk increase caused by the test. The paper presents a PRA-based method to evaluate the negative risk impact due to test-caused plant transients and a method based on a test-caused equipment degradation model and PRA to assess the negative risk impact associated with equipment wear-out. Also described in the paper are illustrative applications of the methods to specific surveillance tests conducted at boiling water reactors (BWRs) such as the tests of main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), turbine overspeed protection system, and diesel generators. Evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the tests are presented along with the insights from the sensitivity analysis of the risk impact versus test interval

  13. Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt

    2015-11-01

    Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.

  14. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  15. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  16. Improving the Accuracy of Stamping Analyses Including Springback Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Karadeniz, Erdal; Yenice, Mustafa; Kaya, Mesut

    2013-02-01

    An accurate prediction of sheet metal deformation including springback is one of the main issues in an efficient finite element (FE) simulation in automotive and stamping industries. Considering tooling design for newer class of high-strength steels, in particular, this requirement became an important aspect for springback compensation practices today. The sheet deformation modeling accounting Bauschinger effect is considered to be a key factor affecting the accuracy of FE simulations in this context. In this article, a rate-independent cyclic plasticity model is presented and implemented into LS-Dyna software for an accurate modeling of sheet metal deformation in stamping simulations. The proposed model uses Hill's orthotropic yield surface in the description of yield loci of planar and transversely anisotropic sheets. The strain-hardening behavior is calculated based on an additive backstress form of the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule. The proposed model is applied in stamping simulations of a dual-phase steel automotive part, and comparisons are presented in terms of part strain and thickness distributions calculated with isotropic plasticity and the proposed model. It is observed that both models produce similar plastic strain and thickness distributions; however, there appeared to be considerable differences in computed springback deformations. Part shapes computed with both plasticity models were evaluated with surface scanning of manufactured parts. A comparison of FE computed geometries with manufactured parts proved the improved performance of proposed model over isotropic plasticity for this particular stamping application.

  17. Validation of CFD for containment jet flows including condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced validation of a CFD code for containment applications requires the investigation of water steam in the different flow types like jets or buoyant plumes. This paper addresses therefore the simulation of two 'HYJET' experiments from the former Battelle Model Containment by CFX. These experiments involve jet releases into the multi-compartment geometry of the test facility accompanied by condensation of steam at walls and in the bulk gas. In both experiments mixtures of helium and steam are injected. Helium is used to simulate hydrogen. One experiment represents a fast jet whereas in the second test a slow helium-steam release is investigated. CFX was earlier extended by bulk and wall condensation models and is able to model all relevant phenomena observed during the experiments. The paper focuses on the simulation of the two experiments employing an identical model set-up. This provides information on how well a wider range of flowing conditions in case of a full containment simulation can be covered. Some aspects related to numerical and modelling uncertainties of CFD calculations are included in the paper by investigating different turbulence models together with the modelling errors of the differencing schemes applied. (authors)

  18. Constraints on Dark Energy Models Including Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Fan, Z; Dai, Z; Zhang, X; Li, Hong; Su, Meng; Fan, Zuhui; Dai, Zigao; Zhang, Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the constraints on the property of dark energy from cosmological observations. We include 52 long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) data in our study. Together with SNe Ia Gold sample, WMAP, SDSS and 2dFGRS data, we perform global fitting using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. Dark energy perturbations are explicitly considered. We pay particular attention to the time evolution of the equation of state of dark energy parameterized as w_{DE}=w_o+w_a(1-a) with a the scale factor of the universe, emphasizing the complementarity of high redshift GRBs to other cosmological probes. It is found that the constraints on dark energy become stringent by taking into account high redshift GRBs, especially for w_a, which delineates the evolution of dark energy. The best fitting dark energy model has w_0=-1.09 and w_a=0.89. The cosmological constant with w_0=-1 and w_a=0 is well within 2\\sigma range.

  19. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  20. Teachers’ Perceptions of Including Children with Autism in a Preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nornadia Mohamad Razali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education supports the vision of the United Nations (UN in upholding the fundamental rights of children with special needs towards education. In Malaysia, the Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 recognized the rights of children and persons with disabilities in regards to education. However, the implementation of inclusive education for children with autism in Malaysia has been problematic, especially in preschool. Therefore, this study investigated teachers' perceptions of including children with autism in a mainstream preschool. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education 2 to identify the knowledge and skills of pre-school teachers regarding inclusive education 3 to identify the barriers and challenges in implementing inclusive education in pre-school 4 to investigate the reasons behind the non-acceptance of preschool teachers on having children with autism in their classes. Data were collected using a structured interview. Three pre-school teachers in Selangor agreed to participate in this study. The interviews were transcribed text verbatim and information was analyzed by identifying relevant themes. The findings showed that the teachers were not prepared to teach children with autism in their class because they did not know the characteristics of children with autism and did not understand the importance of inclusive education. In conclusion, the practice of inclusive education in pre-school is yet to be implemented successfully due to some constraints experienced by teachers and lack of support in the environment.

  1. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  2. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  3. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  4. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas [1]. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie [2], and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase), with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes

  5. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhart Charles G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. Methods We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas 1. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie 2, and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. Results A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase, with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. Conclusions This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes.

  6. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zhdanov@catalysis.r

    2011-03-15

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  7. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2011-03-01

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  8. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  9. Do pigeons prefer alternatives that include near-hit outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Case, Jacob P; Sticklen, Mary F; Duncan, Amanda K; Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-07-01

    Pigeons show suboptimal choice on a gambling-like task similar to that shown by humans. Humans also show a preference for gambles in which there are near hits (losses that come close to winning). In the present research, we asked if pigeons would show a preference for alternatives with near-hit-like trials. In Experiment 1, we included an alternative that presented a near hit, in which a stimulus associated with reinforcement (a presumed conditioned reinforcer) changed to a stimulus associated with the absence of reinforcement (a presumed conditioned inhibitor). The pigeons tended to avoid this alternative. In Experiment 2, we varied the duration of the presumed conditioned reinforcer (2 vs. 8 s) that changed to a presumed conditioned inhibitor (8 vs. 2 s) and found that the longer the conditioned reinforcer was presented, the more the pigeons avoided it. In Experiment 3, the near-hit alternative involved an ambiguous stimulus for 8 s that changed to a presumed conditioned reinforcer (or a presumed conditioned inhibitor) for 2 s, but the pigeons still avoided it. In Experiment 4, we controlled for the duration of the conditioned reinforcer by presenting it first for 2 s followed by the ambiguous stimulus for 8 s. Once again, the pigeons avoided the alternative with the near-hit trials. In all 4 experiments, the pigeons tended to avoid alternatives that provided near-hit-like trials. We concluded that humans may be attracted to near-hit trials because near-hit trials give them the illusion of control, whereas this does not appear to be a factor for pigeons. PMID:26167775

  10. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  11. Three-dimensional inversion of CSAMT data including topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Tan, H.; Tong, T.; Zeng, W.

    2013-12-01

    CSAMT is widely used in geothermal prospecting, mineral and petroleum exploration, environmental geophysics and geological engineering. However, few data are collected on the flat surface in the field CSAMT work. Most of CSAMT data are collected in the presence of strong topography either at the source position or in the survey area. Large interpretation errors may occur in CSAMT surveys if field distortions caused by the surface topography are not considered. Therefore, the CSAMT inversion should consider the topographic effect. In this work we develop a 3D inversion algorithm for inverting CSAMT data with topography using conjugate gradient inversion method. In the 3D forward problem, the total electric and magnetic fields is separated into their primary and secondary components to calculate the response from the 3D model with irregular topography. 3D rectangular grid with stair-stepped ground-air interface is used to approximate topography. The primary electric and magnetic field can be calculated by one-dimensional modeling, using the altitude of the highest point of the topography as the altitude of the flat surface. The secondary electric and magnetic field can be calculated using the staggered-grid finite difference method. Then, the apparent resistivity and phase response can be obtained by Cagniard equation. In the 3D inversion problem, conjugate gradient method is used to invert the CSAMT apparent resistivity and phase data including topography. The background resistivity is a constant value and the anomalous resistivity is used as the inversion parameter. Only the anomalous resistivity under the surface topography is updated in the inversion. Results from the synthetic tests show the validity and stability of the inversion algorithm.

  12. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  13. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-05-02

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  14. Identification of In Vivo-Induced Antigens Including an RTX Family Exoprotein Required for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Patrick D.; Alteri, Christopher J.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2011-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused most commonly by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Whole-genome screening approaches, including transcriptomic, proteomic, and signature-tagged mutagenesis, have shown that UPEC highly expresses or requires genes for translational machinery, capsule, lipopolysaccharide, type 1 fimbriae, and iron acquisition systems during UTI. To identify additional genes expressed by UPEC during UTI, an immunoscreening approach termed in vivo-induc...

  15. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the...... present paper, the significance of including the specific sensitivity and frequency response of the earphone type is considered, and a proposal for a revised approach to the implementation of such standardized estimates is assessed. The study is based on simulation of given use-case scenarios using...

  16. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    ITGs and TEMs in a tokamak configuration. The results show that collisions reduce the growth rate of slab ITGs in cylinder geometry, whereas they do not affect ITGs in a tokamak, which are mainly curvature-driven. However it is important to note that the pitch-angle scattering operator does not conserve momentum, which is most critical in the parallel direction. Therefore, the damping found in a cylinder could be the consequence of this missing feature and not a physical result [Dimits and Cohen 1994]. Nonetheless, the results are useful to determine whether the instability is mainly being driven by a slab or toroidal ITG mode. EUTERPE also has the feature of including kinetic electrons, which made simulations of TEMs with collisions possible. The combination of collisions and kinetic electrons made the numerical calculations extremely time-consuming, since the time step had to be small enough to resolve the fast electron motion. In contrast to the ITG results, it was observed that collisions are extremely important for TEMs in a tokamak, and in some special cases, depending on whether they were mainly driven by density or temperature gradients, collisions could even suppress the mode (in agreement with [Angioni et al. 2005, Connor et al. 2006]). In the case of stellarators it was found that ITGs are highly dependent on the device configuration. For LHD it was shown that collisions slightly reduce the growth rate of the instability, but for Wendelstein 7-X they do not affect it and the growth rate showed a similar trend with collisionality to that of the tokamak case. Collisions also tend to make the ballooning structure of the modes less pronounced.

  17. Should LSP Dictionaries. also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Gläser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The paper discusses the question whether an LSP dictionary should take the sociolinguistic stratification of the entire speech community in a particular domain of activity into consideration, and as a consequence, also encompass vocabulary on the lower stylistic levels, such as professional jargon and occupational slang in addition to technical terminology and nomenclature. The author's contention is that by including such vocabulary, an LSP dictionary will be more comprehensive and closer to the communicative reality. Moreover. it will meet the more specific requirements of translators and interpreters. To substantiate this claim, the author examined two monolingual English dictionaries and five bilingual English-German (German-English dictionaries published between 1973 and 2000, which have successfully incorporated professional jargon and slang. The subject areas covered range from law, economics, accountancy and business administration to geology, geophysics, geotectonics, and to automotive engineering. Some lexicographers have used style markers or usage labels (such as informal, colloquial, slang, vulgar, umgangssprach/ ich, fdrmlich, gelwben, finance, motoring, press for vocabulary bearing stylistic or expressive connotations. As a rule, these style markers have only been given to key words of the source language so that they may be inferred for the target language equivalent. Ideally, as one dictionary author has proved, style markers should also be attached to target language equivalents. However, an LSP lexicographer must be aware of the fact that informal and slang words may be short-lived and be substituted by other colloquial and colourful words from oral communication - and that slang words may gradually lose their connotations and become stylistically neutral words and even terms.

    Keywords: LSP DICTIONARY, TECHNICAL TERM, ITEM OF NOMENCLATURE, TRIVIAL (POPULAR NAME, PROFESSIONAL JARGON, OCCUPATIONAL SLANG, TRADE

  18. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  19. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  20. Teacher Training: A Personal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Kenneth T.

    Indiana State University has developed an experimental program to develop a personal approach to teacher training. The ultimate intention of the program is to produce educators who are personally committed to the development of the young people often collectively labeled "students." Devices used in the program include the use of student names,…

  1. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  2. Dynamic modelling and analysis of multi-machine power systems including wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Ahmadreza

    2005-11-01

    This thesis introduces a small-signal dynamic model, based on a frequency response approach, for the analysis of a multi-machine power system with special focus on an induction machine based wind farm. The proposed approach is an alternative method to the conventional eigenvalue analysis method which is widely employed for small-signal dynamic analyses of power systems. The proposed modelling approach is successfully applied and evaluated for a power system that (i) includes multiple synchronous generators, and (ii) a wind farm based on either fixed-speed, variable-speed, or doubly-fed induction machine based wind energy conversion units. The salient features of the proposed method, as compared with the conventional eigenvalue analysis method, are: (i) computational efficiency since the proposed method utilizes the open-loop transfer-function matrix of the system, (ii) performance indices that are obtainable based on frequency response data and quantitatively describe the dynamic behavior of the system, and (iii) capability to formulate various wind energy conversion unit, within a wind farm, in a modular form. The developed small-signal dynamic model is applied to a set of multi-machine study systems and the results are validated based on comparison (i) with digital time-domain simulation results obtained from PSCAD/EMTDC software tool, and (ii) where applicable with eigenvalue analysis results.

  3. Energy-loss function including damping and prediction of plasmon lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Truong, Hieu T., E-mail: ntthieu@hcmus.edu.vn

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • We present an approach to take damping into account of the energy loss function. • We calculate the electron inelastic mean free path for Al, Si, Cu, and Au. • We predict the values of damping and lifetime at low energies. • Influence of damping is significant in the low-energy region. • The damping value is not only energy dependent but also material dependent. - Abstract: An approach to include plasmon damping in the energy-loss function is described within the dielectric theory. Use of the energy-loss function included damping for calculating the electron inelastic mean free path yields results in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical results at medium–high energies. At a few eV above the Fermi energy, the present results are entirely consistent with those obtained from other measurements for Au. Also, a simple way to predict the values of damping and lifetime at low energies is described. Two values of lifetime for an electron with energy (above the Fermi energy) of 5 eV in Al and 6 eV in Au are predicted to be 2.18 fs and 1.70 fs, respectively. These predicted values are in reasonable agreement with those estimated from other measurements at the corresponding energies: 2.16 ± 0.22 fs in Al, and 1.91 ± 0.32 fs in Au.

  4. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained. It is...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions...... obtained for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave...

  5. Bioengineering a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.

  6. HERWIG 6 an event generator for Hadron Emission Reactions With Interfering Gluons (including supersymmetric processes)

    CERN Document Server

    Corcella, Gennaro; Marchesini, G; Moretti, S; Odagiri, K; Richardson, Peter; Seymour, Michael H; Webber, Bryan R

    2001-01-01

    HERWIG is a general-purpose Monte Carlo event generator, which includes the simulation of hard lepton-lepton, lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering and soft hadron-hadron collisions in one package. It uses the parton-shower approach for initial- and final-state QCD radiation, including colour coherence effects and azimuthal correlations both within and between jets. This article updates the description of HERWIG published in 1992, emphasising the new features incorporated since then. These include, in particular, the matching of first-order matrix elements with parton showers, a more correct treatment of heavy quark decays, and a wide range of new processes, including many predicted by the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, with the option of R-parity violation. At the same time we offer a brief review of the physics underlying HERWIG together with details of the input and control parameters and the output data, to provide a self-contained guide for prospective users of the program.

  7. Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.

  8. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  9. Proteomics - new analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for high resolution peptide mapping (hydrophobicity and ionic charge). This presentation will describe the development of new instrumentation based on the combination of capillary-based separation systems, including reversed phase and ion exchange HPLC integrated with on-line mass spectrometry. This approach can be used for stand-alone shot-gun sequencing or integrated with 2D-gel proteomic studies. Examples will include global studies such as the yeast proteome and focused studies on selected protein extracts such as secreted and nuclear proteins from mammalian cells

  10. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  11. APPROACHES TO SOCIAL ANXIETY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Abdülkadir

    2014-01-01

    The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...

  12. An MINLP Model that Includes the Effect of Temperature and Composition on Property Balances for Mass Integration Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of water networks based on properties has commonly ignored the effect of temperature on the property balances that are part of the formulation. When wide differences of temperatures are observed within the process, such an effect might yield significant errors in the application of conventional property balances. In this work, a framework for the development of water networks that include temperature effects on property balances is presented. The approach is based on the inclusion of constants in the property operators that are commonly used to carry out the property balances. An additional term to take care of composition effects is also included. The resulting approach is embedded into a formulation based on a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model for the design of water networks. A case study is presented that shows that the proposed approach yields an improvement in the prediction of the resulting properties for the integrated network, thus affecting the optimal solution.

  13. Boundary element modeling of earthquake site effects including the complete incident wavefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    Numerical modeling of earthquake site effects in realistic, three-dimensional structures, including high frequencies, low surface velocities and surface topography, has not been possible simply because the amount of computer memory constrains the number of grid points available. In principle, this problem is reduced in the Boundary Element Method (BEM) since only the surface of the velocity discontinuity is discretized; wave propagation both inside and outside this boundary is computed analytically. Equivalent body forces are determined on the boundary by solving a matrix equation containing frequency-domain displacement and stress Green's functions from every point on the boundary to every other point. This matrix problem has imposed a practical limit on the size or maximum frequency of previous BEM models. Although the matrix can be quite large, it also seems to be fairly sparse. We have used iterative matrix algorithms of the PETSc package and direct solution algorithms of the ScaLAPACK on the massively parallel supercomputers at Cornell, San Diego and Michigan. Preconditioning has been applied using blockwise ILU decomposition for the iterative approach or LU decomposition for the direct approach. The matrix equation is solved using the GMRES method for the iterative approach and a tri-diagonal solver for the direct approach. Previous BEM applications typically have assumed a single, incident plane wave. However, it is clear that for more realistic ground motion simulations, we need to consider the complete incident wavefield. If we assume that the basin or three-dimensional structure of interest is embedded in a surrounding plane-layered medium, we may use the propagator matrix method to solve for the displacements and stresses at depth on the boundary. This is done in the frequency domain with integration over wavenumber so that all P, S, mode conversions, reverberations and surface waves are included. The Boundary Element Method succeeds in modeling

  14. Aquatic environmental remediation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant's nuclear accident contaminated a significant portion of Fukushima Prefecture, and environmental remediation activities have been performed. To reduce the human exposure to the radiation induced by the nuclear contamination, one can reduce the radiation level in the environment, and/or eliminate radionuclide pathways to humans. This paper presents some case studies that are relevant to the Fukushima case. These examples include the Chernobyl nuclear accident's environmental and remediation assessments, U.S. Hanford environmental remediation activities, and the pesticide remediation assessment for the James River Estuary, Virginia, U.S.A. 1-D TODAM, 2-D FETRA and 3-D FLESCOT codes have been applied to the surface waters. TODAM code is currently being applied to the Ukedo and Takase rivers in Fukushima to predict cesium-137 migration in these rivers. A lesson learned from these experiences is that to achieve the effective clean-up, remediation decision makers must include knowledgeable scientists and competent engineers, so that environmental remediation activities are based on a scientifically-valid approach for a given contaminated location. Local participation to the remediation decision making is critically important. (author)

  15. Including Memory Friction in Single- and Two-State Quantum Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A; Messina, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We present a simple computational algorithm that allows for the inclusion of memory friction in a quantum dynamics simulation of a small, quantum, primary system coupled to many atoms in the surroundings. We show how including a memory friction operator, F̂, in the primary quantum system's Hamiltonian operator builds memory friction into the dynamics of the primary quantum system. We show that, in the harmonic, semi-classical limit, this friction operator causes the classical phase-space centers of a wavepacket to evolve exactly as if it were a classical particle experiencing memory friction. We also show that this friction operator can be used to include memory friction in the quantum dynamics of an anharmonic primary system. We then generalize the algorithm so that it can be used to treat a primary quantum system that is evolving, non-adiabatically on two coupled potential energy surfaces, i.e., a model that can be used to model H atom transfer, for example. We demonstrate this approach's computational ease and flexibility by showing numerical results for both harmonic and anharmonic primary quantum systems in the single surface case. Finally, we present numerical results for a model of non-adiabatic H atom transfer between a reactant and product state that includes memory friction on one or both of the non-adiabatic potential energy surfaces and uncover some interesting dynamical effects of non-memory friction on the H atom transfer process. PMID:26246278

  16. A Communicative Approach to Second Language Testing and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    CUNLIFFE, Brenda

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the communicative approach to second language teaching and discusses testing students' communicative performance. It is of primary importance that testing should reflect the approach to teaching that has been adopted; hence, this paper includes a brief description of the communicative approach to second language instruction. This approach is then related to testing procedures used to evaluate students' communicative performance.

  17. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  18. How to Approach a Traffic Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of determining the most energy-efficient strategy to use in approaching a traffic light that is sighted at an unknown phase in its cycle is discussed. Included are calculations, results, and conclusions. (KR)

  19. Solid mechanics a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive L

    2013-01-01

    Solid Mechanics: A Variational Approach, Augmented Edition presents a lucid and thoroughly developed approach to solid mechanics for students engaged in the study of elastic structures not seen in other texts currently on the market. This work offers a clear and carefully prepared exposition of variational techniques as they are applied to solid mechanics. Unlike other books in this field, Dym and Shames treat all the necessary theory needed for the study of solid mechanics and include extensive applications. Of particular note is the variational approach used in developing consistent structural theories and in obtaining exact and approximate solutions for many problems.  Based on both semester and year-long courses taught to undergraduate seniors and graduate students, this text is geared for programs in aeronautical, civil, and mechanical engineering, and in engineering science. The authors’ objective is two-fold: first, to introduce the student to the theory of structures (one- and two-dimensional) as ...

  20. Logical and epistemological approach to critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing logical approach, and also in developing the broader perspective on critical thinking that includes specific view of knowledge and its development, noncognitive dispositions and the role of subject based knowledge. At the end, we discuss the relationship between logical and epistemological approach. We claim and justify that they should be understood as complementary approaches, and we consider specific contribution of each approach to comprehensive definition of critical thinking. .

  1. Dose computation in conformal radiation therapy including geometric uncertainties: Methods and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Mihaela

    The aim of any radiotherapy is to tailor the tumoricidal radiation dose to the target volume and to deliver as little radiation dose as possible to all other normal tissues. However, the motion and deformation induced in human tissue by ventilatory motion is a major issue, as standard practice usually uses only one computed tomography (CT) scan (and hence one instance of the patient's anatomy) for treatment planning. The interfraction movement that occurs due to physiological processes over time scales shorter than the delivery of one treatment fraction leads to differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Due to the influence of these differences on tumors and normal tissues, the tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities are likely to be impacted upon in the face of organ motion. In this thesis we apply several methods to compute dose distributions that include the effects of the treatment geometric uncertainties by using the time-varying anatomical information as an alternative to the conventional Planning Target Volume (PTV) approach. The proposed methods depend on the model used to describe the patient's anatomy. The dose and fluence convolution approaches for rigid organ motion are discussed first, with application to liver tumors and the rigid component of the lung tumor movements. For non-rigid behavior a dose reconstruction method that allows the accumulation of the dose to the deforming anatomy is introduced, and applied for lung tumor treatments. Furthermore, we apply the cumulative dose approach to investigate how much information regarding the deforming patient anatomy is needed at the time of treatment planning for tumors located in thorax. The results are evaluated from a clinical perspective. All dose calculations are performed using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to ensure more realistic and more accurate handling of tissue heterogeneities---of particular importance in lung cancer treatment planning.

  2. INTERIOR MODELS OF SATURN: INCLUDING THE UNCERTAINTIES IN SHAPE AND ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helled, Ravit [Department of Geophysics, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Guillot, Tristan [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, CNRS UMR 7293, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2013-04-20

    The accurate determination of Saturn's gravitational coefficients by Cassini could provide tighter constraints on Saturn's internal structure. Also, occultation measurements provide important information on the planetary shape which is often not considered in structure models. In this paper we explore how wind velocities and internal rotation affect the planetary shape and the constraints on Saturn's interior. We show that within the geodetic approach the derived physical shape is insensitive to the assumed deep rotation. Saturn's re-derived equatorial and polar radii at 100 mbar are found to be 54,445 {+-} 10 km and 60,365 {+-} 10 km, respectively. To determine Saturn's interior, we use one-dimensional three-layer hydrostatic structure models and present two approaches to include the constraints on the shape. These approaches, however, result in only small differences in Saturn's derived composition. The uncertainty in Saturn's rotation period is more significant: with Voyager's 10{sup h}39{sup m} period, the derived mass of heavy elements in the envelope is 0-7 M{sub Circled-Plus }. With a rotation period of 10{sup h}32{sup m}, this value becomes <4 M{sub Circled-Plus }, below the minimum mass inferred from spectroscopic measurements. Saturn's core mass is found to depend strongly on the pressure at which helium phase separation occurs, and is estimated to be 5-20 M{sub Circled-Plus }. Lower core masses are possible if the separation occurs deeper than 4 Mbar. We suggest that the analysis of Cassini's radio occultation measurements is crucial to test shape models and could lead to constraints on Saturn's rotation profile and departures from hydrostatic equilibrium.

  3. Endoscopic approach to achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ≥ 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia.

  4. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  5. DYNAMICS OF FREE STRAIGHT SWIMMING OF ANGULLA ANGULLA INCLUDING FORWARD, BRAKING AND BACKWARD LOCOMOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Eels can swim backward by reversing the direction of the traveling wave along the body. The propulsive mechanism of an eel, angulla angulla, during its self-propelled straight swimming, including forward swimming, braking and switching direction to backward swimming was numerically studied. The problem was reasonably simplified to a loose-coupling problem of fish swimming dynamics and hydrodynamics only in the swimming direction. The approach involved the simulation of the flow by solving the two-dimensional unsteady incompressible N-S equations and the fish motion dynamic problem with Newton's second law. Visualizations of flow fields and vortex structures were performed. The propulsive mechanism and dynamics during each process were investigated and the effects of controllable factors on forward free swimming were discussed.

  6. Radiation hydrodynamics including irradiation and adaptive mesh refinement with AZEuS. I. Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsey, J P

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The importance of radiation to the physical structure of protoplanetary disks cannot be understated. However, protoplanetary disks evolve with time, and so to understand disk evolution and by association, disk structure, one should solve the combined and time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics. Methods. We implement a new implicit radiation solver in the AZEuS adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics fluid code. Based on a hybrid approach that combines frequency-dependent ray-tracing for stellar irradiation with non-equilibrium flux limited diffusion, we solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics while preserving the directionality of the stellar irradiation. The implementation permits simulations in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates, on both uniform and adaptive grids. Results. We present several hydrostatic and hydrodynamic radiation tests which validate our implementation on uniform and adaptive grids as appropriate, including benchmarks specifically designed for ...

  7. Validation of gyrokinetic modelling of light impurity transport including rotation in ASDEX Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Casson, F J; Angioni, C; Camenen, Y; Dux, R; Fable, E; Fischer, R; Geiger, B; Manas, P; Menchero, L; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Upgraded spectroscopic hardware and an improved impurity concentration calculation allow accurate determination of boron density in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. A database of boron measurements is compared to quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations including Coriolis and centrifugal rotational effects over a range of H-mode plasma regimes. The peaking of the measured boron profiles shows a strong anti-correlation with the plasma rotation gradient, via a relationship explained and reproduced by the theory. It is demonstrated that the rotodiffusive impurity flux driven by the rotation gradient is required for the modelling to reproduce the hollow boron profiles at higher rotation gradients. The nonlinear simulations validate the quasilinear approach, and, with the addition of perpendicular flow shear, demonstrate that each symmetry breaking mechanism that causes momentum transport also couples to rotodiffusion. At lower rotation gradients, the parallel compressive convection is required to match the mos...

  8. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Rios, Arnau; Dussan, Helber; Dickhoff, Willem; Witte, Sam; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    To address open questions in neutron star phenomenology, pairing gaps of 1S0 and 3P2 -3F2 channels in a wide range of densities has been calculated using three different interactions (AV18 CDbonn N3LO). Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations (SRC) are treated including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and they suppress the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations(LRC) dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a relatively small correction. Results are relevant and parametrized in a user friendly way for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  9. Optimization for performance-based design under seismic demands, including social costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Oscar; Foschi, Ricardo O.; Ascheri, Juan P.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Grossman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Performance-based design in earthquake engineering is a structural optimization problem that has, as the objective, the determination of design parameters for the minimization of total costs, while at the same time satisfying minimum reliability levels for the specified performance criteria. Total costs include those for construction and structural damage repairs, those associated with non-structural components and the social costs of economic losses, injuries and fatalities. This paper presents a general framework to approach this problem, using a numerical optimization strategy and incorporating the use of neural networks for the evaluation of dynamic responses and the reliability levels achieved for a given set of design parameters. The strategy is applied to an example of a three-story office building. The results show the importance of considering the social costs, and the optimum failure probabilities when minimum reliability constraints are not taken into account.

  10. A New Approach to Probabilistic Programming Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Frank; van de Meent, Jan Willem; Mansinghka, Vikash

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a new approach to inference in expressive probabilistic programming languages based on particle Markov chain Monte Carlo. Our approach is simple to implement and easy to parallelize. It applies to Turing-complete probabilistic programming languages and supports accurate inference in models that make use of complex control flow, including stochastic recursion. It also includes primitives from Bayesian nonparametric statistics. Our experiments show that this approac...

  11. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Thomas; Timmer, C Peter; Minten, Bart

    2012-07-31

    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets. PMID:21135250

  12. Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to include robustness into a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios. The optimization method is based on a linear...

  13. Long-wave linear stability theory for two-fluid channel flow including compressibility effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segin, Tetyana M.; Kondic, Lou; Tilley, Burt S.

    2006-10-01

    We present the linear stability of the laminar flow of an immiscible system of a compressible gas and incompressible liquid separated by an interface with large surface tension in a thin inclined channel. The flow is driven by an applied pressure drop and gravity. Following the air-water case, which is found in a variety of engineering systems, the ratio of the characteristic values of the gas and liquid densities and viscosities are assumed to be disparate. Under the lubrication approximation, and assuming ideal gas behaviour and isothermal conditions, this approach leads to a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations describing the evolution of the interface between the gas and the liquid and the streamwise density distribution of the gas. This system also includes the effects of viscosity stratification, inertia, shear and capillarity. A linear stability analysis that allows for physically relevant non-zero pressure-drop base state is then performed. In contrast to the zero-pressure drop case which is amenable to the classical normal-mode approach, this configuration requires numerically solving a boundary-value problem for the gas density and interfacial deviations from the base state in the streamwise coordinate. We find that the effect of the gas compressibility on the interfacial stability in the limit of vanishingly small wavenumber is destabilizing, even for Stokes flow in the liquid. However, for finite wavenumber disturbances, compressibility may have stabilizing effects. In this regime, sufficient shear is required to destabilize the flow.

  14. Going beyond efficiency: including altruistic motives in behavioral models for sustainability transitions to address sufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Schäpke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transitions require altered individual behaviors. Policies aimed at changing people’s consumption behavior are designed according to efficiency, consistency, and sufficiency principles. Taking into account shortcomings of the first two principles, this paper specifically addresses the sufficiency principle. Sufficiency policies are not very popular due to the fear that they may impede quality of life. This fear might be eased when highlighting the motivational side of sustainable behavior, such as the wish to care for future generations and the world’s poor. This article uses the capability approach (CA, developed primarily by Nobel-laureate economist Amartya Sen (1987a and philosopher Martha Nussbaum (1993, 2000, to a include the differentiation between self- and other-oriented goals and behavior, b build on its demonstrated success in assessing quality of life, and c assess the sustainability of behavior and policies. These three facets make CA suitable to analyze the effectiveness of sufficiency policies on sustainability and quality of life. To better understand the motivational side of sustainable behavior, CA is here for the first time enriched through approaches from environmental psychology. This enables us to highlight the idea of intrinsic empowerment as a building block for sufficiency policies. We close the article by highlighting further avenues for research.

  15. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  16. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.

    2012-08-08

    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  17. Integrated generation and transmission expansion planning including power and fuel transportation constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive optimal expansion planning model for an integrated generation and transmission system. The objective function used in the optimization model comprises of the capital cost of the new generating units to be built, the fuel cost incurred in running all the generating units in the system including the transportation cost of fuel from the fuel source ends to the generating unit locations and the capital cost of the new transmission lines to be installed for meeting the forecasted system demand at the target planning year. Constraints taken care of in the model include the fuel availability limits at the fuel sources, the fuel transportation limits for the transportation of fuels from fuel sources to the generating unit locations, capacity of generating units required to be built as well as the power transmission limits of the transmission lines in the system. The developed model is tested on a system to bring out the relative advantage of adopting the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning approach as compared to the sequential approach of first planning the generation expansion and then the transmission expansion. The model has also been applied to the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning of a real system. - Highlights: ► Integrated generation and transmission expansion planning model has been developed. ► Fuel transportation routes and power transmission network have been considered. ► Power flow over transmission lines have been modeled considering both Kirchoff’s laws. ► Electricity production and supply chain has been optimized.

  18. New Approaches In Digestive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ferré, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    Póster Oesophageal surgery has been associated with greater incisional dehiscence than surgery in other portions of the alimentary tract. Several factors may contribute to the high complication rate, including lack of serosa and omentum, the segmental nature of blood supply, the constant motion of swallowing and respiration and the tension at the surgical site. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. T...

  19. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    OpenAIRE

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N-) in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study...

  20. Inspections - a cost effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a cost effective approach for inspections of Computerized Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Systems (CNMCAS). Highlighted is the capability to conduct an inspection program via portable telephone terminals from off-site locations. The program can be applied to various materials management functions including materials control, quality assurance, and materials accounting. The system is designed to facilitate inspections by both external and internal groups

  1. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  2. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eryılmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  3. Jet Noise Modeling for Coannular Nozzles Including the Effects of Chevrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of good predictive models for jet noise has always been plagued by the difficulty in obtaining good quality data over a wide range of conditions in different facilities.We consider such issues very carefully in selecting data to be used in developing our model. Flight effects are of critical importance, and none of the means of determining them are without significant problems. Free-jet flight simulation facilities are very useful, and can provide meaningful data so long as they can be analytically transformed to the flight frame of reference. In this report we show that different methodologies used by NASA and industry to perform this transformation produce very different results, especially in the rear quadrant; this compels us to rely largely on static data to develop our model, but we show reasonable agreement with simulated flight data when these transformation issues are considered. A persistent problem in obtaining good quality data is noise generated in the experimental facility upstream of the test nozzle: valves, elbows, obstructions, and especially the combustor can contribute significant noise, and much of this noise is of a broadband nature, easily confused with jet noise. Muffling of these sources is costly in terms of size as well as expense, and it is particularly difficult in flight simulation facilities, where compactness of hardware is very important, as discussed by Viswanathan (Ref. 13). We feel that the effects of jet density on jet mixing noise may have been somewhat obscured by these problems, leading to the variable density exponent used in most jet noise prediction procedures including our own. We investigate this issue, applying Occam s razor, (e.g., Ref. 14), in a search for the simplest physically meaningful model that adequately describes the observed phenomena. In a similar vein, we see no reason to reject the Lighthill approach; it provides a very solid basis upon which to build a predictive procedure, as we believe we

  4. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends...... attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that...

  5. Application of honey-bee mating optimization on state estimation of a power distribution system including distributed generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher NIKNAM

    2008-01-01

    We present a new approach based on honey-bee mating optimization to estimate the state variables in distribution networks including distributed generators. The proposed method considers practical models of electrical equipments such as smilc var compensators,voltage regulators,and under-load tap changer transformers,which have usually nonlinear and discrete characteristics. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparison with the methods based on neural networks,ant colony optimization,and genetic algorithms for two test systems,a network with 34-bus radial test feeders and a realistic 80-bus 20 kV network.

  6. The rehabilitative approach in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pappone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitative approach for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis should be early, global and complementary to an early pharmacological therapy, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, that should include physicians with different specialties and other health professionals. Evaluation scales assessing disability and quality of life are necessary for the rehabilitative approach. These can be classified in 2 groups: specific tools and generic tools, each evaluating different components of the health status. After the evaluation and the definition of the aims of the rehabilitation, a rehabilitative project, potentially including physical therapies, therapeutic exercises, occupational therapy and orthosis should be defined.

  7. Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

    1995-01-01

    The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

  8. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  9. Recurrent and sporadic Listeria monocytogenes contamination in alheiras represents considerable diversity, including virulence-attenuated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, M T S; Hogg, T; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Wiedmann, M

    2007-06-01

    Microbiological characterization of alheiras, traditional smoked meat sausages produced in northern Portugal, had previously shown that more than 60% of the lots analyzed were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes at levels higher than 100 CFU/g. In order to better understand L. monocytogenes contamination patterns in alheiras, we characterized 128 L. monocytogenes isolates from alheiras using a variety of subtyping techniques (i.e., molecular serotyping; arsenic, cadmium, and tetracycline resistance typing; and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]). Subtyping of isolates from products collected on two separate dates provided evidence for the persistence of specific L. monocytogenes PFGE types in the production and distribution chains of alheiras from four different processors. A subset of 21 isolates was further characterized using ribotyping and Caco-2 cell invasion assays to evaluate the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes present in alheiras. Caco-2 invasion assays revealed seven isolates with invasion efficiencies that were less than 20% of that of the control strain 10403S. All seven isolates had premature stop codons in inlA that represented three distinct mutations, which had previously been observed in isolates from the United States or France. Our findings indicate the need for a comprehensive approach to control L. monocytogenes in alheiras, including strategies to reduce persistence. The presence of considerable diversity in invasion phenotypes among L. monocytogenes strains present in alheiras, including the presence of subtypes likely to be virulence attenuated, may provide an opportunity to initially focus control strategies on the subtypes most likely to cause human disease. PMID:17449681

  10. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  11. Cosmological parameters from weak lensing power spectrum and bispectrum tomography: including the non-Gaussian errors

    CERN Document Server

    Kayo, Issha

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine a genuine power of weak lensing bispectrum tomography for constraining cosmological parameters, when combined with the power spectrum tomography, based on the Fisher information matrix formalism. To account for the full information at two- and three-point levels, we include all the power spectrum and bispectrum information built from all-available combinations of tomographic redshift bins, multipole bins and different triangle configurations over a range of angular scales (up to lmax=2000 as our fiducial choice). For the parameter forecast, we use the halo model approach in Kayo, Takada & Jain (2013) to model the non-Gaussian error covariances as well as the cross-covariance between the power spectrum and the bispectrum, including the halo sample variance or the nonlinear version of beat-coupling. We find that adding the bispectrum information leads to about 60% improvement in the dark energy figure-of-merit compared to the lensing power spectrum tomography alone, for three redshift-bin tomo...

  12. Development process of muzzle flows including a gun-launched missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Changfei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigations on the launch process of a gun-launched missile from the muzzle of a cannon to the free-flight stage have been performed in this paper. The dynamic overlapped grids approach are applied to dealing with the problems of a moving gun-launched missile. The high-resolution upwind scheme (AUSMPW+ and the detailed reaction kinetics model are adopted to solve the chemical non-equilibrium Euler equations for dynamic grids. The development process and flow field structure of muzzle flows including a gun-launched missile are discussed in detail. This present numerical study confirms that complicated transient phenomena exist in the shortly launching stages when the gun-launched missile moves from the muzzle of a cannon to the free-flight stage. The propellant gas flows, the initial environmental ambient air flows and the moving missile mutually couple and interact. A complete structure of flow field is formed at the launching stages, including the blast wave, base shock, reflected shock, incident shock, shear layer, primary vortex ring and triple point.

  13. A Combined Weighted Approach to Detect Code Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu; Dr. Sushil Garg

    2014-01-01

    Code clone detection is one of the useful and required approach to generate the reliable and effective code. There are number of approaches defined by earlier researchers to detect the cloning. These approaches include the textual, statistical and token based approaches. In this present work, three main categories of code clone detection approaches are combined in a weighted form to detect the cloning over the system. The work is presented as a weighted model with the exploration of all three...

  14. EMPLOY: Step-by-step guidelines for calculating employment effects of renewable energy investments [including annex 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (Germany); Nathani, Carsten [Ruetter and Partner Socioeconomic Research and Consulting (Switzerland); Resch, Gustav [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group (EEG) (Austria

    2012-07-15

    The EMPLOY project aimed to help achieve the IEA-RETD’s objective to 'empower policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment – similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies. The EMPLOY project resulted in a comprehensive set of methodological guidelines for estimating the employment impacts of renewable energy deployment in a coherent, uniform and systematic way. Guidelines were prepared for four different methodological approaches. In the introduction section of the guidelines policy makers are guided in their choice for the most suited approach, depending on the policy questions to be answered, the data availability and budget. The guidelines were tested for the IEA-RETD member state countries and Tunisia. The results of these calculations are included in the annex to the guidelines.

  15. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  16. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990), which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. ...

  17. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2008-01-01

    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  18. Manure management. A systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, D C; Cramer, T N

    1997-10-01

    Traditionally, the management of manure nutrients has focused primarily on the production, collection, storage, and field application of manure. By contrast, a total systems approach expands this focus to include concerns about human and animal health, odor and fly control, nutrient import and handling, ration balancing and feeding management to optimize dietary nutrient utilization, management of crop harvest and storage to maximize feed palatability and nutrient digestibility, manure processing for export, farm economics of nutrient management, and the broader economic impacts of environmental regulation and enforcement. In the future, the focus of manure and nutrient management must be to optimize nutrient flow and utilization at every point within the total dairy farm system. A total systems approach to nutrient management is vital to the future of the dairy industry. This approach requires a broad spectrum of scientific expertise that includes multidisciplinary teams involving agronomists, dairy scientists, economists, engineers, microbiologists, soil scientists, veterinarians, and regulators to deal successfully with the complex issues pertaining to dairy nutrient management. PMID:9361237

  19. Animal timing: a synthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Inspired by Spence's seminal work on transposition, we propose a synthetic approach to understanding the temporal control of operant behavior. The approach takes as primitives the temporal generalization gradients obtained in prototypical concurrent and retrospective timing tasks and then combines them to synthetize more complex temporal performances. The approach is instantiated by the learning-to-time (LeT) model. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, we review the basic findings concerning the generalization gradients observed in fixed-interval schedules, the peak procedure, and the temporal generalization procedure and then describe how LeT explains them. In the second part, we use LeT to derive by gradient combination the typical performances observed in mixed fixed-interval schedules, the free-operant psychophysical procedure, the temporal bisection task, and the double temporal bisection task. We also show how the model plays the role of a useful null hypothesis to examine whether temporal control in the bisection task is relative or absolute. In the third part, we identify a set of issues that must be solved to advance our understanding of temporal control, including the shape of the generalization gradients outside the range of trained stimulus durations, the nature of temporal memories, the influence of context on temporal learning, whether temporal control can be inhibitory, and whether temporal control is also relational. These issues attest to the heuristic value of a Spencean approach to temporal control. PMID:27000781

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...... such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice....

  1. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  2. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  3. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  4. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  5. Novel approaches in herbal cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchal, Deep; Swarnlata, Saraf

    2008-06-01

    Nutracosmetics are an emerging class of health and beauty aid products that combine the benefits of nutracosmetical ingredients with the elegance, skin feel, and delivery systems of cosmetics. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty because herbs have many beneficial properties, such as sunscreen, antiaging, moisturizing, antioxidant, anticellulite, and antimicrobial effects. As compared with synthetic cosmetic products, herbal products are mild, biodegradable, and have low toxicity profile. To enhance these properties, research is being done in the development of newer approaches, which could improve both the aesthetic appeal and performance of a cosmetic product. In this respect, the approaches studied and discussed include liposomes, phytosomes, transferosomes, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, microemulsions, nanocrystals, and cubosomes. PMID:18482010

  6. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代海娜

    2015-01-01

    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  8. Beam characteristics including general astigmatism effects in the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: General astigmatism treatment has been included in the description of the resulting beams for the latest design concepts proposed for the Remote Steering (RS) Launcher. The inclusion of general astigmatism is intended to provide the key parameters of the resulting beams and perform realistic beam tracing calculations in the plasma. It is in fact well known that the many requirements foreseen for the ITER ECRH Upper launcher force the beams to be injected in the plasma with a sufficient steering capability aiming at the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) through localized deposition of EC waves. To do this, double curvature mirrors are used in the latest RS quasi-optical systems. The mirrors are oriented at an angle with respect to each other and with respect to the directions of astigmatism of the incoming launched beam. The resulting beams are found to be generally astigmatic beams. The correct description of the beam parameters resulting from this kind of complex launching system can in principle be used to optimize the RS quasi-optical system (in terms of localized heating and current drive efficiency), acting for example on the curvatures of the last mirror. The curvature in the direction determined by the steering plane should not be considered a free parameter, since the necessary output steering range has to be granted, but the curvature in the direction orthogonal to the steering plane could be modified to improve the performances of the launcher. Starting from the design proposed, the analysis presented here includes beam optics calculations. This approach was agreed within affiliate institutes to optimise the efficiency of the RS Upper launcher design. The work was carried out under EFDA Task TW6-TPHE-ECHULB. (author)

  9. Network optimization including gas lift and network parameters under subsurface uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Baffoe, J.; Pajonk, O. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Badalov, H.; Huseynov, S. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE; Trick, M. [SPT Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Optimization of oil and gas field production systems poses a great challenge to field development due to complex and multiple interactions between various operational design parameters and subsurface uncertainties. Conventional analytical methods are capable of finding local optima based on single deterministic models. They are less applicable for efficiently generating alternative design scenarios in a multi-objective context. Practical implementations of robust optimization workflows integrate the evaluation of alternative design scenarios and multiple realizations of subsurface uncertainty descriptions. Production or economic performance indicators such as NPV (Net Present Value) are linked to a risk-weighted objective function definition to guide the optimization processes. This work focuses on an integrated workflow using a reservoir-network simulator coupled to an optimization framework. The work will investigate the impact of design parameters while considering the physics of the reservoir, wells, and surface facilities. Subsurface uncertainties are described by well parameters such as inflow performance. Experimental design methods are used to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions. Optimization methods are used to find optimal design parameter combinations which improve key performance indicators of the production network system. The proposed workflow will be applied to a representative oil reservoir coupled to a network which is modelled by an integrated reservoir-network simulator. Gas-lift will be included as an explicit measure to improve production. An objective function will be formulated for the net present value of the integrated system including production revenue and facility costs. Facility and gas lift design parameters are tuned to maximize NPV. Well inflow performance uncertainties are introduced with an impact on gas lift performance. Resulting variances on NPV are identified as a risk measure for the optimized system design. A

  10. Modular Approach for Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  11. INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. Sevryuk

    2014-01-01

    Educational transformation in Russia allows using new methods in teaching and learning. One of which is the interdisciplinary approach. The article describes the definition of the interdisciplinary approach, shows the reasons why to teach with it, and explains the advantages of using it and how it helps students advance their thinking, cognitive development and other abilities. It also gives some interdisciplinary examples.

  12. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  13. Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain, neck pain, and joint pain or stiffness. NIH Research and Information on Complementary Health Approaches The lead agency at NIH for scientific research on complementary health approaches is the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). You can ...

  14. The Geodynamic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1996-01-01

    The Danish National lecture: The Geodynamic approach - problem or possibility? - mirrors the authors involvement in projects and research focusing on the impact of the geodynamic approach. The lecture discusses the why and how of some of the geotechnical anomalies and the differences in traditional...

  15. The TLC Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  16. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  17. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  18. Improved best estimate plus uncertainty methodology including advanced validation concepts to license evolving nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many evolving nuclear energy technologies use advanced predictive multi-scale, multi-physics modeling and simulation (MS) capabilities to reduce the cost and schedule of design and licensing. A new methodology is needed for the validation of these predictive tools. The main components of the proposed methodology are verification, validation, calibration, and uncertainty quantification-steps similar to the components of the traditional US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing approach, with the exception of the calibration step. An enhanced calibration concept is introduced here, and is accomplished through data assimilation. The goal of this methodology is to enable best-estimate prediction of system behaviors in both normal and safety-related environments. This goal requires the additional steps of estimating the domain of validation, and quantification of uncertainties, allowing for the extension of results to areas of the validation domain that are not directly tested with experiments. These might include the extension of the MS capabilities for application to full-scale systems. The new methodology suggests a formalism to quantify an adequate level of validation (predictive maturity) with respect to existing for data, so that required new testing can be minimized, saving cost by demonstrating that further testing will not enhance the quality of the predictive tools. The proposed methodology is at a conceptual level. The document is an extended abstract

  19. Global fits of the cMSSM including the first LHC and XENON100 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present updated global fits of the constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (cMSSM), including the most recent constraints from the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC, as well as the most recent results of the XENON100 experiment. Our robust analysis takes into account both astrophysical and hadronic uncertainties that enter in the calculation of the rate of WIMP-induced recoils in direct detection experiment. We study the consequences for neutralino Dark Matter, and show that current direct detection data already allow to robustly rule out the so-called Focus Point region, therefore demonstrating the importance of particle astrophysics experiments in constraining extensions of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. We also observe an increased compatibility between results obtained from a Bayesian and a Frequentist statistical perspective. We find that upcoming ton-scale direct detection experiments will probe essentially the entire currently favoured region (at the 99% level), almost independently of the statistical approach used. Prospects for indirect detection of the cMSSM are further reduced

  20. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  1. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  2. Aerodynamic design optimization of helicopter rotor blades including airfoil shape for hover performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngoc Anh Vu; Jae Woo Lee; Jung Il Shu

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a process to obtain an optimal helicopter rotor blade shape for aerodynamic performance in hover flight.A new geometry representation algorithm which uses the class function/shape function transformation (CST) is employed to generate airfoil coordinates.With this approach,airfoil shape is considered in terms of design variables.The optimization process is constructed by integrating several programs developed by author.The design variables include twist,taper ratio,point of taper initiation,blade root chord,and coefficients of the airfoil distribution function.Aerodynamic constraints consist of limits on power available in hover and forward flight.The trim condition must be attainable.This paper considers rotor blade configuration for the hover flight condition only,so that the required power in hover is chosen as the objective function of the optimization problem.Sensitivity analysis of each design variable shows that airfoil shape has an important role in rotor performance.The optimum rotor blade reduces the required hover power by 7.4% and increases the figure of merit by 6.5%,which is a good improvement for rotor blade design.

  3. Molecular Classification of Pesticides Including Persistent Organic Pollutants, Phenylurea and Sulphonylurea Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in wine were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Retentions are modelled by structure–property relationships. Bioplastic evolution is an evolutionary perspective conjugating effect of acquired characters and evolutionary indeterminacy–morphological determination–natural selection principles; its application to design co-ordination index barely improves correlations. Fractal dimensions and partition coefficient differentiate pesticides. Classification algorithms are based on information entropy and its production. Pesticides allow a structural classification by nonplanarity, and number of O, S, N and Cl atoms and cycles; different behaviours depend on number of cycles. The novelty of the approach is that the structural parameters are related to retentions. Classification algorithms are based on information entropy. When applying procedures to moderate-sized sets, excessive results appear compatible with data suffering a combinatorial explosion. However, equipartition conjecture selects criterion resulting from classification between hierarchical trees. Information entropy permits classifying compounds agreeing with principal component analyses. Periodic classification shows that pesticides in the same group present similar properties; those also in equal period, maximum resemblance. The advantage of the classification is to predict the retentions for molecules not included in the categorization. Classification extends to phenyl/sulphonylureas and the application will be to predict their retentions.

  4. Multirate Simulations of String Vibrations Including Nonlinear Fret-String Interactions Using the Functional Transformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional transformation method (FTM is a well-established mathematical method for accurate simulations of multidimensional physical systems from various fields of science, including optics, heat and mass transfer, electrical engineering, and acoustics. This paper applies the FTM to real-time simulations of transversal vibrating strings. First, a physical model of a transversal vibrating lossy and dispersive string is derived. Afterwards, this model is solved with the FTM for two cases: the ideally linearly vibrating string and the string interacting nonlinearly with the frets. It is shown that accurate and stable simulations can be achieved with the discretization of the continuous solution at audio rate. Both simulations can also be performed with a multirate approach with only minor degradations of the simulation accuracy but with preservation of stability. This saves almost 80% of the computational cost for the simulation of a six-string guitar and therefore it is in the range of the computational cost for digital waveguide simulations.

  5. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  6. Analysis of Prey-Predator Three Species Fishery Model with Harvesting Including Prey Refuge and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sankar Kumar; Roy, Banani

    In this article, a prey-predator system with Holling type II functional response for the predator population including prey refuge region has been analyzed. Also a harvesting effort has been considered for the predator population. The density-dependent mortality rate for the prey, predator and super predator has been considered. The equilibria of the proposed system have been determined. Local and global stabilities for the system have been discussed. We have used the analytic approach to derive the global asymptotic stabilities of the system. The maximal predator per capita consumption rate has been considered as a bifurcation parameter to evaluate Hopf bifurcation in the neighborhood of interior equilibrium point. Also, we have used fishing effort to harvest predator population of the system as a control to develop a dynamic framework to investigate the optimal utilization of the resource, sustainability properties of the stock and the resource rent is earned from the resource. Finally, we have presented some numerical simulations to verify the analytic results and the system has been analyzed through graphical illustrations.

  7. The importance of including variability in climate change projections used for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, David M. H.; Harris, Glen R.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of mankind’s influence on the climate is largely based on computer simulations. Model output is typically averaged over several decades so that the anthropogenic climate change signal stands out from the largely unpredictable `noise’ of climate variability. Similar averaging periods (30-year) are used for regional climate projections to inform adaptation. According to two such projections, UKCIP02 (ref. ) and UKCP09 (ref. ), the UK will experience `hotter drier summers and warmer wetter winters’ in the future. This message is about a typical rather than any individual future season, and these projections should not be compared directly to observed weather as this neglects the sizeable contribution from year-to-year climate variability. Therefore, despite the apparent contradiction with the messages, it is a fallacy to suggest the recent cold UK winters like 2009/2010 disprove human-made climate change. Nevertheless, such claims understandably cause public confusion and doubt. Here we include year-to-year variability to provide projections for individual seasons. This approach has two advantages. First, it allows fair comparisons with recent weather events, for instance showing that recent cold winters are within projected ranges. Second, it allows the projections to be expressed in terms of the extreme hot, cold, wet or dry seasons that impact society, providing a better idea of adaptation needs.

  8. Provision of financial transmission rights including assessment of maximum volumes of obligations and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the risks faced by the providers of financial transmission rights (FTRs). The introduction of FTRs in different systems in the USA must be viewed in relationship to the organization of the market. Often, private players own the central grid, while an independent system operator (ISO) operates the grid. The revenues from transmission congestion collected in the day-ahead and balancing markets should give the ISO sufficient revenues to cover the costs associated with providing FTRs. This can be ensured if the issued FTRs fulfill the simultaneous feasibility test described by Hogan. This test on a three-node network is studied under different assumptions to find the maximum volumes, which can be sold, including contingency constraints. Next the feasibility test is analyzed when taking into account the proceeds from the FTR auction, and demonstrates that a higher volume might be issued. We introduce uncertainty under different scenarios for locational prices and calculate the maximum provided volumes. As a tool for risk management, the provider of the FTRs can use the Value at Risk approach. Finally, the provision of FTRs by private parties is discussed. (author)

  9. An automated search procedure for fuel shuffling in PWRs including rotation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated search procedure for determining a fuel loading pattern with a minimum power peak, called NSHUFLE, has been developed which includes both the rotation and exchange of PWR fuel assemblies. The procedure is an extension of a previously developed approach based on heuristic rules without assembly rotation effects. The search for an improved core loading pattern is decomposed into three subproblems: (1) distribution of high reactivity fuel throughout the core; (2) exchange and rotation of assemblies within the neighborhood of the radial power peaking assembly with lower power elements throughout the core, and (3) rotation of assemblies within the neighborhood of the power peaking assembly. The procedure is based on a depth-first search with one-level back-tracking. Moves within each subproblem are described by a series of production rules. A move is accepted if the resulting power peaking factor is decreased. The goal state is reached when no legal move within the subproblems results in a lower power peaking factor. Assembly exchange rules are based on previous research. The assembly rotation rules are based on research described in this paper

  10. BROMOCEA Code: An Improved Grand Canonical Monte Carlo/Brownian Dynamics Algorithm Including Explicit Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Carlos J F; Pothula, Karunakar R; Prajapati, Jigneshkumar D; De Biase, Pablo M; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2016-05-10

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have a long history of applications studying ion and substrate permeation across biological and artificial pores. While offering unprecedented insights into the underpinning transport processes, MD simulations are limited in time-scales and ability to simulate physiological membrane potentials or asymmetric salt solutions and require substantial computational power. While several approaches to circumvent all of these limitations were developed, Brownian dynamics simulations remain an attractive option to the field. The main limitation, however, is an apparent lack of protein flexibility important for the accurate description of permeation events. In the present contribution, we report an extension of the Brownian dynamics scheme which includes conformational dynamics. To achieve this goal, the dynamics of amino-acid residues was incorporated into the many-body potential of mean force and into the Langevin equations of motion. The developed software solution, called BROMOCEA, was applied to ion transport through OmpC as a test case. Compared to fully atomistic simulations, the results show a clear improvement in the ratio of permeating anions and cations. The present tests strongly indicate that pore flexibility can enhance permeation properties which will become even more important in future applications to substrate translocation. PMID:27088446

  11. A numerical study of squeeze-film damping in MEMS-based structures including rarefaction effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Nigro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a variety of MEMS applications, the thin film of fluid responsible of squeeze-film damping results to be rarefied and, thus, not suitable to be modeled though the classical Navier-Stokes equation. The simplest way to consider fluid rarefaction is the introduction of a slight modification into its ordinary formulation, by substituting the standard fluid viscosity with an effective viscosity term. In the present paper, some squeeze-film damping problems of both parallel and torsion plates at decreasing pressure are studied by numerical solving a full 3D Navier-Stokes equation, where the effective viscosity is computed according to proper expressions already included in the literature. Furthermore, the same expressions for the effective viscosity are implemented within known analytical models, still derived from the Navier-Stokes equation. In all the considered cases, the numerical results are shown to be very promising, providing comparable or even better agreement with the experimental data than the corresponding analytical results, even at low air pressure. Thus, unlike what is usually agreed in the literature, the effective viscosity approach can be efficiently applied at low pressure regimes, especially when this is combined with a finite element analysis (FEA.

  12. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  13. SYNTHETIC APPROACHES TO POLIFUNCTIONALIZED PERHYDRINDANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Kulciţki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication represents an extended abstract of the presentation delivered on the joint Moldo-Italian seminar “New frontiers in natural product chemistry”, held in the Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova on 31 September. An overview of the synthetic methods oriented to the synthesis of functionalized terpenic perhydrindanes is provided. Different synthetic strategies are considered, including those based on biomimetic approach. The array of obtained new structures can serve as leads in structure-activity studies as well as useful building blocks towards other perhydrindanes.

  14. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    is often narrowly defined to meet specific needs for information. This may however limit the general usefulness of the information gained, for example, if the specific purpose limited the characterization to a subset of variables. In general, data available in the solid waste area are limited and often...... with limited representation. This chapter describes common approaches and methods in waste characterization including common terms, sampling, characterization methods and data evaluation. The focus is on the characterization of waste as it is generated or collected, while specific issues on characterization...

  15. Specialist approaches to managing lipoedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Amy

    2016-04-01

    While there is no proven cure for lipoedema, early detection is key as specialist treatments, complemented by self-management techniques, can improve symptoms and prevent progression. There is no universal approach as the correct treatment or treatments will depend on each patient's particular circumstances; however, when chosen early and appropriately, interventions can provide huge benefits. The most common treatments in the management of lipoedema include compression, manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), tumescent liposuction, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy (IPC), kinesio taping, deep oscillation therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). PMID:27046426

  16. Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Acharjya, DP

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

  17. Software testing a craftsman's approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Since the last publication of this international bestseller, software testing has seen a renaissance of renewed interest and technology. The biggest change comes in the growing prominence and acceptance of Agile Programming. Software Testing: A Craftsman's Approach, Third Edition extends the combination of theory and practicality of the first two editions to include agile programming development and discusses the serious effect this emerging area is having on software testing. The third edition of the widely adopted text and reference book is comprised of six parts. It begins by providing the

  18. INVESTMENT IN ANTIVIRAL DRUGS : A REAL OPTIONS APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, Arthur E.; Lugner, Anna K.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2010-01-01

    Real options analysis is a promising approach to model investment under uncertainty. We employ this approach to value stockpiling of antiviral drugs as a precautionary measure against a possible influenza pandemic. Modifications of the real options approach to include risk attitude and deviations fr

  19. CLIL: the approach for the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Jalo, Marcela Lilian; Pérez Albizú, Candela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the potential of CLIL as a key approach in the future of English language teaching. Issues related to the different roles of teachers including teacher trainingand to the school specific subjects have been discussed . We have also focused our attention on the relationship between this approach and culture. The role of language in CLIL and the implementation of different modes of assessment are also mentioned. Material selection and adaptation is analysed ...

  20. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.