Sample records for approach implicates usf1

  1. Functional variant disrupts insulin induction of USF1: mechanism for USF1-associated dyslipidemias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naukkarinen, J.; Nilsson, E.; Koistinen, H.A.;


    of known USF1 target genes as well as for broader effects on the transcript profile. Allelic imbalance of USF1 in fat was assessed using a quantitative sequencing approach. The possible allele-specific effect of insulin on the expression of USF1 was studied in 118 muscle biopsies before and after...... in USF1 is involved in the development of dyslipidemia. The effects of the risk variant on gene expression were studied in 2 relevant human tissues, fat and muscle. Global transcript profiles of 47 fat biopsies ascertained for carriership of the risk allele were tested for differential expression...... a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The risk allele of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2073658 seems to eradicate the inductive effect of insulin on the expression of USF1 in muscle and fat. The expression of numerous target genes is in turn perturbed in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: In risk allele carriers...

  2. Analysis list: Usf1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Usf1 Muscle + mm9 ... ...

  3. Analysis list: USF1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available USF1 Blood,Digestive tract,Liver,Neural,Pluripotent stem cell,Uterus + hg19,,

  4. Risk alleles of USF1 gene predict cardiovascular disease of women in two prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor controlling several critical genes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Of some 40 genes regulated by USF1, several are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the USF1 gene has been shown to have a critical role in the etiology of familial combined hyperlipidemia, which predisposes to early CVD, the gene's potential role as a risk factor for CVD events at the population level has not been established. Here we report the results from a prospective genetic-epidemiological study of the association between the USF1 variants, CVD, and mortality in two large Finnish cohorts. Haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms exposing all common allelic variants of USF1 were genotyped in a prospective case-cohort design with two distinct cohorts followed up during 1992-2001 and 1997-2003. The total number of follow-up years was 112,435 in 14,140 individuals, of which 2,225 were selected for genotyping based on the case-cohort study strategy. After adjustment for conventional risk factors, we observed an association of USF1 with CVD and mortality among females. In combined analysis of the two cohorts, female carriers of a USF1 risk haplotype had a 2-fold risk of a CVD event (hazard ratio [HR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.53; p = 0.01 and an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.46-4.35; p = 0.0009. A putative protective haplotype of USF1 was also identified. Our study shows how a gene identified in exceptional families proves to be important also at the population level, implying that allelic variants of USF1 significantly influence the prospective risk of CVD and even all-cause mortality in females.

  5. Transcriptional activation of Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 by USF1 and Rta. (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Chia; Kuo, Chung-Wen; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chang, Li-Kwan; Liu, Shih-Tung


    During its lytic cycle, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expresses Rta, a factor encoded by BRLF1 that activates the transcription of viral lytic genes. We found that upstream stimulating factor (USF) binds to E1, one of the five E boxes located at - 79 in the BRLF1 promoter (Rp), to activate BRLF1 transcription. Furthermore, Rta was shown to interact with USF1 in coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy further confirmed that these two proteins colocalize in the nucleus. Rta was also found to bind with the E1 sequence in a biotin-labelled E1 probe, but only in the presence of USF1, suggesting that these two proteins likely form a complex on E1. We subsequently constructed p188mSZ, a reporter plasmid that contained the sequence from - 188 to +5 in Rp, within which the Sp1 site and Zta response element were mutated. In EBV-negative Akata cells cotransfected with p188mSZ and plasmids expressing USF1 and Rta, synergistic activation of Rp transcription was observed. However, after mutating the E1 sequence in p188mSZ, USF1 and Rta were no longer able to transactivate Rp, indicating that Rta autoregulates BRLF1 transcription via its interaction with USF1 on E1. This study showed that pUSF1 transfection after EBV lytic induction in P3HR1 cells increases Rta expression, indicating that USF1 activates Rta expression after the virus enters the lytic cycle. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which USF interacts with Rta to promote viral lytic development, and provide additional insight into the viral-host interactions of EBV.

  6. Activation of Hepatic Lipase Expression by Oleic Acid: Possible Involvement of USF1

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    Adrie J. M. Verhoeven


    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression mainly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, but how monounsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression is poorly understood. In HepG2 cells, oleate supplementation has been shown to increase secretion of hepatic lipase (HL. We hypothesized that oleate affects HL gene expression at the transcriptional level. To test this, we studied the effect of oleate on HL promoter activity using HepG2 cells and the proximal HL promoter region (700 bp. Oleate increased HL expression and promoter activity 1.3–2.1 fold and reduced SREBP activity by 50%. Downregulation of SREBP activity by incubation with cholesterol+25-hydroxycholesterol had no effect on HL promoter activity. Overexpression of SREBP2, but not SREBP1, reduced HL promoter activity, which was effected mainly through the USF1 binding site at -307/-312. Oleate increased the nuclear abundance of USF1 protein 2.7 ± 0.6 fold, while USF1 levels were reduced by SREBP2 overexpression. We conclude that oleate increases HL gene expression via USF1. USF1 may be an additional fatty acid sensor in liver cells.

  7. USF-1 genetic polymorphisms confer a high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese population. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Bai-Fang; Tong, Jing; Chang, Bing; Wang, Bing-Yuan


    Genetic polymorphisms in upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) were investigated for their links to increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese population. Between January 2013 and April 2014, 174 patients with NAFLD in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University were selected for this study. A group of 100 healthy subjects were identified as the control group. The MALDI-TOF-MS, a mass spectrometry based technique, was used to detect USF-1 genetic polymorphisms using PCR amplified DNA products. Furthermore, Automatic Chemistry Analyzer (ACA) was used to determine the clinical indicators. Genotypes, allele frequencies and clinical indicators were measured to assess NAFLD risk in relation to the SNPs. USF-1 rs6427573 genetic polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (AA vs. GG: OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.56-6.43, P = 0.001; GA + AA vs. GG: OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.13-3.09, P = 0.015; GG + AA vs. AA: OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.49-5.88, P = 0.001; G vs. A: OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.43-3.09, P 0.05). Two USF-1 genetic polymorphisms, rs6427573 and rs2516839, may present an increased risk of NAFLD.

  8. USF-1 inhibition protects against oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced apoptosis via the downregulation of miR-132 in HepG2 cells. (United States)

    Wang, Renjie; Liang, Haiqian; Li, Hui; Dou, Herong; Zhang, Minghua; Baobuhe; Du, Zhenhua; Gao, Mojie; Wang, Ruimin


    Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF-1) is an important transcription factor that participates in glucose metabolism and tumorigenesis. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of USF-1 in HepG2 cells exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). After the establishment of the OGD model in HepG2 cells, we determined that the cells treated with OGD exhibited a high apoptotic rate and that the introduction of siRNA against USF-1 protected the cells from OGD-induced apoptosis. The miRNA microarray results demonstrated that a set of miRNAs were deregulated in the cells transfected with USF-1 siRNA, and the set of downregulated miRNAs included a novel miRNA, miR-132. Further analyses indicated that miR-132 overexpression inhibits the protective roles of USF-1 siRNA in OGD-induced apoptosis. We also identified several binding sites for USF-1 in the miR-132 promoter. The silencing of USF-1 resulted in a reduction in miR-132 expression, and USF-1 overexpression increased the expression of this miRNA. Our study indicated that the silencing of USF-1 plays protective roles in OGD-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of miR-132, which indicates that the silencing of USF-1 may be a therapeutic strategy for the promotion of cancer cell survival under OGD conditions.

  9. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

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    Pawel Niemiec


    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1 influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787 were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015. TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects. In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects. In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  10. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking. (United States)

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  11. The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors. (United States)

    Landa, Iñigo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Schiavi, Francesca; Leskelä, Susanna; Pita, Guillermo; Milne, Roger; Maravall, Javier; Ramos, Ignacio; Andía, Víctor; Rodríguez-Poyo, Paloma; Jara-Albarrán, Antonino; Meoro, Amparo; del Peso, Cristina; Arribas, Luis; Iglesias, Pedro; Caballero, Javier; Serrano, Joaquín; Picó, Antonio; Pomares, Francisco; Giménez, Gabriel; López-Mondéjar, Pedro; Castello, Roberto; Merante-Boschin, Isabella; Pelizzo, Maria-Rosa; Mauricio, Didac; Opocher, Giuseppe; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; González-Neira, Anna; Matías-Guiu, Xavier; Santisteban, Pilar; Robledo, Mercedes


    In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9)). Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A) within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

  12. 大鼠髁状突颈部骨折对软骨细胞上游刺激因子1表达影响研究%Effect of unilateral condylar neck fracture on USF1 expression of the chondrocyte in growing rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱德云; 徐自祥; 陈建中; 王维琦; 赵泓霖


    目的 研究发育期SD大鼠髁状突颈部骨折对下颌髁状突软骨细胞中上游刺激因子1(USF1)表达的影响.方法 本研究于2011年7-9月在昆明医科大学口腔医学院研究所完成.选择4周龄雄性SD大鼠12只,其中6只大鼠用于制作下颌单侧髁状突颈部骨折动物模型,6只大鼠为对照.分别在术后1、3、5周时处死大鼠,取出骨折侧、骨折对侧以及空白对照的髁状突软骨.采用免疫纽织化学方法检测髁状突软骨细胞中USF1表达情况.结果 术后1周,骨折对侧空白对照组与骨折侧的USF1表达有显著性差异(P<0.01);术后3周,空白对照组与骨折侧USF1表达有显著性差异(P<0.01).骨折侧术后3周、5周与术后1周USF1表达有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论 单侧髁状突颈部骨折引起应力变化,使患侧髁状突软骨细胞中USF1表达异常,进而影响髁状突的生长发育.

  13. Discursive Study of Religion : Approaches, Definitions, Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, Kocku


    The article explores recent approaches to historical analysis of discourse that have been developed in disciplines such as the sociology of knowledge and historical epistemology. These approaches have only sporadically been taken seriously in the academic study of religion, although they have a grea

  14. Living donor liver hilar variations:surgical approaches and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onur Yaprak; Tolga Demirbas; Cihan Duran; Murat Dayangac; Murat Akyildiz; Yaman Tokat; Yildiray Yuzer


    BACKGROUND: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients. METHODS: Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria. RESULTS: Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.

  15. Bolzano's Approach to the Paradoxes of Infinity: Implications for Teaching (United States)

    Waldegg, Guillermina


    In this paper we analyze excerpts of "Paradoxes of the Infinite", the posthumous work of Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848), in order to show that Georg Cantor's (1845-1918) approach to the problem of defining actual mathematical infinity is not the most natural. In fact, Bolzano's approach to the paradoxes of infinity is more intuitive, while remaining…

  16. Postmodern Implications for Theoretical Integration of Counseling Approaches. (United States)

    Hansen, James T.


    Theoretical integration refers to the conceptual unification of diverse counseling approaches. Contends that the general failure of integrative attempts is a by-product of the modernistic epistemic context in which the systems were considered and proposes an examination of common narrative features of counseling approaches in a postmodern…

  17. The Interactional Approach to The Teaching Of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

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    Lies Amin Lestari


    Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students’ writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.

  18. The Interactional Approach to the Teaching of Writing and Its Implications for Second Language Acquisition

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    Lies Amin Lestari


    Full Text Available Writing is a language skill which is relatively difficult to acquire. A number of efforts have been made to develop the students' writing skill, among others is by applying different approaches to the teaching of writing. This article discusses the interactional approach to the teaching of writing and its implications for second language acquisition.  

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Metabolomics: Clinical Implication and Therapeutic Approach

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    Alok Kumar


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is one of the most common motor neurodegenerative disorders, primarily affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in paralysis due to muscle weakness and atrophy. The majority of patients die within 3–5 years of symptom onset as a consequence of respiratory failure. Due to relatively fast progression of the disease, early diagnosis is essential. Metabolomics offer a unique opportunity to understand the spatiotemporal metabolic crosstalks through the assessment of body fluids and tissue. So far, one of the most challenging issues related to ALS is to understand the variation of metabolites in body fluids and CNS with the progression of disease. In this paper we will review the changes in metabolic profile in response to disease progression condition and also see the therapeutic implication of various drugs in ALS patients.

  20. Managerial implications and suitability of a master surgical scheduling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen); E. Bredenhoff (Eelco); E.W. Hans (Erwin)


    textabstractMaster surgical scheduling can improve manageability and efficiency of operating room departments. This approach cyclically executes a master surgical schedule of surgery types. These surgery types need to be constructed with low variability to be efficient. Each surgery type is schedule

  1. Strategic Decision Making for Organizational Sustainability: The Implications of Servant Leadership and Sustainable Leadership Approaches

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    Judita Peterlin


    Full Text Available This conceptual paper explores the implications of servant leadership and sustainable leadership for strategic decision making by the top management of an organization. It is argued that a different type of leadership is required if effective strategic decisions are to be made in organizations striving to become more sustainable and that servant leadership and sustainable leadership approaches provide a sound basis to inform these decisions. The contributions of these two leadership approaches are explored, before considering the implications for leadership development. Particularly, the inclusion in leadership development programmes of values based leadership, and the development of integrative thinking, is discussed.

  2. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin


    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  3. Strategic Decision Making for Organizational Sustainability: The Implications of Servant Leadership and Sustainable Leadership Approaches


    Judita Peterlin; Noel J. Pearse; Vlado Dimovski


    This conceptual paper explores the implications of servant leadership and sustainable leadership for strategic decision making by the top management of an organization. It is argued that a different type of leadership is required if effective strategic decisions are to be made in organizations striving to become more sustainable and that servant leadership and sustainable leadership approaches provide a sound basis to inform these decisions. The contributions of these two leadership approache...

  4. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications (United States)

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien


    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  5. Bolzano`s Approach to the Paradoxes of Infinity: Implications for Teaching (United States)

    Waldegg, Guillermina


    In this paper we analyze excerpts of Paradoxes of the Infinite, the posthumous work of Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848), in order to show that Georg Cantor‘s (1845-1918) approach to the problem of defining actual mathematical infinity is not the most natural. In fact, Bolzano‘s approach to the paradoxes of infinity is more intuitive, while remaining internally coherent. Bolzano‘s approach, however, had limitations. We discuss implications for teaching, which include a better understanding of the responses of students to situations involving actual mathematical infinity, for it is possible to draw a kind of parallel between these responses and Bolzano‘s reasoning.

  6. On the Implications of Task-based Approach for English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the further development of globalization, more professionals with a good command of English are needed. This situation proposes new challenge for the traditional way of teaching. Many educators are engaged in exploring more feasible approaches in second language teaching, among which the Task-based Language Teaching is very prominent. This paper is mainly about the implications that the author gained from Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT).


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    Full Text Available During 1989, the moment of changes in Eastern Europe, in socialist countries political system were transformed, by renouncing communism, and adopting market based economy. The process had major implications on economic systems in countries such Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, that from that moment engaged in wide-ranging political, social, economic and institutional reforms. The year 1989 also marked the beginning of the transition from socialist economy to a market economy to centralized countries mentioned, a process with profound implications on the economic system and financial default. This important structural reforms necessary functioning new economic framework and assumed behavior modification specific old economy, focused on socialist property, presumably achieve in conditions of relative stability allowing rapidly and sustainable growth. This paper takes into discussion some models used by FMI and World Bank (WB that had implications on financial policy applied in transition country, referring to absorption theory, monetary approach to balance of payment and stabilization programs, as short terms models, respectively.

  8. Interconnection between 802.15.4 Devices and IPv6: Implications and Existing Approaches

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    Razib Hayat Khan


    Full Text Available The increasing role of home automation in routine life and the rising demand for sensor networks enhanced wireless personal area networks development, pervasiveness of wireless and wired network, and research. Soon arose the need of implementing the Internet Protocol in these devices in order to WPAN standards, raising the way for questions on how to provide seamless communication between wired and wireless technologies. After a quick overview of the Low-rate WPAN standard (IEEE 802.15.4 and the Zigbee stack, this paper focuses on understanding the implications when interconnecting low powered IEEE 802.15.4 devices and a wired IPv6 domain. Subsequently the focus will be on existing approaches to connect LoWPAN devices to the internet and on how these approaches try to solve these challenges, concluding with a critical analysis of interoperability problems.

  9. Interconnection between 802.15.4 Devices and IPv6: Implications and Existing Approaches

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    Hossen, Md Sakhawat; Khan, Razib Hayat; Azfar, Abdullah


    The increasing role of home automation in routine life and the rising demand for sensor networks enhanced wireless personal area networks (WPANs) development, pervasiveness of wireless & wired network, and research. Soon arose the need of implementing the Internet Protocol in these devices in order to WPAN standards, raising the way for questions on how to provide seamless communication between wired and wireless technologies. After a quick overview of the Low-rate WPAN standard (IEEE 802.15.4) and the Zigbee stack, this paper focuses on understanding the implications when interconnecting low powered IEEE 802.15.4 devices and a wired IPv6 domain. Subsequently the focus will be on existing approaches to connect LoWPAN devices to the internet and on how these approaches try to solve these challenges, concluding with a critical analysis of interoperability problems.

  10. General patterns of managerial approaches to work motivation: Implications for rehabilitation professionals involved in occupational rehabilitation. (United States)

    Murphy, G C; Foreman, P


    Calls for rehabilitation counselors to learn more about the world of work have been recently repeated. The validity of these calls is suggested by a group of studies which indicate that the rehabilitation counseling literature has an established emphasis on matters of counseling and adjustment rather than on matters related to behavior in organizations. A survey of rehabilitation counsellors' beliefs about key topics in organizational behavior indicates that their beliefs are often discrepant with those of practicing managers and supervisors. A summary of dominant models of work motivation adopted by managerial workers is presented and some implications for occupational rehabilitation practice identified. Finally, some contemporary literature relevant to managerial approaches to employee motivation are identified and it is suggested that familiarity with this literature could assist rehabilitation practitioners move from a more narrow occupational rehabilitation role to a broader involvement in organizational life via the expansion of the disability management approach in work organizations.

  11. Approaches to a cortical vision prosthesis: implications of electrode size and placement (United States)

    Christie, Breanne P.; Ashmont, Kari R.; House, Paul A.; Greger, Bradley


    Objective. In order to move forward with the development of a cortical vision prosthesis, the critical issues in the field must be identified. Approach. To begin this process, we performed a brief review of several different cortical and retinal stimulation techniques that can be used to restore vision. Main results. Intracortical microelectrodes and epicortical macroelectrodes have been evaluated as the basis of a vision prosthesis. We concluded that an important knowledge gap necessitates an experimental in vivo performance evaluation of microelectrodes placed on the surface of the visual cortex. A comparison of the level of vision restored by intracortical versus epicortical microstimulation is necessary. Because foveal representation in the primary visual cortex involves more cortical columns per degree of visual field than does peripheral vision, restoration of foveal vision may require a large number of closely spaced microelectrodes. Based on previous studies of epicortical macrostimulation, it is possible that stimulation via surface microelectrodes could produce a lower spatial resolution, making them better suited for restoring peripheral vision. Significance. The validation of epicortical microstimulation in addition to the comparison of epicortical and intracortical approaches for vision restoration will fill an important knowledge gap and may have important implications for surgical strategies and device longevity. It is possible that the best approach to vision restoration will utilize both epicortical and intracortical microstimulation approaches, applying them appropriately to different visual representations in the primary visual cortex.

  12. Talent or Talents: Intellectual Exceptionality Approaches and their Implications in the Educational Process

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    René Javier Barraza-López


    Full Text Available This paper points out the importance that, in the practice, the educational system gives to the academic talent, leaving in a second place other forms of talent, for example, those comprised in the multiple intelligence or emotional intelligence theories. The purpose of this paper is to present different underlying approaches of talent coexisting in education at various levels, demonstrating some of their potential implications in the educational practice and in the academic achievement of students. In this regard, the emergence of recent theories –as the multiple intelligence Gardner (2001, and the emotional intelligence Mayer and Salovey (1997 theories– has put into question the traditional intelligence approaches, which have influenced the concept and practice of teachers concerning a successful formal education. All of this tends to increase the gap between “smart” and “normal”, perpetuating the segregation culture through academic means. Based on this, this paper exposes the need to take into consideration the students’ different skills and talents when planning and evaluating the teaching-learning process, and enhance teaching training through didactic and evaluation methodologies to achieve such integration. For this, the present study provides some evaluation and classroom methodologies. The study also highlights the need to develop, systematize, and validate a broader range of teaching-learning methodologies that can be transmitted to the faculty, in order to gradually move towards a more inclusive, higher quality education.

  13. Integrating molecular and morphological approaches for characterizing parasite cryptic species: implications for parasitology. (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce


    Herein we review theoretical and methodological considerations important for finding and delimiting cryptic species of parasites (species that are difficult to recognize using traditional systematic methods). Applications of molecular data in empirical investigations of cryptic species are discussed from an historical perspective, and we evaluate advantages and disadvantages of approaches that have been used to date. Developments concerning the theory and practice of species delimitation are emphasized because theory is critical to interpretation of data. The advantages and disadvantages of different molecular methodologies, including the number and kind of loci, are discussed relative to tree-based approaches for detecting and delimiting cryptic species. We conclude by discussing some implications that cryptic species have for research programmes in parasitology, emphasizing that careful attention to the theory and operational practices involved in finding, delimiting, and describing new species (including cryptic species) is essential, not only for fully characterizing parasite biodiversity and broader aspects of comparative biology such as systematics, evolution, ecology and biogeography, but to applied research efforts that strive to improve development and understanding of epidemiology, diagnostics, control and potential eradication of parasitic diseases.

  14. An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of VET--Support Document (United States)

    Garlick, Steve; Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul


    "An Enterprising Approach to Regional Growth: Implications for Policy and the Role of Vocational Education and Training" explores patterns of regional economic growth in Australia over the period 1984 to 2002 with the aim of identifying the drivers of variation in regional growth; the research also aimed to identify regional opportunities and the…

  15. An immanent approach to death: Theological implications of a secular view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit


    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that contemporary people are increasingly ousting death from their consciousness and focussing instead on the complexities of life in a context of horizontal transcendence. This replaces the Pauline notion that death is the fruit of sin and will be overcome if its real cause, sin, is vanquished through the death and resurrection of Christ. The article shows how religions, the state and civil society have abused human fear of death in the course of history. It examines the way science has ‘biologised’ death and the impact this has on concepts such as soul, the hereafter and identity. Reflection on the hereafter tends to make light of death. The article deals with some philosophical models (especially those of Hegel and Heidegger that incorporate the negative (non-being, death into life (the subject. I then outline a model incorporating death into life at a horizontal transcendental level in order to make death plausible. The example cited is Sölle’s work. The article concludes with a discussion of some theological implications of an immanent approach to death.

  16. Characterization of lapis lazuli pigments using a multitechnique analytical approach: implications for identification and geological provenancing. (United States)

    Schmidt, Catherine M; Walton, Marc S; Trentelman, Karen


    Many of the Raman spectra obtained from areas painted with ultramarine pigments in illuminated manuscript leaves from the 14th century Italian manuscript the Laudario of Sant'Agnese, in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, also contain strong bands not typically associated with this pigment. The source of these features was investigated using a multitechnique analytical approach. Techniques employed include Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicate the presence of diopside (CaMgSi(2)O(6)), a mineral commonly associated with lapis lazuli in nature, and suggest that transition metal dopants in the diopside may be responsible for the Raman features, likely the result of fluorescence with vibronic coupling. The implication of this result with respect to using Raman spectroscopy as a fast, noninvasive, and nondestructive method for determining the geological provenance of natural lapis lazuli pigments used in art is discussed.

  17. An unbiased Bayesian approach to functional connectomics implicates social-communication networks in autism. (United States)

    Venkataraman, Archana; Duncan, James S; Yang, Daniel Y-J; Pelphrey, Kevin A


    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) studies reveal a complex pattern of hyper- and hypo-connectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whereas rsfMRI findings tend to implicate the default mode network and subcortical areas in ASD, task fMRI and behavioral experiments point to social dysfunction as a unifying impairment of the disorder. Here, we leverage a novel Bayesian framework for whole-brain functional connectomics that aggregates population differences in connectivity to localize a subset of foci that are most affected by ASD. Our approach is entirely data-driven and does not impose spatial constraints on the region foci or dictate the trajectory of altered functional pathways. We apply our method to data from the openly shared Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and pinpoint two intrinsic functional networks that distinguish ASD patients from typically developing controls. One network involves foci in the right temporal pole, left posterior cingulate cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus. Automated decoding of this network by the Neurosynth meta-analytic database suggests high-level concepts of "language" and "comprehension" as the likely functional correlates. The second network consists of the left banks of the superior temporal sulcus, right posterior superior temporal sulcus extending into temporo-parietal junction, and right middle temporal gyrus. Associated functionality of these regions includes "social" and "person". The abnormal pathways emanating from the above foci indicate that ASD patients simultaneously exhibit reduced long-range or inter-hemispheric connectivity and increased short-range or intra-hemispheric connectivity. Our findings reveal new insights into ASD and highlight possible neural mechanisms of the disorder.

  18. Spatialised fate factors for nitrate in catchments: modelling approach and implication for LCA results. (United States)

    Basset-Mens, Claudine; Anibar, Lamiaa; Durand, Patrick; van der Werf, Hayo M G


    The challenge for environmental assessment tools, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to provide a holistic picture of the environmental impacts of a given system, while being relevant both at a global scale, i.e., for global impact categories such as climate change, and at a smaller scale, i.e., for regional impact categories such as aquatic eutrophication. To this end, the environmental mechanisms between emission and impact should be taken into account. For eutrophication in particular, which is one of the main impacts of farming systems, the fate factor of eutrophying pollutants in catchments, and particularly of nitrate, reflects one of these important and complex environmental mechanisms. We define this fate factor as: the ratio of the amount of nitrate at the outlet of the catchment over the nitrate emitted from the catchment's soils. In LCA, this fate factor is most often assumed equal to 1, while the observed fate factor is generally less than 1. A generic approach for estimating the range of variation of nitrate fate factors in a region of intensive agriculture was proposed. This approach was based on the analysis of different catchment scenarios combining different catchment types and different effective rainfalls. The evolution over time of the nitrate fate factor as well as the steady state fate factor for each catchment scenario was obtained using the INCA simulation model. In line with the general LCA model, the implications of the steady state fate factors for nitrate were investigated for the eutrophication impact result in the framework of an LCA of pig production. A sensitivity analysis to the fraction of nitrate lost as N(2)O was presented for the climate change impact category. This study highlighted the difference between the observed fate factor at a given time, which aggregates both storage and transformation processes and a "steady state fate factor", specific to the system considered. The range of steady state fate factors obtained for

  19. Activation of hepatic lipase expression by oleic acid: possible involvement of USF1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Deursen (Diederik); M. van Leeuwen (Marije); D. Akdogan (Deniz); H. Adams (Hadie); H. Jansen (Hans); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie)


    textabstractPolyunsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression mainly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), but how monounsaturated fatty acids affect gene expression is poorly understood. In HepG2 cells, oleate supplemen

  20. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications (United States)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.


    concentrations and deposition predictions with the predictions of two continental-scale air quality models, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and A Unified Regional Air-quality Modeling System (AURAMS) that utilize complete inventories of emissions and chemical budgets. The results of this comparison indicated that the predictive relationship provides an accurate representation of SO2 concentrations and S deposition for the region that is generally consistent with these models, and thus provides confidence that our approach could be used to develop accurate watershed S budgets for these 15 sites. Most watersheds showed large net losses of SO42- on an annual basis, and the watershed mass balances were grouped into five categories based on the relative value of mean annual net losses or net gains. The net annual fluxes of SO42- showed a strong relationship with hydrology; the largest net annual negative fluxes were associated with years of greatest precipitation amount and highest discharge. The important role of catchment hydrology on S budgets suggests implications for future predicted climate change as it affects patterns of precipitation and drought. The sensitivity of S budgets is likely to be greatest in watersheds with the greatest wetland area, which are particularly sensitive to drying and wetting cycles. A small number of the watersheds in this analysis were shown to have substantial S sources from mineral weathering, but most showed evidence of an internal source of SO42-, which is likely from the mineralization of organic S stored from decades of increased S deposition. Mobilization of this internal S appears to contribute about 1-6 kg S ha-1 year-1 to stream fluxes at these sites and is affecting the rate and extent of recovery from acidification as S deposition rates have declined in recent years. This internal S source should be considered when developing critical deposition loads that will promote ecosystem recovery from acidification and the depl

  1. Multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach in Social Work Education and its implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reverda, Nol


    A definition of the concepts ‘multidisciplinairy and transdisciplinary work’ and the different types of reaction of social work towards the emergence of multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches.

  2. Building a quality culture in the Office of Space Flight: Approach, lessons learned and implications for the future (United States)

    Roberts, C. Shannon

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach and lessons learned by the Office of Space Flight (OSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in its introduction of quality. In particular, the experience of OSF Headquarters is discussed as an example of an organization within NASA that is considering both the business and human elements of the change and the opportunities the quality focus presents to improve continuously. It is hoped that the insights shared will be of use to those embarking upon similar cultural changes. The paper is presented in the following parts: the leadership challenge; background; context of the approach to quality; initial steps; current initiatives; lessons learned; and implications for the future.

  3. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States". (United States)

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A


    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Shifting nature conservation approaches in Natura 2000 and the implications for the roles of stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, F.; Turnhout, E.; Beunen, R.; Behagel, J.H.


    This paper analyses Natura 2000 as a shifting configuration of different approaches to nature conservation and discusses the consequences of these shifts for the roles of the stakeholders affected by this policy. Natura 2000 started with a technocratic approach that privileged conservation experts a

  5. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications (United States)

    Lam, Ricky


    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  6. The CWKB approach to non-reflecting potential and cosmological implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Biswas; I Chowdhury


    We discuss the method of calculating the reflection coeffcient using complex trajectory WKB (CWKB) approximation to understand the non-reflecting nature of the potential $U(x) = -U_{0}= \\text{cosh}^{2}(x=a)$. We show that the repeated reflections between the turning points whose paths are in conformity with Bogolubov transformation technique are essential in obtaining the non-reflecting condition. We also discuss the implications of the results when applied to the particle production scenario. We use the CWKB technique developed by one of the authors (SB) to obtain the results which agree very well with those obtained by exact quantum mechanical calculations.

  7. Animal models of temporomandibular joint disorders: implications for tissue engineering approaches. (United States)

    Almarza, Alejandro J; Hagandora, Catherine K; Henderson, Sarah E


    Animal models for temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) or degradation are necessary for assessing the value of current and future tissue engineering therapies. After reviewing the literature, it is quite apparent that most TMD animal studies can be categorized into chemical approaches or surgical/mechanical approaches. Overall, it was found that the top five cited manuscripts for all chemical models were cited by almost 40% more manuscripts than the top five manuscripts for surgical/mechanical models. It is clear that the chemical approaches have focused on the inflammatory aspect of TMDs and its relationship to pain. However, chemical irritants must be tested in larger animal models, and the effect of short-term inflammation on the mechanical properties of the fibrocartilage must be examined. Nevertheless, therapeutic approaches aimed at reducing or controlling inflammation could use the established chemical methods. Surgical/mechanical methods can be used as negative controls for first generation TMJ tissue engineering approaches when the therapy is applied immediately after injury. Next generation tissue engineering approaches will require testing on tissues degenerated for a few months after the surgical/mechanical methods, with enhanced functional assessment techniques.

  8. A bottom-up approach to technological development and its management implications in a commercial fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau


    characteristics was tested based on the definition of a technological index. Using a proportional odds model, vessel length accounted for most of the variation in technological level on board, with odds of 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.16–1.18) of a higher index value for each increase in vessel length of 1 m....... Vessel age was also significantly correlated with index values. In considering the technological index as an indicator of fishing power, the results have important implications for capacity-reduction schemes intended to reduce harvest pressure on fish stocks. In the course of such structural management...... plans, older, smaller vessels of a fleet are often replaced with newer, larger vessels within a fixed or reduced nominal capacity limit (e.g. total fleet tonnage), but according to the findings presented, nominal capacity reduction in fleet level may be undermined by increases in individual vessel...

  9. Integrated genomic approaches implicate osteoglycin (Ogn) in the regulation of left ventricular mass (United States)

    Petretto, Enrico; Sarwar, Rizwan; Grieve, Ian; Lu, Han; Kumaran, Mande K; Muckett, Phillip J; Mangion, Jonathan; Schroen, Blanche; Benson, Matthew; Punjabi, Prakash P; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pennell, Dudley J; Kiesewetter, Chris; Tasheva, Elena S; Corpuz, Lolita M; Webb, Megan D; Conrad, Gary W; Kurtz, Theodore W; Kren, Vladimir; Fischer, Judith; Hubner, Norbert; Pinto, Yigal M; Pravenec, Michal; Aitman, Timothy J; Cook, Stuart A


    Left ventricular mass (LVM) and cardiac gene expression are complex traits regulated by factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the heart. To dissect the major determinants of LVM, we combined expression quantitative trait locus1 and quantitative trait transcript2 (QTT) analyses of the cardiac transcriptome in the rat. Using these methods and in vitro functional assays, we identified osteoglycin (Ogn) as a major candidate regulator of rat LVM, with increased Ogn protein expression associated with elevated LVM. We also applied genome-wide QTT analysis to the human heart and observed that, out of ~22,000 transcripts, OGN transcript abundance had the highest correlation with LVM. We further confirmed a role for Ogn in the in vivo regulation of LVM in Ogn knockout mice. Taken together, these data implicate Ogn as a key regulator of LVM in rats, mice and humans, and suggest that Ogn modifies the hypertrophic response to extrinsic factors such as hypertension and aortic stenosis. PMID:18443592

  10. Implications of Presenting Pre-University Courses Using the Blended e-Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Kurtz


    Full Text Available This paper discusses two pre-university courses presented at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology – to two remote sites by means of blended e-Learning, a combination of face-to-face and distance learning. These were refresher courses in mathematics and physics that were offered to students who had completed their schooling early and who live and/or work in places remote from the Technion. These students had taken, in their high schools, advanced classes in these subjects. The aim of the research presented here was to examine what happens to teachers and students participating in distance learning projects. The research team accompanied the courses from conception and planning, throughout their execution, and up to the final meeting. Implications of Synchronous Distance Learning are discussed and some implementation tips are offered.

  11. Professional approaches in clinical judgements among senior and junior doctors: implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilhammar Ewa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience has traditionally been highly valued in medical education and clinical healthcare. On account of its multi-faceted nature, clinical experience is mostly difficult to articulate, and is mainly expressed in clinical situations as professional approaches. Due to retirement, hospitals in Scandinavia will soon face a substantial decrease in the number of senior specialist doctors, and it has been discussed whether healthcare will suffer an immense loss of experienced-based knowledge when this senior group leaves the organization. Both senior specialists and junior colleagues are often involved in clinical education, but the way in which these two groups vary in professional approaches and contributions to clinical education has not been so well described. Cognitive psychology has contributed to the understanding of how experience may influence professional approaches, but such studies have not included the effect of differences in position and responsibilities that junior and senior doctors hold in clinical healthcare. In the light of the discussion above, it is essential to describe the professional approaches of senior doctors in relation to those of their junior colleagues. This study therefore aims to describe and compare the professional approaches of junior and senior doctors when making clinical judgements. Methods Critical incident technique was used in interviews with nine senior doctors and nine junior doctors in internal medicine. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Result Senior and junior doctors expressed a variety of professional approaches in clinical judgement as follows: use of theoretical knowledge, use of prior experience of cases and courses of events, use of ethical and moral values, meeting and communicating with the patient, focusing on available information, relying on their own ability, getting support and guidance from others and being directed by the

  12. New statistical approaches exploit the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia - implications for the underlying neurobiology (United States)

    Schork, Andrew J.; Wang, Yunpeng; Thompson, Wesley K.; Dale, Anders M.; Andreassen, Ole A.


    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder with high heritability. Recent findings from several large genetic studies suggest a large number of risk variants are involved (i.e., schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder) and analytic approaches could be tailored for this scenario. Novel statistical approaches for analyzing GWAS data have recently been developed to be more sensitive to polygenic traits. These approaches have provided intriguing new insights into neurobiological pathways and support for the involvement of regulatory mechanisms, neurotransmission (glutamate, dopamine, GABA), and immune and neurodevelopmental pathways. Integrating the emerging statistical genetics evidence with sound neurobiological experiments will be a critical, and challenging, next step in deciphering the specific disease mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:26555806

  13. Disorders of Sex Development in Indonesia: Natural course and the implications of a stepwise multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.Z. Juniarto (Achmad)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis elaborates the stepwise diagnostic procedure in DSD patients using a multidiscipline approach to obtain the diagnosis of these patients which includes clinical assessment, hormonal, genetic, and pathological investigations, so that it is beneficial as the ba

  14. Approaches to Learning by Students in the Biological Sciences: Implications for Teaching (United States)

    Watters, Dianne J.; Watters, James J.


    This study is an investigation of the epistemological beliefs and study habits of students undertaking first-year courses in Biological Chemistry and Biochemistry. In particular, we were interested in the relationship between students' epistemological beliefs about learning and knowledge, approaches to learning, and achievement. The study adopted…

  15. An Interpersonal Psychotherapy Approach to Counseling Student Athletes: Clinical Implications of Athletic Identity (United States)

    Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.


    Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…

  16. Practical Implications of a Constructivist Approach to EFL Teaching in a Higher Education Context (United States)

    Iglesias Xamani, Montserrat


    Traditional pedagogical approaches may not be the best way to cater for the specific needs of learners in higher education settings, particularly those of university students with special expectations and professional prospects. The question of enhancing language learning awareness as a means of fostering the acquisition of a foreign language…

  17. Updating the FORECAST formative evaluation approach and some implications for ameliorating theory failure, implementation failure, and evaluation failure. (United States)

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham; Goodman, Robert M; Griffin, Sarah; Wilson, Dawn K; Schillaci, Michael


    Historically, there has been considerable variability in how formative evaluation has been conceptualized and practiced. FORmative Evaluation Consultation And Systems Technique (FORECAST) is a formative evaluation approach that develops a set of models and processes that can be used across settings and times, while allowing for local adaptations and innovations. FORECAST integrates specific models and tools to improve limitations in program theory, implementation, and evaluation. In the period since its initial use in a federally funded community prevention project in the early 1990s, evaluators have incorporated important formative evaluation innovations into FORECAST, including the integration of feedback loops and proximal outcome evaluation. In addition, FORECAST has been applied in a randomized community research trial. In this article, we describe updates to FORECAST and the implications of FORECAST for ameliorating failures in program theory, implementation, and evaluation.

  18. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy. (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger


    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  19. Implications of epigenetic modulation for novel treatment approaches in patients with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Cha, Danielle S; Kudlow, Paul A; Baskaran, Anusha; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S


    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous and complex mental disorder with high rates of disability, non-recovery, and relapse. The primary pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia are antipsychotics. Notwithstanding the efficacy of antipsychotics in ameliorating positive symptoms and reducing relapse rates, cognitive deficits and negative symptoms are not sufficiently treated with available pharmaceutical agents. Moreover, schizophrenia is associated with consistent, replicable, and clinically significant deficits in cognition. The importance of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is emphasized by reports indicating that the severity of cognitive deficits is predictive of treatment compliance, adherence, and risk of relapse among first-episode individuals. Taken together, this review highlights epigenetic modulations involving histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a potential avenue for novel treatment toward improvements in cognition and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. The combination of epigenetic modulation with pharmacological interventions that engage multiple disparate physiological systems implicated in schizophrenia are discussed, and may represent a more effective strategy in ameliorating cognitive deficits and mitigating symptoms for improved functionality.

  20. On differences between the B- and E-approaches and the implications for the Solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nekrasov, Anatoly K


    A simple collisional three-component plasma model consisting of electrons, ions, and neutrals with arbitrary collision frequencies and dynamic time scales is considered. It is shown that the usual MHD-approach dealing with magnetic field perturbations can give other results than the approach in which all perturbations are expressed via the perturbed electric field. For the partially ionized plasma with strong collisional coupling of neutrals with ions, magnetosonic (nondamping) and Alfv\\'{e}n (weakly damping) waves modified by the presence of neutrals are obtained. It is shown that the magnetic diffusivity for Alfv\\'{e}n waves appears only due to the longitudinal current connected with the field $E_{1z}$ at the angular propagation of perturbations relatively to the background magnetic field. The model can be applied to different parts of a solar atmosphere and prominences.

  1. Review of Family Business Definitions: Cluster Approach and Implications of Heterogeneous Application for Family Business Research


    Henrik Harms


    This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a d...

  2. Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Approaches to the Treatment of Hypertension with Implications for the Clinical Nurse Specialist (United States)


    thiazide diuretic). Therefore, beta - blockers are now to be considered a first step in the stepped care approach. Hypertension 12 Beta-adrenergic blockade...blocker. Hansson & Werko (1977) suggested that beta blockers may change the 0 sensitivity of the baroreceptors, which could explain the change in the...insufficiency, and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia (McMahon, 1984). Among the other medications used for hypertension, McMahon (1984) reported that beta - blockers have

  3. The implications of a feelings-based approach to fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntingford, Felicity; Adams, Colin; Braithwaite, Victoria A.;


    The welfare of fish is a topic of increasing debate touching on a number of complex scientific and ethical issues and constructive dialogue between groups with differing approaches to the topic requires mutual understanding from both perspectives. In a recent review aimed at stimulating debate...... of important issues. In this reply, we address these points and then discuss briefly the areas of agreement and constructive disagreement between the two reviews....

  4. Challenges and implications of global modeling approaches that are alternatives to using constant plant functional types (United States)

    Bodegom, P. V.


    In recent years a number of approaches have been developed to provide alternatives to the use of plant functional types (PFTs) with constant vegetation characteristics for simulating vegetation responses to climate changes. In this presentation, an overview of those approaches and their challenges is given. Some new approaches aim at removing PFTs altogether by determining the combination of vegetation characteristics that would fit local conditions best. Others describe the variation in traits within PFTs as a function of environmental drivers, based on community assembly principles. In the first approach, after an equilibrium has been established, vegetation composition and its functional attributes can change by allowing the emergence of a new type that is more fit. In the latter case, changes in vegetation attributes in space and time as assumed to be the result intraspecific variation, genetic adaptation and species turnover, without quantifying their respective importance. Hence, it is assumed that -by whatever mechanism- the community as a whole responds without major time lags to changes in environmental drivers. Recently, we showed that intraspecific variation is highly species- and trait-specific and that none of the current hypotheses on drivers of this variation seems to hold. Also genetic adaptation varies considerably among species and it is uncertain whether it will be fast enough to cope with climate change. Species turnover within a community is especially fast in herbaceous communities, but much slower in forest communities. Hence, it seems that assumptions made may not hold for forested ecosystems, but solutions to deal with this do not yet exist. Even despite the fact that responsiveness of vegetation to environmental change may be overestimated, we showed that -upon implementation of trait-environment relationships- major changes in global vegetation distribution are projected, to similar extents as to those without such responsiveness.

  5. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polcari Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP recorded during a neutral and an upsetting memory were used to assess HEV in 28 (20 F right-handed subjects who were either victims of childhood maltreatment (N = 12 or healthy controls. In a sub-population, we determined HEV by emotional response to lateral visual field stimulation (LVFS, in which vision is limited to one, then the other hemifield. We compare a number of morphometric and functional brain measures between individuals who have right-negative versus left-negative HEV. Results Using AEPs to determine HEV, we found 62% of controls and 67% of maltreated subjects had right negative HEV. There was a strong interaction between HEV-laterality and gender, which together accounted for 60% of individual variability in total grey matter volume (GMV. HEV-laterality was associated with differences in hippocampal volume, amygdala/hippocampal ratios, and measures of verbal, visual and global memory. HEV-laterality was associated also with different constellations of symptoms comparing maltreated subjects to controls. Emotional response to LVFS provided a convenient and complementary measure of HEV-laterality that correlated significantly with the HEVs determined by AEPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that HEV-laterality, like handedness or gender, is an important individual difference with significant implications for brain and behavioral research, and for guiding lateralized treatments such as rTMS.

  6. Assessing community health among indigenous populations in Ecuador with a participatory approach: implications for health reform. (United States)

    Puertas, B; Schlesser, M


    Health reform is an important movement in countries throughout the region of the Americas, which could profoundly influence how basic health services are provided and who receives them. Goals of health sector reform include to improve quality, correct inefficiencies, and reduce inequities in current systems. The latter may be especially important in countries with indigenous populations, which are thought to suffer from excess mortality and morbidity related to poverty. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a community health assessment conducted in 26 indigenous communities in the Province of Cotopaxi in rural Ecuador. It is hoped that this information will inform the health reform movement by adding to the current understanding of the health and socioeconomic situation of indigenous populations in the region while emphasizing a participatory approach toward understanding the social forces impacting upon health. This approach may serve as a model for empowering people through collective action. Recommended health reform strategies include: 1) Develop a comprehensive plan for health improvement in conjunction with stakeholders in the general population, including representatives of minority groups; 2) Conduct research on the appropriate mix between traditional medicine, primary health care strategies, and high technology medical services in relation to the needs of the general population; 3) Train local health personnel and traditional healers in primary health care techniques; 4) Improve access to secondary and tertiary health services for indigenous populations in times of emergency; and 5) Advocate for intersectoral collaboration among government institutions as well as non-governmental organizations and the private sector.

  7. Help Seeking Attitudes Among Cambodian and Laotian Refugees: Implications for Public Mental Health Approaches. (United States)

    Thikeo, Manivone; Florin, Paul; Ng, Chee


    This is a pilot study of demographic and acculturation factors in relation to attitudes toward seeking psychological help among Lao and Cambodian refugees and immigrants in the United States of America. Cambodian and Laotian American adults in the United States of America were approached to complete help-seeking attitudes and acculturation scales. T test and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the relationships between the demographic and acculturation variables, and attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Out of 270 target subjects approached there were 108 respondents. Of the demographic variables, gender was associated with favorable attitudes towards psychological help-seeking. As expected, women were significantly more likely than men to recognize the need for help, to seek psychological help, to be more open to discussing mental health problems, and have more confidence in professional services. Acculturation was more powerfully associated with help- seeking attitudes than any of the demographic variables. In hierarchical multiple regression, acculturation contributed significant unique variance over and beyond the entire set of demographic variables to openness to discussing problems and having confidence in professional help. The findings of this pilot study suggest that there are significant barriers to seeking psychological help among Lao and Cambodian Americans. Attention to the issues of gender and levels of acculturation may improve access.

  8. Millennials considered: A new generation, new approaches, and implications for nursing education. (United States)

    Pardue, Karen T; Morgan, Patricia


    A new generation is pursuing degrees in nursing. These students, 18 to 24 years old, aptly called Millennials, are technologically competent and described as optimistic and group oriented. Their propensity for multitasking, reliance on electronics, and need for immediate feedback often perplex and frustrate faculty and challenge customary approaches to teaching and learning. They often express doubt regarding their academic readiness for college. This article explores the authors' experiences with freshmen students of the Millennial generation and shares insights for working successfully with this cohort of learners. The authors assert that by developing strong partnerships with students, faculty may be able to bridge the generational gap to promote mutual understanding, personal growth, and academic success.

  9. Neurodevelopmental disorders: theoretical approaches and its implications for education and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Bissoto


    Full Text Available The neurodevelopmental disorders, mainly those genetics ones, are argued with the aim to analyze the human development conceptions that underlie these, and its impact for understanding who is the individual that carries this disorder. Methodologically, epistemological presupposition from “classical” neuropsychology and from “neuroconstructivist” neuropsychology had been compared. As results of this parallel had been considered relevant: a. the role of the individual surrounding, b. the question concerning the plasticity and dynamical character of development and c. the formal developmental process, from prenatal to postnatal period. The concluding comments claims that the Neuroconstructivist approaches allow conceiving the developmental process within genetics neurodevelopmental disorders not as a “fault” but as a differentiated and particular one. That should be understood in the Educational and Rehabilitation settings not as a nosological category but as a specific way of an individual acting while looking for a mode of being-in-the-world.

  10. Anatomic study of the occipital condyle and its surgical implications in transcondylar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Guruprasad Kalthur


    Full Text Available Background: Craniovertebral surgeries require the anatomical knowledge of craniovertebral junction. The human occipital condyle (OC is unique bony structure connecting the cranium and the vertebral column. A lateral approach like transcondylar approach (TA requires understanding of the relationships between the OC, jugular tubercle, and hypoglossal canal. Hence, the aim of the present study was to analyze the morphological variations in OCs of dry adult human skull. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 142 OC of 71 adult human dry skulls (55 males and 16 females. Morphometric parameters such as length, width, thickness, intercondylar distances, and the distances from the OC to the foramen magnum, hypoglossal canal and jugular foramen were measured. In addition, the different locations of the hypoglossal canal orifices in relation to the OC and different shapes of the OC were also noted. Results: The average length, width and height of the OC were found to be 2.2, 1.1 and 0.9 cm. The anterior and posterior intercondylar distances were 2.1 and 3.9 cm, respectively. Maximum and minimum bicondylar distances were 4.5 and 2.6 cm, respectively. The intra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be present in middle 1/3 rd in all skulls (100%, and extra-cranial orifice of the hypoglossal canal was found to be in anterior 1/3 rd (98% in relation to OC. The oval shaped OC (22.5% was the most predominant type of OC observed in these skulls. Conclusion: Occipital condyle is likely to have variations with respect to shape, length, width and its orientation. Therefore, knowledge of the variations in OC along with careful radiological analysis may help in safe TAs during skull base surgery.

  11. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, H.T.


    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  12. Adolescent Maternal Lifecourse Outcomes: Implications from an Integrated Mental Health Services Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Russell


    Full Text Available Family intervention literature on adolescent parenting describes the pathways between outcomes for adolescent mothers and their children and the contexts of the pregnancy itself (e.g., poverty, low or no prenatal care, lower educational attainment. The aim of these descriptions is often to inform intervention designs that promote adaptive functioning for the child, the mother, and the dyad. Mental health services are an important component of many of these interventions; these services may be delivered by a clinician within the organization providing the intervention, or the organization may connect mothers with external mental health services in their communities. Using in-house clinicians rather than external providers may be beneficial by decreasing the high attrition rates common to this population. Although this service delivery approach is theoretically appealing, it has not been subject to rigorous empirical evaluation. In the current randomized study, we examine outcomes for teenage mothers based on two service delivery methods: Integrated Mental Health Services (IMHS and the Standard of Care (SoC which outsources clients’ mental health needs through community referrals. Information about the effectiveness of service delivery strategies can help program providers make decisions about how best to allocate limited funds to provide effective services.

  13. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stankov


    Full Text Available An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  14. Reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities: multidisciplinary approach for genetic counseling and its implications. (United States)

    Guo, K M; Wu, B; Wang, H B; Tian, R H


    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of infertility. Infertility, as a psychological problem, has received an increasing amount of attention. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertile patients with chromosomal abnormalities. The present study explored reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities, who accepted genetic counseling and psychological support. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and G-banding. The detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities was 10.3% in pre-pregnancy counseled males, with polymorphisms being most common, followed by 47,XXY and balanced translocation. Follow-up of 170 carriers with normozoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 94.7% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of polymorphisms, balanced translocation, inv(9), Robertsonian translocation, inversion, and 47,XYY, live birth rates were 96.8, 85.7, 100, 83.3, 75, and 100%, respectively. Follow-up of 54 carriers with oligozoospermia or azoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 14.8% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of 47,XXY with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia, 80 or 5.9% of the cases resulted in live births, respectively. Therefore, timely psychological support would be beneficial and multidisciplinary approach should be preferentially considered for the management of individuals with chromosomal abnormalities.

  15. Cognitive and behavioral characteristics of children with Williams syndrome: implications for intervention approaches. (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; John, Angela E


    Portrayals of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, have reached the general public through a variety of media formats. These descriptions are often paradoxical in nature with individuals with WS repeatedly described as demonstrating near-normal language despite the presence of significant intellectual disability and as being extremely sociable and friendly in spite of their seemingly limited understanding of basic social norms. While this depiction of WS served to attract the interest of basic-science researchers, the results of subsequent studies have provided a more nuanced view. For example, rather than across-the-board "near-normal" language, children with WS demonstrate relative strengths in concrete vocabulary and verbal short-term memory, grammatical abilities at the level expected for general intellectual ability, and considerable weakness in relational/conceptual language and pragmatics (social use of language). To provide a more thorough characterization of the WS behavioral phenotype, we summarize recent findings related to intellectual ability, language development, memory development, executive function development, adaptive behavior skills, and behavior as it relates to learning by children with WS. Finally, we briefly discuss intervention approaches that may help children with WS to achieve their full potential.

  16. Palatini approach to 1/R gravity and its implications to the late Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, G M; Kremer, Gilberto M.; Alves, Daniele S. M.


    By applying the Palatini approach to the 1/R-gravity model it is possible to explain the present accelerated expansion of the Universe. Investigation of the late Universe limiting case shows that: (i) due to the curvature effects the energy-momentum tensor of the matter field is not covariantly conserved; (ii) however, it is possible to reinterpret the curvature corrections as sources of the gravitational field, by defining a modified energy-momentum tensor; (iii) with the adoption of this modified energy-momentum tensor the Einstein's field equations are recovered with two main modifications: the first one is the weakening of the gravitational effects of matter whereas the second is the emergence of an effective varying "cosmological constant"; (iv) there is a transition in the evolution of the cosmic scale factor from a power-law scaling $a\\propto t^{11/18}$ to an asymptotically exponential scaling $a\\propto \\exp(t)$; (v) the energy density of the matter field scales as $\\rho_m\\propto (1/a)^{36/11}$; (vi) t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RUDNEVA


    Full Text Available Despite the theoretical possibility to use non-territorial autonomy as a mechanism through which ethnic groups can fulfil their right to selfdetermination along with other minority rights, not many states have been willing to put theory into practice. The article offers an explanation why wider applicability of NTA is problematic by arguing that the theory itself is not yet polished enough to be implemented. The study includes examination of both theoretical approaches and empirical data from a case study of an attempt to establish NTAs in the Russian Federation. The findings suggest that inconsistencies and unclarities in the theory do correlate with practical flaws of NTAs, which allows to suggest that when the theory is tested empirically, the reality reveals all the flaws of the theory. The results indicate that the concept of NTA needs further refinement and development to make it more practice-oriented and applicable. As the problem of minority rights is still to be dealt with, we also propose a model of global union of NTAs where each ethnic group is represented by a non-governmental organisation, which seems to be more applicable than the others, alongside a number of other mechanisms that are even more essential and universal and focus on defending basic human rights

  18. Care concept in medical and nursing students’ descriptions – Philosophical approach and implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Dobrowolska


    Full Text Available [b]introduction.[/b] Care is seen as something that is peculiar to the medical sciences but its meaning and status for physicians and nurses differs. objectives. The aim of this research was to learn how nursing and medical students understand and define care, and how their definition and views on their practice of caring change as they advance through their studies. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted among two groups of students: before and after their first practicum (n=102. Analysis of the students’ answers was carried out using Colaizzi’s phenomenological descriptive methodology, which means that a qualitative approach was used. [b]results[/b]. The qualitative analysis shows that the medical and nursing students define care in the same way, using 9 main categories: compassion, commitment, competence, confidence, conscience, communication, patience, courage and support. The nursing students viewed their caring to be within both practical and emotional dimensions and this was a core feature of their identity as nurses. Medical students, on the other hand, viewed the practical dimension of care as an additional activity. All the students in the study underlined the importance of having time to care and showed that, for them, ‘time’ in this context has a moral meaning. What was interesting to the research team centered on the initial attitudes to ‘caring’ from both medical and nursing students. [b]conclusions[/b]. We found that students of both nursing and medicine do not begin their studies with different attitudes and concepts of care. However, after their initial exposure to practical placements a process begins which forges different identities around the concept of care. This implies trends in the division of professional roles during their initial education.

  19. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-4: Applications and Implications of New Technology in Textiles and Clothing. (United States)

    Joseph, Marjory

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on applications and implications of new technology in textiles and clothing is the fourth in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching…

  20. Structural similarity between binding sites in influenza sialidase and isocitrate dehydrogenase: implications for an alternative approach to rational drug design.


    Poirrette, A. R.; Artymiuk, P. J.; Grindley, H. M.; Rice, D.W.; Willett, P.


    Using searching techniques based on algorithms derived from graph theory, we have established a similarity between a 3-dimensional cluster of side chains implicated in drug binding in influenza sialidase and side chains involved in isocitrate binding in Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase. The possible implications of the use of such comparative methods in drug design are discussed.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach (United States)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.


    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  2. The Rights-Based Approach to Adult Education: Implications for NGO-Government Partnerships in Southern Tanzania (United States)

    Macpherson, Ian


    This article relates key findings from an ethnographic study into the implementation of the Rights-Based Approach in Tanzania. The Rights-Based Approach is a burgeoning approach in international development that emphasises the rights of citizens and the duties of the State to provide services to the poor. By using the theoretical frameworks of…

  3. Implication of microdosimetric approach for the radiation protection dosimetry; Implications de l'approche microdosimetrique pour la dosimetrie de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihet, P.; Aubineau-Laniece, I.; Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Rannou, A. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), 92 (France); Bardies, M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 44 - Nantes (France)


    The use of concept such dose equivalent puts difficulties in the case of non uniform exposure to ionizing radiations. These situations are not exceptional. They concern the external exposures to radiations such neutrons, ions, for which the energy is absorbed in cells. The dose distribution delivered to cells is generally non uniform in case of exposure to radioisotopes incorporated and kept in tissues that are alpha, or beta or Auger electrons emitters. The notion of average dose to the tissue or organ and the approach to weight the radiation quality can become difficult to apply. The applicability of the actual dosimetric system can be matter of discussion, on the validity of a simple relationship between the dose equivalent and the average absorbed dose, on the value fixed for the weighting factor or on the method to adopt for a quantitative evaluation of an internal non uniform exposure. (N.C.)

  4. A Low-intensity Approach for Early Intervention and Detection of Childhood Disability in Central Java: Long-term Findings and Implications for “Inclusive Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Maratmo


    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes a qualitative follow-up study, conducted eight years after completion of a low-intensity early intervention and detection of childhood disability project in Central Java, Indonesia. The original project sought to increase the level of skills and engagement of existing community health volunteers, for the support of children with disabilities. This followup study explored long-term outcomes and implications for the inclusive development approach.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 of the original volunteers. Interview notes were translated and thematically categorised.Results: While the study was qualitative and descriptive, results indicate that despite the low intensity of the project, some early detection and prevention activities were still going on eight years later.Conclusions: The study suggests that a low-intensity initiative such as this, which is closely aligned with the goals of a government department, may indeed achieve some ongoing change by extending the focus of the department towards disability-related concerns.Implications: Implications are drawn for the emerging area of “inclusive development”, which similarly seeks to promote change in mainstream services for the benefit of people with disabilities.DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.48

  5. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.


    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  6. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark


    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  7. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing leamers'communicative competences to equip them to be,proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However.communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more.workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  8. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing learners'communicative competences to equip them to be proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However,communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  9. A multi-dimensional approach for describing internal bleeding in an artery: implications for Doppler ultrasound guiding HIFU hemostasis (United States)

    Yang, Di; Zhang, Dong; Guo, Xiasheng; Gong, Xiufen; Fei, Xingbo


    Doppler ultrasound has shown promise in detecting and localizing internal bleeding. A mathematical approach was developed to describe the internal bleeding of the injured artery surrounded by tissue. This approach consisted of a two-dimensional (2D) model describing the injured vessel and a one-dimensional model (1D) mimicking the downstream of the vessel system. The validity of this approach was confirmed by both the numerical simulation and in vivo measurement of a normal porcine femoral artery. Furthermore, the artery was injured using a 16-gauge needle to model a penetrating injury. The velocity waveform at the puncture site was modeled and compared with those at the upstream and downstream of the artery. The results demonstrated that there was a significant increase in magnitude and a phase lag for the peak systolic velocity at the injury site. These results were qualitatively in agreement with the in vivo experiment. Flow turbulence indicated by this approach was also observed in a color Doppler image in the form of a checkered color pattern. This approach might be useful for quantitative internal bleeding detection and localization. Also, the phase lag of the peak systolic velocity was indicated to be potential in the application of internal bleeding detection.

  10. A multi-dimensional approach for describing internal bleeding in an artery: implications for Doppler ultrasound guiding HIFU hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Di; Zhang Dong; Guo Xiasheng; Gong Xiufen [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Fei Xingbo [Beijing Yuande Biomedical Company, Beijing 100176 (China)], E-mail:


    Doppler ultrasound has shown promise in detecting and localizing internal bleeding. A mathematical approach was developed to describe the internal bleeding of the injured artery surrounded by tissue. This approach consisted of a two-dimensional (2D) model describing the injured vessel and a one-dimensional model (1D) mimicking the downstream of the vessel system. The validity of this approach was confirmed by both the numerical simulation and in vivo measurement of a normal porcine femoral artery. Furthermore, the artery was injured using a 16-gauge needle to model a penetrating injury. The velocity waveform at the puncture site was modeled and compared with those at the upstream and downstream of the artery. The results demonstrated that there was a significant increase in magnitude and a phase lag for the peak systolic velocity at the injury site. These results were qualitatively in agreement with the in vivo experiment. Flow turbulence indicated by this approach was also observed in a color Doppler image in the form of a checkered color pattern. This approach might be useful for quantitative internal bleeding detection and localization. Also, the phase lag of the peak systolic velocity was indicated to be potential in the application of internal bleeding detection.

  11. Psychological Needs, Engagement, and Work Intentions: A Bayesian Multi-Measurement Mediation Approach and Implications for HRD (United States)

    Shuck, Brad; Zigarmi, Drea; Owen, Jesse


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) within the engagement-performance linkage. Design/methodology/approach: Bayesian multi-measurement mediation modeling was used to estimate the relation between SDT, engagement and a proxy measure of performance (e.g. work intentions) (N =…

  12. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baynes, Timothy, E-mail: [Ecosystems Science Division, CSIRO, P.O. Box 310, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Lenzen, Manfred, E-mail: [ISA, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Steinberger, Julia K., E-mail: [Institute of Social Ecology Alpen-Adria University, Schottenfeldg. 29, Vienna A-1070 (Austria); Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS29JT (United Kingdom); Bai Xuemei, E-mail: [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: > We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. > Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. > Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. > We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. > A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  13. Modeling Turkish M2 broad money demand: a portfolio-based approach using implications for monetary policy


    Levent, Korap


    In this paper, a money demand model upon M2 broad monetary aggregate for the Turkish economy is examined in a portfolio-based approach considering various alternative cost measures to hold money. Employing multivariate co-integration methodology of the same order integrated variables, our estimation results indicate that there exists a theoretically plausible co-integrating vector in the long-run money demand variable space. The main alternative costs to demand for money are found as the depr...

  14. Analysis of eighty-four commercial aviation incidents - Implications for a resource management approach to crew training (United States)

    Murphy, M. R.


    A resource management approach to aircrew performance is defined and utilized in structuring an analysis of 84 exemplary incidents from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. The distribution of enabling and associated (evolutionary) and recovery factors between and within five analytic categories suggests that resource management training be concentrated on: (1) interpersonal communications, with air traffic control information of major concern; (2) task management, mainly setting priorities and appropriately allocating tasks under varying workload levels; and (3) planning, coordination, and decisionmaking concerned with preventing and recovering from potentially unsafe situations in certain aircraft maneuvers.

  15. A Systems Approach Implicates a Brain Mitochondrial Oxidative Homeostasis Co-expression Network in Genetic Vulnerability to Alcohol Withdrawal (United States)

    Walter, Nicole A. R.; Denmark, DeAunne L.; Kozell, Laura B.; Buck, Kari J.


    Genetic factors significantly affect vulnerability to alcohol dependence (alcoholism). We previously identified quantitative trait loci on distal mouse chromosome 1 with large effects on predisposition to alcohol physiological dependence and associated withdrawal following both chronic and acute alcohol exposure in mice (Alcdp1 and Alcw1, respectively). We fine-mapped these loci to a 1.1–1.7 Mb interval syntenic with human 1q23.2-23.3. Alcw1/Alcdp1 interval genes show remarkable genetic variation among mice derived from the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains, the two most widely studied genetic animal models for alcohol-related traits. Here, we report the creation of a novel recombinant Alcw1/Alcdp1 congenic model (R2) in which the Alcw1/Alcdp1 interval from a donor C57BL/6J strain is introgressed onto a uniform, inbred DBA/2J genetic background. As expected, R2 mice demonstrate significantly less severe alcohol withdrawal compared to wild-type littermates. Additionally, comparing R2 and background strain animals, as well as reciprocal congenic (R8) and appropriate background strain animals, we assessed Alcw1/Alcdp1 dependent brain gene expression using microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. To our knowledge this includes the first Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis using reciprocal congenic models. Importantly, this allows detection of co-expression patterns limited to one or common to both genetic backgrounds with high or low predisposition to alcohol withdrawal severity. The gene expression patterns (modules) in common contain genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, building upon human and animal model studies that implicate involvement of oxidative phosphorylation in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Finally, we demonstrate that administration of N-acetylcysteine, an FDA-approved antioxidant, significantly reduces symptoms of alcohol withdrawal (convulsions) in mice, thus validating a phenotypic role for this network. Taken together, these studies

  16. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect. A spatial temporal modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borren, W.


    The vast watershed mires of Western Siberia formed a significant sink of carbon during the Holocene. Because of their large area these mires might play an important role in the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. However, estimation of the Holocene and future carbon balance of whole Western Siberian mires is hampered by the lack of spatially resolved models. The main objective was to assess the carbon exchange fluxes of the mires using a 3-D dynamic approach. These exchange fluxes comprise the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by peat growth, the emission of methane (CH4) by anaerobic peat decay and the emission of CO2 by aerobic peat decay. From the detailed analysis of peat cores from different sites in the southern taiga of Western Siberia, it emerged that Holocene peat growth and carbon accumulation had different trends, caused by variations in vegetation succession. These differences were strongly influenced by the position in the landscape. Therefore, the effect of climatic change on mire development varied spatially. The indirect effects of climate change through local hydrology appeared to be more important than direct influences of changes in precipitation and temperature. Mire development is closely connected to hydrological dynamics. In the thesis a 3-D dynamic modeling approach is described that makes use of groundwater modeling. In successive timesteps peat growth and decay as well as mire type distribution were calculated, depending on hydrological conditions. The model was forced with a paleo-precipitation record to include variable climatic input. The model results show the Holocene development of a watershed mire from a few small spots to a contiguous mire landscape. As hydrology is the major limiting factor, the mire development is most sensitive to precipitation and evapotranspiration. Under unchanged conditions the mire will grow further, eventually reaching its maximum peat thickness around 11400 yr A.D. Under

  17. Progress in the unraveling of the endoplasmic reticulum stress/autophagy pathway and cancer: implications for future therapeutic approaches. (United States)

    Schleicher, Stephen M; Moretti, Luigi; Varki, Vinod; Lu, Bo


    Given the inherent resistance to apoptosis that characterizes cancer, the targeting of alternative pathways is an attractive strategy to improve anti-tumor therapy. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is basally activated in many cancers, and the subsequent activation of autophagy represent novel cancer treatment targets. While these associated pathways are often protective and promote cell survival, when excessive, ER stress results in autophagic cell death. Therefore, depending on the circumstances, either inhibition or activation of ER stress and autophagy can improve cancer therapy. This review provides an update on how ER stress relates to autophagy, and how these associated pathways can serve dual functions to promote survival or cell death in cancer. Furthermore, it lays out a spectrum of potential pharmacological agents and combinatorial approaches that target these pathways to enhance tumor cell kill.

  18. A multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach to define structural and hydrogeological implications of the Molinaccio spring (Spello, Italy) (United States)

    Ercoli, Maurizio; Pauselli, Cristina; Forte, Emanuele; Di Matteo, Lucio; Mazzocca, Massimiliano; Frigeri, Alessandro; Federico, Costanzo


    In this paper, a multidisciplinary geological and geophysical approach has been applied in the complex area of Molinaccio spring (Spello, Umbria, Central Italy) to: 1) understand the large-scale geologic and tectonic structure of the area; 2) define the hydrogeological behavior of the various formations in relationship with the identified structural elements; 3) highlight at small-scale the tectonic structures and their relationships with the water caption tunnel, which is the draining structure of a still working, ancient Roman aqueduct giving water to the village of Spello and to the surrounding plain. Our approach includes different techniques like Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), direct geological investigations, archaeological studies, GIS data collection and integration. The GPR data revealed, in the area of the water-caption tunnel, two main tectonic structures, both also confirmed by ERT data: the presence of a zone (maximum 2 m wide), interpreted as a normal fault area and an overthrust that puts in contact the permeable Scaglia Rossa limestone (Early Turonian-Middle Eocene), and the Scaglia Variegata-Cinerea marly limestones (Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene) on the footwall, characterized by lower hydraulic permeability. Using some rough information available on the sub-surface path of the tunnel, that shows a sharp bend after a long straight course, together with the geophysical images, was possible to describe how Romans built the tunnel: they probably followed the wet outcropping rock during the excavation, and changed abruptly the dig direction when they intercepted the normal fault area, aligning then the excavation along its strike. This latter result is important also because recently a multidisciplinary project has been developed to restore and exploit the entire water supply structure, which is not only a well-preserved example of Roman remains with high archaeological value, but also a vital

  19. Dissecting the role of microRNAs in prostate cancer metastasis: implications for the design of novel therapeutic approaches. (United States)

    Doldi, Valentina; Pennati, Marzia; Forte, Barbara; Gandellini, Paolo; Zaffaroni, Nadia


    Metastatic prostate cancer is a lethal disease that remains incurable despite the recent approval of new drugs, thus making the development of alternative treatment approaches urgently needed. A more precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer dissemination could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the design of efficient anti-metastatic strategies. MicroRNA (miRNAs) are endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules acting as key regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. It has been clearly established that altered miRNA expression is a common hallmark of cancer. In addition, emerging evidence suggests their direct involvement in the metastatic cascade. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the data generated in experimental tumor models indicating that specific miRNAs may impinge on the different stages of prostate cancer metastasis, including (i) the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell migration/invasion, (ii) the interplay between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma, (iii) the control of angiogenesis, (iv) the regulation of anoikis, and (v) the colonization of distant organs. Moreover, we show preliminary evidence of the clinical relevance of some of these miRNAs, in terms of association with tumor aggressiveness/dissemination and clinical outcome, as emerged from translation studies carried out in prostate cancer patient cohorts. We also discuss the potential and the current limitations of manipulating metastasis-related miRNAs, by mimicking or inhibiting them, as a strategy for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the advanced disease.

  20. Potential habitat of Javan Hawk-Eagle based on multi-scale approach and its implication for conservation (United States)

    Nurfatimah, C.; Syartinilia; Mulyani, Y. A.


    In Indonesia the Javan Hawk-Eagle has been designated as one of the 25 top priority protected species to be increased by 10% of current population number. Lack of suitable habitat is most likely the reason for the decline of the species in landscapes subject to major human modification. Central part of Java Island has suffered the most severe forest damage and fragmentation compared to the western part and eastern part of the island. This study presents the number of predicted suitable habitats for Javan Hawk-Eagle in the central part of Java Island based on habitat probability model. Multi-scale approach was being used to determine the accuracy level of patches reading between different image resolutions. 38 patches were detected at 30 m2, 28 patches at 90 m2, and 19 patches were detected at 250 m2 images resolutions. Higher reading implied more landscape structures within different regions should be considered during management of habitat conservation. Therefore, larger scale of conservation management application should be conducted as well.

  1. An evo-devo approach to thyroid hormones in cerebral and cerebellar cortical development: Etiological implications for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere eBerbel


    Full Text Available The morphological alterations of cortical lamination observed in mouse models of developmental hypothyroidism prompted the recognition that these experimental changes resembled the brain lesions of children with autism; this led to recent studies showing that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency increases fourfold the risk of ASD, offering for the first time the possibility of prevention of some forms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. For ethical reasons, the role of thyroid hormones on brain development is currently studied using animal models, usually mice and rats. Although mammals have in common many basic developmental principles regulating brain development, as well as fundamental basic mechanisms that are controlled by similar metabolic pathway activated genes, there are also important differences. For instance, the rodent cerebral cortex is basically a primary cortex, whereas the primary sensory areas in humans account for a very small surface in the cerebral cortex when compared to the associative and frontal areas that are more extensive. Associative and frontal areas in humans are involved in many neurological disorders, including ASD, attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD and dyslexia, among others. Therefore, an evo-devo approach to neocortical evolution among species is fundamental to understand not only the role of thyroid hormones and environmental thyroid disruptors on evolution, development and organization of the cerebral cortex in mammals, but also their role in neurological diseases associated to thyroid dysfunction.

  2. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study - an elemental mass balance approach (United States)

    Czerny, J.; Schulz, K. G.; Boxhammer, T.; Bellerby, R. G. J.; Büdenbender, J.; Engel, A.; Krug, S. A.; Ludwig, A.; Nachtigall, K.; Nondal, G.; Niehoff, B.; Silyakova, A.; Riebesell, U.


    Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air-sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation), all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon uptake in two of

  3. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny


    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  4. Sensitivity analysis and implications for surface processes from a hydrological modelling approach in the Gunt catchment, high Pamir Mountains (United States)

    Pohl, E.; Knoche, M.; Gloaguen, R.; Andermann, C.; Krause, P.


    A clear understanding of the hydrology is required to capture surface processes and potential inherent hazards in orogens. Complex climatic interactions control hydrological processes in high mountains that in their turn regulate the erosive forces shaping the relief. To unravel the hydrological cycle of a glaciated watershed (Gunt River) considered representative of the Pamir Mountains' hydrologic regime, we developed a remote-sensing-based approach. At the boundary between two distinct climatic zones dominated by the Westerlies and Indian summer monsoon, the Pamir Mountains are poorly instrumented and only a few in situ meteorological and hydrological data are available. We adapted a suitable conceptual distributed hydrological model (J2000g). Interpolations of the few available in situ data are inadequate due to strong, relief-induced, spatial heterogeneities. Instead of these we use raster data, preferably from remote sensing sources depending on availability and validation. We evaluate remote-sensing-based precipitation and temperature products. MODIS MOD11 surface temperatures show good agreement with in situ data, perform better than other products, and represent a good proxy for air temperatures. For precipitation we tested remote sensing products as well as the HAR10 climate model data and the interpolation-based APHRODITE data set. All products show substantial differences both in intensity and seasonal distribution with in situ data. Despite low resolutions, the data sets are able to sustain high model efficiencies (NSE ≥ 0.85). In contrast to neighbouring regions in the Himalayas or the Hindu Kush, discharge is dominantly the product of snow and glacier melt, and thus temperature is the essential controlling factor. Eighty percent of annual precipitation is provided as snow in winter and spring contrasting peak discharges during summer. Hence, precipitation and discharge are negatively correlated and display complex hysteresis effects that allow for

  5. Quantitative Integration of High-Resolution Hydrogeophysical Data: A Novel Approach to Monte-Carlo-Type Conditional Stochastic Simulations and Implications for Hydrological Predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baptiste Dafflon; James Irving; Klaus Holliger


    dataset collected at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site. Finally, we compare the performance of our data integration approach to that of more conventional methods with regard to the prediction of flow and transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media and discuss the Implications arising.

  6. Integrating care for people with mental illness: the Care Programme Approach in England and its implications for long-term conditions management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Goodwin


    Full Text Available Introduction: This policy paper considers what the long-term conditions policies in England and other countries could learn from the experience of the Care Programme Approach (CPA. The CPA was introduced in England in April 1991 as the statutory framework for people requiring support in the community for more severe and enduring mental health problems. The CPA approach is an example of a long-standing 'care co-ordination' model that seeks to develop individualised care plans and then attempt to integrate care for patients from a range of providers.Policy description: The CPA experience is highly relevant to both the English and international debates on the future of long-term conditions management where the agenda has focused on developing co-ordinated care planning and delivery between health and social care; to prioritise upstream interventions that promote health and wellbeing; and to provide for a more personalised service.Conclusion: This review of the CPA experience suggests that there is the potential for better care integration for those patients with multiple or complex needs where a strategy of personalised care planning and pro-active care co-ordination is provided. However, such models will not reach their full potential unless a number of preconditions are met including: clear eligibility criteria; standardised measures of service quality; a mix of governance and incentives to hold providers accountable for such quality; and genuine patient involvement in their own care plans.Implications: Investment and professional support to the role of the care co-ordinator is particularly crucial. Care co-ordinators require the requisite skills and competencies to act as a  care professional  to the patient as well as to have the power to exert authority among other care professionals to ensure multidisciplinary care plans are implemented successfully. Attention to inter-professional practice, culture, leadership and organisational

  7. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)


    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  8. The health system and population health implications of large-scale diabetes screening in India: a microsimulation model of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu


    Full Text Available Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India.We developed and validated a microsimulation model that incorporated data from 58 studies from across the country into a nationally representative sample of Indians aged 25-65 y old. We estimated the diagnostic and health system implications of three major survey-based screening instruments and random glucometer-based screening. Of the 567 million Indians eligible for screening, depending on which of four screening approaches is utilized, between 158 and 306 million would be expected to screen as "high risk" for type 2 diabetes, and be referred for confirmatory testing. Between 26 million and 37 million of these people would be expected to meet international diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but between 126 million and 273 million would be "false positives." The ratio of false positives to true positives varied from 3.9 (when using random glucose screening to 8.2 (when using a survey-based screening instrument in our model. The cost per case found would be expected to be from US$5.28 (when using random glucose screening to US$17.06 (when using a survey-based screening instrument, presenting a total cost of between US$169 and US$567 million. The major limitation of our analysis is its dependence on published cohort studies that are unlikely fully to capture the poorest and most rural areas of the country. Because these areas are thought to have the lowest diabetes prevalence, this may result in overestimation of the efficacy and health benefits of screening.Large-scale community-based screening is anticipated to produce a large number of false-positive results, particularly if using currently available survey-based screening

  9. 交际教学法及其对大学英语教学的启示%Communicative Approach and Its Implications for College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The current teaching syllabus adopts the communicative approach, which is well established as the dominant theoretical model in College English teaching. This paper aims to discuss some problems of present English teach- ing approach, to state the principles and advantages of communicative approach, and to give some advice on how to make the English class more communicative.%目前,大学英语教学中普遍采用交际教学法。本文论述了目前大学英语教学方法存在的一些问题,阐述了交际教学法的基本原则和优点,以及如何适应英语教学课堂更加交际化。

  10. Assessing the implications on performance when aligning customer lifetime value calculations with religious faith groups and afterlifetime values - a Socratic elenchus approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wilson, Jonathan


    Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) is an established relationship marketing-centric approach to evaluating performance based upon the significance of a customer, and what resources should be allocated towards maintaining relations – beyond short-term transactional views. The conceptual argument...... the branding strategy, based on maximising the sum of CLV and CALV(Customer AfterLife Time Value)...

  11. Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program Admissions: Differential Values as a Function of Program Characteristics and the Implications of the Mentor-Model Approach (United States)

    Metzger, Jesse A.


    The aims of this research were to 1) examine the qualities for which applicants are selected for entrance into clinical psychology Ph.D. programs, and 2) investigate the prevalence and impact of the mentor-model approach to admissions on multiple domains of programs and the field at large. Fifty Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) provided data…

  12. The Challenges of Using the Communicative Approach (CA) in the Teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Zimbabwe: Implications for ESL Teacher Education (United States)

    Mutekwa, Anias


    This article examines studies done on the use of the CA locally, in addition to insights from studies done abroad, as well as critically examining the nature of the CA and the language situation in Zimbabwe, to identify and discuss the main challenges associated with the use of this approach to the teaching of ESL in Zimbabwe and its implications…

  13. Probing secondary glutaminyl cyclase (QC) inhibitor interactions applying an in silico-modeling/site-directed mutagenesis approach: implications for drug development. (United States)

    Koch, Birgit; Buchholz, Mirko; Wermann, Michael; Heiser, Ulrich; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich


    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate-modified amyloid peptides deposited in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Inhibitors of QC are currently in development as potential therapeutics. The crystal structures of the potent inhibitor PBD150 bound to human and murine QC (hQC, mQC) have been described recently. The binding modes of a dimethoxyphenyl moiety of the inhibitor are significantly different between the structures, which contrasts with a similar K(i) value. We show the conformation of PBD150 prone to disturbance by protein-protein interactions within the crystals. Semi-empirical calculations of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction within the crystal suggest significant differences in the dissociation constants between the binding modes. To probe for interactions in solution, a site-directed mutagenesis on hQC was performed. The replacement of F325 and I303 by alanine or asparagine resulted in a 800-fold lower activity of the inhibitor, whereas the exchange of S323 by alanine or valine led to a 20-fold higher activity of PBD150. The results provide an example of deciphering the interaction mode between a target enzyme and lead substance in solution, if co-crystallization does not mirror such interactions properly. Thus, the study might provide implications for rapid screening of binding modes also for other drug targets.

  14. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira


    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  15. Federal technology transfer requirements :a focused study of principal agencies approaches with implications for the Department of Homeland Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, Denise; Micheau, Jill M.


    This report provides relevant information and analysis to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that will assist DHS in determining how to meet the requirements of federal technology transfer legislation. These legal requirements are grouped into five categories: (1) establishing an Office of Research and Technology Applications, or providing the functions thereof; (2) information management; (3) enabling agreements with non-federal partners; (4) royalty sharing; and (5) invention ownership/obligations. These five categories provide the organizing framework for this study, which benchmarks other federal agencies/laboratories engaged in technology transfer/transition Four key agencies--the Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense (DoD)--and several of their laboratories have been surveyed. An analysis of DHS's mission needs for commercializing R&D compared to those agencies/laboratories is presented with implications and next steps for DHS's consideration. Federal technology transfer legislation, requirements, and practices have evolved over the decades as agencies and laboratories have grown more knowledgeable and sophisticated in their efforts to conduct technology transfer and as needs and opinions in the federal sector have changed with regards to what is appropriate. The need to address requirements in a fairly thorough manner has, therefore, resulted in a lengthy paper. There are two ways to find summary information. Each chapter concludes with a summary, and there is an overall ''Summary and Next Steps'' chapter on pages 57-60. For those readers who are unable to read the entire document, we recommend referring to these pages.

  16. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  17. A new approach for monthly updates of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from space: Application to China and implications for air quality forecasts (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Henze, Daven K.; Wang, Yuxuan; Qu, Zhen


    SO2 emissions, the largest source of anthropogenic aerosols, can respond rapidly to economic and policy driven changes. However, bottom-up SO2 inventories have inherent limitations owing to 24-48 months latency and lack of month-to-month variation in emissions (especially in developing countries). This study develops a new approach that integrates Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 satellite measurements and GEOS-Chem adjoint model simulations to constrain monthly anthropogenic SO2 emissions. The approach's effectiveness is demonstrated for 14 months in East Asia; resultant posterior emissions not only capture a 20% SO2 emission reduction in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games but also improve agreement between modeled and in situ surface measurements. Further analysis reveals that posterior emissions estimates, compared to the prior, lead to significant improvements in forecasting monthly surface and columnar SO2. With the pending availability of geostationary measurements of tropospheric composition, we show that it may soon be possible to rapidly constrain SO2 emissions and associated air quality predictions at fine spatiotemporal scales.

  18. Complementing data-driven and physically-based approaches for predictive morphologic modeling: Results and implication from the Red River Basin, Vietnam (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bernardi, D.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.


    sediment balance over an extended time-horizon (>15 yrs.), upstream impoundments induce a much more rapid adaptation (1-5 yrs.). The applicability of the ANN as predictive model was evaluated by comparing its results with a traditional, 1D bed evolution model. The next decade's morphologic evolution under an ensemble of scenarios, considering uncertainties in climatic change, socio-economic development and upstream reservoir release policies was derived from both models. The ANN greatly outperforms the 1D model in computational requirements and presents a powerful tool for effective assessment of scenario ensembles and quantification of uncertainties in river hydro-morphology. In contrast, the processes-based model provides detailed, spatio-temporally distributed outputs and validation of the ANN's results for selected scenarios. We conclude that the application of both approaches constitutes a mutually enriching strategy for modern, quantitative catchment management. We argue that physically based modeling can have specific spatial and temporal constrains (e.g. in terms of identifying key drivers and associated temporal and spatial domains) and that linking physically-based with data-driven approaches largely increases the potential for including hydro-morphology into basin-scale water resource management.

  19. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  20. The phenomenological movement: implications for nursing research. (United States)

    Walters, A J


    This paper presents a comparison of the phenomenologies of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger with the aim of highlighting some of the critical distinctions between these two 'schools' of phenomenology concerning the methodological implications of each approach for nursing research. Specifically, the paper examines: the implications of epistemology versus ontology; issues relating to validity; the involvement of the researcher, and aspects relating to interpretation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宏亮; 徐本强; 邹丽


    不确定知识表示中常使用语言值来表达其真实程度和可信程度.为处理具有语言值可信度的不确定性知识表示问题,基于十元格蕴涵代数,建立一个十元语言值可信度因子知识表示模型,并实现了具有语言值可信度因子的知识推理.所提出的知识表示方法可以有效地表达具有可比性或不可比性的语言值不确定性信息.实例说明所提出的方法在表示知识时能够尽量模拟具有语言值信息的人类思维模式,有利于对不确定性知识的智能处理.%In uncertain knowledge representation, linguistic values are often used to express its truth degree and credibility. In order to deal with the uncertain knowledge representation issue with linguistic value credibility, in this paper we construct a knowledge representation model with ten-element linguistic value credibility factors based on ten-element lattice implication algebra, and achieve the knowledge reasoning with linguistic value credibility factors. The proposed approach for knowledge representation can effectively express both comparable and incomparable uncertainty information of linguistic value. Examples illustrate that the proposed approach can simulate human thinking mode with linguistic values information as much as possible, which benefits to the smart processing of uncertain knowledge.

  2. Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Policy and Economy Growth: Influence Approaches and Policy Implications%创业、创业政策和经济增长——影响途径和政策启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方世建; 桂玲


    In historical perspective, this paper analyses the relationship between entrepreneurship and economy growth. In the innovation-driven stage, entrepreneurship contributes to economy growth through three approaches such as knowledge spillovers, promoting competition, the dynamic structure and diversified services of enterprises. The entrepreneurship policy incentives entrepreneurship by stimulating the entrepreneurial motivation, supplying the entrepreneurial opportunity and fostering the entrepreneurial skills. On the basis of a broad theoretical frame of entrepreneurship policy, this paper contributes in forming a complete influence approach chain of how the entrepreneurship policy promotes the entrepreneurship and hence contributes to economy growth. Some revelatory policy implications are given in the end.%从历史的视角分析了经济增长不同阶段的特点及与创业的关系,在"创新驱动阶段"创业促进经济增长的途径主要包括知识溢出、促进竞争和动态的企业结构和多样化的服务.创业政策分别通过激发创业动机、提供创业机会和培育创业技术三个途径来促进创业活动.在创业政策一个广泛的理论框架基础上,形成了创业政策促进创业活动并进而贡献于经济发展的影响途径的完整理论链条,并提出相应的政策启示.

  3. Error Analysis and Its Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Error analysis is the important theory and approach for exploring the mental process of language learner in SLA. Its major contribution is pointing out that intralingual errors are the main reason of the errors during language learning. Researchers' exploration and description of the errors will not only promote the bidirectional study of Error Analysis as both theory and approach, but also give the implication to second language learning.

  4. Identity approach in translation : sociocultural implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Żuchelkowska


    Full Text Available The objective of this text consists in presenting how it is necessary for contemporary translators and interpreters (both literary and specialised to acquire and develop the ability to recognize elements of identity discourse in translated texts. Nowadays, the need for inter-cultural exchange is inevitably connected with the necessity of establishing harmonious co-existence for numerous cultures and identities. Therefore, it is crucial to educate translators in a way that enables them to pay special attention to identity and cultural perturbations present in translated texts (culture and language hybridisation, multiple identity, cultural dislocation, presence in linguistic and political discourse of minority cultures, regardless of their genre or form. Such a strong emphasis on identity problems in the translation is especially relevant in the European context, where the attention of researchers and politicians directed at identity problems stemming from ethnical and cultural issues sets the framework for a new cultural paradigm that determines the future development of the Eu. Becoming acquainted with this paradigm which emphasises fl uency, identity unmarkedness and the new model of European collectivity is indispensable for a translator aspiring to become a true cultural mediator.

  5. 甘孜州赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径分析%The Approaches to Realize the Educational Implication of Horse-racing in Garze Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进彬; 胡玖英


    According to the documents , and survey , this article analyzes the approaches of how to real-ize the educational implication of horse -racing, one of traditional minorities'sports in Garze Prefecture . Then, it argues that horse -racing, as a miniature of traditional minority education , can cultivate the members of the group in these aspects such as social experience , life mode , behavioral norm , collectiv-ism, and aesthetic value , etc.And these educational functions can be realized in line with the social need, expanding more living space , and cultivating the consciousness to protect and inherit their tradi-tional culture .%采用文献资料、调查等研究方法,从民间的社会活动角度对甘孜州赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径进行分析。认为赛马在甘孜州地区所处的角色就是教育之于体育的一个缩影。从社会生活经验、生活模式、行为规范、集体主义思想、艺术和审美情趣等方面阐述了它对族群社会成员的“教化”作用,提出了立足于时代社会的现实需要,保障和拓展其生存和成长的社会空间,倡导维护或传承文化的自觉意识,才是赛马体育运动实现教育功能途径的重要思路。

  6. A Critique of Interactional Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Fang


    Interactional approach is a very important theory in second language acquisition, including the input hypothesis and interaction hypothesis. This article first presents an exposition of these two hypotheses, and continues with a critical evaluation of them. Finally, the article concludes with the pedagogical implications of the approach.

  7. Sociocultural approach to textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of textbook research at the Institute of psychology, intended to postulate socio-cultural approach to textbook. Shifting the textbook from classical pedagogical-psychological context into the broader and more inspiring cultural context, has led to the conceptualization of textbook as a cultural-supportive system of individual development. We consider firstly, the theoretical background of this conception, founded in Vygotskian idea of cultural mediation of development and then, its operationalization through the concept of cultural-supportive tools. The transfer from theory to practice is presented through the most important practical implications, such as defining the genre specificities of textbook and principles of educational design of textbooks. As a distinctive issue, we also consider the way this approach to textbook (theoretical articulation, analytical concepts, and practical implications contributes to development of socio-cultural paradigm in psychology.

  8. 案例教学对英语教学论课程教学的启示%Implications of Case Study Approach to the Teaching of English Language Teaching Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红梅; 潘景丽


    案例教学有利于教师和学生角色的转变、学生知识来源的扩大、学习内容的优化、学习效果的改善,以及学生能力的提高。在英语教学论课程教学中实施案例教学有利于提高英语教学论课程的教学效果,为培养合格的基础教育英语师资奠定了很好的基础。%Based on the understanding of the concept and major features of case study approach, this paper points out the advantages of applying case study approach in the teaching of English Language Teaching Methodology, that is, case study ap- proach can help to change both teacher' s and students' roles, to expand students' knowledge sources, to refine the learning contents, and to improve the learning effectiveness of the course and students' various abilities. Applying case study approach can improve the effectiveness of ELT Methodology teaching and lay a good foundation for the nurturing of qualified English teachers of Basic Education.

  9. Intuitionistic implication without disjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.; Hendriks, Alex; Jongh, Dick H.J. de


    We investigate fragments of intuitionistic propositional logic containing implication but not disjunction. These fragments are finite, but their size grows superexponentially with the number of generators. Exact models are used to characterize the fragments.

  10. Acercamiento a las implicaciones existentes entre alimentación, calidad de vida y hábitos de vida saludables en la actualidad (Approaching existing implications between food, quality of life and healthy lifestyles today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Víctor


    Full Text Available Resumen: En el presente artículo se realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre el concepto de calidad de vida. En este recorrido bibliográfico se muestran las distintas corrientes teóricas que han influido en el desarrollo del concepto de calidad de vida así como la estrecha vinculación del concepto con diferentes modelos económicos y productivos. También se revisan sus implicaciones con la salud y en lo referente los hábitos de alimentación y vida saludable. En segundo lugar, se describe y reflexiona sobre los principales resultados de los trabajos de investigación contenidos en el presente monográfico. Por último se ofrecen conclusiones sobre el impacto del cambio de modelo productivo y de valores así como el de la actual situación estructural de crisis sobre; las condiciones de producción de productos de Denominación de Origen Protegida, las transformaciones del sistema alimentario español, los hábitos saludables de vida y alimentación de las personas mayores, los problemas de distribución de productos alimentarios en zonas rurales y la influencia de la actual socialización en hábitos de consumo alimentario en la distorsión de la autopercepción de la imagen del consumidor. // Abstract: In this article a literature review on the concept of quality of life takes place. In this bibliographic tour the different theoretical currents that have influenced the development of the concept of quality of life and the close relationship of the concept with different economic and productive models shown. Health implications are also reviewed and regarding the eating habits and healthy life. Second, it describes and reflects on the main results of the research contained in this monograph. Finally conclusions are offered on the impact of changing production model and values and the current structural crisis on the conditions of production of Protected Designation of Origin, the transformations of Spanish food system, healthy habits of

  11. Conflict management: importance and implications. (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie


    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  12. Diagnosis of Photochemical Ozone Production Rates and Limiting Factors based on Observation-based Modeling Approach over East Asia: Impact of Radical Chemistry Mechanism and Ozone-Control Implications (United States)

    Kanaya, Y.


    Growth of tropospheric ozone, causing health and climate impacts, is concerned over East Asia, because emissions of precursors have dramatically increased. Photochemical production rates of ozone and limiting factors, primarily studied for urban locations, have been poorly assessed within a perspective of regional-scale air pollution over East Asia. We performed comprehensive observations of ozone precursors at several locations with regional representativeness and made such assessment based on the observation-based modeling approach. Here, diagnosis at Fukue Island (32.75°N, 128.68°E) remotely located in western Japan (May 2009) is highlighted, where the highest 10% of hourly ozone concentrations reached 72‒118 ppb during May influenced by Asian continental outflow. The average in-situ ozone production rate was estimated to be 6.8 ppb per day, suggesting that in-travel production was still active, while larger buildup must have occurred beforehand. Information on the chemical status of the air mass arriving in Japan is important, because it affects how further ozone production occurs after precursor addition from Japanese domestic emissions. The main limiting factor of ozone production was usually NOx, suggesting that domestic NOx emission control is important in reducing further ozone production and the incidence of warning issuance (>120 ppb). VOCs also increased the ozone production rate, and occasionally (14% of time) became dominant. This analysis implies that the VOC reduction legislation recently enacted should be effective. The uncertainty in the radical chemistry mechanism governing ozone production had a non-negligible impact, but the main conclusion relevant to policy was not altered. When chain termination was augmented by HO2-H2O + NO/NO2 reactions and by heterogeneous loss of HO2 on aerosol particle surfaces, the daily ozone production rate decreased by <24%, and the fraction of hours when the VOC-limited condition occurred varied from 14% to 13

  13. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  14. A multidisciplinary approach for high-resolution reconstruction of the eruptive past of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe) over the last 12 000 years: Implications for hazards assessment. (United States)

    Legendre, Yoann; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Boudon, Georges


    La Soufrière de Guadeloupe is a dangerous andesitic composite volcano characterized over the last 12 000 years by numerous phreatic eruptions that alternate with few magmatic eruptions, including the last magmatic and best-studied "Soufrière" subplinian eruption in 1530 AD, and unusually numerous flank-collapse events. Field analysis of the deposits provide constraints for values of the physical input parameters for simple models which provide with first-order simulation of eruptive phenomena, and from which quantitative probabilistic hazard maps can be elaborated in which epistemic and aleatory uncertainty can be incorporated and quantified. The study of yesterday's eruptions provide key insights for elaborating realistic simulations and describing potential eruptive scenarios for tomorrow's eruptions. However hazard assessment is biased towards eruptions of significant magnitude that produce extensive, and relatively thick deposits. Nevertheless, eruptions of moderate magnitude which are often more frequent, can significantly affect vulnerable island communities living at short distances from the vent. However, their deposits are ephemeral in the geologic record on account of intense erosion from tropical rainfall, important soil development and erosion by the emplacement of recurrent pyroclastic density currents, debris avalanches, and mudflows. We have developed a novel approach by using a manual sediment corer to obtain undisturbed sedimentary eruptive archives in sheltered zones on the volcano where a longer eruption record has been preserved. We describe two such cores (6.32 and 6.64 m long) that extend over at least 8700 years and that contain several thin tephra layers missing at the outcrop scale. We combine these new data with the analysis of more than 120 stratigraphic sections on outcrops studied over the last decade to provide a new eruptive chronology for La Soufriere volcano over the last 12 000 years. This chronology is robustly constrained by

  15. A multi-proxy approach to tracing a regressive event at Ferguson's Gulf, Lake Turkana, Kenya: Implications for modern analogues to assist in interpretations of the Plio-Pleistocene record (United States)

    Beck, Catherine; Feibel, Craig; Wright, James; Mortlock, Richard


    Located in the East African Rift Valley, the Turkana Basin has long been central to our understanding of how early hominins evolved. In particular, there is great curiosity as to the relationship between the paleoenvironment/paleoclimate conditions and evolution. Historical records aid in the interpretation of Plio-Pleistocene sediments by creating the opportunity to ground truth assumptions through the use of modern analogues. This project uses high-resolution, multi-proxy records from a series of short cores spanning the Little Ice Age to the modern, to suggest one possible model for how regressive events are recorded in lacustrine sequences. Because Lake Turkana is hydrologically closed, changes in lake level affect the water chemistry and thereby the ecosystems that depend upon it. Ferguson's Gulf is a 13 km2, shallow embayment located on the western shore of Lake Turkana. The gulf is connected to the rest of the lake by a narrow mouth on its northern end which is ~1 m deep. Therefore, relatively minor drops in lake level have the potential to restrict flow from Lake Turkana into Ferguson's Gulf, creating localized evaporative water chemistry which effects the suitability of this area for sustaining various benthic populations. Six short cores collected in 2011 and 2012 were picked for ostracods at 1-5 cm intervals to study the changes in assemblages and total abundances through time. An age model, generated using radiocarbon dating of ostracods, demonstrated that the record extending into the Little Ice Age (1550-1850 AD), a period when wetter conditions prevailed within the Turkana Basin. The ostracod faunal results were compared with sedimentology/stratigraphy, XRF data, and stable isotope analysis on ostracod shells for a multiproxy approach to reconstructing hydrologic conditions during the past ~500 years. The Ferguson's Gulf record can be subdivided into three bins based on the ostracod assemblages. The lowest third of the core shows high ostracod total

  16. Epigenetics: ambiguities and implications. (United States)

    Stotz, Karola; Griffiths, Paul


    Everyone has heard of 'epigenetics', but the term means different things to different researchers. Four important contemporary meanings are outlined in this paper. Epigenetics in its various senses has implications for development, heredity, and evolution, and also for medicine. Concerning development, it cements the vision of a reactive genome strongly coupled to its environment. Concerning heredity, both narrowly epigenetic and broader 'exogenetic' systems of inheritance play important roles in the construction of phenotypes. A thoroughly epigenetic model of development and evolution was Waddington's aim when he introduced the term 'epigenetics' in the 1940s, but it has taken the modern development of molecular epigenetics to realize this aim. In the final sections of the paper we briefly outline some further implications of epigenetics for medicine and for the nature/nurture debate.

  17. Teacher's experiences in PBL: implications for practice (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.


    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching practices in higher education. For data collection, the research method used was written narratives to these teachers, at the end of the PBL semester. Findings suggest that teachers express a positive view of PBL as a learning approach. They identify student motivation and engagement, along with a better understanding of the application of concepts in real-life situations, as important outcomes of the project for students. Besides this, teachers also highlight the importance of the development of transversal skills by students throughout the project. Recommendations for future work and implications for practice will also be discussed.

  18. Profiling of genetic switches using boolean implications in expression data. (United States)

    Çakır, Mehmet Volkan; Binder, Hans; Wirth, Henry


    Correlation analysis assuming coexpression of the genes is a widely used method for gene expression analysis in molecular biology. Yet growing extent, quality and dimensionality of the molecular biological data permits emerging, more sophisticated approaches like Boolean implications. We present an approach which is a combination of the SOM (self organizing maps) machine learning method and Boolean implication analysis to identify relations between genes, metagenes and similarly behaving metagene groups (spots). Our method provides a way to assign Boolean states to genes/metagenes/spots and offers a functional view over significantly variant elements of gene expression data on these three different levels. While being able to cover relations between weakly correlated entities Boolean implication method also decomposes these relations into six implication classes. Our method allows one to validate or identify potential relationships between genes and functional modules of interest and to assess their switching behaviour. Furthermore the output of the method renders it possible to construct and study the network of genes. By providing logical implications as updating rules for the network it can also serve to aid modelling approaches.

  19. Re-thinking the store image study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre


    markets for example in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The rele-vance of the approach was tested on the food retail sector in two Chinese cities. Two clusters with differ-ent images were identified and profiled. Implications for future research and managerial implications are developed....

  20. The Implications of System 4 Approach on School Leadership Practices (United States)

    Khumalo, Steph Shuti


    School management is a highly contested research area. Credible research studies consistently argue that there is a positive relationship between school performance and school leadership. Like in any organisation, school principals deploy a number of leadership techniques to ensure that organisational objectives are achieved. School leadership is…

  1. Suitability and managerial implications of a Master Surgical Scheduling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Oostrum (Jeroen); E. Bredenhoff (Eelco); E.W. Hans (Erwin)


    textabstractAbstract: Operating room (OR) planning and scheduling is a popular and challenging subject within the operational research applied to health services research (ORAHS). However, the impact in practice is very limited. The organization and culture of a hospital and the inherent characteris

  2. Suitability and managerial implications of a Master Surgical Scheduling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrum, van Jeroen M.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Hans, Erwin W.


    Operating room (OR) planning and scheduling is a popular and challenging subject within the operational research applied to health services research (ORAHS). However, the impact in practice is very limited. The organization and culture of a hospital and the inherent characteristics of its processes

  3. Macroeconomic implications of virtual shopping : a theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yetkiner, I. Hakan; Horvath, Csilla


    Recently, parallel to developments in the communication technology, online shopping has become increasingly popular for many products, like books, CDs, software, and computers. Most analysts conjecture that the future will witness a wider basket of products and a higher trade volume via the Internet

  4. A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.


    Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…

  5. Holistic approach to understanding anterior knee pain. Clinical implications. (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente


    Anterior knee pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation within knee conditions. The aetiology is not well known, which explains the sometimes unpredictable results of its treatment. Normally, when we see a patient in the office with anterior knee pain, we only study and focus on the knee. If we do this, we are making a big mistake. We must not forget to evaluate the pelvis and proximal femur, as well as the psychological factors that modulate the course of the illness. Both the pelvifemoral dysfunction as well as the psychological factors (anxiety, depression, catastrophization and kinesiophobia) must be included in our therapeutic targets of the multidisciplinary treatment of anterior knee pain. We must not only focus on the knee, we must remember to "look up" to fully understand what is happening and be able to solve this difficult problem. The aetiology of anterior knee pain is multifactorial. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of patellofemoral disorders must be individualized. Our findings stress the importance of tailoring physiotherapy, surgery and psycho-educational interventions to each patient.

  6. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods (United States)

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi


    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  7. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.


    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  8. Public health implications of altered puberty timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Mari S; Collman, Gwen W; Foster, Paul M D


    . Altered timing of puberty also has implications for behavioral disorders. For example, an early maturation is associated with a greater incidence of conduct and behavior disorders during adolescence. Finally, altered puberty timing is considered an adverse effect in reproductive toxicity risk assessment...... for chemicals. Recent US legislation has mandated improved chemical testing approaches for protecting children's health and screening for endocrine-disrupting agents, which has led to changes in the US Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment and toxicity testing guidelines to include puberty......-related assessments and to the validation of pubertal male and female rat assays for endocrine screening....

  9. Financial Implications of Implementing an E-Learning Project (United States)

    Sharma, Kunal


    Purpose: This paper aims to outline the financial implications, while deploying information and communication technologies for implementing e-learning, and to elucidate them, while implementing an e-learning project in a conventional university environment. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a descriptive account of the various cost factors…

  10. On the Implications of Vygotskian Concepts for Second Language Teaching (United States)

    Azabdaftari, Behrooz


    This paper represents an attempt to search for the implications of Vygotsky's approach to "the genesis of mind" for second language acquisition (SLA). In so doing, the present author has adopted first a retrospective view--what has already gone in the field of foreign language instruction, and a prospective view--what is contingent on…

  11. The Relationship between Mathematical Induction, Proposition Functions, and Implication Functions (United States)

    Andrew, Lane


    In this study, I explored the relationship between mathematical induction ability and proposition and implication functions through a mixed methods approach. Students from three universities (N = 78) and 6 classrooms completed a written assessment testing their conceptual and procedural capabilities with induction and functions. In addition, I…

  12. Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching Process analytical approach to translation and implications for translations teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lörscher


    Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf.Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated.

  13. Implications of recent MINER$\

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy


    Among the most important tasks of neutrino oscillation experiments is correctly estimating the parent neutrino energy from the by-products of their interactions. Large uncertainties in our current understanding of such processes can significantly hamper this effort. We explore several recent measurements made using the \\mnv{} detector in the few-GeV NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab: the differential cross-section vs. $Q^2$ for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and pion kinetic energy for resonant single charged pion production, and the differential cross-sections vs. pion angle and kinetic energy for coherent pion production. We furthermore discuss their implications for energy reconstruction in oscillation measurements.

  14. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  15. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles...

  16. Implications of antisocial parents. (United States)

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B


    Antisocial behavior is a socially maladaptive and harmful trait to possess. This can be especially injurious for a child who is raised by a parent with this personality structure. The pathology of antisocial behavior implies traits such as deceitfulness, irresponsibility, unreliability, and an incapability to feel guilt, remorse, or even love. This is damaging to a child's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parents with this personality makeup can leave a child traumatized, empty, and incapable of forming meaningful personal relationships. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of antisocial behavior. Moreover, the child with a genetic predisposition to antisocial behavior who is raised with a parental style that triggers the genetic liability is at high risk for developing the same personality structure. Antisocial individuals are impulsive, irritable, and often have no concerns over their purported responsibilities. As a parent, this can lead to erratic discipline, neglectful parenting, and can undermine effective care giving. This paper will focus on the implications of parents with antisocial behavior and the impact that this behavior has on attachment as well as on the development of antisocial traits in children.

  17. Neutrino Experiments and Their Implications


    Balantekin, A. B.


    Recent developments in solar, reactor, and accelerator neutrino physics are reviewed. Implications for neutrino physics, solar physics, nuclear two-body physics, and r-process nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed.



    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir


    Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in M...

  19. A systematic approach to study electoral fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leemann, Lucas; Bochsler, Daniel


    Integrity of elections relies on fair procedures at different stages of the election process, and fraud can occur in many instances and different forms. This paper provides a general approach for the detection of fraud. While most existing contributions focus on a single instance and form of fraud......, we propose a more encompassing approach, testing for several empirical implications of different possible forms of fraud. To illustrate this approach we rely on a case of electoral irregularities in one of the oldest democracies: In a Swiss referendum in 2011, one in twelve municipalities irregularly...

  20. An integrative approach to apprehend desistance. (United States)

    F-Dufour, Isabelle; Brassard, Renée; Martel, Joane


    The process underlying desistance is still a strong subject of debate. This article seeks to introduce several core concepts of Archer's morphogenic approach to study how people desist from crime. At first, it discusses the primary existing theories of desistance. Then, this article demonstrates the usefulness of this approach by presenting empirical evidence drawn from semistructured interviews collected with 29 men who desisted from crime in an eastern province of Canada. The study demonstrates how this alternative approach allows for the consolidation of existing knowledge on desistance. Then implication of these findings for both theory and practice are discussed.

  1. A Multilingual Approach: Conclusions and Future Perspectives--Afterword (United States)

    Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone


    This article summarizes the individual contributions to this special issue and discusses the advantages and implications of adopting a multilingual approach. The advantages include the possibility of examining language practices in context and providing insights about the way languages are acquired and used. This multilingual approach also opens…

  2. An Organic Approach to the Teaching of Grammar. (United States)

    Nunan, David


    Examines the relationship between grammar and discourse and explores the implications of this relationship for language education. Suggests that the linear approach to language acquisition is problematic and does not reflect what is known about the process of acquisition. Argues for an "organic" approach. (Author/VWL)

  3. Curriculum Approaches in Language Teaching: Forward, Central, and Backward Design (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.


    The development and implementation of language teaching programs can be approached in several different ways, each of which has different implications for curriculum design. Three curriculum approaches are described and compared. Each differs with respect to when issues related to input, process, and outcomes, are addressed. Forward design starts…

  4. Heat Shock Proteins and their clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pathan

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 558-560

  5. The immune landscape of human tumors: Implications for cancer immunotherapy. (United States)

    Bindea, Gabriela; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Angell, Helen K; Galon, Jérôme


    Understanding the spontaneous immune response of cancer patients is critical for the design of efficient anticancer immunotherapies. The power of integrative tumor immunology approaches allowed for a comprehensive view of the immune system evolution in the course of tumor progression and recurrence. We have demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating immune cells are spatiotemporally regulated, a finding that has profound implications for the development of efficient anticancer immunotherapies.

  6. Clinical implications of genomic alterations in the tumour and circulation of pancreatic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausen, Mark; Phallen, Jillian; Adleff, Vilmos;


    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst mortality of any solid cancer. In this study, to evaluate the clinical implications of genomic alterations in this tumour type, we perform whole-exome analyses of 24 tumours, targeted genomic analyses of 77 tumours, and use non-invasive approaches to examine...... imaging. These observations provide genetic predictors of outcome in pancreatic cancer and have implications for new avenues of therapeutic intervention....

  7. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches (United States)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque


    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murăriţa Ilie


    Full Text Available The authors have started from the idea that inflationary phenomenon is a companion, the cause and the effect of the globalization of poverty in the broader context of world economy globalization. Therefore, starting from a common definition of inflation, the first objective was to identify causal relationships that singularize contemporary inflationary process. After that, attention was focused on the implications of inflation in the current stage, bearing in mind that monetary financial theory and practice are operating with perfectly anticipated inflation or imperfectly anticipated inflation. Inflation has great implications on the long-term contracts and wage contracts.

  9. Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order The Implicate Order Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pylkkänen, Paavo T I


    Proposes that Bohm's alternative interpretation of quantum theory resolves the paradoxes such as Schrodinger's cat, and the EPR paradox. This work uses Bohm's concepts of "implicate order", "active information" and "soma-significance" as tools to tackle several well-known problems in the philosophy of mind.

  10. Pharmacogenomics and migraine: possible implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Brosen, K.


    cases pharmacodynamic variability we mention possible implications for the acute and preventive treatment of migraine. Pharmacogenomics will most likely in the future be one part of our therapeutic armamentarium and will provide a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis...

  11. Educational Implications of the Bender. (United States)

    Petti, Michael


    Examples of diagnostic formulations of the "Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt" are outlined and their instructional implications are delineated. The difficulties in paper and pencil copying of geometric designs focus primarily on: separation and overlapping of figures, repetition of design elements, pencil grip, visual perceptions, pattern reversals,…

  12. Military Implications of Global Warming. (United States)


    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  13. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen Salles


    Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  14. Approach to a patient with urosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Kalra


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections can occur in all age groups and produce an exceptionally broad range of clinical syndromes ranging from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute pyelonephritis with Gram negative sepsis to septic shock. In approximately one-quarter of all patients with sepsis, the focus of infection is localized to the urogenital tract. This may lead to substantial morbidity and significant economic implications. We present a review of the current approaches to managing urospesis.

  15. Approach to a patient with urosepsis. (United States)

    Kalra, Om Prakash; Raizada, Alpana


    Urinary tract infections can occur in all age groups and produce an exceptionally broad range of clinical syndromes ranging from asymptomatic bacteriuria to acute pyelonephritis with Gram negative sepsis to septic shock. In approximately one-quarter of all patients with sepsis, the focus of infection is localized to the urogenital tract. This may lead to substantial morbidity and significant economic implications. We present a review of the current approaches to managing urospesis.

  16. QCD soft gluon exponentiation YFS MC Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, B F L


    We develop and prove the theory of the QCD extension of the YFS Monte Carlo approach to higher order QED radiative corrections. As a corollary, a new approach to quantum gravity by one of us (B.F.L.W.) is illustrated. Semi-analytical results and preliminary explicit Monte Carlo data are presented for the processes p-bar p -> t-bar t + X at FNAL energies. We comment briefly on the implications of our results on the CDF/D0 observations and on RHIC/LHC physics.

  17. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite...

  18. A Bayesian Model for Discovering Typological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal


    A standard form of analysis for linguistic typology is the universal implication. These implications state facts about the range of extant languages, such as ``if objects come after verbs, then adjectives come after nouns.'' Such implications are typically discovered by painstaking hand analysis over a small sample of languages. We propose a computational model for assisting at this process. Our model is able to discover both well-known implications as well as some novel implications that deserve further study. Moreover, through a careful application of hierarchical analysis, we are able to cope with the well-known sampling problem: languages are not independent.

  19. A Restorative Justice Approach to Empathy Development in Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Roseman, Christopher P.; Ritchie, Martin; Laux, John M.


    The authors describe an exploratory study in sex offender treatment using a restorative justice approach to examine the shame, guilt, and empathy development of convicted sexual offenders. Implications for clinical practice and future research are highlighted. (Contains 3 tables.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulizwan Ahmad Zubir


    Full Text Available Abstract Maritime Piracy has been a serious threat to the international community especially in the SoutheastAsia region. This threat has caused tremendous implications towards the world economy, environment,political stability of the nations involved because 45% of the shipping company passes through theSoutheast Asia. The worrying fact is that these attacks were committed by terrorists as well as traditionalmaritime pirates. This paper examines on the implications of maritime crime in Malaysia and discusseswhether the definition of piracy under the International Law could be applied to these attacks. Thispaper concludes that cooperation between the region’s states and the enhancement of a good securitysystem of one state are needed to combat maritime violence. Thus it is imperative that the internationallaw need to be changed in order to enhance the meaning of piracy and also to include sea terrorism. Key words: piracy, maritime, terrorist

  1. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A


    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  2. Primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder:drugs and implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joachim C Burbiel


    Because posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating condition, prevention is an important research topic. This article reviews possible prevention approaches that involve the administration of drugs before the traumatic event takes place. The considered approaches include drugs that address the sympathetic nervous system, drugs interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, narcotics and other psychoactive drugs, as well as modulators of protein synthesis. Furthermore, some thoughts on potential ethical implications of the use of drugs for the primary prevention of PTDS are presented. While there are many barriers to overcome in this field of study, this paper concludes with a call for additional research, as there are currently no approaches that are well-suited for regular daily use.

  3. Theranostic Implications of Nanotechnology in Multiple Sclerosis: A Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vikram Singh


    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is a multifactorial disease with several pathogenic mechanisms and pathways. Successful MS management and medical care requires early accurate diagnosis along with specific treatment protocols based upon multifunctional nanotechnology approach. This paper highlights advances in nanotechnology that have enabled the clinician to target the brain and CNS in patient with multiple sclerosis with nanoparticles having therapeutic and imaging components. The multipartite theranostic (thera(py + (diagnostics approach puts forth strong implications for medical care and cure in MS. The current nanotheranostics utilize tamed drug vehicles and contain cargo, targeting ligands, and imaging labels for delivery to specific tissues, cells, or subcellular components. A brief overview of nonsurgical nanorepair advances as future perspective is also described. Considering the potential inflammatory triggers in MS pathogenesis, a multifunctional nanotechnology approach will be needed for the prognosis.

  4. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics


    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  5. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly “intelligent” systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain “algorithm” itself—trying to replicate uniquely “neuromorphic” dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain’s interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or “avatars”, to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  6. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy. (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  7. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health]. (United States)

    Segura, Omar


    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  8. Framework and implications of virtual neurorobotics. (United States)

    Goodman, Philip H; Zou, Quan; Dascalu, Sergiu-Mihai


    Despite decades of societal investment in artificial learning systems, truly "intelligent" systems have yet to be realized. These traditional models are based on input-output pattern optimization and/or cognitive production rule modeling. One response has been social robotics, using the interaction of human and robot to capture important cognitive dynamics such as cooperation and emotion; to date, these systems still incorporate traditional learning algorithms. More recently, investigators are focusing on the core assumptions of the brain "algorithm" itself-trying to replicate uniquely "neuromorphic" dynamics such as action potential spiking and synaptic learning. Only now are large-scale neuromorphic models becoming feasible, due to the availability of powerful supercomputers and an expanding supply of parameters derived from research into the brain's interdependent electrophysiological, metabolomic and genomic networks. Personal computer technology has also led to the acceptance of computer-generated humanoid images, or "avatars", to represent intelligent actors in virtual realities. In a recent paper, we proposed a method of virtual neurorobotics (VNR) in which the approaches above (social-emotional robotics, neuromorphic brain architectures, and virtual reality projection) are hybridized to rapidly forward-engineer and develop increasingly complex, intrinsically intelligent systems. In this paper, we synthesize our research and related work in the field and provide a framework for VNR, with wider implications for research and practical applications.

  9. Microsporogenesis of Cycas and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Fen ZHANG; Hai-Bo OUYANG; Jin-Yan DU; Shou-Zhou ZHANG; Yong LI; Hong WU


    Taxonomists are divided over the infrageneric classification and species delimitation within the genus Cycas.The division is largely determined by whether a broad or narrow species concept is adopted,the latter approach being based on apparently minor morphological differences.It is well known that cytokinesis in the cells of pollen provides important evidence for plant taxonomy,particularly at the higher taxonomic level.Here we present the first broad comparison of the cytokinesis of male meiosis in five species of Cycas.A comparative analysis of microsporogenesis in Cycas was carried out using conventional microscopy,semi-thin sectioning,histochemistry,and fluorescence microscopy with a focus on the cytokinesis of meiosis in the pollen of dividing cells.Our observations confirmed that,contrary to previous reports,the cytokinesis in male meiosis of five species in Cycas is simultaneous at the end of second meiosis.The basic model of microsporogenesis and its systematic implications in Cycas is discussed based both on previous reports and our new results.

  10. Implications of plant glycans in the development of innovative vaccines. (United States)

    Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf


    Plant glycans play a central role in vaccinology: they can serve as adjuvants and/or delivery vehicles or backbones for the synthesis of conjugated vaccines. In addition, genetic engineering is leading to the development of platforms for the production of novel polysaccharides in plant cells, an approach with relevant implications for the design of new types of vaccines. This review contains an updated outlook on this topic and provides key perspectives including a discussion on how the molecular pharming field can be linked to the production of innovative glycan-based and conjugate vaccines.

  11. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  12. International and Cultural Implications on Internationalization Analysis of Multinational Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández


    Full Text Available This paper is aims to analyze some of the institutional and cultural implications on internationalization analysis of multinational firms. The analysis begins questioning what the main institutional and cultural variables are considered in the involvement of internationalization of multinational firms. To answer this question, a literature review types approach in areas like internationalization of multinational firms based on institutional and cultural frameworks is followed. Secondly, these institutional and cultural variables are analyzed to integrate findings. Finally, the paper argues the need to design a better institutional and cultural balance among the development of a glocal-regional transformation, convergence and governance.

  13. Support mechanisms and risk: Implications on the Nordic electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Ravn, Hans


    Investments in renewable energy projects, such as offshore wind parks, are very much dependent on financial support. The type of policy instrument chosen for such support determines investors' exposure to market risk, and thus influences which rate of return they expect to achieve. We make...... a stochastic analysis for the Nordic electricity system by conducting simulations with the energy system model Balmorel and by applying the mean-standard deviation approach of modern portfolio theory to quantify risk implications of policy instruments for an exemplary offshore wind park. The analysis reveals...

  14. Sleep and motor learning: implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel eGudberg


    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for healthy brain function and plasticity underlying learning and memory. In the context of physical impairment such as following a stroke, sleep may be particularly important for supporting critical recovery of motor function through similar processes of reorganisation in the brain. Despite a link between stroke and poor sleep, current approaches to rehabilitative care often neglect the importance of sleep in clinical assessment and treatment. This review assimilates current evidence on the role of sleep in motor learning, with a focus on the implications for physical rehabilitation after stroke. We further outline practical considerations for integrating sleep assessment as a vital part of clinical care.

  15. Networking activism: implications for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Vatikiotis


    Full Text Available The outbreak of December 2008 against police brutality through a wave of demonstrations and street protests in Athens, which was strongly advocated by protest activities and practices across the world, addresses several issues in relation to the transformative potentials of mediated collective action. The paper critically evaluates different accounts of December events, probing then into thevery networking of that movement. From this perspective, it points out another aspect of the local-global interplay in protest culture along new mediating practices (beyond the creation of transnational publics, that of the implications of transnational networking for local social activism and identification, addressing relevant questions in the Greek context.

  16. Lateral Thoracic Maningocele : Anaesthetic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Ahmed K


    Full Text Available Meningomyelocele is a broad term representing herniation of extracranial contents through a congenital defect in the vertebral column. If only cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and meninges herniate, it is termed as a meningocele. A meningoencephalocele is herniation of neural elements along with meninges. Anaesthetic challenges in management of thoracic meningomyelocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral or supine position, intraoperative prone position with its associated complications and accurate assessment of blood loss and prevention of hypothermia. We report a case of a thoracic meningocele posted for resection and discuss its anaesthetic implications

  17. Practical implications of 'postmodern philosophy'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile V.


    Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.

  18. [Hyperhomocysteinaemia: physiopathology and medical implications]. (United States)

    Torre Delgadillo, A; Téllez Zenteno, J F; Morales Buenrrostro, L E


    Homocysteine is an intermediate aminoacid result of the conversion of methionine to cysteine. Homocystinuria or the hyperhomocysteinaemia are the most frequently related disorders of this aminoacid, being the former an autosomic recessive alteration, whereas the latter is conditioned by multiple factors, being the most important the genetic and nutritional factors. In the last years this alteration has regained special interest because of its increasing role in the thrombotic pathologies and the identification that hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an independent risk factor for the accelerated atherogenesis of multiple diseases. In this review physiopathological aspects and clinical implications of hyperhomocysteinaemia are mentioned as well as its diagnoses and treatment.

  19. Philosophical Implications of Inflationary Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Knobe, J; Vilenkin, A; Knobe, Joshua; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander


    Recent developments in cosmology indicate that every history having a nonzero probability is realized in infinitely many distinct regions of spacetime. Thus, it appears that the universe contains infinitely many civilizations exactly like our own, as well as infinitely many civilizations that differ from our own in any way permitted by physical laws. We explore the implications of this conclusion for ethical theory and for the doomsday argument. In the infinite universe, we find that the doomsday argument applies only to effects which change the average lifetime of all civilizations, and not those which affect our civilization alone.

  20. Linking nursing theory and practice: a critical-feminist approach. (United States)

    Georges, Jane M


    Situated in a critical-feminist perspective, this article describes a pedagogical approach to linking nursing theory and practice. The inclusion of the critical humanities is emphasized in creating an environment in which this linkage can be reified for learners. Implications for the future of nursing theory and its links to practice in the context of current political realities in academia are considered.

  1. Quality Evaluation in Flexible Manufacturing Systems: A Markovian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li


    to illustrate the applicability of the method. The results of this study suggest a possible approach to investigate the impact of flexibility on product quality and, finally, with extensions and enrichment of the model, may lead to provide production engineers and managers a better understanding of the quality implications and to summarize some general guidelines of operation management in flexible manufacturing systems.

  2. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.


    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  3. Children under Five and Digital Technologies: Implications for Early Years Pedagogy (United States)

    Palaiologou, Ioanna


    This project aimed to investigate the types of digital technologies children under the age of five are using at home and assess the possible implications for early years pedagogy. The research, carried out between 2010 and 2012, was based in four European countries: England, Greece, Malta and Luxemburg. A mixed methods approach was employed to…

  4. A conceptual framework to identify spatial implications of new ways of learning in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; Voordt, van der Theo; Dewulf, Geert


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the spatial implications of new learning theories and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a review of the literature, a theoretical framework has been developed tha

  5. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education (United States)

    Sandford, Amanda


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  6. Analytical Implications of Using Practice Theory in Workplace Information Literacy Research (United States)

    Moring, Camilla; Lloyd, Annemaree


    Introduction: This paper considers practice theory and the analytical implications of using this theoretical approach in information literacy research. More precisely the aim of the paper is to discuss the translation of practice theoretical assumptions into strategies that frame the analytical focus and interest when researching workplace…

  7. The Contingent Constructed Nature of Social Life: Suggested Implications for Library and Information Science. (United States)

    Hall, Peter M.


    Discusses a variety of topics and their implications for library and information science professionals and their education. Highlights include the nature of science; contingency theories; the assumptions of sociology; the approach of symbolic interaction; recent scholarship on organizations; and the advantages of qualitative research methods.…

  8. Implications for Teacher Effectiveness Research in Deaf Education from the Cognitive Paradigm. (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    The paper identifies a paradigm shift in research on teaching effectiveness from the process-product approach to explanations from cognitive psychology related to mediating variables which intervene between teacher behavior and pupil performance. Implications of this paradigm shift for research on the effectiveness of teachers of deaf students are…

  9. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education. (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.


    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  10. On Theory of Learning and Knowledge: Educational Implications of Advances in Neuroscience. (United States)

    Hendry, G. D.; King, R. C.


    Analyzes the so-called mechanical theories of learning that underpin the transmission view of teaching that so permeates education and schooling. Promotes a neuroscientific basis for resolution of the impasse in psychological theories. Implications for the transmission-of-knowledge approach to teaching are addressed. (PR)

  11. Learning about knowledge: A complex network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L F


    This article describes an approach to modeling of knowledge acquisition in terms of complex networks and walks. Each subset of knowledge is represented as a node, and relationship between such knowledge are represented as edges. Two types of edges are considered, corresponding to logical equivalence and implication. Multiple conditional implications are also considered, implying that a node can only be reached after visiting previously a set of nodes (the conditions). It is shown that hierarchical networks, involving a series of interconnected layers containing a connected subnetwork, provides a simple and natural means for avoiding deadlocks, i.e. unreachable nodes. The process of knowledge acquisition can then be simulated by considering a single agent moving along the nodes and edges, starting from the lowest layer. Several configurations of such hierarchical knowledge networks are simulated and the performance of the agent quantified in terms of the percentage of visited nodes after each movement. The Bar...

  12. An integral approach to substance abuse. (United States)

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J


    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  13. Immunologic Changes Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kronbichler


    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a histological pattern on renal biopsy caused by diverse mechanisms. In its primary form, a circulatory factor is implicated in disease onset and recurrence. The natural history of primary FSGS is unpredictable, since some patients are unresponsive towards immunosuppressive measures. Immunologic changes, leading to a proinflammatory or profibrotic milieu, have been implicated in disease progression, namely, glomerular scarring, eventually leading to end-stage renal disease. Among these, interleukin-1ß, tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1 have emerged as important factors. Translating these findings into clinical practice dampened the enthusiasm, since both TNF-α and TGF-ß1 blockade failed to achieve significant control of the disease. More recently, a role of the complement system has been demonstrated which in fact may be another attractive target in clinical practice. Rituximab, blocking CD20-bearing cells, demonstrated conflicting data regarding efficacy in FSGS. Finally, the T-cell costimulating molecule B7-1 (CD80 is implicated in development of proteinuria in general. Blockade of this target demonstrated significant benefits in a small cohort of resistant patients. Taken together, this review focuses on immunology of FSGS, attributable to either the disease or progression, and discusses novel therapeutic approaches aiming at targeting immunologic factors.

  14. The Family Medicine Curriculum Resource Project: implications for faculty development. (United States)

    Sheets, Kent J; Quirk, Mark E; Davis, Ardis K


    Faculty development implications related to implementing the Family Medicine Curriculum Resource (FMCR) Project provide an opportunity to look at the recommendations of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's federally funded Faculty Futures Initiative (FFI) and the recent Future of Family Medicine (FFM) project. Implications for faculty development include the importance of the clerkship setting, originally defined in 1991, with new features added in today's practice environment as outlined by the FFM and the changing assumptions in approaching faculty development. Previously, faculty development focused on teaching learners to master current knowledge. Now, faculty must teach learners how to master new competencies throughout their lives; learners need to learn how they and others learn now. Teaching must focus on how to learn in the future as well as what to learn for the present. Competence ("what individuals know or are able to do in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes") has become the focus of curriculum development efforts over the last few years and most appropriately serves as the focus of curriculum development in the FMCR Project. Implications for developing teachers and preceptors focus on the skills and circumstances required to teach and evaluate all types (cognitive, metacognitive, and affective) of competence. In the new culture, novel teaching methods will serve as the focus of faculty development in teaching and of educational ("best practices") research.

  15. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  16. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F


    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  17. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications. (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Sanna, Lucia; Carpiniello, Bernardo


    A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED) achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific treatment. Further investigations are needed to overcome the methodological limitations of previous studies, to understand the actual impact of alexithymia on ED outcome, and to allow more precise

  18. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability. (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael


    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices.

  19. Thinking about learning: implications for principle-based professional education. (United States)

    Mann, Karen V


    The understanding of teaching and learning in medical education has increased to improve medical education at all levels. Selected approaches to understanding learning provide a basis for eliciting principles that may inform and guide educational practice. In this article, these approaches are discussed from two perspectives: the cognitive and the environmental. The cognitive perspective includes activation of prior knowledge, elaboration of new learning, learning in context, transfer of learning, and organization of knowledge. The environmental perspective includes the dynamic interaction of learners with their environment, observational learning, incentives and rewards in the environment, goal setting and self-monitoring, self-efficacy, and situated learning. Implications are presented for facilitation of effective learning and support of the learning environment throughout the continuum of medical education.

  20. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences. (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano


    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas.

  1. Quantum Histories and their Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A


    It was recently pointed out that, using two different sets in the consistent histories formalism, one can conclude that the system state is definitely in a given subspace $A$ of the state space at a given time and that the system state is definitely not in a larger subspace $B \\supset A$. This raises the question as to whether, if standard quantum theory applies to the macroscopic realm, we should necessarily expect the quasiclassical physics we actually observe to respect subspace implications. I give here a new criterion, ordered consistency, with the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. The criterion allows a precise version of the question to be formulated: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? It also defines a version of quantum theory which has greater predictive power than the standard consistent histories formalism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI


    Full Text Available The wine, a very complex product in viticulture, has proved its tremendous importance not only to the individual but rational nutrition and increasing national income of a country cultivators (evidenced by the upward trend of the share of crop production horticulture and viticulture in the global economy agricultural. More interesting is, given the continued growth in the number of scientific publications and their quality (at least since the 1980s - where "wine" is the centerpiece of these studies - we can not but be witnessing a growing interest more to this "potion" and found that the growing popularity of wine in the science reveals the emergence of a new academic field, ie "wine economy" (or wine-economy. This study aims to make a foray into "wine economy" and to outline some of the implications of marketing in this area.

  3. An ecosystem approach to malaria control in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasquilla Gabriel


    Full Text Available We conducted a research project aimed at strengthening local government and the community for a sustainable malaria control strategy. The project began with a baseline diagnosis of malaria prevalence, a KAP survey, entomology, and health services delivery, after which an epidemiological study was performed to identify risk factors associated with malaria, thereafter used to plan intervention measures. A program evaluation was conducted five years later. By using an ecosystem approach to reanalyze data, this paper discusses how malaria arises from a complex interaction of cultural, economic, ecological, social, and individual factors. Intervention measures require an intersectorial and transdisciplinary approach that does not exist at the moment. Health sector leadership is limited, and there is no true community participation. Implications for research, including the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, study design, and complexity of data analysis are discussed. Finally, implications for malaria control are discussed, stressing the differences between the ecosystem and integrated disease control approaches.

  4. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach. (United States)

    Kang, Benedict J; Jeun, Minhong; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Song, Sang Hoon; Jeong, In Gab; Kim, Choung-Soo; Searson, Peter C; Lee, Kwan Hyi


    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.

  5. On the Product and Factorization of Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦克云; 宋振明; 等


    In this paper,the concepts of product and factorization of lattice implication algebra are proposed,the relation between lattice implication product algebra and its factors and some properties of lattice implication product algebras are discussed.

  6. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.


    not feasible task. We undertook these challenges by using an established clinical paradigm, the estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia, as the criterion to select candidates among the numerous genes experimentally implicated in schizophrenia. Bioinformatic tools were used to build and priorities the signaling...... networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated...

  7. Consumerism and consumer complexity: implications for university teaching and teaching evaluation. (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A


    A contemporary issue is the effects of a corporate production metaphor and consumerism on university education. Efforts by universities to attract students and teaching strategies aimed at 'adult learners' tend to treat student consumers as a homogeneous group with similar expectations. In this paper, I argue that consumer groups are not uniform. I use Dagevos' theoretical approach to categorize consumers as calculating, traditional, unique, and responsible. Based on the characteristics of consumers occupying these categories, I describe the implications of the varying consumer expectations for teaching. I also consider the implications for evaluation of teaching and call for research taking consumer types into account when evaluating teaching.

  8. Movements of the ‘we’ : International and transnational migration and the capabilities approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)


    textabstractWe consider cross-border migration through the lens of the capabilities approach, with special reference to transnational migration and to implications for the approach itself. Cross-border migration has profound and diverse effects, not least because it accelerates change in the nature

  9. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.


    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  10. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment. (United States)

    McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N


    Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs. Ancient physiological similarities between different vertebrate groups suggest that disorders observed in wildlife may indicate risks to humans. This makes accurate risk assessment and effective legislation difficult. In this paper, the hazardous properties of pesticides which are known to have ED properties are reviewed in order to assess the implications for risk assessment. As well as data on sources of exposure in the United Kingdom (UK) an assessment of the evidence on the health effects of ED pesticides is also included. In total, 127 have been identified from the literature and their effects and modes of action are listed in this paper. Using the UK as a case study, the types and quantities of pesticides used, and their methods of application are assessed, along with their potential pathways to humans. In the UK reliable data are available only for agricultural use, so non-agricultural routes of pesticide exposure have been poorly quantified. The exposure of people resident in or visiting rural areas could also have been grossly under-estimated. Material links between ED pesticide use and specific illnesses or deformities are complicated by the multifactorial nature of disease, which can be affected by factors such as diet. Despite these difficulties, a large body of evidence has accumulated linking specific conditions to ED pesticides in wildlife and humans. A more precautionary approach to the use of ED pesticides, especially for non-essential purposes is proposed.

  11. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India. (United States)

    Kurian, N J


    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  12. Implications of climate change for potamodromous fishes. (United States)

    Beatty, Stephen J; Morgan, David L; Lymbery, Alan J


    There is little understanding of how climate change will impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Since the mid 1970s, a decline in annual rainfall in south-western Australia (a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot) has resulted in the rivers of the region undergoing severe reductions in surface flows (ca. 50%). There is universal agreement amongst Global Climate Models that rainfall will continue to decline in this region. Limited data are available on the movement patterns of the endemic freshwater fishes of south-western Australia or on the relationship between their life histories and hydrology. We used this region as a model to determine how dramatic hydrological change may impact potamodromous freshwater fishes. Migration patterns of fishes in the largest river in south-western Australia were quantified over a 4 year period and were related to a number of key environmental variables including discharge, temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Most of the endemic freshwater fishes were potamodromous, displaying lateral seasonal spawning migrations from the main channel into tributaries, and there were significant temporal differences in movement patterns between species. Using a model averaging approach, amount of discharge was clearly the best predictor of upstream and downstream movement for most species. Given past and projected reductions in surface flow and groundwater, the findings have major implications for future recruitment rates and population viabilities of potamodromous fishes. Freshwater ecosystems in drying climatic regions can only be managed effectively if such hydro-ecological relationships are considered. Proactive management and addressing existing anthropogenic stressors on aquatic ecosystems associated with the development of surface and groundwater resources and land use is required to increase the resistance and resilience of potamodromous fishes to ongoing flow reductions.

  13. Students' Understandings of Logical Implication. (United States)

    Hoyles, Celia; Kuchemann, Dietmar


    Reports survey results on proof conceptions. Presents an overview of responses at the end of year 8 (age 13 years) and year 9 (age 14 years). Distinguishes three strategies--empirical, focused-empirical, and focused-deductive--that represent shifts in attention from an inductive to a deductive approach. Indicates some progress from year 8 to year…

  14. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications. (United States)

    Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L


    Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at

  15. Mining TCGA Data Using Boolean Implications (United States)

    Sinha, Subarna; Tsang, Emily K.; Zeng, Haoyang; Meister, Michela; Dill, David L.


    Boolean implications (if-then rules) provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression) from the glioblastoma (GBM) and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV) data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at PMID:25054200

  16. Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Sinha

    Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at

  17. Psycholinguistic Approaches to SLA. (United States)

    Segalowitz, Norman; Lightbown, Patsy M.


    Discusses issues related to psycholinguistics since second-language acquisition (SLA) research has emerged as a scientific discipline. These issues include the debate about the place of an innate universal grammar in language acquisition, basic cognitive mechanisms underlying SLA, and pedagogical implications of recent developments in the…

  18. 效用、基本善與能力發展―論「平等」的多元視野及其教育蘊義 Utility, Primary Goods, and the Capabilities Approach: Multiple Perspectives on “Equality” and Their Educational Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    王俊斌 Chun-Ping Wang


    Full Text Available 本文之目的係在Sen〈什麼樣的平等?〉一文的基礎上,藉由效益論、正義論與能力取向理論等相關文獻之分析,深入探究「效益平等」、「總體效用平等」、「Rawls的基本善平等」,以及「基本能力平等」等四種不同觀點之內涵及其侷限性。相較於能力取向理論在福利經濟學與倫理學領域已累積的大量文獻,能力取向理論之教育應用研究卻仍極為有限。因此,本文最後嘗試提出「平等」的多元思維取向,期待能夠為未來教育公平議題研究提供更妥適的倫理學基礎。 This essay, based on the foundations laid out by Amartya Sen in his article “Equality of what?” as well as other related literature and studies on utilitarianism, theory of justice, and the capabilities approach, delved into the contents and limitations of four different “equality” viewpoints which encompassed “utilitarian equality,” “total utility equality,” the “Rawlsian equality of primary goods,” and the “basic capability equality.” A large amount of research had been previously conducted on the application of the capabilities approach to welfare economics and ethics, but research on the educational applications of the capabilities approach remained comparatively sparse. To address this problem, this essay proposes in its concluding section multiple perspectives on “equality” and attempted to provide an ethical foundation that would better suite the discussions of educational equality in the future.

  19. Complementary Health Approaches (United States)

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  20. Streamflow disaggregation: a nonlinear deterministic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sivakumar


    Full Text Available This study introduces a nonlinear deterministic approach for streamflow disaggregation. According to this approach, the streamflow transformation process from one scale to another is treated as a nonlinear deterministic process, rather than a stochastic process as generally assumed. The approach follows two important steps: (1 reconstruction of the scalar (streamflow series in a multi-dimensional phase-space for representing the transformation dynamics; and (2 use of a local approximation (nearest neighbor method for disaggregation. The approach is employed for streamflow disaggregation in the Mississippi River basin, USA. Data of successively doubled resolutions between daily and 16 days (i.e. daily, 2-day, 4-day, 8-day, and 16-day are studied, and disaggregations are attempted only between successive resolutions (i.e. 2-day to daily, 4-day to 2-day, 8-day to 4-day, and 16-day to 8-day. Comparisons between the disaggregated values and the actual values reveal excellent agreements for all the cases studied, indicating the suitability of the approach for streamflow disaggregation. A further insight into the results reveals that the best results are, in general, achieved for low embedding dimensions (2 or 3 and small number of neighbors (less than 50, suggesting possible presence of nonlinear determinism in the underlying transformation process. A decrease in accuracy with increasing disaggregation scale is also observed, a possible implication of the existence of a scaling regime in streamflow.

  1. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter


    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold even for ages over 100. Beyond 106 there is so far no statistical evidence available because the number of survivors is too small even in the largest nations. However assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1,000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis usi...

  2. Energy implications of bottled water (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.


    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  3. Trace elements: implications for nursing. (United States)

    Hayter, J


    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  4. Climatic implications of ice microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, K.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Based on aircraft measurements of mid-latitude cirrus clouds, ice crystal size distribution and ice water content (IWC) are shown to be dependent on temperature. This dependence is also evident from the theoretical consideration of ice crystal growth. Using simple models of the diffusion and accretion growth of ice particles, the computed mean ice crystal size and IWC compare reasonably well with the measured mean values. The temperature dependence of ice crystal size and IWC has important climatic implications in that the temperature field perturbed by external radiative forcings, such as greenhouse warming, can alter the composition of ice crystal clouds. Through radiative transfer, ice microphysics can in turn affect the temperature field. Higher IWC would increase cloud solar albedo and infrared emissivity, while for a given IWC, larger crystals would reduce cloud albedo and emissivity. The competing effects produced by greenhouse temperature perturbations via ice micro-physics and radiation interactions and feedbacks are assessed by a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate model that includes an advanced radiation parameterization program. 3 figs.

  5. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.


    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  6. Control theory and psychopathology: an integrative approach. (United States)

    Mansell, Warren


    Perceptual control theory (PCT; Powers, 1973) is presented and adapted as a framework to understand the causes, maintenance, and treatment of psychological disorders. PCT provides dynamic, working models based on the principle that goal-directed activity arises from a hierarchy of negative feedback loops that control perception through control of the environment. The theory proposes that psychological distress arises from the unresolved conflict between goals. The present paper integrates PCT, control theory, and self-regulatory approaches to psychopathology and psychotherapy and recent empirical findings, particularly in the field of cognitive therapy. The approach aims to offer fresh insights into the role of goal conflict, automatic processes, imagery, perceptual distortion, and loss of control in psychological disorders. Implications for psychological therapy are discussed, including an integration of the existing work on the assessment of control profiles and the use of assertive versus yielding modes of control.

  7. Policy Change Implication Toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone as A Strategic Economic Development Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Pandu Dwinugraha


    Full Text Available Integrated Wonorejo Zone is one of the development zone in Lumajang Regency with significant goals to improve potensial condition in three aspect namely tourism, agriculture and SMEs. Based on RTRW in 2008-2028, which was established in 2008, the development strategy of this zone is change. Integrated Wonorejo Zone was mentioned as a Strategic Economic Development Zone. This research describe and analyse about how the implication of policy change toward Integrated Wonorejo Zone. This research using method of descriptive research with qualitative approach as well as analysis of data by John Seidel about QDA (qualitative data analysis. The result of this research explain that the policy change implication, from description, implementation and implication point of view did not give significant expectation. Key Words: Policy Change, Integrated Wonorejo Zone, Strategic Economic Development Zone.

  8. Marketing Strategy: Concepts And Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohir Akramov


    Full Text Available In today's very competitive marketplace a strategy that insures a consistent approach to offering your product or service in a way that will outsell the competition is critical. However, in concert with defining the marketing strategy you must also have a well defined methodology for the day to day process of implementing it. This research studies contemporary strategy concepts and the methods of its implementation, which is very needed in Uzbek economy.

  9. Microelectronics: Their Implications for Education and Training. (United States)

    Audiovisual Instruction, 1979


    This two-part article indicates some probable characteristics of the microelectronics in the future and assesses implications of the microelectronics revolution for the methods and systems currently used in teaching and training. (CMV)

  10. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.


    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  11. New approaches to treating pain. (United States)

    Wolkerstorfer, Andrea; Handler, Norbert; Buschmann, Helmut


    Pain is the most common reason for patients seeking medical care resulting in an estimated world market for analgesics of more than USD 50 billion. Pain is a highly complex, heterogeneous and dynamic process characterized by specific patterns of phenotypic sensory neuronal change. Current treatment options for pain include opioids and non-opioid analgesics, acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drug classes such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants and a combination thereof. Novel approaches are focusing on the optimization of side-effect profiles of opioid based analgesics, the improvement of selectivity for specific opioid receptors, or by addressing molecular gateways implicated in pain. Promising candidates in development target various types of voltage-gated ion channels and receptors for capsaicin and analogs. Currently, after decades of pain research it has to be stated that the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain in industrialized countries as well as in low-income and middle-income countries are neither adequate nor equitable. Further research is needed so that specifically chronic pain control can be improved and individualized.

  12. Deficient Approaches to Human Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eStelzer


    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is the workhorse of imaging-based human cognitive neuroscience. The use of fMRI is ever-increasing; within the last 4 years more fMRI studies have been published than in the previous 17 years. This large body of research has mainly focused on the functional localization of condition- or stimulus-dependent changes in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal.In recent years, however, many aspects of the commonly practiced analysis frameworks and methodologies have been critically reassessed. Here we summarize these critiques, providing an overview of the major conceptual and practical deficiencies in widely used brain-mapping approaches, and exemplify some of these issues by the use of imaging data and simulations. In particular, we discuss the inherent pitfalls and shortcomings of methodologies for statistical parametric mapping. Our critique emphasizes recent reports of excessively high numbers of both false positive and false negative findings in fMRI brain mapping. We outline our view regarding the broader scientific implications of these methodological considerations and briefly discuss possible solutions.

  13. NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce (United States)


    THE PRESIDENT’S NATIONAL SECURITY TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE NS/EP IMPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE JUNE 1999 Form SF298 Citation Data... Electronic Commerce Procedures Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization...99 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) President’s

  14. Globalization of Information: Intellectual Property Law Implications


    Nayyer, Kim


    The globalization of information, facilitated by the Internet, has significant implications for intellectual property regimes domestically and internationally. Assessment of these implications and their probable outcomes is unavoidably value-driven. Many commentators foresee harmonization of intellectual property laws but some predict disparity in political economy outcomes. Some also see profound effects on sovereignty. A critical review of recent literature on these topics discloses a preva...

  15. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.


    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  16. Trait approach motivation moderates the aftereffects of self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne eCrowell


    Full Text Available Numerous experiments have found that exercising self-control reduces success on subsequent, seemingly unrelated self-control tasks. Such evidence lends support to a strength model that posits a limited and depletable resource underlying all manner of self-control. Recent theory and evidence suggest that exercising self-control may also increase approach-motivated impulse strength. The two studies reported here tested two implications of this increased approach motivation hypothesis. First, aftereffects of self-control should be evident even in responses that require little or no self-control. Second, participants higher in trait approach motivation should be particularly susceptible to such aftereffects. In support, exercising self-control led to increased optimism (Study 1 and broadened attention (Study 2, but only among individuals higher in trait approach motivation. These findings suggest that approach motivation is an important key to understanding the aftereffects of exercising self-control.

  17. Results of Associated Implication Algebra on a Partial Ordered Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Some sufficient and necessary conditions that implication algebra on a partial ordered set is associated implication algebra are obtained, and the relation between lattice H implication algebra and associated implication algebra is discussed. Also, the concept of filter is proposed with some basic properties being studied.

  18. Annual Research Review: Categories versus Dimensions in the Classification and Conceptualisation of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders--Implications of Recent Empirical Study (United States)

    Coghill, David; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.


    The question of whether child and adolescent mental disorders are best classified using dimensional or categorical approaches is a contentious one that has equally profound implications for clinical practice and scientific enquiry. Here, we explore this issue in the context of the forth coming publication of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 approaches to…

  19. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications. (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela


    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Vertically-integrated multinational companies place the different stages of production and marketing chain in different countries, looking for advantages such as low production costs, lower taxes, abundant resources and so on, while benefiting from the advantages of economies of scale, control of supplies or outlets. In fact, this vertical integration of multinational companies has led to the expansion of intra-firm trade and "internalized" operations, thus creating their own markets for the vertically-integrated production. Internationally active firms operate in a way that replaces the different functions of an open market with internal transactions, i.e. intra-firm transactions, whenever internal transaction costs are lower than the open-market ones. The direct consequence over international trade is the increase of intra-firm share of trade flows to one third of world trade, those companies making a suppression of international market segments that act in favour of an internal market. The creation of a multinational market and the enhancement of intra-firm trade have profound quantitative and qualitative implications on the composition, geographic orientation and dynamics of international trade. This paper deals with the issue of production internalization, with an overview of the main contributions made to the theory of internalization, while tackling its relative dimension. However, we intend to highlight the implications of this phenomenon on international trade. The work methodology falls within the range of qualitative approaches: logical argumentation, critical theoretical analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharno Suharno


    Full Text Available This paper aims to elaborate cognitivism and its implications to the second language learning. Cognitive theory or approach views the learner as a thinking being and an active processor of information. Thus, learning is a process in which the learner actively tries to analyze the situations where the application of the rule would be appropriate and to make sense of data. In other words, we learn by thinking about and trying to make sense of what we see, hear and feel.  In order to get a clear picture of the cognitive theory in relation to second language learning, other related theories were also described briefly from the historical points of view. In general cognitivism can be grouped under the innatist model which is also known as ‘nativist’. ‘mentalism’ (thinking as rule-governed activity, ‘rationalism’. The implications of cognitive theories can be revealed in the basic teaching techniques which cover activities such as problem-based solving activity, discovery learning, cognitive strategies, project-based learning, etc.   Keywords : cognitive, second language, acquisition, innatist, problem-solving, behaviorist

  2. Policy implications for familial searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Joyce


    Full Text Available Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  3. Rough Implication%粗糙蕴涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛占熬; 何华灿


    Rough implication operator is the emphasis and difficulty in the study of rough logic. Due to the shortage of rough implication in [3]~[5], we redefine rough set and rough implication operator by Stone algebra, and introduce new rough operators such as rough intersection, rough union, and rough complement. Moreover the characteristics of the proposed rough implication are investigated ,and we also point out that the proposed implication operation is superior to that of three-valued Lukasiewicz logic.

  4. Global Land Use Implications of Biofuels: State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper; Wenzel, Henrik; Banse, Martin


    in the identification of marginal crop production and the resulting expansion of the global agricultural area. Furthermore, the field of geography offers insights in the complexity behind new land cultivation and practical examples of where this is seen to occur on a regional scale. Results. Results presented...... caused by an increased demand for biofuels. Main Features. The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding The main feature of the conference was the crossbreeding of experience from the different approaches to land use modelling: The field of LCA could especially benefit from economic modelling......-called yield gaps. Conclusions. Modelling the global land use implications of Modelling the global land use implications of biofuels requires an interdisciplinary approach optimally integrating economic, geographical, biophysical, social and possibly other aspects in the modelling. This interdisciplinary...

  5. Variscan Oroclines: Implications for Pangea (United States)

    Johnston, S. T.


    The supercontinent Pangea is commonly interpreted to have formed in the Upper Carboniferous as a result of collision of Gondwana and Laurussia. The western European Variscan Orogen is interpreted as the product of the Gondwana - Laurussia continental collision. In Iberia, the Variscan Orogen describes two coupled Early Permian oroclines; a northern, convex to the west Cantabrian orocline, and a southern, convex to the east Central Iberian orocline. Palinspastic restoration of the oroclines using paleomagnetic, structural and stratigraphic constraints yield a 2300 km long, linear orogen that: (1) consists of a west-facing lower Paleozoic passive margin sequence of Gondwanan affinity; (2) is characterized by an east-verging thrust belt that passes east into Carboniferous foreland basin sequences and west into a metamorphic hinterland; (3) is bound to the west by ophiolite and juvenile oceanic arc sequences obducted over the the distal west edge of the passive margin along east-verging thrust faults; (4) has syn- to post-kinematic granitic intrusions that young from 330 in the west to 290 in the east; and (5) is, in the east, characterized by sedimentary and volcanic sequences of Avalonian (Meguma) affinity which are separated from the passive margin sequence by a marginal basin ophiolite. This tectonic template can be used to interpret the Variscan orogen across all of western Europe, and shows that the orogen consists of a >7000 km long ribbon that extends from Cornwall, SW England, east along a north-verging northern limb, around the Bohemian orocline in the east into a south-verging southern limb that runs along the Mediterranean into the Iberian oroclines. The implication of this geometry is that: (1) Variscan orogenesis consisted of the Carboniferous collision of a juvenile oceanic arc with a Gondwanan-affinity ribbon continent and the related collapse of a marginal basin that separated the passive margin from Avalonian lithosphere; followed by (2) buckling of

  6. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen


    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  7. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergin Michael


    Full Text Available Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1. Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Silviu CORDOȘ


    Full Text Available The regulatory changes come as a response to perceived deficiencies in the postfinancial crisis, and their goal is to improve users' perception of the usefulness and quality of the audit report. The article approaches the subject of these proposals to revise the standards and their implications for the audit report. The article is divided into five parts: the first part the authors present a brief introduction to the subject matter; the second part presents the research methodology; the third part the authors present a review of the literature research; the fourth section presents an analysis of the responses of EU respondents to the Exposure Draft issued by the IAASB in July 2013 and the last part the authors present research findings, limitations and perspectives.

  9. Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence. (United States)

    Bergin, Michael; Norman, Ian; Foley, Michelle; Harris, Richard; Rapca, Anna; Rich, Eileen; Van Hout, Marie-Claire


    Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O'Malley's framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper stresses the significant pedagogical function ofintonation in spoken English.It also provides a brief review onits current application in teaching English as a foreign language(TEFL)in China.Effective intonation teaching not only has aneffect on facilitating an acquisition of"intelligiblepronunciation"but also has an underlying implication formaking a"whole-person learner involvement"in learningprocess.This paper outlines an approach practiced in Chinatoday.It is based on the basic nuclear tone patterns proposed byQuirk and others in order to promote oral English teachingthrough intonation awareness training.With the learners’attention transferred from segmental sound or meaning tosuprasegmental tone(intonation),the melodic feature of thelanguage is most salient,which greatly motivates the learner’sinterest,involvement and autonomy,therefore,accelerating anacquisition of oral communicative competence.

  11. The sustainable livelihoods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Henning Høgh


    food chain has on producers and their families, an analysis was conducted of the use of the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA). The SLA provides a holistic and integrative approach which researchers can use as the overriding frame for their research. The application of the approach is recommended...... as it enables us to maintain important elements of the sustainability vision, yet emphasises that a number of assets influence farmers' livelihoods and it maintains the focus on salience, legitimacy, and credibility in the research....

  12. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites


    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine


    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  13. Effective self-regulating teams: a generative psychological approach


    Millward, LJ; Banks, AP; Riga, K


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and defend a generative model for understanding effective self-regulating teams from a distinctively psychological perspective that has implications for both research and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The paper complements Hackman's work on the critical conditions for effecting “self-regulated” teamwork with an understanding of team psychology, as the basis for evolving a propositional model of effective teamwork. Findings – Assumin...

  14. A historical approach to the general theory of systems


    Esther María Pino Guzmán


    The paper is intended to examine the epistemological development of the theory or systems, focus the change of its scientific paradigm and points out its main implications for the development of research methodology and design. The theoretical methods being used makes possible to go deeper into the analysis of regularities and essential qualities in the construction and development of the scientific theory. The system approach is one of the most frequently used method and the one of further r...

  15. Gender Discrimination on the Labor Market: A CDA approach



    Setzenes Jornades de Foment de la Investigació (Any 2011) In the past three decades, news production and its ideological implications have become the focus of many research studies about both the structure of the news reports and the ideological manipulation of news discourse. This paper is a case study that deals with the relation between discourse, discriminatory acts and biased ideology as reflected in Spanish and English written news. The approach used is critical ...

  16. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach. (United States)

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter


    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  18. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor


    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  19. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches. (United States)

    Valero, Teresa


    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  20. Implication of Atmospheric Wetness Levels on Corrosion at a Coating Defect during Accelerated Testing (United States)


    Outline • Objectives • Atmospheric corrosion • Testing Approach • Effect of RH on corrosion of steel • Effect of inhibitor addition on coated steel... inhibitor migration in the coating . For a given test method, wet and dry times will influence inhibitor mobility, and thus corrosion rate Continuous...Implication of Atmospheric Wetness Levels on Corrosion at a Coating Defect during Accelerated Testing James F. Dante Southwest Research Institute

  1. Global Warming: Its Implications for U.S. National Security Policy (United States)


    The approach to this topic will be to look at the science behind anthropogenic global warming . Is man largely responsible for causing global warming due...paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S. leaders and...policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for those

  2. Job Enrichment: Evaluation with Implications for Air Force Job Redesign. Interim Report, 1 January 1975-30 April 1977. (United States)

    Watson, Thomas W.; Zumbro, Patrick A.

    The main text of this report consists of a review and evaluation of job enrichment as an approach to job redesign, with implications for Air Force research and application. In addition, two appendixes are included: the first, a supplemental historical discussion; the second, a ninety-six-item annotated bibliography. Specific objectives are to…

  3. Lignin biodegradation and industrial implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher


    Full Text Available Lignocellulose, which comprises the cell walls of plants, is the Earth’s most abundant renewable source of convertible biomass. However, in order to access the fermentable sugars of the cellulose and hemicellulose fraction, the extremely recalcitrant lignin heteropolymer must be hydrolyzed and removed—usually by harsh, costly thermochemical pretreatments. Biological processes for depolymerizing and metabolizing lignin present an opportunity to improve the overall economics of the lignocellulosic biorefinery by facilitating pretreatment, improving downstream cellulosic fermentations or even producing a valuable effluent stream of aromatic compounds for creating value-added products. In the following review we discuss background on lignin, the enzymology of lignin degradation, and characterized catabolic pathways for metabolizing the by-products of lignin degradation. To conclude we survey advances in approaches to identify novel lignin degrading phenotypes and applications of these phenotypes in the lignocellulosic bioprocess.

  4. A Comparison on the Audiolingual Approach and the Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Audiolingual approach and communicative approach are two important approaches in language teaching.In this paper,some differences and both advantages and diadvantages will be discussed.Thus,to conduct the important usage of approachs in language teaching.

  5. An Organizational Economics Approach to Organizational Change in Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Karami


    Full Text Available Organizational change in Transitional economies is influenced by multiple political, historical and economic factors not present in established market economies. This study proposes an organizational economics approach to organizational change in emerging economies. Based on transaction cost economics and resource based view, the cost of change is proposed as a mediator of change and perceived commitment to transition is proposed as antecedents of cost of change for organizations in emerging economies. The proposed approach has practical implications for government and organizations concerned with long-term development in emerging economies. It may provide a useful lens in studying the impact of government policies on organizational change in transitional economies.

  6. A complexity-based approach to batterer intervention programmes. (United States)

    Medina-Maldonado, Venus E; Medina-Maldonado, Rossana; Parada-Cores, Germán


    This paper was aimed at providing opinion by adopting a complexity-based approach to coordinating nursing science and psychology concerning psycho-educational intervention for batterers regarding their partner or ex-partner. Improving both disciplines' interrelationship should facilitate implementing relevant action, thereby engendering motivation for change in participants and modifying sexist attitudes and beliefs. The document has analyzed the importance of coordinating scientific disciplines' action and defined guidelines for an approach involving intervention as well as highlighting implications for practice and research.

  7. The TLC Approach. (United States)

    Welker, William A.


    Notes how the author has developed the Teaching and Learning Cues (TLC) approach, an offspring of textbook organizational patterns instruction that stresses the significance of certain words and phrases in reading. Concludes that with the TLC approach, students learn to appreciate the important role cue words and phrases play in understanding…

  8. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach (United States)

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara


    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  9. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix


    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  10. Articulating Design Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techni...

  11. Modular Approach for Ethics (United States)

    Wyne, Mudasser F.


    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Noma


    Full Text Available Globalising forces have given rise to new relationships between organisations operating in Eastern and Western cultural contexts. Despite the rich opportunities presented by globalisation, the literature indicates that managers are challenged by the complexity of intercultural communication. This scholarly paper discusses some implications of analogue and digital mindsets for the managers of organisations in which effective inter- cultural communication across Eastern and Western contexts is crucial. We do so by adopting a multidisciplinary approach to the phenomenon and suggesting how managers may capitalise on knowledge related to analogue and digital mindsets to foster creative and holistic approaches to communication.

  13. Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Imtiaz


    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient′s signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.

  14. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz


    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  15. Introducing Systems Approaches (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  16. Otoplasty: A graduated approach. (United States)

    Foda, H M


    Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone.

  17. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranjeet Kaur


    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent.

  18. Student Teachers' Approaches to Teaching Biological Evolution (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Klein, Vanessa A.; Ghosh, Rajlakshmi; Eibel, Albert


    Evolution is fundamental to biology and scientific literacy, but teaching high school evolution is often difficult. Evolution teachers face several challenges including limited content knowledge, personal conflicts with evolution, expectations of resistance, concerns about students' conflicts with religion, and curricular constraints. Evolution teaching can be particularly challenging for student teachers who are just beginning to gain pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge related to evolution teaching and who seek approval from university supervisors and cooperating teachers. Science teacher educators need to know how to best support student teachers as they broach the sometimes daunting task of teaching evolution within student teaching placements. This multiple case study report documents how three student teachers approached evolution instruction and what influenced their approaches. Data sources included student teacher interviews, field note observations for 4-5 days of evolution instruction, and evolution instructional artifacts. Data were analyzed using grounded theory approaches to develop individual cases and a cross-case analysis. Seven influences (state exams and standards, cooperating teacher, ideas about teaching and learning, concerns about evolution controversy, personal commitment to evolution, knowledge and preparation for teaching evolution, and own evolution learning experiences) were identified and compared across cases. Implications for science teacher preparation and future research are provided.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Whole language, a relatively new approach emerged in theNorth America about more than thirty years ago, has becomeone of the two major philosophies (Phonics and WholeLanguage) in teaching and learning language. "The future ofwhole language is the future of education." (Goodman, 1992).Whole language is gaining its popularity all over the world andhas found its way into various language settings. It has also beenushered into the field of second language education. Whole lan-guage entails whole learners, whole teachers, whole texts, wholemethods, whole skills and whole environments. This paper at-tempts to introduce its definitions and explore its implications inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Italso analyzes its limitations so that instructors, when imple-menting this approach in EFL classrooms, could make necessaryadaptations by taking into consideration the characteristics ofEFL learners, including their linguistic proficiency, sociocultur-al variables, and career orientations, and at the same time makesure that EFL classroom activities reflect wholeness of the majorcomponents underlying this approach.

  20. Some Implications of Human-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    On structures, humans may be active which may cause structural vibrations as human activity can excite structural vibration modes. However, humans may also be passive (sitting or standing on the structure). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans pr...

  1. Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors. (United States)

    Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

    This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

  2. Supervision and Motivational Theory: Some Implications. (United States)

    Reyes, Donald J.


    Suggests useful implications for supervisors offered by motivational theories, including the importance of serving as a source of reinforcement for teachers and the necessity of helping the teacher make appropriate instructional choices and gather evidence on the effectiveness of those choices. (Author/JM)

  3. Unconventional eating practices and their health implications. (United States)

    Hanning, R M; Zlotkin, S H


    The authors discuss a number of unconventional or faddist foods and eating practices and their health implications. Among the topics included are vegetarianism, Zen macrobiotic diets, fast foods, junk foods, megavitamins and their toxicity, health foods, fad diets in infancy, and elimination diets.

  4. Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders. (United States)

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M


    Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed.

  5. Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications. (United States)

    Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others


    Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

  6. The Implications of Federal Education Policy. (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Cosand, Joseph

    The significant role of the federal government in the support of higher education is noted in a survey of the development and changing patterns of federal support, and a critical review of the directions of current federal policy is offered. Implications are drawn about the effects of this policy on such national concerns as providing equal…

  7. Implications of Telecommuting in a Library Environment. (United States)

    Meglio, Delores


    Discussion of telecommuting possibilities focuses on a program at Information Access Company that allows indexers and abstractors to work at home. Employer and employee expectations are discussed, equipment provisions are described, employee benefits are examined, and implications for the library environment are suggested. (LRW)

  8. Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents: Implications for Counseling. (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Greenberg, Byron


    Examined self-perceived depression and isolation reported by unaccompanied Southeast Asian refugee adolescents (n=301), population traditionally inadequately served by mental health professionals. Findings revealed significant differences regarding sex, English language skills, work involvement, and self-disclosure. Results have implications for…

  9. Brexit: what are the implications for nurses? (United States)


    The referendum result is in and appears to have caught the nation by surprise. Whatever the fallout from voters' decision to leave the EU, the implications for nursing are likely to be widespread and profound - and could take years to resolve.

  10. Linguistic Truth Values Lattice Implication Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiao-dong; XU Yang


    In order to study uncertainty reasoning and automatic reasoning with linguistic terms, in this paper, the set of basic linguistic truth values and the set of modifiers are defined, according to common sense; partially orderings are defined on them. Based on it, a lattice implication algebra model L18 of linguistic terms is built; furthermore, its some basic properties are discussed.

  11. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Educational Implications. (United States)

    Yousef, Jamal M. S.


    This article provides an overview of the educational implications of diabetes in children through discussion of the nature of diabetes, factors associated with educational performance, and the teacher's role in meeting the child's needs. It argues that teachers should treat these students as normal learners, without ignoring their unique needs or…

  12. Implication of SLA to ELT in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Second language acquisition, or SLA, is the processes by which people learn languages in addition to their native tongue(s). Although the theories can not be directly used to solve the practical problems, they do have great significance to language teaching. This paper mainly discusses the implication of Krashen' SLA theory and offers some reference opinions to English teaching in China.

  13. Ambiguity and Volatility : Asset Pricing Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pataracchia, B.


    Using a simple dynamic consumption-based asset pricing model, this paper explores the implications of a representative investor with smooth ambiguity averse preferences [Klibano¤, Marinacci and Mukerji, Econometrica (2005)] and provides a comparative analysis of risk aversion and ambiguity aversion.

  14. Ritalin Update: Implications for Reading Teachers. (United States)

    Cotter, Robert B., Jr.; Werner, Patrice Holden


    Investigates how Ritalin, a powerful stimulant drug frequently prescribed for children exhibiting hyperactive behavior, poor attention span, and/or distractibility, is prescribed for children in educational settings, what doses seem appropriate, and what effect Ritalin has on reading achievement. Discusses the implications of Ritalin research for…

  15. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications. (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.


    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  16. Teacher's Experiences in PBL: Implications for Practice (United States)

    Alves, Anabela C.; Sousa, Rui M.; Fernandes, Sandra; Cardoso, Elisabete; Carvalho, Maria Alice; Figueiredo, Jorge; Pereira, Rui M. S.


    Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at the University of Minho, Portugal, since 2004/2005. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss teachers' experiences in PBL in this programme and to explore its implications for student learning and for teaching…

  17. Researching Lean: Methodological implications of loose definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Langstrand, Jostein; Johansson, Stina


    it very difficult to study through a priori definitions. Practical implications/recommendations – The large variation in interpretations of Lean complicates metaanalyses regarding potential impact of Lean on the primary stakeholders of an organization, i.e. the customer, employees and employer. Based...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculcea Silviu Petrisor


    Full Text Available One of the issues of maximum interes to our century is the analysis of implications of globalization on the world economy and this proves to be even more important now in the middle of financial crisis. Forecasts from the World Bank are very optimistic o

  19. Hormonal approach in Hirsutism


    Abdullah, Nusratuddin


    Hinsutism is a clinical sign that primarily indicate androgen excess and open caused hy relatively benign junctional conditions. Hirsutism requires a careful and systematic clinical evaluation coztoleal with a rational approach to treatment. Initiate therapy only in patients who give informed consent after a complete explanation of the potential benejits and risks of a particular treatment and alternative approaches. The goals ofthe correct management of hirsutism are to ame...

  20. The electronic approach VSCF (United States)

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  1. Sustainable fashion: New approaches


    Niinimäki, Kirsi


    This publication is intended to be used as a source of inspiration for designers and companies, and all stakeholders whose interest lies in the area of sustainable fashion. While the strategies for sustainability are complex and approaches are many, this publication presents only a few ways to approach sustainable fashion. I hope the publication offers inspiration on how to make positive change in current practices and how to effect new mindsets, creating transformative fashion. Theoretica...

  2. A Heuristic Approach to Innovative Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Hök


    Full Text Available A methodic approach to innovative problem solving is suggested. First, Bayesian techniques are analyzed for quantifying, monitoring and predicting the process. The symmetry of Bayes‟ theorem implicates that the chances of success offrail ideas with small base rates can be boosted by highly accurate tests built on solid scientific ground. Second, a hypothesis is presented in which five methodic elements – connection, selection, transformation, balance and finish - are deemed to be necessary and sufficient to explain innovative solutions to complex problems. The hypothesis is supported by the analysis of disruptive innovations in several fields, and by emulation of a data base including 40,000 inventions.The reported findings may become useful in the further methodic development of innovative problem solving, especially in the risky and lengthy preconceptual phases

  3. Inner ear malformations: a practical diagnostic approach. (United States)

    Mazón, M; Pont, E; Montoya-Filardi, A; Carreres-Polo, J; Más-Estellés, F


    Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss is a major cause of disability; although inner ear malformations account for only 20-40% of all cases, recognition and characterization will be vital for the proper management of these patients. In this article relevant anatomy and development of inner ear are surveyed. The role of neuroimaging in pediatric sensorineural hearing loss and cochlear preimplantation study are assessed. The need for a universal system of classification of inner ear malformations with therapeutic and prognostic implications is highlighted. And finally, the radiological findings of each type of malformation are concisely described and depicted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play a crucial role in the characterization of inner ear malformations and allow the assessment of the anatomical structures that enable the selection of appropriate treatment and surgical approach.

  4. A constructivist approach to relationship marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a new theory on relationships between producers and retail chains. This theory is a result of a major project which investigated the cooperation between Danish abattoirs and food processors, and retail chains in four countries. The main point in the new theory is that relation......This paper presents a new theory on relationships between producers and retail chains. This theory is a result of a major project which investigated the cooperation between Danish abattoirs and food processors, and retail chains in four countries. The main point in the new theory...... is that relationships between producers and retail chains are developed through construction of inter-organizational shared meanings. To position the new theory the paper first gives a short presentation of the traditional approach to relationship marketing. Then there is a brief presentation of the paradigm including...... of implications for management....

  5. Insulin-Mediated Down-Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway: Role of Upstream Stimulatory Factor (United States)

    Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Martin, Geneviève; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles


    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been repeatedly implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have demonstrated that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 is regulated by insulin. Here, we show that cell lines and mice treated with insulin down-regulate APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that insulin decreases human APOA5 promoter activity, and subsequent deletion and mutation analyses uncovered a functional E box in the promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that this APOA5 E box binds upstream stimulatory factors (USFs). Moreover, in transfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity, and the treatment with insulin reduced the binding of USF1/USF2 to the APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway abolished insulin's effect on APOA5 gene expression, while the inhibition of the P70 S6 kinase pathway with rapamycin reversed its effect and increased APOA5 gene expression. Using an oligonucleotide precipitation assay for USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrate that phosphorylated USF1 fails to bind to the APOA5 promoter. Taken together, these data indicate that insulin-mediated APOA5 gene transrepression could involve a phosphorylation of USFs through the PI3K and P70 S6 kinase pathways that modulate their binding to the APOA5 E box and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in men showed a decrease in the plasma ApoAV level. These results suggest a potential contribution of the APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia. PMID:15684402

  6. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.


    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept? Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation? Third, what are the uncertainties involved? Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach? And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation?

  7. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.


    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation Third, what are the uncertainties involved Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation

  8. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  9. Narrative Abilities: Advances in Research and Implications for Clinical Practice (United States)

    Boudreau, Donna


    The article discusses the key findings in recent research dealing narrative abilities in children with and without language implications. The implications of research findings for narrative assessment and intervention are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia-Catalina, MIHALCIUC


    Full Text Available Accounting assessment is a process with tax implications on accounting figures. In fact, when it comes to evaluation, we need to clarify exactly what is being refered to: it s about the individual assessment of an asset or liability, or about the global assessment of a business. So, in a narrower approach, in accounting we are particularly interested in the individual assessment of assets and liabilities. In the evaluation, the concept of value is the primary element, accounting, especially along with the application of the principle of economic prevalence over the juridic, managed to convey the best measure those interested, information about how to create, to mesure and how to comunicate to business partners the value. The tax implication that arise after the evaluation of the individual elements of the asset, influence the result of the exercise by including the expenditure in the total expenses generated by the evaluation. The main asset elements, which following the evaluation generate tax implications are the tangible fixed asset, financial and stocks. Based on this consideration, one of the main objectives of this paper is to highlight the tax implications arising from the evaluation of financial instruments that generate tax liabilities.

  11. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin


    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  12. Dance as a Treatment Approach with a Multidisabled Child: Implications for School Counseling. (United States)

    Lasseter, Jan; And Others


    Describes dance therapy with multidisabled children. Presents case study involving girl with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and emotional problems with goal of helping her adjust to everyday life and function as nearly as possible as a normal individual. Recommends common movements be combined extemporaneously or in cooperation with a…

  13. The Israeli Approach to Irregular Warfare and Implications for the United States (United States)


    tabula - rasa strategy later resulted in recriminations and reevaluation. In Tall Afar and Ramadi, U.S. forces implemented tactics to secure and gain...Sayeret Golani, and possi- bly Sayeret Mat’Kal.17 Israeli special units played a large role in a highly successful counterinsurgency campaign along...transmissions. The Aman plays a predominate role in setting missions of small special forces. A tendency within the Israeli SOF community that has been less

  14. Whole-genome approach implicates CD44 in cellular resistance to carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Sunita J


    Full Text Available Abstract Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the management of many cancers, yet treatment is limited by resistance and toxicities. To achieve a better understanding of the genetic contribution to carboplatin resistance or toxicities, lymphoblastoid cell lines from 34 large Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees were utilised to evaluate interindividual variation in carboplatin cytotoxicity. Significant heritability, ranging from 0.17-0.36 (p = 1 × 10-7 to 9 × 10-4, was found for cell growth inhibition following 72-hour treatment at each carboplatin concentration (10, 20, 40 and 80 μM and IC50 (concentration for 50 per cent cell growth inhibition. Linkage analysis revealed 11 regions with logarithm of odds (LOD scores greater than 1.5. The highest LOD score on chromosome 11 (LOD = 3.36, p = 4.2 × 10-5 encompasses 65 genes within the 1 LOD confidence interval for the carboplatin IC50. We further analysed the IC50 phenotype with a linkage-directed association analysis using 71 unrelated HapMap and Perlegen cell lines and identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms within eight genes that were significantly associated with the carboplatin IC50 (p -5; false discovery rate 50 values of the eight associated genes, which identified the most significant correlation between CD44 expression and IC50 (r2 = 0.20; p = 6 × 10-4. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction further confirmed a statistically significant difference in CD44 expression levels between carboplatin-resistant and -sensitive cell lines (p = 5.9 × 10-3. Knockdown of CD44 expression through small interfering RNA resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to carboplatin (p CD44 as being important in conferring cellular resistance to carboplatin.

  15. A Discussion of Gunther Schuller's Approach to Conducting: Implications for the Instrumental Music Classroom (United States)

    Waldron, Janice


    What professional musicians say and do affects the attitudes and actions of music educators in the classroom. One example comes from influential conductor/composer, Gunther Schuller, who, in his controversial 1997 book, "The Compleat Conductor", defines, espouses, and recommends his own "philosophy of conducting." An examination of his ideas and,…

  16. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda. (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette


    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km(2) landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  17. Psychological pain interventions and neurophysiology: implications for a mechanism-based approach. (United States)

    Flor, Herta


    This article provides an illustrative overview of neurophysiological changes related to acute and chronic pain involving structural and functional brain changes, which might be the targets of psychological interventions. A number of psychological pain treatments have been examined with respect to their effects on brain activity, ranging from cognitive- and operant behavioral interventions, meditation and hypnosis, to neuro- and biofeedback, discrimination training, imagery and mirror treatment, as well as virtual reality and placebo applications. These treatments affect both ascending and descending aspects of pain processing and act through brain mechanisms that involve sensorimotor areas as well as those involved in affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative aspects. The analysis of neurophysiological changes related to effective psychological pain treatment can help to identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain who might profit from different interventions, can aid in predicting treatment outcome, and can assist in identifying responders and nonresponders, thus enhancing the efficacy and efficiency of psychological interventions. Moreover, new treatment targets can be developed and tested. Finally, the use of neurophysiological measures can also aid in motivating patients to participate in psychological interventions and can increase their acceptance in clinical practice.

  18. Inflammatory Role of Macrophage Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Pulmonary Hypertension: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches (United States)


    Myeloid Specific Ablation BAL cell XOR activity (Figure 2A) was significantly reduced in XORfl/fl//LysM-Cre mice compared to XORfl/fl mice 48 hrs...after LPS insufflation, and we observed that XOR activity from XORfl/fl BAL cells was largely in Oxidase (O-Form) (>90%) following LPS insufflation but...predominantly Dehydrogenase (D-Form) (80%) following saline insufflation (Figure 2B), consistent with XOR as a source of ROS. BAL cell superoxide

  19. Heteropterys cotinifolia: A Neuropharmacological and Phytochemical Approach with Possible Taxonomic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Huerta-Reyes


    Full Text Available Heteropterys cotinifolia (Malpighiaceae has been used in traditional Mexican medicine mainly for the treatment of nervous disorders. However, the specific neuropharmacological activities responsible for this use remain to be defined. The present study evaluates the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects produced by the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia and the influence of such effects on motor activity in ICR mice. Our results show that the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia produces a dose-dependent antidepressant effect in the forced swimming test in mice at doses from 31 to 310 mg/kg, with no reduction of mice locomotion. However, no anxiolytic properties were observed. Our findings suggest that the main extract compounds identified as chlorogenic acid and rutin may be involved in the antidepressant effects. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first report of pharmacological and phytochemical data of Heteropterys cotinifolia. The presence of flavonoids in the methanolic extract of Heteropterys cotinifolia may also provide further data to characterize taxonomically this species in order to be distinguished from others species closely related and belonging to the same genus.

  20. How Should the Department of Defense Approach Environmental Security Implications of Climate Change (United States)


    input of greenhouse gasses. Major sources include fossil-fuel burning and deforestation . CO2 remains in the troposphere for approximately 500 years...... greenhouse effect is the raising of air temperature that occurs when the lower atmosphere (troposphere) traps and contributes to the buildup of heat

  1. Implications of Climate Change for State Bioassessment Programs and Approaches to Account for Effects (Final Report) (United States)

    This final report uses biological data collected by four states in wadeable rivers and streams to examine the components of state and tribal bioassessment and biomonitoring programs that may be vulnerable to climate change. The study investigates the potential to identify biologi...

  2. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach. (United States)

    Ogawa, N


    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the provision of social insurance benefits continued to increase monotonically. Possible palliative measures would be to change present employment practices or to upgrade the quality of the labor force through vocational training programs for older workers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Gede Udiyana


    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to find the existence of MAMA (Motivation, Ability, and Moral Awareness model to the commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB. The subject of the research is the five stars hotels at Nusa Dua Bali. Respondents of this study are the operational employees at the hotels who have Hindu religion with 198 samples. The method of collecting data was simple random sampling method with proportional allocation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM analysis technique was utilized to analyze the data in this research. This research has found that MAMA model (Motivation, Ability, and Moral Awareness influences OCB. Furthermore this research has found a theory that the main variable which is causing the appearance of organizational citizenship behavior is MAMA (motivation, ability, and moral awareness as an intrinsic behavior, and commitment or organizational citizenship behavior function of MAMA, and commitment or to be formulated as OCB f. Info

  4. Evaluating lung cancer screening in China: Implications for eligibility criteria design from a microsimulation modeling approach (United States)

    Sheehan, Deirdre F.; Criss, Steven D.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Pandharipande, Pari V.


    More than half of males in China are current smokers and evidence from western countries tells us that an unprecedented number of smoking-attributable deaths will occur as the Chinese population ages. We used the China Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM) to simulate effects of computed tomography (CT)-based lung cancer screening in China, comparing the impact of a screening guideline published in 2015 by a Chinese expert group to a version developed for the United States by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). The China LCPM, built using an existing lung cancer microsimulation model, can project population outcomes associated with interventions for smoking-related diseases. After calibrating the model to published Chinese smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality rates, we simulated screening from 2016 to 2050 based on eligibility criteria from the CMS and Chinese guidelines, which differ by age to begin and end screening, pack-years smoked, and years since quitting. Outcomes included number of screens, mortality reduction, and life-years saved for each strategy. We projected that in the absence of screening, 14.98 million lung cancer deaths would occur between 2016 and 2050. Screening with the CMS guideline would prevent 0.72 million deaths and 5.8 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.58% and 1.97% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Screening with the Chinese guideline would prevent 0.74 million deaths and 6.6 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.30% and 2.79% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Through 2050, 1.43 billion screens would be required using the Chinese screening strategy, compared to 988 million screens using the CMS guideline. In conclusion, CT-based lung cancer screening implemented in 2016 and based on the Chinese screening guideline would prevent about 20,000 (2.9%) more lung cancer deaths through 2050, but would require about 445 million (44.7%) more screens than the CMS guideline. PMID:28273181

  5. Balancing the Direct and Indirect Approaches: Implications for Ending the Violence in Southern Thailand (United States)


    place daily. More than 2,500–3,000 years into its history, Thailand and the Indo-China region were influenced by Brahmanism ( Hinduism ) and Buddhism... Hinduism and Buddhism from India, beginning in the 7th century; then Islam was brought to the area and to other countries in Southeast Asia in the 13th...the 7th century, the three southern provinces of Thailand were called the “Lankasuka Empire” and influenced by Hinduism . People lived their lives by

  6. Bayesian approaches to the value of information: implications for the regulation of new pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Claxton, K


    The current regulation of new pharmaceuticals is inefficient because it demands arbitrary amounts of information, the type of information demanded is not relevant to decision-makers and the same standards of evidence are applied across different technologies. Bayesian decision theory and an analysis of the value of both perfect and sample information is used to consider the efficient regulation of new pharmaceuticals. This type of analysis can be used to decide whether the evidence in an economic study provides 'sufficient substantiation' for an economic claim, and assesses whether evidence can be regarded as 'competent and reliable'.

  7. Comparing Approaches to the Security-Development Nexus in the Sahel and their Implications for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuesday Jade Reitano


    Full Text Available This essay explores how the competing and complementary dimensions of the security, governance and development nexus have been brought to bear in the three core countries of the Sahel - Mali, Mauritania and Niger - and in doing so identifies the main challenges to peacebuilding and state consolidation in the region.

  8. Combined Proteome and Eicosanoid Profiling Approach for Revealing Implications of Human Fibroblasts in Chronic Inflammation. (United States)

    Tahir, Ammar; Bileck, Andrea; Muqaku, Besnik; Niederstaetter, Laura; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Wolrab, Denise; Meier, Samuel M; Slany, Astrid; Gerner, Christopher


    During inflammation, proteins and lipids act in a concerted fashion, calling for combined analyses. Fibroblasts are powerful mediators of chronic inflammation. However, little is known about eicosanoid formation by human fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the formation of the most relevant inflammation mediators including proteins and lipids in human fibroblasts upon inflammatory stimulation and subsequent treatment with dexamethasone, a powerful antiphlogistic drug. Label-free quantification was applied for proteome profiling, while an in-house established data-dependent analysis method based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was applied for eicosadomics. Furthermore, a set of 188 metabolites was determined by targeted analysis. The secretion of 40 proteins including cytokines, proteases, and other inflammation agonists as well as 14 proinflammatory and nine anti-inflammatory eicosanoids was found significantly induced, while several acylcarnithins and sphingomyelins were found significantly downregulated upon inflammatory stimulation. Treatment with dexamethasone downregulated most cytokines and proteases, abrogated the formation of pro- but also anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, and restored normal levels of acylcarnithins but not of sphingomyelins. In addition, the chemokines CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL6, and complement C3, known to contribute to chronic inflammation, were not counter-regulated by dexamethasone. Similar findings were obtained with human mesenchymal stem cells, and results were confirmed by targeted analysis with multiple reaction monitoring. Comparative proteome profiling regarding other cells demonstrated cell-type-specific synthesis of, among others, eicosanoid-forming enzymes as well as relevant transcription factors, allowing us to better understand cell-type-specific regulation of inflammation mediators and shedding new light on the role of fibroblasts in chronic inflammation.

  9. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Temitope Edun


    Full Text Available The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  10. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee


    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  11. Economic Implications of Japan's Ageing Population: A Macro-economic Demographic Modelling Approach. (United States)

    Ogawa, Naohiro


    This study discusses the impact of the aging of the Japanese population upon various socioeconomic factors. Major findings are that the rate of real gross national product growth will decline continuously and that more financial resources will be required for government social security programs. (Editor/CT)

  12. Revisioning Assessment through a Children's Rights Approach: Implications for Policy, Process and Practice (United States)

    Elwood, Jannette; Lundy, Laura


    The linkage between the impact of assessment and compliance with children's rights is a connection, which although seemingly obvious, is nonetheless rarely made, particularly by governments, which, as signatories to the relevant human rights treaties, have the primary responsibility for ensuring that educational practice is compatible with…

  13. Cornered: an approach to school bullying and cyberbullying, and forensic implications. (United States)

    Bostic, Jeff Q; Brunt, Colby C


    Bullying is an abuse of power and control that can cause significant harm to individuals. School systems have the difficult task of trying to police this behavior to maintain a safe learning environment for their students. Although there may be an identified bully, the ramifications of the behavior affect the system as a whole. Bullies, targeted victims, and bystanders play an integral role in ameliorating this problem. A change of culture within the school system is often the best, yet often the most difficult, intervention. In addition, cyberbullying has become a powerful avenue for bullying, resulting in significant morbidity within schools.

  14. Evaluating lung cancer screening in China: Implications for eligibility criteria design from a microsimulation modeling approach. (United States)

    Sheehan, Deirdre F; Criss, Steven D; Gazelle, G Scott; Pandharipande, Pari V; Kong, Chung Yin


    More than half of males in China are current smokers and evidence from western countries tells us that an unprecedented number of smoking-attributable deaths will occur as the Chinese population ages. We used the China Lung Cancer Policy Model (LCPM) to simulate effects of computed tomography (CT)-based lung cancer screening in China, comparing the impact of a screening guideline published in 2015 by a Chinese expert group to a version developed for the United States by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). The China LCPM, built using an existing lung cancer microsimulation model, can project population outcomes associated with interventions for smoking-related diseases. After calibrating the model to published Chinese smoking prevalence and lung cancer mortality rates, we simulated screening from 2016 to 2050 based on eligibility criteria from the CMS and Chinese guidelines, which differ by age to begin and end screening, pack-years smoked, and years since quitting. Outcomes included number of screens, mortality reduction, and life-years saved for each strategy. We projected that in the absence of screening, 14.98 million lung cancer deaths would occur between 2016 and 2050. Screening with the CMS guideline would prevent 0.72 million deaths and 5.8 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.58% and 1.97% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Screening with the Chinese guideline would prevent 0.74 million deaths and 6.6 million life-years lost, resulting in 6.30% and 2.79% mortality reduction in males and females, respectively. Through 2050, 1.43 billion screens would be required using the Chinese screening strategy, compared to 988 million screens using the CMS guideline. In conclusion, CT-based lung cancer screening implemented in 2016 and based on the Chinese screening guideline would prevent about 20,000 (2.9%) more lung cancer deaths through 2050, but would require about 445 million (44.7%) more screens than the CMS guideline.

  15. Implications of the Oklo phenomenon in a chiral approach to nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Edward D


    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant $\\alpha$ over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both $\\alpha$ and the average $m_q$ of the $u$ and $d$ current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number $A$ and atomic number $Z$. (Recent model independent results on hadronic $\\sigma$-terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivi...

  16. Implications of the Oklo Phenomenon in a Chiral Approach to Nuclear Matter (United States)

    Davis, Edward D.


    It has been customary to use data from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor to place bounds on the change that has occurred in the electromagnetic fine structure constant α over the last 2 billion years. Alternatively, an analysis could be based on a recently proposed expression for shifts in resonance energies which relates them to changes in both α and the average m q of the u and d current quark masses, and which makes explicit the dependence on mass number A and atomic number Z. (Recent model independent results on hadronic -terms suggest sensitivity to the strange quark mass is negligible.) The most sophisticated analysis, to date, of the quark mass term invokes a calculation of the nuclear mean-field within the Walecka model of quantum hadrodynamics. We comment on this study and consider an alternative in which the link to low-energy quantum chromodynamics and its pattern of chiral symmetry-breaking is more readily discernible. Specifically, we investigate the sensitivity to changes in the pion mass of a single nucleon potential determined by an in-medium chiral perturbation theory (PT) calculation which includes virtual -excitations. Subject to some reasonable assumptions about low-energy constants, we confirm that the m q -contribution to resonance shifts is enhanced by a factor of 10 or so relative to the -term and deduce that the Oklo data for Sm imply that.

  17. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  18. Virus-host Interactions during Hepatitis C Virus Entry - Implications for Pathogenesis and Novel Treatment Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joachim Lupberger; Catherine Schuster; Franζoise Stoll-Keller; Hubert E. Blum; Thomas F. Baumert; Mirjam B. Zeisel; Anita Haberstroh; Eva K. Schnober; Sophie Krieger; Eric Soulier; Christine Thumann; Cathy Royer; Samira Fafi-Kremer


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and causes acute and chronic hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection may result in severe liver damage including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV, and the hepatocyte is its primary target cell. Attachment of the virus to the cell surface followed by viral entry is the first step in a cascade of interactions between the virus and the target cell that is required for successful entry into the cell and initiation of infection. This step is an important determinant of tissue tropism and pathogenesis; it thus represents a major target for antiviral host cell responses, such as antibody-mediated virus neutralization. Following the development of novel cell culture models for HCV infection our understanding of the HCV entry process and mechanisms of virus neutralization has been markedly advanced. In this review we summarize recent developments in the molecular biology of viral entry and its impact on pathogenesis of HCV infection, development of novel preventive and therapeutic antiviral strategies.

  19. N2C2M2 Experimentation and Validation: Understanding Its C2 Approaches and Implications (United States)


    the organization and execution of the experiments, specifically, Col. Fernando Freire , LtCol. António Flambó, LtCol. José Martins, LtCol. Paulo ...of ELICIT Experimental Data. Paper presented at the 13th ICCRTS, Seattle, USA, 2008. [13.] Manso, Marco, and Paulo Nunes. ELICIT and the Future C2...detailed mapping between C2 CRM variables and ELICIT refer to: MANSO, Marco, and Paulo NUNES. ELICIT and the Future C2: Theoretical Foundations for the

  20. Implications of the relevance approach ti the context for the interpretation of ironic utterances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ángeles Ruíz Moneva


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} El objetivo principal de este trabajo será mostrar las relaciones existentes entre las oraciones que admiten una interpretación irónica y en el contexto en el que tienen lugar, siguiendo el marco general de la teoría de la relevancia o pertinencia propuesto para explicar la comunicación. Este trabajo analizará los principales enfoques planteados por la teoría de la relevancia o pertinencia, que tienden a enfatizar su naturaleza cognitiva. Si se admite que el contexto juega un papel primordial en la interpretación de las oraciones que admiten una interpretación irónica, y que, tal como afirman los autores que trabajan en el marco de la teoría de la relevancia, el contexto es seleccionado por los participantes de cualquier interacción comunicativa, resulta que el grado de accesibilidad que los participantes pueden tener al contexto representado por el hablante repercutirá en su percepción de la ironía.

  1. Rehabilitation - a new approach. Part three: the implications of the theories. (United States)

    Wade, Derick


    The last editorial suggested that rehabilitation needed to involve the patient in learning, and depended upon a group of professionals to identify what actions might help the patient, and to undertake or arrange the necessary actions. In many cases there will be both a wide variety of actions needed from a reasonably large number of people and organisations, and the process is likely to be extended over weeks, months or occasionally years. This editorial shows that these features characterise the rehabilitation process as complex and therefore it needs to be managed by a trans-disciplinary team. Some of the characteristics of teamwork are discussed. This leads to a discussion of teams in rehabilitation, showing that there are currently many different types of teams organised around different areas of interest and that a patient might need access to several specialised teams. It is then argued that the complexity of team coordination is best resolved by formal rehabilitation planning meetings, held early in a patient's involvement with rehabilitation; this should increase effectiveness and efficiency. Finally the editorial argues that rehabilitation would be improved by having rehabilitation teams that mirror the existing medical specialities, ensuring that all patients thereby have easy and early access to rehabilitation planning.

  2. The Emergence of Psychopathy: Implications for the Neuropsychological Approach to Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.


    In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic…

  3. 76 FR 20974 - Implications of Climate Change for Bioassessment Programs and Approaches To Account for Effects (United States)


    ... foundation for understanding the potential climatic vulnerability of bioassessment indicators, and, (2) to... Building, 2300 Wilson Boulevard, 1st Floor (Mtg. Rm. to the Left of Concierge Desk), Arlington, VA...

  4. Political Theorizing and Policy Implications: The Case of a Rawlsian Approach to Multicultural Education (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masakazu


    This article provides a philosophical foundation for the legitimacy of multicultural education by developing the analyses of Rawlsian political philosophy. For Rawls the most important primary good is that of self-respect, and this can be reinterpreted to make a convincing argument for multicultural education, provided that it has a strong…

  5. A Spherical Harmonic Approach to Redshift Distortion Implications for $\\Omega$ and the Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, K B


    We examine the nature of galaxy clustering in redshift space using a method based on an expansion of the galaxian density field in Spherical Harmonics and linear theory. We derive a compact and self-consistent expression for the distortion when applied to flux limited redshift surveys. The amplitude of the distortion is controlled by the combination of the density and bias parameters, $\\beta\\equiv\\Omega_\\circ^{0.6}/b$ as well as the shape of the real space power spectrum, $P(k)$ (characterized by a shape parameter $\\Gamma$), and its normalization, $\\sigma_8$; we exploit this fact to derive a maximum likelihood estimator for $\\beta$, $\\Gamma$, and $\\sigma_8$. We check our formalism using $N$-body simulations and demonstrate it provides an unbiased estimate of $\\beta$ when the amplitude and shape of the galaxy power spectrum is known. Application of the technique to the 1.2 Jy \\iras\\ redshift survey yields $\\beta =0.94\\pm 0.17$ and $\\Gamma=0.17\\pm0.05$ (1-$\\sigma$) when $\\sigma_8$ is held fixed at its best valu...

  6. The Implications of a Conversation Analysis Approach To Request Sequences for English Language Teaching. (United States)

    Scott, Pamela J.

    This study examines through Conversation Analysis (CA) the way requests for action are interactionally accomplished in naturally occurring spontaneous conversation, and uses the findings as the basis for an evaluation of the way requests are presented in published English language teaching (ELT) materials. The following areas are discussed: (1)…

  7. Orofacial pain and jaw function in children and adolescents : epidemiology, biopsychosocial implications and caregivers' approach


    Al-Khotani, Amal


    Relying on practitioner knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of orofacial pain (OFP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents tends to be insufficient for effective dental practice. To improve overall performance, it is crucial to discuss topics related to practitioner competency, including professional knowledge and its associated perspectives. In light of the prevalence of OFP/TMD, insufficient knowledge in this area might result in under-treatmen...

  8. Neophyte facilitator experiences of interprofessional education: implications for faculty development. (United States)

    Egan-Lee, Eileen; Baker, Lindsay; Tobin, Stasey; Hollenberg, Elisa; Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott


    The facilitation of learners from different professional groups requires a range of interprofessional knowledge and skills (e.g. an understanding of possible sources of tension between professions) in addition to those that are more generic, such as how to manage a small group of learners. The development and delivery of interprofessional education (IPE) programs tends to rely on a small cohort of facilitators who have typically gained expertise through 'hands-on' involvement in facilitating IPE and through mentorship from more experienced colleagues. To avoid burn-out and to meet a growing demand for IPE, a larger number of facilitators are needed. However, empirical evidence regarding effective approaches to prepare for this type of work is limited. This article draws on data from a multiple case study of four IPE programs based in an urban setting in North America with a sample of neophyte facilitators and provides insight into their perceptions and experiences in preparing for and delivering IPE. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted before (n = 20) and after (n = 21) program delivery with 21 facilitators. Findings indicated that despite participating in a three-fold faculty development strategy designed to support them in their IPE facilitation work, many felt unprepared and continued to have a poor conceptual understanding of core IPE and interprofessional collaboration principles, resulting in problematic implications (e.g. 'missed teachable moments') within their IPE programs. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to the IPE, faculty development and wider educational literature before implications are offered for the future delivery of interprofessional faculty development activities.

  9. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna


    these rapid reviews need to be published in the peer-reviewed literature with an emphasis on articulating methods employed. While one consistent methodological approach may not be optimal or appropriate, it is important that researchers undertaking reviews within the rapid to systematic continuum provide detailed descriptions of methods used and discuss the implications of their chosen methods in terms of potential bias introduced. Further research comparing full systematic reviews with rapid reviews will enhance understanding of the limitations of these methods.

  10. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance


    Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A.; Grimsby, Jonna L; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Chen, Han; Rybin, Denis; Liu, Ching-Ti; Bielak, Lawrence F; Prokopenko, Inga; Amin, Najaf; Barnes, Daniel; Cadby, Gemma; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ingelsson, Erik


    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and beta-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associat...

  11. Earth's energy imbalance and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hansen


    such as CO2 makes the atmosphere more opaque at infrared wavelengths. This added opacity causes the planet's heat radiation to space to arise from higher, colder levels in the atmosphere, thus reducing emission of heat energy to space. The temporary imbalance between the energy absorbed from the sun and heat emission to space, causes the planet to warm until planetary energy balance is restored.

    The planetary energy imbalance caused by a change of atmospheric composition defines a climate forcing. Climate sensitivity, the eventual global temperature change per unit forcing, is known with good accuracy from Earth's paleoclimate history. However, two fundamental uncertainties limit our ability to predict global temperature change on decadal time scales.

    First, although climate forcing by human-made greenhouse gases (GHGs is known accurately, climate forcing caused by changing human-made aerosols is practically unmeasured. Aerosols are fine particles suspended in the air, such as dust, sulfates, and black soot (Ramanathan et al., 2001. Aerosol climate forcing is complex, because aerosols both reflect solar radiation to space (a cooling effect and absorb solar radiation (a warming effect. In addition, atmospheric aerosols can alter cloud cover and cloud properties. Therefore, precise composition-specific measurements of aerosols and their effects on clouds are needed to assess the aerosol role in climate change.

    Second, the rate at which Earth's surface temperature approaches a new equilibrium in response to a climate forcing depends on how efficiently heat perturbations are mixed into the deeper ocean. Ocean mixing is complex and not necessarily simulated well by climate models. Empirical data on ocean heat uptake are improving rapidly, but still suffer limitations.

    We summarize current understanding of this basic physics of global warming and note observations needed to narrow uncertainties. Appropriate measurements can

  12. Integrating bioinformatics into senior high school: design principles and implications. (United States)

    Machluf, Yossy; Yarden, Anat


    Bioinformatics is an integral part of modern life sciences. It has revolutionized and redefined how research is carried out and has had an enormous impact on biotechnology, medicine, agriculture and related areas. Yet, it is only rarely integrated into high school teaching and learning programs, playing almost no role in preparing the next generation of information-oriented citizens. Here, we describe the design principles of bioinformatics learning environments, including our own, that are aimed at introducing bioinformatics into senior high school curricula through engaging learners in scientifically authentic inquiry activities. We discuss the bioinformatics-related benefits and challenges that high school teachers and students face in the course of the implementation process, in light of previous studies and our own experience. Based on these lessons, we present a new approach for characterizing the questions embedded in bioinformatics teaching and learning units, based on three criteria: the type of domain-specific knowledge required to answer each question (declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, strategic knowledge, situational knowledge), the scientific approach from which each question stems (biological, bioinformatics, a combination of the two) and the associated cognitive process dimension (remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create). We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using a learning environment, which we developed for the high school level, and suggest some of its implications. This review sheds light on unique and critical characteristics related to broader integration of bioinformatics in secondary education, which are also relevant to the undergraduate level, and especially on curriculum design, development of suitable learning environments and teaching and learning processes.

  13. Personal Approaches to Career Planning. (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger


    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  14. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars


    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  15. Approaches to Methadone Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha


    The paper analyses methadone treatment in Copenhagen – as it is described by methadone users and staff at different outpatient centres. The starting point is a theoretical model distinguishing between two different approaches to methadone treatment: ‘palliative’ and ‘curative’. Included...... in the model are three dimensions (1) treatment goals at the methadone centres (abstinence vs. stabilisation) (2) treatment focus (focus on addiction vs. focus on the consequences of addiction) and (3) conceptualisation of methadone (methadone as similar to or different from heroin). The paper shows...... that there is a discrepancy between the attitudes of the staff and those of the users. While the staff favour an almost clear-cut palliative approach to methadone treatment, defining curative goals as both unrealistic and as belonging to the past, the users prefer an approach that does not exclude the goal of abstinence...

  16. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling


    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  17. Beyond the detection of students´ mental models. An integrative representational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Maria Greca


    Full Text Available In this paper we initially discuss some limitations of the mental model theoretical framework for research in science education. Then, after an analysis of Vergnaud´s conceptual fields theory we propose an approach that integrating elements of both theoretical frameworks could provide a better understanding of some cognitive processes involved in the learning of scientific concepts. Finally, we suggest possible implications of this approach for science teaching as well as for research in this area.

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Identifying Migration Chronology in a Continental Migrant


    Beatty, William S.; Dylan C Kesler; Elisabeth B Webb; Andrew H Raedeke; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.


    The degree to which extrinsic factors influence migration chronology in North American waterfowl has not been quantified, particularly for dabbling ducks. Previous studies have examined waterfowl migration using various methods, however, quantitative approaches to define avian migration chronology over broad spatio-temporal scales are limited, and the implications for using different approaches have not been assessed. We used movement data from 19 female adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) eq...

  19. Technical approach document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Integrating Genetic, Psychopharmacological and Neuroimaging Studies: A Converging Methods Approach to Understanding the Neurobiology of ADHD (United States)

    Durston, Sarah; Konrad, Kerstin


    This paper aims to illustrate how combining multiple approaches can inform us about the neurobiology of ADHD. Converging evidence from genetic, psychopharmacological and functional neuroimaging studies has implicated dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while the observation of converging evidence from multiple vantage points…

  1. Are Approaches to Learning in Kindergarten Associated with Academic and Social Competence Similarly? (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne


    Background: Approaches to learning (ATL) is a key domain of school readiness with important implications for children's academic trajectories. Interestingly, however, the impact of early ATL on children's social competence has not been examined. Objective: This study examines associations between children's ATL at age 5 and academic achievement…

  2. Where's the evidence? An innovative approach to teaching staff about evidence-based practice. (United States)

    Phillips, Janice M; Heitschmidt, Mary; Joyce, Mary Beth; Staneva, Ilianna; Zemansky, Peggy; Francisco, Mary Ann; Powell, Barbara; Kennedy, Terri; Kranzer, Susan French


    Preparing nurses to incorporate research and evidence-based findings into nursing practice is important to meet the needs of patients and their families in today's healthcare arena. This article highlights the use of a mock trial as an innovative approach to educating staff nurses on evidence-based practice and identifies future implications for educating staff nurses on incorporating evidence into nursing practice.

  3. Negotiating Difference in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Approaches to Integrated Education (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire


    In this article, the author critically examines a variety of approaches to multicultural education noted in integrated (mixed Catholic and Protestant) schools in Northern Ireland and considers their implications in the context of the wider debate around multiculturalism. She argues that educators should challenge sectarianism, but should also…

  4. The TEACH Method: An Interactive Approach for Teaching the Needs-Based Theories Of Motivation (United States)

    Moorer, Cleamon, Jr.


    This paper describes an interactive approach for explaining and teaching the Needs-Based Theories of Motivation. The acronym TEACH stands for Theory, Example, Application, Collaboration, and Having Discussion. This method can help business students to better understand and distinguish the implications of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,…

  5. Language-in-Education Policy in Low-Income, Postcolonial Contexts: Towards a Social Justice Approach (United States)

    Tikly, Leon


    The article considers how language-in-education policy in low-income, postcolonial countries may be better understood from a social justice perspective and some of the implications for policy, practice and research that arise from this. The article starts with a critical overview of the two dominant approaches towards conceptualising…

  6. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science (United States)

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell


    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  7. Revisiting the Whole-School Approach to Bullying: Really Looking at the Whole School (United States)

    Richard, Jacques F.; Schneider, Barry H.; Mallet, Pascal


    The whole-school approach to bullying prevention is predicated on the assumption that bullying is a systemic problem, and, by implication, that intervention must be directed at the entire school context rather than just at individual bullies and victims. Unfortunately, recent meta-analyses that have looked at various bullying programs from many…

  8. Sampling Practices and Social Spaces: Exploring a Hip-Hop Approach to Higher Education (United States)

    Petchauer, Emery


    Much more than a musical genre, hip-hop culture exists as an animating force in the lives of many young adults. This article looks beyond the moral concerns often associated with rap music to explore how hip-hop as a larger set of expressions and practices implicates the educational experiences, activities, and approaches for students. The article…

  9. Radiolab - three different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa


    different scholarly approaches to sound studies. The object was selected by Torben Sangild, who was familiar with the chosen context: the signature of the US radio programme and podcast Radiolab. The two other participants did not know the context and chose to analyse the sound object without further...... object with a global audience, taken from one of the most popular podcasts worldwide, accessible on the internet. Finally, it is a piece of functional sound design, rather than a work of art, which raises the question of context more clearly. The result is three rather different approaches: 1) a process...

  10. Learning approaches and studies of effect of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana


    Full Text Available There is a presentation of 3P model of learning (Presage-Process-Product, which comprises learning approaches placed in a wider context of the set of variables related to personality, environment, process and outcomes of learning. Three approaches to learning - surface, deep and achievement-oriented - consist of motives and the corresponding learning strategies. There is a discussion of the findings and implications of a great deal of research using the instruments based on this model. We analyzed research findings about the effect of instruction on learning approaches acquired by pupils, and especially students. It is shown how based on learning approach employed by pupils it is possible to draw conclusions about the quality of instruction. Testing the instruments on various samples indicates that the model is applicable in different cultures. Cross-cultural research opened up the problem of relation between memorising and understanding. Further research is necessary, both empirical and theoretical, that is, development of conceptualization of these constructs, and especially their role in education. Perspectives for further research also open up in the direction of studying various factors connected with personality and their relations with learning approaches. The role of learning approaches of teachers in developing the learning approaches of pupils is yet to be examined.

  11. "Implicate order" and the good life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in each of its parts......; and all parts renders different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity...... in the simultaneous realization of both, unity-in-diversity. Lastly, it is suggested that this so-called unity-diversity matrix may be used as a personal compass the meaning of which is negotiated and calibrated in a community of users....

  12. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy. (United States)

    Schermer, Victor L


    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  13. Growth Laws in Cancer: Implications for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, P; Gabriele, P; Guiot, C


    Comparing both, the more conventional Gompertz tumor growth law (GL) and the ``Universal'' law (UL), recently proposed and applied to cancer,we have investigated the growth law's implications on various radiotherapy regimen. According to GL, the surviving tumor cell fraction could be reduced 'ad libidum', independently of the initial tumor mass,simply by increasing the number of treatments. On the contrary, if tumor growth dynamics would indeed follow the Universal scaling law, there is a lower limit of the survival fraction that cannot be reduced any further regardless of the total number of treatments. This finding can explain the so called ``tumor size effect'' and re-emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as it implies that radiotherapy may be successful provided the tumor mass at treatment onset is rather small. Taken together with our previous works, implications of these findings include revisiting standard radiotherapy regimen and overall treatment protocols.

  14. The inflammatory response in cardiac surgery: an overview of the pathophysiology and clinical implications. (United States)

    Corral-Velez, Vicente; Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Betancur-Zambrano, Nelson L; Lopez-Suñe, Neus; Rojas-Lora, Mariel; Torrado, Herminia; Ballus, Josep


    During cardiac surgery different factors, such as the aortic clamp, the extracorporeal circulation and the surgical injury itself, produce complex inflammatory responses which can lead to varying degrees of ischemia-reperfusion injury and/or systemic inflammatory response. This may have clinical implications due to hemodynamic changes related with an enlarged vasodilatory response. Thus, maintaining adequate levels of blood pressure during and after cardiac surgery represents a challenge for physicians when inflammatory response appears. The use of noradrenaline to raise arterial pressure is the most current pharmacological approach in the operating room and ICU. However, it is not always effective and other drugs, such as methylene blue, have to be used among others in specific cases as rescue therapy. The aim of our research is to review briefly the pathophysiology and clinical implications in the treatment of the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery, together with the mechanisms involved in those treatments.

  15. Advances in imaging-genetic relationships for Alzheimer's disease: clinical implications. (United States)

    Bagnoli, Silvia; Piaceri, Irene; Sorbi, Sandro; Nacmias, Benedetta


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and represents a major public health problem. From a clinical perspective, AD is devastating to patients and their families. The genetic approach to the study of dementia undoubtedly continues to provide a significant contribution to understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic perspectives, but also raises important ethical implications. With advances in new technology, including genetics and PET/MRI scanning, the role of genetic studies and neuroimaging is being redefined as an aid in the clinical diagnosis of AD, and also in presymptomatic evaluation. Here, we review some of the issues related to the neuroimaging-genetic relationship in AD with a possible clinical implication as a preclinical biomarker for dementia and also for tracking disease progression.

  16. Clinical and therapeutic implications of presymptomatic gene testing for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). (United States)

    Sales-Luís, Maria de Lourdes; Conceição, Isabel; de Carvalho, Mamede


    Presymptomatic gene testing for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathies (FAP) is integrated in genetic counseling protocols common to other "Later onset, hereditary, autosomal dominant, no cure diseases" namely Huntington's Disease (HD) and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). However, presymptomatic gene testing has specific clinical and therapeutic implications for FAP. Moreover, at least in Portugal, FAP ATTR Val30Met is a serious health problem. The most important implications are: the possibility of family planning including prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis; treatment with liver transplantation (TX); clinical follow-up according to protocols for early diagnosis which will allow patients to access therapy in useful time. This concept of useful time in FAP treatment is discussed. The growing possibilities of different therapeutic approaches are considered. In conclusion, presymptomatic gene testing for FAP may have a positive impact on candidate quality and prolongation of life, and on the future of disease studies.

  17. Financial Management: An Organic Approach (United States)

    Laux, Judy


    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  18. Implications of Cosmic Repulsion for Gravitational Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, P D


    In this paper we present a general, model independent analysis of a recently detected apparent cosmic repulsion, and discuss its potential implications for gravitational theory. In particular, we show that a negatively spatially curved universe acts like a diverging refractive medium, to thus naturally cause galaxies to accelerate away from each other. Additionally, we show that it is possible for a cosmic acceleration to only be temporary, with some accelerating universes actually being able to subsequently recontract.

  19. Breast cancer heterogeneity: mechanisms, proofs, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hsiao, Ming-Chih Chou, Carol Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, Yan-gao Man


    Full Text Available Human breast cancer represents a group of highly heterogeneous lesions consisting of about 20 morphologically distinct subtypes with substantially different molecular and/or biochemical signatures, clinical courses, and prognoses. This study analyzed the possible correlation between the morphological presentations of breast cancer and two hypothesized models of carcinogenesis, in order to identify the intrinsic mechanism(s and clinical implications of breast cancer heterogeneity.

  20. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary


    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  1. Molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma: potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Renee Parker


    Full Text Available Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas, are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed.

  2. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory


    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  3. The remnant CP transformation and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Canales, Felix


    In the context of remnant CP transformations, I briefly discuss a generalized $\\mu-\\tau$ reflection symmetry, where the "Majorana" phases have CP conserving values, which are directly related with the CP parities of neutrino states. Also, one finds that the "Dirac-like" CP violation phase is correlated with the atmospheric mixing angle, giving important phenomenological implications for current and future long baseline oscillation neutrino experiments.

  4. On the policy implications of changing longevity



    Our societies are witnessing a steady increase in longevity. This demographic evolution is accompanied by some convergence across countries, whereas substantial longevity inequalities persist within nations. The goal of this paper is to survey some crucial implications of changing longevity on the design of optimal public policy. For that purpose, we firstly focus on some difficulties raised by risky and varying lifetime for the represen-tation of individual and social preferences. Then, we e...

  5. Environment Implications of China's WTO Accession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shantong; He Jianwu


    China's WTO accession will have important environmental implications. This article aims at providing environmental analysis of the impact of China's accession to the WTO, based on its final offer for WTO accession and a 53-sector, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of China. We try to provide some empirical evidences for policy makers to evaluate the effects of China's WTO accession from environmental prospective.

  6. The Nuremberg Code: its history and implications. (United States)

    Kious, B M


    The Nuremberg Code is a foundational document in the ethics of medical research and human experimentation; the principle its authors espoused in 1946 have provided the framework for modern codes that address the same issues, and have received little challenge and only slight modification in decades since. By analyzing the Code's tragic genesis and its normative implications, it is possible to understand some of the essence of modern experimental ethics, as well as certain outstanding controversies that still plague medical science.

  7. Overlap between empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care. (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Bianco, Joseph A; Mann, Douglas; Massello, David; Calabrese, Leonard H


    Abstract Background: Empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care share common denominators such as interpersonal skills and understanding patients' concerns. Thus, a significant overlap among measures of empathy, teamwork and integrative approach to patient care is expected. Aim: This study examined the magnitude of overlap (shared variance) among three measures of empathy, teamwork and an integrative approach to patient care. Methods: Three-hundred seventy-three medical students completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) and Integrative Patient Care (IPC). Results: Significant overlaps were found among the three measures (p teamwork and IPC support the common denominator assumption. The findings that IPC shares common variance with empathy and teamwork have implications for medical education curriculum, suggesting that implementation of integrative patient care can improve empathic engagement in patient care and orientation toward teamwork.

  8. A historical approach to the general theory of systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther María Pino Guzmán


    Full Text Available The paper is intended to examine the epistemological development of the theory or systems, focus the change of its scientific paradigm and points out its main implications for the development of research methodology and design. The theoretical methods being used makes possible to go deeper into the analysis of regularities and essential qualities in the construction and development of the scientific theory. The system approach is one of the most frequently used method and the one of further reaching effect in Pedagogy. The system approach or systemic thinking is a requirement for the general direction of pedagogy problem studies. This paper explores the ways of interconnecting the theory of systems to the theory of complexity in the field of pedagogy. The findings include a historical approach to the theory of systems up to the spring up of the theory of complexity. Key words: general theory of systems, interdisciplinary relations, complexity.

  9. Marxian Approaches to Education. (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    Traditional Marxist approaches to the state relegate superstructural institutions like the school to a minor role in the process of social change. More recent theories like those of Gramsci, Althusser, and Poulantzas raise the state and the class struggle in the state apparatuses to a much more prominent position: superstructure, including the…

  10. Islamic approach in counseling. (United States)

    Hanin Hamjah, Salasiah; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah


    A religious approach is one of the matters emphasized in counseling today. Many researchers find that there is a need to apply the religious element in counseling because religion is important in a client's life. The purpose of this research is to identify aspects of the Islamic approach applied in counseling clients by counselors at Pusat Kaunseling Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Sembilan (PKMAINS). In addition, this research also analyses the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS with reference to al-Quran and al-Sunnah. This is a qualitative research in the form of case study at PKMAINS. The main method used in this research is interview. The research instrument used is interview protocol. The respondents in this study include 9 counselors who serve in one of the counseling centers in Malaysia. This study also uses questionnaire as an additional instrument, distributed to 36 clients who receive counseling service at the center. The findings of the study show that the Islamic approach applied in counseling at PKMAINS may be categorized into three main aspects: aqidah (faith), ibadah (worship/ultimate devotion and love for God) and akhlaq (moral conduct). Findings also show that the counseling in these aspects is in line with Islamic teachings as contained in al-Quran and al-Sunnah.

  11. Implementation of Communicative Approach (United States)

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah


    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  12. Orion Emergency Mask Approach (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.


    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  13. Adopting a Pluricentric Approach (United States)

    van Kerckvoorde, Colette


    This article argues for a "D-A-CH" approach, which stands for Germany (D), Austria (A), and Switzerland (CH), in language classes from the introductory level on. I begin by tracing the emergence and development of distinct Standard Swiss and Austrian German varieties. I then discuss marketing efforts for Swiss and Austrian German, and…

  14. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  15. The Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)


    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary mora

  16. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whipple, C.


    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  17. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother. (United States)

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A


    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  18. Investigating Variations in Gameplay: Cognitive Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig


    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in creating computer games for learning, problem solving, and other high-level cognitive activities. When investigating whether gameplay is conducive to such activities, gameplay is often studied as a whole. As a result, cognitive implications can be linked to the game but not to its structural elements. Given that gameplay arises from interaction between the player and the game, it is the structural components of interaction that should be investigated to better understand the design of gameplay. Furthermore, minor variations in the components of interaction can have significant cognitive implications. However, such variation has not been studied yet. Thus, to gain a better understanding of how we can study the effect of interaction on the cognitive aspect of gameplay, we conducted an exploratory investigation of two computer games. These games were isomorphic at a deep level and only had one minor difference in the structure of their interaction. Volunteers played these games and discussed the cognitive processes that emerged. In one game, they primarily engaged in planning, but in the other game they primarily engaged in visualizing. This paper discusses the results of our investigation as well as its implications for the design of computer games.

  19. Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Miralles


    Full Text Available Purpose: Employment plays an important part in many people’s lives beyond merely providing income, since continued participation in work can have many therapeutic benefits for workers defined as disabled. However, disabled workers face a range of barriers to employment, despite legislation intended to improve workplace accessibility emphasizing adaptations to the workplace, which many employers often find difficult and expensive. The Poka-Yoke approach was developed in the manufacturing industry as a way of improving productivity by reducing errors using often very simple adaptations. This paper argues that, as Poka-Yokes are designed to make life easier and improve the performance of workers without impairments, they are closer to the philosophy of Universal Design than to Accessible Design, and offer an easy and inclusive way of making work more accessible for all kind of workers. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a case study demonstrating the use of the Poka-Yoke approach in a sheltered work centre for disabled; highlighting how they served to improve accessibility to work by fulfilling Universal Design principles. Findings: Our research allows us to demonstrate the great potential of Poka-yokes for gaining accessibility to the workplace. The real application of this approach, both in sheltered work centres and ordinary companies, can contribute to improve the high unemployment rates of disabled people. Research limitations/implications: The proposal is innovative and was applied in one specific company. Thus, a range of customized Poka-yokes would be desirable for different industrial sectors. Practical implications: Managers of sheltered work centres, and also of ordinary companies, can realize about the great potential of Poka-Yokes as an easy means of gaining flexibility and accessibility. Originality/value: There are very few papers relating lean manufacturing tools and disability. Our approach analyzes the benefits of

  20. Advances on interdisciplinary approaches to urban carbon (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.


    North American urban areas are emerging as climate policy and technology innovators, urbanization process laboratories, fonts of carbon relevant experiments, hubs for grass-roots mobilization, and centers for civil-society experiments to curb carbon emissions and avoid widespread and irreversible climate impacts. Since SOCCR diverse lines of inquiry on urbanization, urban areas and the carbon cycle have advanced our understanding of some of the societal processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This presentation provides an overview of these diverse perspectives. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas as places, based not only on demographics or income, but also on such other interconnected features of urban development pathways as urban form, economic function, economic growth policies and climate policies.

  1. Evaluating interventions in health: a reconciliatory approach. (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan; Edwards, Sarah; Richmond, Sarah; Orr, Shepley; Rees, Geraint


    Health-related Quality of Life measures have recently been attacked from two directions, both of which criticize the preference-based method of evaluating health states they typically incorporate. One attack, based on work by Daniel Kahneman and others, argues that 'experience' is a better basis for evaluation. The other, inspired by Amartya Sen, argues that 'capability' should be the guiding concept. In addition, opinion differs as to whether health evaluation measures are best derived from consultations with the general public, with patients, or with health professionals. And there is disagreement about whether these opinions should be solicited individually and aggregated, or derived instead from a process of collective deliberation. These distinctions yield a wide variety of possible approaches, with potentially differing policy implications. We consider some areas of disagreement between some of these approaches. We show that many of the perspectives seem to capture something important, such that it may be a mistake to reject any of them. Instead we suggest that some of the existing 'instruments' designed to measure HR QoLs may in fact successfully already combine these attributes, and with further refinement such instruments may be able to provide a reasonable reconciliation between the perspectives.

  2. A discerning approach to simple aesthetic orthodontics. (United States)

    Noar, J H; Sharma, S; Roberts-Harry, D; Qureshi, T


    There is currently considerable interest from general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the use of simple orthodontics to treat adult malocclusions. There is controversy in this, particularly in relation to 'quick fixes', simple orthodontics and 'straight teeth in six months' as opposed to more conventional treatment where the whole malocclusion is treated. This article will present a case for the use of simple aesthetic adult orthodontics in a measured and planned way. It will discuss the processes, planning and the importance of consent. It will also highlight how digital technology is used to preview, consent and execute an aesthetic result. Many of the recent systems emerging, have been as a result of the demand and supply of cosmetic dentistry. This, to a degree, has not helped since the implication of a 'quick-fix' is associated with this field. There has also been discussion on what the limits of GDP orthodontics should be. There is variability in how GDPs approach orthodontics, their experience, skill and ability to treat to an acceptable standard. Short courses may be one way of delivering orthodontic training but some of these courses are not regulated and the amount of internal mentoring is variable. This article highlights some of the systems in use, and potential upsides and downsides of this approach.

  3. Sustainability and resilience: toward a systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fiksel


    Full Text Available A comprehensive systems approach is essential for effective decision making with regard to global sustainability, since industrial, social, and ecological systems are closely linked. Despite efforts to reduce unsustainability, global resource consumption continues to grow. There is an urgent need for a better understanding of the dynamic, adaptive behavior of complex systems and their resilience in the face of disruptions, recognizing that steady-state sustainability models are simplistic. However, assessing the broad impacts of policy and technology choices is a formidable challenge, as exemplified in life-cycle analysis of the implications of alternative energy and mobility technologies. A number of research groups are using dynamic modeling techniques, including biocomplexity, system dynamics, and thermodynamic analysis, to investigate the impacts on ecological and human systems of major shifts such as climate change and the associated policy and technology responses. These techniques can yield at least a partial understanding of dynamic system behavior, enabling a more integrated approach to systems analysis, beneficial intervention, and improvement of resilience. Recommendations are provided for continued research to achieve progress in the dynamic modeling and sustainable management of complex systems.

  4. Gender and physics: a sociological approach (United States)

    Mendick, Heather


    In this paper, I take a sociological approach to understanding the under-representation of gender and physics. I argue that gender is something we do not something that we are. Thus, every aspect of our behaviour, including our engagement (or not) with physics becomes part of our performance of gender. I then use a brief historical analysis and an example from popular culture to show how physics is culturally aligned with masculinity. The impact is that the subject feels more ‘natural’ for men than for women. I end with some of the implications of this for those who want to make physics more accessible to girls and women. (EDITORS NOTE: This paper was given at the Improving Gender Balance (IGB) conference in Cambridge, UK, in March 2015, organised by the Institute of Physics. This conference was for schools and their supporters who were part of the IGB strand of the Stimulating Physics Network, funded by the Department for Education. It aimed to summarise some of the sociological perspectives on girls and physics for the benefit of the teachers attending the conference. We feel that it may be a useful summary for those teachers of physics who are unfamiliar with sociological approaches to gender and the classroom.)

  5. Teaching energy using an integrated science approach (United States)

    Poggi, Valeria; Miceli, Cristina; Testa, Italo


    Despite its relevance to all scientific domains, the debate surrounding the teaching of energy is still open. The main point remains the problems students have in understanding some aspects of the energy concept and in applying their knowledge to the comprehension of natural phenomena. In this paper, we present a research-based interdisciplinary approach to the teaching of energy in which the first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to interpret physical, chemical and biological processes. The contents of the three disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology) were reconstructed focusing on six basic aspects of energy (forms, transfer, transformation, conservation, degradation, and entropy) and using common teaching methodologies. The module was assessed with 39 secondary school students (aged 15-16) using a 30-question research instrument and a treatment/control group methodology. Analysis of students’ learning outcomes suggests a better understanding of the energy concept, supporting the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach in the teaching of energy in physics and science in general. Implications for the teaching of energy are briefly discussed.

  6. Domain Approach: An Alternative Approach in Moral Education (United States)

    Vengadasalam, Chander; Mamat, Wan Hasmah Wan; Mail, Fauziah; Sudramanian, Munimah


    This paper discusses the use of the domain approach in moral education in an upper secondary school in Malaysia. Moral Education needs a creative and an innovative approach. Therefore, a few forms of approaches are used in the teaching-learning of Moral Education. This research describes the use of domain approach which comprises the moral domain…

  7. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server


    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  8. A Personal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellyn Weir


    Full Text Available This study explored the process of taking a personal approach to my son’s problems with computer games. As a psychology student, I should have been in a good position to explore the paradoxical emotions and this situation of conflict. Yet I was also aware that relating closely to the people we are studying has long been a taboo even in qualitative research. I nevertheless adopted a collaborative methodology in which I balanced a dual role of parent and researcher. Taking a personal approach, allowing intimate, reciprocal negotiation, I was not only able to put this taboo to the rare empirical test but also achieved an insight that would otherwise have not been available to me. By engaging in dialogue and encouraging the ability to object, a first-person plural (We, position was achieved in which an understanding of this situation developed and has transferred to our everyday lives.

  9. Thermodynamics an engineering approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus A


    Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...

  10. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach


    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario


    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  11. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai


    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...

  12. The Branding Management Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKOUBI; Mohamed Lamine


    [Abstract]We wil try to present,through the display of the various branding concepts and theories, the different branding management approaches.This wil present the different visions of the discipline depending on the author to try and demonstrate their differences,at first, and their complementarities at last to help the different branding management practitioners (brand managers,marketing managers,advertisers,media-planners……) apprehend the right brand positioning strategy to engage.

  13. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard


    Given the increasing environmental and legislative demands to reduce energy consumption, not only new constructions but also the existing urban fabric is about to change radically in the coming decades. Existing buildings cannot simply be restored but must undergo a transformation to comply with ...... the building envelope as an aesthetic ‘gesture’, this paper discusses the architectural challenges related to energy renovation in a Danish context and tectonic design method as an approach to these challenges in everyday practice....

  14. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)NTHER Seliger; SEBASTIAN Kernbaum; MARCO Zettl


    Sustainable development is a holistic approach harmonizing ecological, economical and socio-political needs with respect to the superior objective of enhancing human living standards. Thereby the availability of natural resources and the conservation of the ecosystems have to be considered that future generations have the possibility to meet their own needs. A long-term economical development demands the transition from a source-sink economy to a cycle economy as a result of limited resources, limited environmental capacities to absorb waste and emissions as well as increasing needs of a growing population. A reference model for sustainability in manufacturing is presented and used to illustrate sustainable approaches with respect to management, technology, process and product. Adaptation of products and components is a vital element for supporting efficient reuse of products and components. Consequently adaptation contributes to the ambitious goals of sustainability. Technological enablers for adaptation as modularity, information and communication technology are exemplarily introduced. Moreover, approaches for disseminating knowledge in sustainability are given.

  16. Multivariate Bioclimatic Ecosystem Change Approaches (United States)


    conclude that an analogous patch did not exist. It must exist somewhere, but some of the other MVA techniques were restricted by the mathematical ...found that the Primarily Analogous Multivariate approach developed during this research clearly distinguished itself from the other five approaches in...Principally Analogous Multivariate (PAM) approach ............................................... 29 4.6.1 Introduction to the PAM approach

  17. Implementing lean manufacturing system: ISM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing System has emerged as an important area of research in Indian context. The requirement of Lean Manufacturing has increased due to defects in products (semi finished and finished and subsequent increase in cost. In this context, this study is an attempt to develop a structural model of the variables, important to implement Lean Manufacturing System in Indian automobile industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: Various variables of lean manufacturing system implementation have been identified from literature review and experts’ opinions. Contextual relationship among these identified variables has been set after carrying out brainstorming session. Further, classification of the variables has been carried out based upon the driving power and dependence. In addition to this, a structural model of variables to implement lean concept in Indian automobile industry has also been developed using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Questionnaire based survey has also been conducted to rank these variables. Findings: Eighteen variables have been identified from the literature and subsequent discussions with experts. Out of which, nine variables have been identified as dependent and nine variables have been identified as driver. No variable has been identified as linkage variable and autonomous variable. From the model developed, ‘Relative cost benefits’ has been identified as top level dependent variable and top management commitment as bottom level most independent variable. Research limitations/Implications: The model so developed is a hypothetical model based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation. Practical implication: Clear understanding of interactions among these variables will help organizations to prioritize and manage these variables more effectively and efficiently to draw advantage from lean manufacturing system implementation

  18. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use. (United States)

    Hopfer, Christian


    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  19. The case for an emergentist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertus van Rooy


    Full Text Available This paper sets out an argument in favour of emergentism as an alternative theoretical paradigm to nativism, arguing that it offers a coherent, evidence-based account of language structure, language acquisition, language evolution, and language change. A number of key tenets of the nativist approach are summarised first, including the nature of the presumed complexity of language, the poverty of the input argument against the learnability of language, the assumption of parsimony, the view of language as innate, biological faculty, and the view of the primary function of language as cognitive representation rather than communication. This is followed by a presentation of the emergentist alternative, which is centred on the notion of the grammatical construction as central unit in the emergentist approach. The properties of constructions, and how they can come into being with recourse to only domain-general cognitive processes, are presented, before the implications of this view for language structure, language acquisition, language evolution and language change are discussed. Additional points of difference with the nativist position are highlighted, including the assumptions of non-parsimonious storage and the centrality of communicative interaction in the ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of language. Throughout the presentation, arguments are illustrated with reference to aspects of complementation in the Germanic languages. The article concludes with a detailed case study of the wh-extraction construction, drawing on an analysis of corpus data from Afrikaans, to demonstrate how the construction-based, emergentist approach leads to an insightful analysis of a well-known construction, without having to make extensive assumptions about the underlying linguistic complexity and the need for innate mechanisms to enable the acquisition of such a complex construction.

  20. The neurobiology of MMN and implications for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Michie, Patricia T; Malmierca, Manuel S; Harms, Lauren; Todd, Juanita


    Although the scientific community appears to know a lot about MMN, about its neural generators and the computational processes that underlie its generation, do we have sufficient knowledge to understand what causes the reduction of MMN amplitude in schizophrenia? Here we attempt to integrate the evidence presented in this series of papers for the special issue on MMN in schizophrenia together with evidence from other new relevant research and ask--what have we learnt? While MMN research was the purview for decades of psychophysiologists interested in event-related potentials derived from scalp recorded EEG, it is now part of mainstream neuroscience research attracting the interest of basic auditory neuroscientists, neurobiologists and computational modellers. The confluence of these developments together with increasing clinical research has certainly advanced our understanding of the causes of reduced MMN in schizophrenia as this integrative review attempts to demonstrate--but much remains to be learnt. Future advances will rely on the application of multiple methodologies and approaches in order to arrive at better understanding of the neurobiology of MMN and implications for schizophrenia.

  1. The welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon


    Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments.

  2. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications. (United States)

    Merchant, John


    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized.

  3. Implications about the causality principle in the business income tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Durán Rojo


    Full Text Available The following article presents the implications about the practice of the causality principle for the determination of the income set with intention to apply the business income tax.We start considering the fact that this tax can be imposed to acquire goods known as a deductible expense of the practice, but not from those that are going to be part of the compatible cost to expropriate. Then, we make an extensive analysis about the way the Peruvian income tax law has configured the approaches of this principle and the understanding emerged from important jurisprudence cases from the members that solve problems, specially the Tax Court, when adopting a fast principle of expenses without causes.At the same time, this article describes the achievements of the rational and normality cost principles, so important for the evaluation of the performance of the principle of causality.Finally, we present some ideas about the accreditation of the cost facing and its relation to the causality principle.

  4. [FGF/FGFR signalling: Implication in oncogenesis and perspectives]. (United States)

    Flippot, Ronan; Kone, Moumini; Magné, Nicolas; Vignot, Stéphane


    Deregulation of FGF (fibroblast growth factor)/FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) signalling leads to the promotion of several oncogenic mechanisms: proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cytoskeleton modifications, migration and angiogenesis. Deregulation of this pathway is reported in various cancers at early stages, and can therefore be responsible for the emergence of the hallmarks of cancer. It is necessary to precise downstream pathways of FGFR signalling to understand its oncogenic potential. We will then describe its implications in different cancer types. Oncogenic mechanisms will be studied through the example of melanoma, in which deregulation of FGF/FGFR pathway is considered as a driver event and occurs in nearly 90% of cases. The FGF/FGFR signalling pathway is a putative therapeutic target. Numerous agents are in active development, operating through a selective or multi-targeted approach. Recent studies have shown rather disappointing results in non-selected patients, but promising results in patients with FGF/FGFR pathway alterations. A careful screening of patients is the key to a valuable evaluation of these new targeted molecular therapies.

  5. Implications of Some Characters' Names In English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With more and more Chinese students having a great liking for English literature than ever before, it is of great importance to fully appreciate the original works in a proper way. Apart from some background information on writers or the works, some hints and clues provided throughout the works are essential to the comprehension of the literature. This paper mainly deals with a widely-used approach which writers prefer to apply while readers tend to ignore, that is, naming of some characters. With a summary of previous literature on the significance of some names, the paper first explores the literal meanings and origins of proper nouns in some English literature, and then discusses the relationships between characters' names and their personality, the plot as well as the theme of the works. Hence comes the conclusion that name implications can help to reveal characters' personality, develop the plot and highlight the theme. Awareness of this will surely exert positive effects on the readers' better understanding of English literature.

  6. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C


    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  7. Transcriptional networks implicated in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (United States)

    Ye, Hua; Liu, Wei


    The transcriptome of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was investigated in several studies. However, the implications of transcriptional networks in progressive NAFLD are not clear and mechanisms inducing transition from nonalcoholic simple fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are still elusive. The aims of this study were to (1) construct networks for progressive NAFLD, (2) identify hub genes and functional modules in these networks and (3) infer potential linkages among hub genes, transcription factors and microRNAs (miRNA) for NAFLD progression. A systems biology approach by combining differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to dissect transcriptional profiles in 19 normal, 10 NAFL and 16 NASH patients. Based on this framework, 3 modules related to chromosome organization, proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and immune response were identified in NASH network. Furthermore, 9 modules of co-expressed genes associated with NAFL/NASH transition were found. Further characterization of these modules defined 13 highly connected hub genes in NAFLD progression network. Interestingly, 11 significantly changed miRNAs were predicted to target 10 of the 13 hub genes. Characterization of modules and hub genes that may be regulated by miRNAs could facilitate the identification of candidate genes and pathways responsible for NAFL/NASH transition and lead to a better understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis. The identified modules and hub genes may point to potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  8. Hyporheic flow and transport processes: mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications (United States)

    Boano, Fulvio; Harvey, Judson W.; Marion, Andrea; Packman, Aaron I.; Revelli, Roberto; Ridolfi, Luca; Anders, Wörman


    Fifty years of hyporheic zone research have shown the important role played by the hyporheic zone as an interface between groundwater and surface waters. However, it is only in the last two decades that what began as an empirical science has become a mechanistic science devoted to modeling studies of the complex fluid dynamical and biogeochemical mechanisms occurring in the hyporheic zone. These efforts have led to the picture of surface-subsurface water interactions as regulators of the form and function of fluvial ecosystems. Rather than being isolated systems, surface water bodies continuously interact with the subsurface. Exploration of hyporheic zone processes has led to a new appreciation of their wide reaching consequences for water quality and stream ecology. Modern research aims toward a unified approach, in which processes occurring in the hyporheic zone are key elements for the appreciation, management, and restoration of the whole river environment. In this unifying context, this review summarizes results from modeling studies and field observations about flow and transport processes in the hyporheic zone and describes the theories proposed in hydrology and fluid dynamics developed to quantitatively model and predict the hyporheic transport of water, heat, and dissolved and suspended compounds from sediment grain scale up to the watershed scale. The implications of these processes for stream biogeochemistry and ecology are also discussed."

  9. Severe preeclampsia: anesthetic implications of the disease and its management. (United States)

    Turner, Judi A


    Preeclampsia is a significant, multifactorial, multiorgan disease affecting 6%-8% of all pregnancies in the United States and is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. As such, it is incumbent upon any anesthesia provider involved in obstetric cases to be familiar with the varied manifestations of the disease, management goals from an obstetric standpoint, and the implications for provision of anesthesia in this patient group. Despite improvements in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia, severe complications can occur in both the mother and the fetus. A systematic approach to the anesthetic evaluation is therefore necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve outcomes. The potential pitfalls of general anesthesia, including failed intubation, in these complicated patients make regional anesthesia the preferred choice in many cases. Recent studies have shown that spinal anesthesia is often appropriate for preeclamptic patients, even in severe cases. Nevertheless, it is important to be aware of the potential contraindications to neuraxial anesthesia and to prepare for the possibility of encountering a difficult airway.

  10. The photophysics of porous silicon: technological and biomedical implications. (United States)

    Kotkovskiy, Gennady E; Kuzishchin, Yury A; Martynov, Igor L; Chistyakov, Alexander A; Nabiev, Igor


    Although porous silicon (pSi) was first obtained in the mid-20th century, considerable interest in this material arose much later, due to the discovery of its room-temperature photoluminescence (PL). In the 1990s, most studies on pSi were focused on the analysis and explanation of its photoluminescent and electroluminescent characteristics and their potential practical applications. The latest advances in pSi research are related to its biocompatibility and biomedical applications. The discovery of singlet oxygen generation by pSi through nonradiative transfer of photoexcitation energy has opened new prospects for photodynamic therapy in vivo, and the discovery of laser desorption/ionization on pSi has paved the way for advanced approaches in mass-spectrometry. In this study, the main photophysical properties of pSi are reviewed, and a wide range of photo-processes characteristic of pSi and their practical implications are analyzed in terms of the general principles of energy and charge transfer. Special attention is paid to the possible applications of pSi and pSi-based nanocomposites in photonics, biophysics, medicine, and analytical chemistry.

  11. Mitochondrial dynamics in type 2 diabetes: Pathophysiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rovira-Llopis


    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis. These organelles have a high plasticity and are involved in dynamic processes such as mitochondrial fusion and fission, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction, high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and low levels of ATP. Mitochondrial fusion is modulated by different proteins, including mitofusin-1 (MFN1, mitofusin-2 (MFN2 and optic atrophy (OPA-1, while fission is controlled by mitochondrial fission 1 (FIS1, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1 and mitochondrial fission factor (MFF. PARKIN and (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 participate in the process of mitophagy, for which mitochondrial fission is necessary. In this review, we discuss the molecular pathways of mitochondrial dynamics, their impairment under type 2 diabetes, and pharmaceutical approaches for targeting mitochondrial dynamics, such as mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1, dynasore, P110 and 15-oxospiramilactone. Furthermore, we discuss the pathophysiological implications of impaired mitochondrial dynamics, especially in type 2 diabetes.

  12. Implications of spinopelvic alignment for the spine surgeon. (United States)

    Mehta, Vivek A; Amin, Anubhav; Omeis, Ibrahim; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Gottfried, Oren N


    The relation of the pelvis to the spine has previously been overlooked as a contributor to sagittal balance. However, it is now recognized that spinopelvic alignment is important to maintain an energy-efficient posture in normal and disease states. The pelvis is characterized by an important anatomic landmark, the pelvic incidence (PI). The PI does not change after adolescence, and it directly influences pelvic alignment, including the parameters of pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS) (PI = PT + SS), [corrected] overall sagittal spinal balance, and lumbar lordosis. In the setting of an elevated PI, the spineadapts with increased lumbar lordosis. To prevent or limit sagittal imbalance, the spine may also compensate with increased PT or pelvic retroversion to attempt to maintain anupright posture. Abnormal spinopelvic parameters contribute to multiple spinal conditions including isthmic spondylolysis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, deformity, and impact outcome after spinal fusion. Sagittal balance, pelvic incidence, and all spinopelvic parameters are easily and reliably measured on standing, full-spine (lateral) radiographs, and it is essential to accurately assess and measure these sagittal values to understand their potential role in the disease process, and to promote spinopelvic balance at surgery. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the implications of abnormal spinopelvic parameters and discuss surgical strategies for correction of sagittal balance. Additionally, the authors rate and critique the quality of the literature cited in a systematic review approach to give the reader an estimate of the veracity of the conclusions reached from these reports.

  13. Implications of impaired ketogenesis in fatty acid oxidation disorders. (United States)

    Olpin, Simon Edward


    Long-chain fatty acids are important sources of respiratory fuel for many tissues and during fasting the rate of hepatic production of ketone bodies is markedly increased. Many extra hepatic tissues utilize ketone bodies in the fasted state with the advantage that glucose is "spared" for more vital tissues like the brain. This glucose sparing effect of ketones is especially important in infants where there is a high proportional glucose utilization in cerebral tissue. The first reported inherited defect affecting fatty acid oxidation was described in 1973 and to date about 15 separate disorders have been described. Although individually rare, cumulatively fatty acid oxidation defects are relatively common, have major consequences for affected individuals and their families, and carry significant health care implications. The major biochemical consequence of fatty acid oxidation defects is an inability of extra hepatic tissues to utilize fatty acids as an energy source with absent or limited hepatic capacity to generate ketones. Clinically patients usually present in infancy with acute life-threatening hypoketotic hypoglycaemia, liver disease, hyperammonaemia and cerebral oedema, with or without cardiac involvement, usually following a period of catabolic stress. Chronically there may be muscle involvement with hypotonia or exercise intolerance with or without cardiomyopathy. Treatment is generally by the avoidance of fasting, frequent carbohydrate rich feeds and for long-chain defects, the replacement of long-chain dietary fats with medium-chain formulae. Novel approaches to treatment include the use of d,l-3-hydoxybutyrate or heptanoate as an alternative energy source.

  14. Redox regulation in malaria: current concepts and pharmacotherapeutic implications. (United States)

    Goyal, M; Alam, A; Bandyopadhyay, U


    Malaria imposes a serious threat to human and becomes more prevalent due to the emergence of drug resistant parasite. Understanding of the underlying mechanism of drug resistance and identification of novel drug targets are key effective processes for the management of malaria. Malaria parasite is highly susceptible to oxidative stress but lives in a pro-oxidant rich environment containing oxygen and iron, which produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species. Management of oxidative stress in malaria parasite is tightly regulated through active redox and antioxidant defense systems. The elevation of oxidative stress as a result of inhibition of any component of this defense system leads to redox imbalance and ultimately parasite death. Therefore, redox system plays an indispensable role for the survival of parasite within the host. Identification of key molecules, which disrupt parasite redox balance by altering key redox reactions and promote oxidative stress in parasites, would be an effective approach to develop novel antimalarial drugs. During the last few decades, contributions by researchers around the globe provide even better understanding of redox biology of malaria parasite. Here, in this review, we are highlighting the knowledge gathered so far regarding the essential redox-active processes and their components in malaria parasite to overcome elevated oxidative insults. We have also given maximum efforts to enlist currently used redox-active antimalarials, their mode of action and pharmacotherapeutic implications.

  15. Etiopathology of chronic tubular, glomerular and renovascular nephropathies: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Alberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD comprises a group of pathologies in which the renal excretory function is chronically compromised. Most, but not all, forms of CKD are progressive and irreversible, pathological syndromes that start silently (i.e. no functional alterations are evident, continue through renal dysfunction and ends up in renal failure. At this point, kidney transplant or dialysis (renal replacement therapy, RRT becomes necessary to prevent death derived from the inability of the kidneys to cleanse the blood and achieve hydroelectrolytic balance. Worldwide, nearly 1.5 million people need RRT, and the incidence of CKD has increased significantly over the last decades. Diabetes and hypertension are among the leading causes of end stage renal disease, although autoimmunity, renal atherosclerosis, certain infections, drugs and toxins, obstruction of the urinary tract, genetic alterations, and other insults may initiate the disease by damaging the glomerular, tubular, vascular or interstitial compartments of the kidneys. In all cases, CKD eventually compromises all these structures and gives rise to a similar phenotype regardless of etiology. This review describes with an integrative approach the pathophysiological process of tubulointerstitial, glomerular and renovascular diseases, and makes emphasis on the key cellular and molecular events involved. It further analyses the key mechanisms leading to a merging phenotype and pathophysiological scenario as etiologically distinct diseases progress. Finally clinical implications and future experimental and therapeutic perspectives are discussed.

  16. Serotonergic and tryptaminergic overstimulation on refeeding implicated in "enlightenment" experiences. (United States)

    Joseph, Paul G


    The classic "enlightenment" experience is that of Siddhārtha Gautama (a.k.a. Buddha) who fasted and meditated intensely for years but failed to attain his goal of "enlightenment." He gave up his fast, ate rice pudding, and immediately meditated again, whereupon he attained "enlightenment." The hypothesis is that this altered state was a symptom of refeeding after prolonged starvation resulting from the combination of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition followed by tryptophan and carbohydrate intake. Intense fasting inhibited Gautama's MAO activity; eating rice pudding constituted an intake of dietary tryptophan with carbohydrates. Carbohydrates trigger insulin release, which increases unbound tryptophan while reducing levels of competing amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. These effects allow significant amounts of tryptophan into the brain, where it converts into serotonin. Without MAO, serotonin does not degrade, and methyl-transferases convert excess tryptophan and serotonin into endogenous psychoactive tryptamines. The endogenous serotonin and tryptamines cause altered mental states. The absence of psychoactive substances and the prolonged fasting gives this experience its perceived spiritual power. Subjects may have no option but to assume that their experiences were due to either divine intervention or to values and techniques that took many years of hard work to acquire. If validated, this mechanism implicates a specific effect of refeeding syndrome as the trigger for these altered states, and offers an approach to study this phenomenon in untrained subjects from within a scientific framework.

  17. Electron holes appear to trigger cancer-implicated mutations (United States)

    Miller, John; Villagran, Martha

    Malignant tumors are caused by mutations, which also affect their subsequent growth and evolution. We use a novel approach, computational DNA hole spectroscopy [M.Y. Suarez-Villagran & J.H. Miller, Sci. Rep. 5, 13571 (2015)], to compute spectra of enhanced hole probability based on actual sequence data. A hole is a mobile site of positive charge created when an electron is removed, for example by radiation or contact with a mutagenic agent. Peaks in the hole spectrum depict sites where holes tend to localize and potentially trigger a base pair mismatch during replication. Our studies of reveal a correlation between hole spectrum peaks and spikes in human mutation frequencies. Importantly, we also find that hole peak positions that do not coincide with large variant frequencies often coincide with cancer-implicated mutations and/or (for coding DNA) encoded conserved amino acids. This enables combining hole spectra with variant data to identify critical base pairs and potential cancer `driver' mutations. Such integration of DNA hole and variance spectra could also prove invaluable for pinpointing critical regions, and sites of driver mutations, in the vast non-protein-coding genome. Supported by the State of Texas through the Texas Ctr. for Superconductivity.

  18. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Elvira Pires de Pires


    Full Text Available Objective to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. Method qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. Results the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. Conclusions investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.

  19. Suicide methods in Asia: implications in suicide prevention. (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F


    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide "technologies". It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  20. Translational implications of inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine networks in psychoneuroimmunology. (United States)

    Yan, Qing


    Developments in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) need to be translated into personalized medicine to achieve better clinical outcomes. One of the most critical steps in this translational process is to identify systemic biomarkers for better diagnosis and treatment. Applications of systems biology approaches in PNI would enable the insights into the correlations among various systems and different levels for the identification of the basic elements of the psychophysiological framework. Among the potential PNI biomarkers, inflammatory markers deserve special attention as they play a pivotal role linking various health conditions and disorders. The elucidation of inflammatory markers, cytokine networks, and immune-brain-behavior interactions may help establish PNI profiles for the identification of potential targets for personalized interventions in at risk populations. The understanding of the general systemic pathways among different disorders may contribute to the transition from the disease-centered medicine to patient-centered medicine. Integrative strategies targeting these factors and pathways would be useful for the prevention and treatment of a spectrum of diseases that share the common links. Examples of the translational implications of potential PNI biomarkers and networks in diseases including depression, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and HIV are discussed in details.

  1. Cryptovirology: Virus Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivale Saurabh Anandrao


    Full Text Available Traditionally, "Cryptography" is a benediction to information processing and communications, it helps people to store information securely and the private communications over long distances. Cryptovirology is the study of applications of cryptography to build the malicious software. It is an investigation, how modern cryptographic tools and paradigms can be used to strengthen, develop and improve new malicious software attacks. Cryptovirology attacks have been categorized as : give malware enhanced privacy andbe more robust against reverse-engineering, secondly give the attacker enhanced anonymity while communicating with deployed malware. This paper presents the idea of ``Cryptovirology'' which introduce a twist on how cryptography can also be used offensively. Being offensive means, it can be used to mount extortion based attacks that cause loss of access to information, loss of confidentiality, and information leakage, tasks which cryptography usually prevents. Also analyze threats and attacks that misuse of cryptography can cause when combined with fraudulent software (viruses, Trojans. Public-keycryptography is very essential for the attacks that based on cryptovirology. This paper also suggest some of the countermeasures, mechanisms to cope with and prevent such attacks. Even if the attackers actions on the host machine are being monitored, it still cannot be proven beyond reasonable doubt that he or she is the attacker; and it is an “originator-concealing attack”. Evidence should be collected from the “author’s own system which was used for the attack”. These attacks have implications on how the use ofcryptographic tools and techniques should be audited and managed in general purpose computing environments, and imply that access to the cryptographic tools should be in well control of the system(such as API routines. The experimental virus would demonstrate how cryptographic packages can be packed into a small space, which may

  2. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam


    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  3. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs. (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri


    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.

  4. Teaching science and ethics to undergraduates: a multidisciplinary approach. (United States)

    McGowan, Alan H


    The teaching of the ethical implications of scientific advances in science courses for undergraduates has significant advantages for both science and non-science majors. The article describes three courses taught by the author as examples of the concept, and examines the disadvantages as well as the advantages. A significant advantage of this approach is that many students take the courses primarily because of the ethical component who would not otherwise take science. A disadvantage is less time in the course for the science; arguably, this is outweighed by the greater retention of the science when it is put into context.

  5. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam


    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  6. Health leadership and management competencies: a systemic approach. (United States)

    Holder, Reynaldo; Ramagem, Caroline


    The achievement of national and international health goals requires better-performing health systems. Strengthening leadership and management of health systems thus becomes essential for achieving greater efficiency and responsiveness, ultimately improving health outcomes. Building a global framework of core competencies for leadership and management needs to be approached with systems thinking and methodologies akin to complexity science that takes into account all components and levels of the health system and the possible interactions between them that influence outcomes. The results will have important policy implications for national health authorities seeking to strengthen management capacity and building transformational leadership in health systems.

  7. Usage labels network: an approach to lexical variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Šipka


    Full Text Available The Problem of lexical variation is frequently addressed within the linguistic community. Its complexity and the broad implications of any possible solution have considerable appeal among theoretical linguists. Lexicographers, in their turn, have been forced to address it in order to provide dictionary usage information, which is normally done by means of dictionary labels such as: American English, obsolete, slang , etc. An insightful overview of the relevant lexicological approaches, as well as some lexicographis projects is provided in Lipka (1990. The most exhaustive sociolinguistic classification, however, can be found in Preston (1986. Lexicographis treatments of lexical variation have been addressed in numerous papers listed in Zgusta (1988.

  8. Regulatory functions of PPARbeta in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. (United States)

    Grimaldi, Paul A


    The prevalence of metabolic disturbances, collectively known as metabolic syndrome, has reached an epidemic proportion in industrialized countries. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological treatments of such pathologies are only partially efficient and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. This review focuses on the recent findings describing the regulatory functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta) on lipid metabolism in several tissues and on the implications of such findings on the therapeutic usefulness of PPARbeta agonists in the treatment of particular features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunctions.

  9. Characterization of the Deleted in Autism 1 Protein Family: Implications for Studying Cognitive Disorders


    Azhari Aziz; Harrop, Sean P.; Bishop, Naomi E.


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of commonly occurring, highly-heritable developmental disabilities. Human genes c3orf58 or Deleted In Autism-1 (DIA1) and cXorf36 or Deleted in Autism-1 Related (DIA1R) are implicated in ASD and mental retardation. Both gene products encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. As evolutionary medicine has emerged as a key tool for understanding increasing numbers of human diseases, we have used an evolutionary approach to study D...





    The Structural and Cohesion Funds as well as the loans obtained by our country from the IMF have significant implications upon the Romanian financial system. This article is a comparative approach structured on five parts as it follows: the second part is a review of the specific literature regarding the theme of our work, the third part is an analysis of the absorption stage of the Structural Funds and the evolution of the stand by agreements between Romania and IMF, the fourth part is a SWO...

  11. The sylvatic Trichinella cycle and its implications for Trichinella control in Germany. (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten


    Trichinellosis is a food-borne, zoonotic disease caused by a parasitic organism. Pork containing muscle larvae represents the most important source of human trichinellosis. In Germany, each slaughtered domestic swine is systematically sampled and examined for Trichinella spp. European Union legislation (EC (No.) 2075/2005) condones the approach of a risk-oriented meat inspection for Trichinella in pigs which is accompanied by monitoring programmes for pig holdings and reservoir animals. Here we discuss the current epidemiological situation of Trichinella in the sylvatic cycle in Germany and the implications for the implementation of risk-based sampling.

  12. "They just don't have a clue": transgender aging and implications for social work. (United States)

    Siverskog, Anna


    This article explores transgender aging, drawing from life story interviews with transgender adults aged 62-78. The analysis focuses on 3 themes: intersections of age and gender during the life course, lack of knowledge of transgender issues, and how previous experiences of accessing care and social services matter in later life. It illustrates how older transgendered adults carry physical and mental scars from previously encountered transphobia, which affect various aspects of later life. Implications for social work are discussed and client-centered care, with a biographical approach, is suggested to better meet the needs of transgendered older adults.

  13. On theory of learning and knowledge: Educational implications of advances in neuroscience (United States)

    Hendry, Graham D.; King, Ronald C.

    The first section analyses the so-called mechanical theories of learning that underpin the transmission view of teaching that so permeates education and schooling. There is an impasse in current theories due to lack of explanation about how we acquire knowledge. In response to what appears to be insuperable problems in current psychological theories, the second section promotes a neuroscientific basis for resolution of the impasse; a basis which renders at least some aspects of information theory redundant. Finally, implications for the transmission-of-knowledge approach to teaching are addressed.

  14. Excessive Internet use: implications for sexual behavior


    Griffiths, M


    The Internet appears to have become an ever-increasing part in many areas of people’s day-to- day lives. One area that deserves further examination surrounds sexual behavior and excessive Internet usage. It has been alleged by some academics that social pathologies are beginning to surface in cyberspace and have been referred to as “technological addictions.” Such research may have implications and insights into sexuality and sexual behavior. Therefore, this article examines the concept of “I...

  15. Psychosocial benefits and implications of exercise. (United States)

    Gaz, Daniel V; Smith, Aynsley M


    This review is based on a case report that concerns a young female athlete who experienced some of the negative aspects of exercise. Overtraining, a negative byproduct of excessive exercise, can turn the positive psychosocial and physiologic benefits of regular physical activity into an activity detrimental to one's health. With the proper psychological skills and appropriate exercise regimen, these negatives can be turned into positives. Once learned, the psychosocial benefits of exercise, as well as the positive implications, will become more prevalent, similar to the way in which proper physical training helps one become more fit over time.

  16. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Jha; Keshab C Panda


    Recent observations of high mass pulsar PSRJ1614-2230 has raised serious debate over the possible role of exotics in the dense core of neutron stars. The precise measurement of mass of the pulsar may play a very important role in limiting equation of state (EoS) of dense matter and its composition. Indirectly, it may also shape our understanding of the nucleon–hyperon or hyperon–hyperon interactions which is not well known. Within the framework of an effective chiral model, we compute models of neutron stars and analyse the hyperon composition in them. Further related implications are also discussed.

  17. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette


    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...... is insufficient to leverage contextually specific and culturally embedded knowledge. This indicates the need for disentangling language and culture. The paper further argues for the need to go beyond national language to consider how prevailing kinds of corporate talk may curb headquarters potential for learning...

  18. The social implications of artificial intelligence.


    Whitby, Blay


    For 18 years. I have been publishing books and papers on the subject of the social implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI). This is an area which is has been, and remains, in need of more academic attention of a serious nature than it currently receives. It will be useful to attempt a working definition of the field of AI at this stage. There is a considerable amount of disagreement as to what does and does not constitute AI and this often has important consequences for discussions of...

  19. Modeling Thermal Dust Emission and Implications (United States)

    Liang, Zhuohan


    An accurate model of thermal dust emission at the far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths is important for studying the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and for understanding the cycling of matter and energy between stars and the interstellar medium. I will present results of fitting all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100 - 240 μm maps from the COBE-DIRBE, and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. I will also discuss the implications of the analysis on understanding astrophysical processes and the physical properties of dust grains.

  20. Ionization potentials some variations, implications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, L H


    Ionization Potentials: Some Variations, Implications and Applications covers several aspects of ionization potential that is a highly significant parameter in controlling the properties of electric discharge. Comprised of 17 chapters, the book covers topic relevant to ionization potentials, such as properties, concepts, and applications, in order to understand and fully comprehend all aspects of ionization potential. The opening chapter is a review of ionization potentials and a discussion of trends and features. The succeeding chapters then tackle complex topics such as the s and p electrons;

  1. Cardiomyocyte death: mechanisms and translational implications. (United States)

    Chiong, M; Wang, Z V; Pedrozo, Z; Cao, D J; Troncoso, R; Ibacache, M; Criollo, A; Nemchenko, A; Hill, J A; Lavandero, S


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although treatments have improved, development of novel therapies for patients with CVD remains a major research goal. Apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy occur in cardiac myocytes, and both gradual and acute cell death are hallmarks of cardiac pathology, including heart failure, myocardial infarction, and ischemia/reperfusion. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis diminishes infarct size and improves cardiac function in these disorders. Here, we review recent progress in the fields of autophagy, apoptosis, and necrosis. In addition, we highlight the involvement of these mechanisms in cardiac pathology and discuss potential translational implications.

  2. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology. (United States)

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew


    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  3. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications. (United States)

    Hornor, Gail


    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed.

  4. Changing the brain, changing the society: clinical and ethical implications of neuromodulation techniques in neurology and psychiatry. (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David; Baertschi, Bernard


    New neurotechnologies for modulating brain functions are becoming increasingly powerful and applicable to diverse diseases, but raise new questions for clinicians, ethicists, policy makers, and laymen. This issue of Brain Topography gathers several papers exploring the clinical and ethical implications of several invasive and noninvasive neuromodulation approaches. The opportunities and challenges associated with the emergence of neuro-engineering solutions to brain research and brain repair require a close dialogue between multiple disciplines, as well as open discussion with the general public.

  5. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter [Department of Environmental Studies, Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)]. E-mail:; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies, Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland); Dresner, Simon [Environment Group, Policy Studies Institute, 100 Park Village East, London NW1 3SR (United Kingdom)


    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR.

  6. [Approaches to radial shaft]. (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M


    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  7. Peritonitis: laparoscopic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agresta Ferdinando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopy has became as the preferred surgical approach to a number of different diseases because it allows a correct diagnosis and treatment at the same time. In abdominal emergencies, both components of treatment – exploration to identify the causative pathology and performance of an appropriate operation – can often be accomplished via laparoscopy. There is still a debate of peritonitis as a contraindication to this kind of approach. Aim of the present work is to illustrate retrospectively the results of a case-control experience of laparoscopic vs. open surgery for abdominal peritonitis emergencies carried out at our institution. Methods From January 1992 and January 2002 a total of 935 patients (mean age 42.3 ± 17.2 years underwent emergent and/or urgent surgery. Among them, 602 (64.3% were operated on laparoscopically (of whom 112 -18.7% – with peritonitis, according to the presence of a surgical team trained in laparoscopy. Patients with a history of malignancy, more than two previous major abdominal surgeries or massive bowel distension were not treated Laparoscopically. Peritonitis was not considered contraindication to Laparoscopy. Results The conversion rate was 23.2% in patients with peritonitis and was mainly due to the presence of dense intra-abdominal adhesions. Major complications ranged as high as 5.3% with a postoperative mortality of 1.7%. A definitive diagnosis was accomplished in 85.7% (96 pat. of cases, and 90.6% (87 of these patients were treated successfully by Laparoscopy. Conclusion Even if limited by its retrospective feature, the present experience let us to consider the Laparoscopic approach to abdominal peritonitis emergencies a safe and effective as conventional surgery, with a higher diagnostic yield and allows for lesser trauma and a more rapid postoperative recovery. Such features make Laparoscopy a challenging alternative to open surgery in the management algorithm for abdominal

  8. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches. (United States)

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo


    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  9. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd


    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  10. The collaboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.M.


    A {open_quotes}collaboratory{close_quotes} has been defined as a center without walls, in which researchers can perform their work without regard to geographical location. To an increasing degree, engineering design and development is also taking the form of far-flung collaborations among divisions of a plant, subcontractors, university consultants and customers. It has long been recognized that quality engineering education presents the student with an environment that duplicates as much as possible that which the graduate will encounter in industry. To that end, it is important that engineering schools begin to introduce the collaboratory approach in its preparation, and even use it in delivery of subject matter to students.

  11. [Regenerative approach for COPD]. (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroshi


    No treatment to cure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is available. Regenerative medicine is one of promising areas for this intractable disease. Several reagents and growth factors are known to promote lung regeneration in small animal models. However, regenerative medicines for human lungs are not achieved yet. Recent advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering have expanded our understanding of lung endogenous stem cells, and this new knowledge provides us with new ideas for future regenerative therapy for lung diseases. Although lungs are the most challenging organ for regenerative medicine, our cumulative knowledge of lung regeneration and of endogenous progenitor cells makes clear the possibilities for regenerative approach to COPD.

  12. Approaching Service Innovation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea NAGY


    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the types of innovation in the field of services. First, the concept of innovation is defined and second, field literature is reviewed from the perspective of service innovation. The main types of innovation are identified based on several attempts at defining innovation, the most notable being Schumpeter’s. Thus, it is possible to approach concepts such as product and process innovation, incremental and radical innovation. Another aim has been to regard service innovation as a standout type of innovation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna


    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  14. Papilledema. An updated approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaney González Yglesias


    Full Text Available The term papilledema refers to the edema that appears in the optic papilla after intracranial hypertension. Some of its most frequent causes are intracranial lesions, hydrocephaly, thrombosis venous sinus and meningitis. The increase of intracranial tension is related with the results of the eye´s fundus examination, which are classified differently: incipient, established, chronic, and atrophic, depending on its severity or development. It is indispensable to carry out imaging tests before performing lumbar puncture. This article is an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of this gnoseological entity.

  15. [Cystic pyeloureteritis. Our approach]. (United States)

    Castillo Jimeno, J M; González de Garibay, A S; Ruiz Rubio, J L; Sebastián Borruel, J L


    We report a case of massive cystic pyeloureteritis that had been diagnosed by ureterorenoscopy in a patient with recurrent urinary infection and episodes of nephritic colic. The reports published in the literature indicate there is no specific treatment for this disease whose etiology is unknown. Its pathogenesis has not been well-established and it is difficult to distinguish from other urothelial filling defects. Although it has also been reported that it may progress to malignancy, we believe that the therapeutic approach should be conservative.

  16. Revitalizing the setting approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Toft, Ulla; Reinbach, Helene Christine


    -based. Based on a presentation of ¿Health and Local Community¿, a supersetting initiative addressing the prevention of lifestyle diseases in a Danish municipality, the paper discusses the potentials and challenges of supporting local community interventions using the supersetting approach......BackgroundThe concept of health promotion rests on aspirations aiming at enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health promotion action is facilitated in settings such as schools, homes and work places. As a contribution to the promotion of healthy lifestyles, we have...

  17. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach. (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C


    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.

  18. Science, practice and mythology: a definition and examination of the implications of scientism in medicine. (United States)

    Loughlin, Michael; Lewith, George; Falkenberg, Torkel


    Scientism is a philosophy which purports to define what the world 'really is'. It adopts what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called 'an epistemological criterion of reality', defining what is real as that which can be discovered by certain quite specific methods of investigation. As a consequence all features of experience not revealed by those methods are deemed 'subjective' in a way that suggests they are either not real, or lie beyond the scope of meaningful rational inquiry. This devalues capacities that (we argue) are in fact essential components of good reasoning and virtuous practice. Ultimately, the implications of scientism for statements of value undermine value-judgements essential for science itself to have a sound basis. Scientism has implications, therefore, for ontology, epistemology and also for which claims we can assert as objective truths about the world. Adopting scientism as a world view will have consequences for reasoning and decision-making in clinical and other contexts. We analyse the implications of this approach and conclude that we need to reject scientism if we are to avoid stifling virtuous practice and to develop richer conceptions of human reasoning.

  19. Forensic implications: adolescent sexting and cyberbullying. (United States)

    Korenis, Panagiota; Billick, Stephen Bates


    Adolescence is marked by establishing a sense of identity, core values, a sense of one's relationship to the outside world and heightened peer relationships. In addition, there is also risk taking, impulsivity, self exploration and dramatic increase in sexuality. The dramatic increase in the use of cell phones and the Internet has additional social implications of sexting and cyberbullying. Sexting refers to the practice of sending sexually explicit material including language or images to another person's cell phone. Cyberbullying refers to the use of this technology to socially exclude, threaten, insult or shame another person. Studies of cell phone use in the 21st century report well over 50% of adolescents use them and that text messaging is the communication mode of choice. Studies also show a significant percentage of adolescents send and receive sex messaging, both text and images. This paper will review this expanding literature. Various motivations for sexting will also be reviewed. This new technology presents many dangers for adolescents. The legal implications are extensive and psychiatrists may play an important role in evaluation of some of these adolescents in the legal context. This paper will also make suggestions on future remedies and preventative actions.

  20. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A


    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -