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Sample records for applying syndromic surveillance

  1. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  2. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  3. Applying a New Model for Sharing Population Health Data to National Syndromic Influenza Surveillance: DiSTRIBuTE Project Proof of Concept, 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald R; Paladini, Marc; Lober, William B; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-01-01

    The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on existing state and local systems and expertise. DiSTRIBuTE brought together health departments that were interested in: 1) sharing aggregate level data; 2) maintaining jurisdictional control; 3) minimizing barriers to participation; and 4) leveraging the flexibility of local systems to create a dynamic and collaborative surveillance network. This approach was in contrast to the prevailing paradigm for surveillance where record level information was collected, stored and analyzed centrally. The DiSTRIBuTE project was created with a distributed design, where individual level data remained local and only summarized, stratified counts were reported centrally, thus minimizing privacy risks. The project was responsive to federal mandates to improve integration of federal, state, and local biosurveillance capabilities. During the proof of concept phase, 2006 to 2009, ten jurisdictions from across North America sent ISDS on a daily to weekly basis year-round, aggregated data by day, stratified by local ILI syndrome, age-group and region. During this period, data from participating U.S. state or local health departments captured over 13% of all ED visits nationwide. The initiative focused on state and local health department trust, expertise, and control. Morbidity trends observed in DiSTRIBuTE were highly correlated with other influenza surveillance measures. With the emergence of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009, the project was used to support information sharing and ad hoc querying at the state and local level. In the fall of 2009, through a broadly collaborative effort, the project was expanded to enhance

  4. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME SURVEILLANCE NETWORK (FASSNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC, in collaboration with four states, has developed the first state-based program specifically designed to monitor trends in the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The program, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet), reports that many children continue t...

  5. Time series modeling for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandl Kenneth D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency department (ED based syndromic surveillance systems identify abnormally high visit rates that may be an early signal of a bioterrorist attack. For example, an anthrax outbreak might first be detectable as an unusual increase in the number of patients reporting to the ED with respiratory symptoms. Reliably identifying these abnormal visit patterns requires a good understanding of the normal patterns of healthcare usage. Unfortunately, systematic methods for determining the expected number of (ED visits on a particular day have not yet been well established. We present here a generalized methodology for developing models of expected ED visit rates. Methods Using time-series methods, we developed robust models of ED utilization for the purpose of defining expected visit rates. The models were based on nearly a decade of historical data at a major metropolitan academic, tertiary care pediatric emergency department. The historical data were fit using trimmed-mean seasonal models, and additional models were fit with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA residuals to account for recent trends in the data. The detection capabilities of the model were tested with simulated outbreaks. Results Models were built both for overall visits and for respiratory-related visits, classified according to the chief complaint recorded at the beginning of each visit. The mean absolute percentage error of the ARIMA models was 9.37% for overall visits and 27.54% for respiratory visits. A simple detection system based on the ARIMA model of overall visits was able to detect 7-day-long simulated outbreaks of 30 visits per day with 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Sensitivity decreased with outbreak size, dropping to 94% for outbreaks of 20 visits per day, and 57% for 10 visits per day, all while maintaining a 97% benchmark specificity. Conclusions Time series methods applied to historical ED utilization data are an important tool

  6. Unsupervised clustering of wildlife necropsy data for syndromic surveillance

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    Artois Marc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of wildlife disease surveillance is increasing, because wild animals are playing a growing role as sources of emerging infectious disease events in humans. Syndromic surveillance methods have been developed as a complement to traditional health data analyses, to allow the early detection of unusual health events. Early detection of these events in wildlife could help to protect the health of domestic animals or humans. This paper aims to define syndromes that could be used for the syndromic surveillance of wildlife health data. Wildlife disease monitoring in France, from 1986 onward, has allowed numerous diagnostic data to be collected from wild animals found dead. The authors wanted to identify distinct pathological profiles from these historical data by a global analysis of the registered necropsy descriptions, and discuss how these profiles can be used to define syndromes. In view of the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the available information, the authors suggest constructing syndromic classes by a multivariate statistical analysis and classification procedure grouping cases that share similar pathological characteristics. Results A three-step procedure was applied: first, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed on necropsy data to reduce them to their principal components. Then hierarchical ascendant clustering was used to partition the data. Finally the k-means algorithm was applied to strengthen the partitioning. Nine clusters were identified: three were species- and disease-specific, three were suggestive of specific pathological conditions but not species-specific, two covered a broader pathological condition and one was miscellaneous. The clusters reflected the most distinct and most frequent disease entities on which the surveillance network focused. They could be used to define distinct syndromes characterised by specific post-mortem findings. Conclusions The chosen statistical

  7. Timeliness of Emergency Department Diagnoses for Syndromic Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Debbie; Barnett, Clifton; Ising, Amy; Waller, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) data are key components of syndromic surveillance systems. While diagnosis data are widely available in electronic form from EDs and often used as a source of clinical data for syndromic surveillance, our previous survey of North Carolina EDs found that the data were not available in a timely manner for early detection. The purpose of this study was to measure the time of availability of participating EDs’ diagnosis data in a state-based syndromic surveillance system...

  8. Sustaining surveillance: evaluating syndromic surveillance in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Kool, Jacob L; Durrheim, David N; Pavlin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Prior to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) had agreed to develop a standardised, simple syndromic surveillance system to ensure compliance with International Health Regulations requirements (rapid outbreak detection, information sharing and response to outbreaks). In October 2010, the new system was introduced and over the next 12 months implemented in 20 of 22 PICTs. An evaluation was conducted to identify strengths and weaknesses of the system, ease of use and possible points for improvement. An in-country quantitative and qualitative evaluation in five PICTs identified that the most important determinants of the system's success were: simplicity of the system; support from all levels of government; clearly defined roles and responsibilities; feedback to those who collect the data; harmonisation of case definitions; integration of data collection tools into existing health information systems; and availability of clinical and epidemiological advice from external agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Regional reporting of alerts, outbreaks and outbreak updates has dramatically increased since implementation of the system. This syndromic system will assist PICTs to detect future influenza pandemics and other emerging infectious diseases and to rapidly contain outbreaks in the Pacific. PMID:22817479

  9. National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yih, W Katherine; Caldwell, B; Harmon, R; Kleinman, K; Lazarus, R; Nelson, A; Nordin, J; Rehm, B; Richter, B; Ritzwoller, D; Sherwood, E; Platt, R

    2004-09-24

    The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program identifies new cases of illness from electronic ambulatory patient records. Its goals are to use data from health plans and practice groups to detect localized outbreaks and to facilitate rapid public health follow-up. Data are extracted nightly on patient encounters occurring during the previous 24 hours. Visits or calls with diagnostic codes corresponding to syndromes of interest are counted; repeat encounters are excluded. Daily counts of syndromes by zip code are sent to a central data repository, where they are statistically analyzed for unusual clustering by using a model-adjusted SaTScan approach. The results and raw data are displayed on a restricted website. Patient-level information stays at the originating health-care organization unless required by public health authorities. If a cluster surpasses a threshold of statistical aberration chosen by the corresponding public health department, an electronic alert can be sent to that department. The health department might then call a clinical responder, who has electronic access to records of cases contributing to clusters. The system is flexible, allowing for changes in participating organizations, syndrome definitions, and alert thresholds. It is transparent to clinicians and has been accepted by the health-care organizations that provide the data. The system's data are usable by local and national health agencies. Its software is compatible with commonly used systems and software and is mostly open-source. Ongoing activities include evaluating the system's ability to detect naturally occurring outbreaks and simulated terrorism events, automating and testing alerts and response capability, and evaluating alternative data sources. PMID:15714626

  10. Syndromic Surveillance at the New York State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Kylius; Akey, Bruce; Thompson, Belinda; Nydam, Daryl

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the use and utility of a syndrome check list on the general submission form of a high volume veterinary diagnostic laboratory, and compare to the results of a 2009 pilot study. Introduction The New York State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (NYSVDL) receives more than 100,000 diagnostic submissions a year that are not currently used in any formal syndromic surveillance system. In 2009, a pilot study of syndrome classification schemes was undertaken and in 2011 a new gener...

  11. Analysis of the Korean Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System: Mass Type Acute Diarrheal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Jae Ho; KIM, WON; Lim, Kyung Soo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to compare the data from the emergency department syndromic surveillance system of Korea in detection and reporting of acute diarrheal syndrome (mass type) with the data from the Korea Food and Drug Administration. And to offer fundamental materials for making improvements in current surveillance system was our purpose. Methods A study was conducted by reviewing the number of cases reported as acute diarrheal syndrome (mass type) from the Korean Center for D...

  12. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J T; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...

  13. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

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    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  14. Strategies for Surveillance of Pediatric Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2000–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Kanyin L.; Apostal, Mirasol; Comstock, Nicole; Hurd, Sharon; Webb, Tameka Hayes; Mickelson, Stephanie; Scheftel, Joni; Smith, Glenda; Shiferaw, Beletshachew; Boothe, Effie; GOULD, L. HANNAH

    2012-01-01

    Background.  Postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute kidney failure among US children. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts population-based surveillance of pediatric HUS to measure the incidence of disease and to validate surveillance trends in associated Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infection. Methods.  We report the incidence of pediatric HUS, which is defined as HUS in children

  15. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.M. Lammens; E.M.A. Bleiker; N.K. Aaronson; A. Wagner; R.H. Sijmons; M.G.E.M. Ausems; A.H.J.T. Vriends; M.W.G. Ruijs; T.A.M. van Os; L. Spruijt; E.B. Gómez García; A. Cats; T. Nagtegaal; S. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular surveillance, if an

  16. Regular surveillance for Li-fraumeni syndrome: advice, adherence and perceived benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.M. Lammens (Chantal); E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); N.K. Aaronson (Neil); A. Wagner (Anja); R.H. Sijmons (Rolf); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); A.H.J.T. Vriends (Anette); M.W.G. Ruijs (Marielle); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); L. Spruijt (Liesbeth); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); A. Cats (Annemieke); T. Nagtegaal; S. Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLi Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a hereditary cancer syndrome characterized by a high risk of developing various types of cancer from birth through late adulthood. Clinical benefits of surveillance for LFS are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate which advice for regular surveil

  17. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentr...

  19. Biological terrorism preparedness evaluating the performance of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) syndromic surveillance algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Hegler, Benjamin L.

    2007-01-01

    After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, questions developed over how quickly the country could respond if a bioterrorism attack was to occur. "Syndromic surveillance" systems are a relatively new concept that is being implemented and used by public health practitioners to attempt to detect a bioterrorism attack earlier than would be possible using conventional biosurveillance methods. The idea behind using syndromic surveillance is to detect a bioterrorist attack by monitoring ...

  20. Enhanced drop-in syndromic surveillance in New York City following September 11, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Debjani; Weiss, Don; Mostashari, Farzad; Treadwell, Tracee; McQuiston, Jennifer; Hutwagner, Lori; Karpati, Adam; Bornschlegel, Katherine; Seeman, Mathew; Turcios, Reina; Terebuh, Pauline; Curtis, Robin; Heffernan, Richard; Balter, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    After the 2001 World Trade Center disaster, the New York City Department of Health was under heightened alert for bioterrorist attacks in the city. An emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system was implemented with the assistance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to ensure early recognition of an increase or clustering of disease syndromes that might represent a disease outbreak, whether natural or intentional. The surveillance system was based on data collected 7...

  1. Synergies Between Human and Animal Health Syndromic Surveillance: Triple-S Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuy, Céline; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Fouillet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study, based on the Triple-S project outputs, was to present the existing synergies between human and animal health syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems in Europe and a proposal to enhance this kind of collaboration. Introduction The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe, www.syndromicsurveillance.eu), co-financed by the European Commission and involving twenty four organizations from fourteen countries was launched in September 2010 with t...

  2. Syndromic surveillance using veterinary laboratory data: algorithm combination and customization of alerts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C Dórea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance research has focused on two main themes: the search for data sources that can provide early disease detection; and the development of efficient algorithms that can detect potential outbreak signals. METHODS: This work combines three algorithms that have demonstrated solid performance in detecting simulated outbreak signals of varying shapes in time series of laboratory submissions counts. These are: the Shewhart control charts designed to detect sudden spikes in counts; the EWMA control charts developed to detect slow increasing outbreaks; and the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing, which can explicitly account for temporal effects in the data stream monitored. A scoring system to detect and report alarms using these algorithms in a complementary way is proposed. RESULTS: The use of multiple algorithms in parallel resulted in increased system sensitivity. Specificity was decreased in simulated data, but the number of false alarms per year when the approach was applied to real data was considered manageable (between 1 and 3 per year for each of ten syndromic groups monitored. The automated implementation of this approach, including a method for on-line filtering of potential outbreak signals is described. CONCLUSION: The developed system provides high sensitivity for detection of potential outbreak signals while also providing robustness and flexibility in establishing what signals constitute an alarm. This flexibility allows an analyst to customize the system for different syndromes.

  3. Methods for surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome: The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII) - Arizona, Colorado, New York, 2009 - 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Leslie A; Ortiz, Linnette; Montgomery, April; Fox, Deborah J; Cunniff, Christopher; Ruttenber, Margaret; Breen, April; Pettygrove, Sydney; Klumb, Don; Druschel, Charlotte; Frías, Jaime L; Robinson, Luther K; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Ferrara, Kelly; Kelly, Maureen; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney, F John

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is important for monitoring the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and describing the public health burden of this preventable disorder. Building on the infrastructure of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet, 1997-2002), in 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded 5-year cooperative agreements to three states, Arizona, Colorado, and New York, to conduct population-based surveillance of FAS. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII, 2009-2014) developed a surveillance case definition based on three clinical criteria: characteristic facial features, central nervous system abnormalities, and growth deficiency. FASSNetII modified the FASSNet methods in three important ways: (1) estimation of a period prevalence rather than birth prevalence; (2) surveillance of FAS among school-age children (ages 7-9 years) to better document the central nervous system abnormalities that are not apparent at birth or during infancy; and (3) implementation of an expert clinical review of abstracted data for probable and confirmed cases classified through a computerized algorithm. FASSNetII abstracted data from multiple sources including birth records, medical records from child development centers or other specialty clinics, and administrative databases such as hospital discharge and Medicaid. One challenge of FASSNetII was its limited access to non-medical records. The FAS prevalence that could be estimated was that of the population identified through an encounter with the healthcare system. Clinical and public health programs that identify children affected by FAS provide critical information for targeting preventive, medical and educational services in this vulnerable population. PMID:25761572

  4. An Integrated Syndromic Surveillance System for Monitoring Scarlet Fever in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wan-Jen; Liu, Yu-Lun; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Huang, Wan-Ting; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an integrated syndromic surveillance system for timely monitoring and early detection of unusual situations of scarlet fever in Taiwan, since Hong Kong, being so close geographically to Taiwan, had an outbreak of scarlet fever in June 2011. Introduction Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). The clinical symptoms are usually mild. Before October, 2007, case-based surveillance of scarlet fever was conducted through notifiable infectio...

  5. Usefulness of Syndromic Surveillance for Early Outbreak Detection in Small Islands: The Case of Mayotte

    OpenAIRE

    Vilain, Pascal; Maillard, Olivier; Raslan-Loubatie, Julien; Abdou, Mohamed Ahmed; Lernout, Tinne; Filleul, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To present the usefulness of syndromic surveillance for the detection of infectious diseases outbreak in small islands, based on the experience of Mayotte. Introduction Mayotte Island, a French overseas department of around 374 km2 and 200 000 inhabitants is located in the North of Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean (Figure 1). In response to the threat of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus emergence, a syndromic surveillance system has been implemented in order to monitor...

  6. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias; Simon, Judith; Nagenborg, Michael

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...

  7. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  8. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  9. Automated Syndromic Surveillance for the 2002 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteland, Per H.; Gardner, Reed M.; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Rolfs, Robert T.; James, Brent C.; Chapman, Wendy W.; Moore, Andrew W.; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Olympic Winter Games were held in Utah from February 8 to March 16, 2002. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax release in October 2001, the need for bioterrorism surveillance during the Games was paramount. A team of informaticists and public health specialists from Utah and Pittsburgh implemented the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system in Utah for the Games in just seven weeks. The strategies and challenges of implementing such a system in such a short time are discussed. The motivation and cooperation inspired by the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were a powerful driver in overcoming the organizational issues. Over 114,000 acute care encounters were monitored between February 8 and March 31, 2002. No outbreaks of public health significance were detected. The system was implemented successfully and operational for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and remains operational today. PMID:12925547

  10. Monitoring data quality in syndromic surveillance: Learnings from a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venkatarao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of integrating all disease surveillance systems with the support of a World Bank funded program called the Integrated Disease Surveillance System. In this context the objective of the study was to evaluate the components of the Orissa Multi Disease Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling was carried out, starting with four districts, followed by sequentially sampling two blocks; and in each block, two sectors and two health sub-centers were selected, all based on the best and worst performances. Two study instruments were developed for data validation, for assessing the components of the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm. The Organizational Ethics Group reviewed and approved the study. Results: In all 178 study subjects participated in the survey. The case definition of suspected meningitis in disease surveillance was found to be difficult, with only 29.94%, who could be correctly identified. Syndromic diagnosis following the diagnostic algorithm was difficult for suspected malaria (28.1%, ′unusual syndrome′ (28.1%, and simple diarrhea (62%. Only 17% could correctly answer questions on follow-up cases, but only 50% prioritized diseases. Our study showed that 54% cross-checked the data before compilation. Many (22% faltered on timeliness even during emergencies. The constraints identified were logistics (56% and telecommunication (41%. The reason for participation in surveillance was job responsibility (34.83%. Conclusions: Most of the deficiencies arose from human errors when carrying out day-to-day processes of surveillance activities, hence, should be improved by retraining. Enhanced laboratory support and electronic transmission would improve data quality and timeliness. Validity of some of the case definitions need to be rechecked. Training Programs should focus on motivating the surveillance personnel.

  11. Syndromic surveillance: STL for modeling, visualizing, and monitoring disease counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusalah Ahmad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health surveillance is the monitoring of data to detect and quantify unusual health events. Monitoring pre-diagnostic data, such as emergency department (ED patient chief complaints, enables rapid detection of disease outbreaks. There are many sources of variation in such data; statistical methods need to accurately model them as a basis for timely and accurate disease outbreak methods. Methods Our new methods for modeling daily chief complaint counts are based on a seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess (STL and were developed using data from the 76 EDs of the Indiana surveillance program from 2004 to 2008. Square root counts are decomposed into inter-annual, yearly-seasonal, day-of-the-week, and random-error components. Using this decomposition method, we develop a new synoptic-scale (days to weeks outbreak detection method and carry out a simulation study to compare detection performance to four well-known methods for nine outbreak scenarios. Result The components of the STL decomposition reveal insights into the variability of the Indiana ED data. Day-of-the-week components tend to peak Sunday or Monday, fall steadily to a minimum Thursday or Friday, and then rise to the peak. Yearly-seasonal components show seasonal influenza, some with bimodal peaks. Some inter-annual components increase slightly due to increasing patient populations. A new outbreak detection method based on the decomposition modeling performs well with 90 days or more of data. Control limits were set empirically so that all methods had a specificity of 97%. STL had the largest sensitivity in all nine outbreak scenarios. The STL method also exhibited a well-behaved false positive rate when run on the data with no outbreaks injected. Conclusion The STL decomposition method for chief complaint counts leads to a rapid and accurate detection method for disease outbreaks, and requires only 90 days of historical data to be put into

  12. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general. PMID:26415918

  13. Syndromic surveillance for local outbreaks of lower-respiratory infections: would it work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees C van den Wijngaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although syndromic surveillance is increasingly used to detect unusual illness, there is a debate whether it is useful for detecting local outbreaks. We evaluated whether syndromic surveillance detects local outbreaks of lower-respiratory infections (LRIs without swamping true signals by false alarms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using retrospective hospitalization data, we simulated prospective surveillance for LRI-elevations. Between 1999-2006, a total of 290762 LRIs were included by date of hospitalization and patients place of residence (>80% coverage, 16 million population. Two large outbreaks of Legionnaires disease in the Netherlands were used as positive controls to test whether these outbreaks could have been detected as local LRI elevations. We used a space-time permutation scan statistic to detect LRI clusters. We evaluated how many LRI-clusters were detected in 1999-2006 and assessed likely causes for the cluster-signals by looking for significantly higher proportions of specific hospital discharge diagnoses (e.g. Legionnaires disease and overlap with regional influenza elevations. We also evaluated whether the number of space-time signals can be reduced by restricting the scan statistic in space or time. In 1999-2006 the scan-statistic detected 35 local LRI clusters, representing on average 5 clusters per year. The known Legionnaires' disease outbreaks in 1999 and 2006 were detected as LRI-clusters, since cluster-signals were generated with an increased proportion of Legionnaires disease patients (p:<0.0001. 21 other clusters coincided with local influenza and/or respiratory syncytial virus activity, and 1 cluster appeared to be a data artifact. For 11 clusters no likely cause was defined, some possibly representing as yet undetected LRI-outbreaks. With restrictions on time and spatial windows the scan statistic still detected the Legionnaires' disease outbreaks, without loss of timeliness and with less signals generated in

  14. EigenEvent: An Algorithm for Event Detection from Complex Data Streams in Syndromic Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Fanaee-T, Hadi; Gama, João

    2014-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance systems continuously monitor multiple pre-diagnostic daily streams of indicators from different regions with the aim of early detection of disease outbreaks. The main objective of these systems is to detect outbreaks hours or days before the clinical and laboratory confirmation. The type of data that is being generated via these systems is usually multivariate and seasonal with spatial and temporal dimensions. The algorithm What's Strange About Recent Events (WSARE) is ...

  15. Patient, physician, encounter, and billing characteristics predict the accuracy of syndromic surveillance case definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadieux Geneviève

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syndromic surveillance systems are plagued by high false-positive rates. In chronic disease monitoring, investigators have identified several factors that predict the accuracy of case definitions based on diagnoses in administrative data, and some have even incorporated these predictors into novel case detection methods, resulting in a significant improvement in case definition accuracy. Based on findings from these studies, we sought to identify physician, patient, encounter, and billing characteristics associated with the positive predictive value (PPV of case definitions for 5 syndromes (fever, gastrointestinal, neurological, rash, and respiratory (including influenza-like illness. Methods The study sample comprised 4,330 syndrome-positive visits from the claims of 1,098 randomly-selected physicians working in Quebec, Canada in 2005-2007. For each visit, physician-facilitated chart review was used to assess whether the same syndrome was present in the medical chart (gold standard. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between claim-chart agreement about the presence of a syndrome and physician, patient, encounter, and billing characteristics. Results The likelihood of the medical chart agreeing with the physician claim about the presence of a syndrome was higher when the treating physician had billed many visits for the same syndrome recently (ORper 10 visit, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08, had a lower workload (ORper 10 claims, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97, and when the patient was younger (ORper 5 years of age, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.97, and less socially deprived (ORmost versus least deprived, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.95. Conclusions Many physician, patient, encounter, and billing characteristics associated with the PPV of surveillance case definition are accessible to public health, and could be used to reduce false-positive alerts by surveillance systems, either by focusing on the data most

  16. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France

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    Filleul Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Methods Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes, outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'. Results A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day, but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p Conclusion Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves.

  17. An adaptive prediction and detection algorithm for multistream syndromic surveillance

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    Magruder Steve F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to biosurvellance, has been suggested in the literature. This paper is a continuation of a previous study in which we formulated the problem of estimating clinical data from OTC sales in terms of optimal LMS linear and Finite Impulse Response (FIR filters. In this paper we extend our results to predict clinical data multiple steps ahead using OTC sales as well as the clinical data itself. Methods The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we predict the clinical data using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the past OTC categories as well as the past clinical data itself. The prediction is performed using FIR (Finite Impulse Response filters and the recursive least squares method in order to adapt rapidly to nonstationary behaviour. In addition, we inject simulated events in both clinical and OTC data streams to evaluate the predictions by computing the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves of a threshold detector based on predicted outputs. Results We present all prediction results showing the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. In addition, we compute and present the performance of a detector using the prediction output. Conclusion Multichannel adaptive FIR least squares filtering provides a viable method of predicting public health conditions, as represented by clinical data, from OTC sales, and/or the clinical data. The potential value to a biosurveillance system cannot, however, be determined without studying this approach in the presence of transient events (nonstationary events of relatively short duration and fast rise times. Our simulated events superimposed on actual OTC and clinical data allow us to provide an upper bound on that potential value under some restricted conditions. Based on our ROC curves we argue that a

  18. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Chan-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p Conclusion Taiwan's ED-SSS represents the first nationwide real-time syndromic surveillance system ever established in Asia. The experiences reported herein can encourage other countries to develop their own surveillance systems. The system can be adapted to other cultural and language environments for better global surveillance of infectious diseases and international collaboration.

  19. Syndromic surveillance in companion animals utilizing electronic medical records data: development and proof of concept

    OpenAIRE

    Philip H. Kass; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Gaona, Mark A.L.; Hille, Amy; Sydow, Max H.; Lund, Elizabeth M.; Markwell, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veter...

  20. Surveillance as an innovative tool for furthering technological development as applied to the plastic packaging sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Abel Vargas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for production process efficiency and quality has made it necessary to resort to new tools for development and technological innovation. Surveillance of the enviroment has thus bee identified as beign a priority, paying special attention to technology which (by its changing nature is a key factor in competitiveness. Surveillance is a routine activity in developed countries ' organisations; however, few suitable studies have been carried out in Colombia and few instruments produced for applying it to existing sectors of the economy. The present article attempts to define a methodology for technological awareness (based on transforming the information contained in databases by means of constructing technological maps contributing useful knowledge to production processes. This methodology has been applied to the flexible plastic packaging sector. The main trends in this industry's technological development were identified allowing strategies to be proposed for incorporating these advances and tendencies in national companies and research groups involved in flexible plastic packaging technological development and innovation. Technological mappiong's possibilities as an important instrument for producing technological development in a given sector are the analysed as are their possibilities for being used in other production processes.

  1. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  2. Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance

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    Alton Gillian D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1 describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2 identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance

  3. ADDRESSING POLITICAL "CONFUSION SYNDROME" DISCOURSES: A CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE

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    Joseph Ernest Mambu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at extending our understanding of a problematizing practice in Critical Applied Linguistics by exploring issues pertaining to political "confusion syndrome" Discourses. Central to this practice is how EFL teachers and learners depart from their reluctance to explore political issues. Being scaffolded with a working model of such Discourses and a suggested simulation practice, they are hoped to learn how to sympathize with politicians' confusion.

  4. ADDRESSING POLITICAL "CONFUSION SYNDROME" DISCOURSES: A CRITICAL APPLIED LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Ernest Mambu

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at extending our understanding of a problematizing practice in Critical Applied Linguistics by exploring issues pertaining to political "confusion syndrome" Discourses. Central to this practice is how EFL teachers and learners depart from their reluctance to explore political issues. Being scaffolded with a working model of such Discourses and a suggested simulation practice, they are hoped to learn how to sympathize with politicians' confusion.

  5. Assessment of the utility of routinely collected cattle census and disposal data for syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Ducrot, Christian; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding

  6. Syndromic Approach to Arboviral Diagnostics for Global Travelers as a Basis for Infectious Disease Surveillance.

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    Natalie B Cleton

    Full Text Available Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions and can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis and surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning travelers.To map the patients high at risk of missed clinical arboviral infections we compared the quantity of all arboviral diagnostic requests by physicians in the Netherlands, from 2009 through 2013, with a literature-based assessment of the travelers' likely exposure to an arbovirus.2153 patients, with travel and clinical history were evaluated. The diagnostic assay for dengue virus (DENV was the most commonly requested (86%. Of travelers returning from Southeast Asia with symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus (CHIKV, only 55% were tested. For travelers in Europe, arbovirus diagnostics were rarely requested. Over all, diagnostics for most arboviruses were requested only on severe clinical presentation.Travel destination and syndrome were used inconsistently for triage of diagnostics, likely resulting in vast under-diagnosis of arboviral infections of public health significance. This study shows the need for more awareness among physicians and standardization of syndromic diagnostic algorithms.

  7. How Valid Are the Rates of Down Syndrome Internationally? Findings from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Cocchi, Guido; Anneren, Goran; Bower, Carol; Halliday, Jane; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canessa Tapia, Maria Aurora; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dastgiri, Saeed; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Gatt, Miriam; Hirahara, Fumiki; Landau, Danielle; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; McDonnell, Robert; Mathew, Triphti M.; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Poetzsch, Simone; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Sipek, Antonin; Szabova, Elena; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Rates of Down syndrome (DS) show considerable international variation, but a systematic assessment of this variation is lacking. The goal of this study was to develop and test a method to assess the validity of DS rates in surveillance programs, as an indicator of quality of ascertainment. The propo

  8. Healthcare and Guidelines: A Population-Based Survey of Recorded Medical Problems and Health Surveillance for People with Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatta, Tuomo; Maatta, Joonas; Tervo-Maatta, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical problems are described in a population of persons with Down syndrome. Health surveillance is compared to the recommendations of national guidelines. Method: Case records from the specialised and primary healthcare and disability services were analysed. Results: A wide spectrum of age-specific medical and surgical problems was…

  9. A surveillance sector review applied to infectious diseases at a country level

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    Easther Sally

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new International Health Regulations (IHR require World Health Organization (WHO member states to assess their core capacity for surveillance. Such reviews also have the potential to identify important surveillance gaps, improve the organisation of disparate surveillance systems and to focus attention on upstream hazards, determinants and interventions. Methods We developed a surveillance sector review method for evaluating all of the surveillance systems and related activities across a sector, in this case those concerned with infectious diseases in New Zealand. The first stage was a systematic description of these surveillance systems using a newly developed framework and classification system. Key informant interviews were conducted to validate the available information on the systems identified. Results We identified 91 surveillance systems and related activities in the 12 coherent categories of infectious diseases examined. The majority (n = 40 or 44% of these were disease surveillance systems. They covered all categories, particularly for more severe outcomes including those resulting in death or hospitalisations. Except for some notifiable diseases and influenza, surveillance of less severe, but important infectious diseases occurring in the community was largely absent. There were 31 systems (34% for surveillance of upstream infectious disease hazards, including risk and protective factors. This area tended to have many potential gaps and lack integration, partly because such systems were operated by a range of different agencies, often outside the health sector. There were fewer surveillance systems for determinants, including population size and characteristics (n = 9, and interventions (n = 11. Conclusions It was possible to create and populate a workable framework for describing all the infectious diseases surveillance systems and related activities in a single developed country and to identify potential

  10. Probabilistic daily ILI syndromic surveillance with a spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model.

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    Ta-Chien Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For daily syndromic surveillance to be effective, an efficient and sensible algorithm would be expected to detect aberrations in influenza illness, and alert public health workers prior to any impending epidemic. This detection or alert surely contains uncertainty, and thus should be evaluated with a proper probabilistic measure. However, traditional monitoring mechanisms simply provide a binary alert, failing to adequately address this uncertainty. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on the Bayesian posterior probability of influenza-like illness (ILI visits, the intensity of outbreak can be directly assessed. The numbers of daily emergency room ILI visits at five community hospitals in Taipei City during 2006-2007 were collected and fitted with a Bayesian hierarchical model containing meteorological factors such as temperature and vapor pressure, spatial interaction with conditional autoregressive structure, weekend and holiday effects, seasonality factors, and previous ILI visits. The proposed algorithm recommends an alert for action if the posterior probability is larger than 70%. External data from January to February of 2008 were retained for validation. The decision rule detects successfully the peak in the validation period. When comparing the posterior probability evaluation with the modified Cusum method, results show that the proposed method is able to detect the signals 1-2 days prior to the rise of ILI visits. CONCLUSIONS: This Bayesian hierarchical model not only constitutes a dynamic surveillance system but also constructs a stochastic evaluation of the need to call for alert. The monitoring mechanism provides earlier detection as well as a complementary tool for current surveillance programs.

  11. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced. PMID:23902949

  12. Syndromic surveillance in companion animals utilizing electronic medical records data: development and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Philip H; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Gaona, Mark A L; Hille, Amy; Sydow, Max H; Lund, Elizabeth M; Markwell, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veterinary hospital-based surveillance, and to demonstrate its efficacy by detection of simulated foodborne outbreaks using a database of over 700 hospitals. Data transfer protocols were established via a secure file transfer protocol site, and a data repository was constructed predominantly utilizing open-source software. The daily proportion of patients with a given clinical or laboratory finding was contrasted with an equivalent average proportion from a historical comparison period, allowing construction of the proportionate diagnostic outcome ratio and its confidence interval for recognizing aberrant heath events. A five-tiered alert system was used to facilitate daily assessment of almost 2,000 statistical analyses. Two simulated outbreak scenarios were created by independent experts, blinded to study investigators, and embedded in the 2010 medical records. Both outbreaks were detected almost immediately by the alert system, accurately detecting species affected using relevant clinical and laboratory findings, and ages involved. Besides demonstrating proof-in-concept of using veterinary hospital databases to detect aberrant events in space and time, this research can be extended to conducting post-detection etiologic investigations utilizing exposure information in the medical record. PMID:27168966

  13. Surveillance as an innovative tool for furthering technological development as applied to the plastic packaging sector

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Abel Vargas; Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

    2010-01-01

    The demand for production process efficiency and quality has made it necessary to resort to new tools for development and technological innovation. Surveillance of the enviroment has thus bee identified as beign a priority, paying special attention to technology which (by its changing nature) is a key factor in competitiveness. Surveillance is a routine activity in developed countries ' organisations; however, few suitable studies have been carried out in Colombia and few instruments produced...

  14. Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Velasova Martina; Alarcon Pablo; Williamson Susanna; Wieland Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to identify risk factors for active porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection at farm level and to assess the probability of an infected farm being detected through passive disease surveillance in England. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 147 farrow-to-finish farms conducted from April 2008 – April 2009. The risk factors for active PRRSV infection were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis...

  15. Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Velasova, Martina; Alarcon, Pablo; Williamson, Susanna; Wieland, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify risk factors for active porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection at farm level and to assess the probability of an infected farm being detected through passive disease surveillance in England. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 147 farrow-to-finish farms conducted from April 2008 – April 2009. The risk factors for active PRRSV infection were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The sur...

  16. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  17. Applying the Dynamic Region Connection Calculus to Exploit Geographic Knowledge in Maritime Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Miguel Á.; Gómez Romero, Juan; Patricio Guisado, Miguel Ángel; García, Jesús; Molina, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of: 15th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2012), Singapore, 9-12 July 2012. Concerns about the protection of the global transport network have risen the need of new security and surveillance systems. Ontology-based and fusion systems represent an attractive alternative for practical applications focused on fast and accurate responses. This paper presents an architecture based on a geometric model to efficiently predict and calculate the topological relatio...

  18. What is the utility of using syndromic surveillance systems during large subnational infectious gastrointestinal disease outbreaks? An observational study using case studies from the past 5 years in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todkill, D; Elliot, A J; Morbey, R; Harris, J; Hawker, J; Edeghere, O; Smith, G E

    2016-08-01

    Syndromic surveillance systems in England have demonstrated utility in the early identification of seasonal gastrointestinal illness (GI) tracking its spatio-temporal distribution and enabling early public health action. There would be additional public health utility if syndromic surveillance systems could detect or track subnational infectious disease outbreaks. To investigate using syndromic surveillance for this purpose we retrospectively identified eight large GI outbreaks between 2009 and 2014 (four randomly and four purposively sampled). We then examined syndromic surveillance information prospectively collected by the Real-time Syndromic Surveillance team within Public Health England for evidence of possible outbreak-related changes. None of the outbreaks were identified contemporaneously and no alerts were made to relevant public health teams. Retrospectively, two of the outbreaks - which happened at similar times and in proximal geographical locations - demonstrated changes in the local trends of relevant syndromic indicators and exhibited a clustering of statistical alarms, but did not warrant alerting local health protection teams. Our suite of syndromic surveillance systems may be more suited to their original purposes than as means of detecting or monitoring localized, subnational GI outbreaks. This should, however, be considered in the context of this study's limitations; further prospective work is needed to fully explore the use of syndromic surveillance for this purpose. Provided geographical coverage is sufficient, syndromic surveillance systems could be able to provide reassurance of no or minor excess healthcare systems usage during localized GI incidents. PMID:27033409

  19. General practice out-of-hours service in Ireland provides a new source of syndromic surveillance data on influenza.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2010-01-01

    The use of routinely available electronic sources of healthcare data on the spread of influenza has the potential to enhance current surveillance activities. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying influenza-related records from general practitioner(GP) out-of-hours (OOH) services in Ireland. Data from one such service were interrogated for keywords relating to influenza-like illness (ILI) and a proxy measure of influenza activity in the community setting was developed. Comparison of this syndromic surveillance measure with national data on ILI consultation rates demonstrated a statistically significant temporal correlation.In five out of six influenza seasons investigated,peaks in the GP OOH influenza-related calls appeared at least one week ahead of peaks in the national ILI consultation rates. The method described in this paper has been extended to nine OOH services in Ireland (covering 70% of the Irish population) to provide weekly figures on self-reported illness for influenza in the community and its data have been incorporated into the national weekly influenza reports produced by the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. These data should provide early warnings of both seasonal and pandemic influenza in Ireland.

  20. Using real-time syndromic surveillance systems to help explore the acute impact of the air pollution incident of March/April 2014 in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gillian E; Bawa, Zharain; Macklin, Yolande; Morbey, Roger; Dobney, Alec; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Elliot, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    During March and early April 2014 there was widespread poor air quality across the United Kingdom. Public Health England used existing syndromic surveillance systems to monitor community health during the period. Short lived statistically significant rises in a variety of respiratory conditions, including asthma and wheeze, were detected. This incident has demonstrated the value of real-time syndromic surveillance systems, during an air pollution episode, for helping to explore the impact of poor air quality on community health in real-time. PMID:25460672

  1. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zimolzak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction. RESULTS: Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5 for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of

  2. Evaluation of natural language processing from emergency department computerized medical records for intra-hospital syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliaroli Véronique

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of patients who pose an epidemic hazard when they are admitted to a health facility plays a role in preventing the risk of hospital acquired infection. An automated clinical decision support system to detect suspected cases, based on the principle of syndromic surveillance, is being developed at the University of Lyon's Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse. This tool will analyse structured data and narrative reports from computerized emergency department (ED medical records. The first step consists of developing an application (UrgIndex which automatically extracts and encodes information found in narrative reports. The purpose of the present article is to describe and evaluate this natural language processing system. Methods Narrative reports have to be pre-processed before utilizing the French-language medical multi-terminology indexer (ECMT for standardized encoding. UrgIndex identifies and excludes syntagmas containing a negation and replaces non-standard terms (abbreviations, acronyms, spelling errors.... Then, the phrases are sent to the ECMT through an Internet connection. The indexer's reply, based on Extensible Markup Language, returns codes and literals corresponding to the concepts found in phrases. UrgIndex filters codes corresponding to suspected infections. Recall is defined as the number of relevant processed medical concepts divided by the number of concepts evaluated (coded manually by the medical epidemiologist. Precision is defined as the number of relevant processed concepts divided by the number of concepts proposed by UrgIndex. Recall and precision were assessed for respiratory and cutaneous syndromes. Results Evaluation of 1,674 processed medical concepts contained in 100 ED medical records (50 for respiratory syndromes and 50 for cutaneous syndromes showed an overall recall of 85.8% (95% CI: 84.1-87.3. Recall varied from 84.5% for respiratory syndromes to 87.0% for cutaneous syndromes. The

  3. A model of laboratory surveillance for neuro-arbovirosis applied during 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Gaibani, P; Rossini, G; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Sambri, V; Varani, S

    2014-07-01

    Arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential are gaining more attention due to the increased number of cases of autochthonous and imported infections in the human host. Diagnosis of infection caused by these viruses in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases is still underestimated and these infections represent an emerging threat to public health. We describe a model suitable for the laboratory surveillance of neuro-arbovirosis that was applied in the Emilia-Romagna region, north-eastern Italy, during the 2012 summer season. One hundred and twenty cases of suspected neuroinvasive infection were tested for arboviral agents on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs and epidemiological data. The most common virus detected was Toscana virus (TOSV): anti-TOSV specific antibodies or viral components were detected in 28.3% of the cases; 79.4% of the TOSV cases were in the acute phase of infection. No cases resulted in acute phase for West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) or Dengue (DENV) virus infection. Conversely, two patients with a history of staying in a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) endemic area showed a probable TBEV infection. These results emphasize the importance of a complete and 'ready to act' laboratory diagnostic system to be implemented within the larger frame of a regional integrated surveillance system. PMID:24329773

  4. Using automated medical records for rapid identification of illness syndromes (syndromic surveillance: the example of lower respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashevsky Inna

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps in disease surveillance capacity, particularly for emerging infections and bioterrorist attack, highlight a need for efficient, real time identification of diseases. Methods We studied automated records from 1996 through 1999 of approximately 250,000 health plan members in greater Boston. Results We identified 152,435 lower respiratory infection illness visits, comprising 106,670 episodes during 1,143,208 person-years. Three diagnoses, cough (ICD9CM 786.2, pneumonia not otherwise specified (ICD9CM 486 and acute bronchitis (ICD9CM 466.0 accounted for 91% of these visits, with expected age and sex distributions. Variation of weekly occurrences corresponded closely to national pneumonia and influenza mortality data. There was substantial variation in geographic location of the cases. Conclusion This information complements existing surveillance programs by assessing the large majority of episodes of illness for which no etiologic agents are identified. Additional advantages include: a sensitivity, uniformity and efficiency, since detection of events does not depend on clinicians' to actively report diagnoses, b timeliness, the data are available within a day of the clinical event; and c ease of integration into automated surveillance systems. These features facilitate early detection of conditions of public health importance, including regularly occurring events like seasonal respiratory illness, as well as unusual occurrences, such as a bioterrorist attack that first manifests as respiratory symptoms. These methods should also be applicable to other infectious and non-infectious conditions. Knowledge of disease patterns in real time may also help clinicians to manage patients, and assist health plan administrators in allocating resources efficiently.

  5. Syndromic Approach to Arboviral Diagnostics for Global Travelers as a Basis for Infectious Disease Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Cleton (Natalie); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); J.F.P. Wagenaar (Jiri); E.E. van der Vaart (Elske E.); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); M.P.G. Koopmans (Marion P.G.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions and can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis and

  6. Utility of the National Death Index in Ascertaining Mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-01-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration’s Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 an...

  7. Novel Approach for Detection of Enteric Viruses To Enable Syndrome Surveillance of Acute Viral Gastroenteritis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Svraka, Sanela; van der Veer, Bas; Duizer, Erwin; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Koopmans, Marion; Vennema, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases worldwide, with viruses, particularly noroviruses, being the leading cause in developed countries. In The Netherlands, systematic surveillance of gastroenteritis outbreaks of suspected viral etiology was established by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in 1994. Since 2002, the total number of outbreaks reported has been increasing, and with that comes the need for sensitive assays that can be performed quickly...

  8. Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasova Martina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to identify risk factors for active porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection at farm level and to assess the probability of an infected farm being detected through passive disease surveillance in England. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study on 147 farrow-to-finish farms conducted from April 2008 – April 2009. The risk factors for active PRRSV infection were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The surveillance system was evaluated using a stochastic scenario tree model. Results Evidence of PRRSV circulation was confirmed on 35.1% (95%CI: 26.8-43.4 of farms in the cross sectional study, with a higher proportion of infected farms in areas with high pig density (more than 15000 pigs within 10 km radius from the farm. Farms were more likely to have active PRRSV infection if they used the live virus vaccine-Porcilis PRRS (OR=7.5, 95%CI: 2.5-22.8, were located in high pig density areas (OR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.0-8.3 or had dead pigs collected (OR=5.6, 95%CI: 1.7-18.3. Farms that weaned pigs at 28 days of age or later had lower odds of being PRRSV positive compared to those weaning at 21-27 days (OR=0.2, 95%CI: 0.1-0.7. The probability of detecting an infected farm through passive surveillance for disease was low (mode=0.074, 5th and 95th percentiles: 0.067; 0.083 respectively. In particular farms which used live virus vaccine had lower probabilities for detection compared to those which did not. Conclusions Risk factors identified highlight the importance of biosecurity measures for the incursion of PRRSV infection. The results further indicate that a combined approach of surveillance for infection and disease diagnosis is needed to assist effective control and/or elimination of PRRSV from the pig population.

  9. Dynamic optimization of ISR sensors using a risk-based reward function applied to ground and space surveillance scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSena, J. T.; Martin, S. R.; Clarke, J. C.; Dutrow, D. A.; Newman, A. J.

    2012-06-01

    As the number and diversity of sensing assets available for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations continues to expand, the limited ability of human operators to effectively manage, control and exploit the ISR ensemble is exceeded, leading to reduced operational effectiveness. Automated support both in the processing of voluminous sensor data and sensor asset control can relieve the burden of human operators to support operation of larger ISR ensembles. In dynamic environments it is essential to react quickly to current information to avoid stale, sub-optimal plans. Our approach is to apply the principles of feedback control to ISR operations, "closing the loop" from the sensor collections through automated processing to ISR asset control. Previous work by the authors demonstrated non-myopic multiple platform trajectory control using a receding horizon controller in a closed feedback loop with a multiple hypothesis tracker applied to multi-target search and track simulation scenarios in the ground and space domains. This paper presents extensions in both size and scope of the previous work, demonstrating closed-loop control, involving both platform routing and sensor pointing, of a multisensor, multi-platform ISR ensemble tasked with providing situational awareness and performing search, track and classification of multiple moving ground targets in irregular warfare scenarios. The closed-loop ISR system is fullyrealized using distributed, asynchronous components that communicate over a network. The closed-loop ISR system has been exercised via a networked simulation test bed against a scenario in the Afghanistan theater implemented using high-fidelity terrain and imagery data. In addition, the system has been applied to space surveillance scenarios requiring tracking of space objects where current deliberative, manually intensive processes for managing sensor assets are insufficiently responsive. Simulation experiment results are presented

  10. Research on Key Techniques for Video Surveillance System Applied to Shipping Channel Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lin; ZHUANG Yan-bin; ZHENG Cheng-zeng

    2007-01-01

    A video patrol and inspection system is an important part of the government's shipping channel information management. This system is mainly applied to video information gathering and processing as a patrol is carried out. The system described in this paper can preview, edit, and add essential explanation messages to the collected video data. It then transfers these data and messages to a video server for the leaders and engineering and technical personnel to retrieve, play, chart, download or print. Each department of the government will use the system's functions according to that department's mission. The system can provide an effective means for managing the shipping enterprise. It also provides a valuable reference for the modernizing of waterborne shipping.

  11. Guillain-Barré Syndrome During the 2009–2010 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Campaign: Population-based Surveillance Among 45 Million Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Matthew E.; Viray, Melissa; Sejvar, James J.; Lewis, Paige; Baughman, Andrew L.; Connor, Walter; Danila, Richard; Giambrone, Greg P.; Hale, Christa; Hogan, Brenna C.; Meek, James I.; Murphree, Rendi; Oh, John Y.; Reingold, Arthur; Tellman, Norisse

    2012-01-01

    Because of widespread distribution of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine (pH1N1 vaccine) and the prior association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the 1976 H1N1 influenza vaccine, enhanced surveillance was implemented to estimate the magnitude of any increased GBS risk following administration of pH1N1 vaccine. The authors conducted active, population-based surveillance for incident cases of GBS among 45 million persons residing at 10 Emerging Infections Program sites du...

  12. A method for practical determination of attractor dimension applied to the monitoring and surveillance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses its attention on the attractor dimension (AD) estimation starting from the integral correlation (IC) calculated by the Procaccia and Grassberger algorithm. The AD offers additional information about the non-lineal system dynamic and it allows to recognize the asymptotic states in its temporal evolution. The safety demands in Nuclear Power Plants impose the necessity of knowing the evolution of attractor dimension and its relationship with the defect and magnitudes that it characterize. Some criteria that allow automatise the information of IC and link it with the oscillatory phenomenon are shown. As primary criterion was employed the quantification and qualification of IC derivative. It is also presented a detailed analysis of the relationship between IC descriptor and Delay Time, the noise contamination influence and Phase Space behavior. For its introduction in a real time monitoring, the authors propose a practical method based on the AD estimation using the IC second derivative called: Automatic AD Quantitative Estimation (A-AD-QE). To test the proposed method were used time series of the Hopf bifurcation simulation and neutron experimental signals. The results indicate the potentiality of the introduced method applying in a surveillance system and monitoring in nuclear power reactors. (author)

  13. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data. PMID:24480399

  14. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  15. Ejes de Vigilancia Tecnológica Aplicados en Universidades con Estudios a Distancia (Axes of Technological Surveillance Applied in Distance Learning Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlin J. Izarra Reverol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar los ejes de la vigilancia tecnológica aplicados en las Universidades del Municipio Maracaibo que ofrecen estudios a distancia, siguiendo los aportes teóricos de López et al. (2007, Palop y Vicente (1999, Martinet y Ribault (1989, Escorsa y Valls (2005, Fundación COTEC (1999 y Jakobiak (1995. La investigación es descriptiva, con un diseño no experimental transeccional de campo. La población la conforman doce directores y coordinadores (censo poblacional, a quienes se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas cerradas y opciones de frecuencia, validado y con alta confiabilidad (0.90. Los datos obtenidos fueron interpretados a través del análisis y discusión de información estadística. Los resultados adquiridos indican que se aplican los ejes de vigilancia tecnológica en las universidades seleccionadas, enfatizando los siguientes elementos de estudio: la vigilancia competitiva, la vigilancia comercial, la vigilancia tecnológica propiamente dicha y la vigilancia de los entornos. Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the axes of technological surveillance applied in the universities of Maracaibo Municipality including distance learning, following the theoretical contributions of López et al. (2007, Palop and Vicente (1999, Martinet and Ribault (1989 Escorsa and Valls (2005, COTEC Foundation (1999 and Jakobiak (1995. This research is descriptive, based on a experimental design. The population consisted of twelve directors and coordinators (residents, who answered a questionnaire with closed questions and frequency options. This was validated with high reliability (0.90. The data obtained were interpreted through analysis and discussion of statistical information. The results indicate that the axes of technological surveillance are applied in the selected universities, emphasizing the following elements of study: competitive surveillance, commercial surveillance

  16. A Population-Based Acute Meningitis and Encephalitis Syndromes Surveillance in Guangxi, China, May 2007- June 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Wu, Xinghua; Bi, Fuyin; Hadler, Stephen C.; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Lin, Mei; Quan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME) are common diseases with the main pathogens being viruses and bacteria. As specific treatments are different, it is important to develop clinical prediction rules to distinguish aseptic from bacterial or fungal infection. In this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of AME, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents. Methods A population-based AME syndrome surveillance system was set up in Guigang City, Guangxi, involving 12 hospitals serving the study communities. All patients meeting the case definition were investigated. Blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for bacterial pathogens using culture or RT-PCR and serological tests for viruses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Laboratory testing variables were grouped using factor analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the etiology of AME. Results From May 2007 to June 2012, the annual incidence rate of AME syndrome, and disease specifically caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE), other viruses, bacteria and fungi were 12.55, 0.58, 4.57, 0.45 and 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively. The top three identified viral etiologic agents were enterovirus, mumps virus, and JE virus, and for bacteria/fungi were Streptococcus sp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Staphylococcus sp. The incidence of JE and other viruses affected younger populations and peaked from April to August. Alteration of consciousness and leukocytosis were more likely to be caused by JE, bacteria and fungi whereas CSF inflammation was associated with bacterial/fungal infection. Conclusions With limited predictive validity of symptoms and signs and routine laboratory tests, specific tests for JE virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses are required to evaluate the immunization impact and plan for further intervention. CSF bacterial culture cannot be omitted in guiding clinical decisions

  17. The Impact of Heatwaves on Community Morbidity and Healthcare Usage: A Retrospective Observational Study Using Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of a moderate heatwave on a range of presenting morbidities in England. Asthma, difficulty breathing, cerebrovascular accident, and cardiovascular symptoms were analysed using general practitioner in hours (GPIH, out of hours (GPOOH and emergency department (ED syndromic surveillance systems. Data were stratified by age group and compared between a heatwave year (2013 and non-heatwave years (2012, 2014. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to estimate the differential impact of heatwave compared to non-heatwave summers: there were no apparent differences for the morbidities tested between the 2013 heatwave and non-heatwave years. A subset of GPIH data were used to study individuals at higher risk from heatwaves based on their pre-existing disease. Higher risk patients were not more likely to present at GPs or ED than other individuals. Comparing GPIH consultations and ED attendances for myocardial infarction/ischaemia (MI, there was evidence of a fall in the presentation of MI during the heatwave, which was particularly noted in the 65–74 years age group (and over 75 years in ED attendances. These results indicate the difficulty in identifying individuals at risk from non-fatal health effects of heatwaves and hot weather.

  18. The use of syndromic surveillance to monitor the incidence of arthropod bites requiring healthcare in England, 2000-2013: a retrospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newitt, S; Elliot, A J; Morbey, R; Durnall, H; Pietzsch, M E; Medlock, J M; Leach, S; Smith, G E

    2016-08-01

    Climate change experts predict the number of nuisance-biting arthropods in England will increase but there is currently no known surveillance system in place to monitor or assess the public health impact of arthropod bites. This retrospective ecological study utilized arthropod bites requiring healthcare from five national real-time syndromic surveillance systems monitoring general practitioner (GP) consultations (in-hours and out-of-hours), emergency department (ED) attendances and telephone calls to remote advice services to determine baseline incidence in England between 2000 and 2013 and to assess the association between arthropod bites and temperature. During summer months (weeks 20-40) we estimated that arthropod bites contribute a weekly median of ~4000 GP consultations, 750 calls to remote advice services, 700 ED and 1300 GP out-of-hours attendances. In all systems, incidence was highest during summer months compared to the rest of the year. Arthropod bites were positively associated with temperature with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) that ranged between systems from 1·03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01-1·06] to 1·14 (95% CI 1·11-1·16). Using syndromic surveillance systems we have established and described baseline incidence of arthropod bites and this can now be monitored routinely in real time to assess the impact of extreme weather events and climate change. PMID:27068133

  19. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak. PMID:26732291

  20. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  1. Clinical management of patients with ASXL1 mutations and Bohring-Opitz syndrome, emphasizing the need for Wilms tumor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Bianca; Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Kramer, Nancy; Pickart, Angela; Rhead, William; Tan, Wen-Hann; Brownstein, Catherine A; Kate Clarkson, L; Dobson, Amy; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Vergano, Samantha A Schrier; Helm, Benjamin M; Harrison, Rachel E; Graham, John M

    2015-09-01

    Bohring-Opitz syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by distinctive facial features, variable microcephaly, hypertrichosis, nevus flammeus, severe myopia, unusual posture (flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation, and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints), severe intellectual disability, and feeding issues. Nine patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome have been identified as having a mutation in ASXL1. We report on eight previously unpublished patients with Bohring-Opitz syndrome caused by an apparent or confirmed de novo mutation in ASXL1. Of note, two patients developed bilateral Wilms tumors. Somatic mutations in ASXL1 are associated with myeloid malignancies, and these reports emphasize the need for Wilms tumor screening in patients with ASXL1 mutations. We discuss clinical management with a focus on their feeding issues, cyclic vomiting, respiratory infections, insomnia, and tumor predisposition. Many patients are noted to have distinctive personalities (interactive, happy, and curious) and rapid hair growth; features not previously reported. PMID:25921057

  2. Information surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; McQuerry, Dennis; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Whitney, Paul D.; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Biological weapons are within reach of individuals, small groups, terrorist organizations, as well as nations. With pervasive integration of civilian and military populations worldwide, the ill winds of biological warfare stand to affect military troops and civilians alike. A variety of technologies are emerging - such as pathogen detection devices, streaming internet characterization tools, information exploitation techniques, automated feature extraction, and ubiquitous wireless communication - that can help. These technologies, if taken together within an integrated analytical framework, could make possible the monitoring of diverse parameters that may indicate a change in the state of health of a given population - either the emergence of a naturally occurring disease or the outbreak of a disease as a result of hostile intent. This presentation will discuss the application of new information surveillance tools and technologies as they apply to health and disease monitoring, particularly within the context of potential terrorist or hostile nation use of biological warfare. Although discussed within the specific context of health surveillance, the tools and processes described here are generally applicable within other domains of subject matter expertise.

  3. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  4. Nutritional surveillance*

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for i...

  5. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1×105 colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):469-471. PMID:26778287

  6. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  7. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  8. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance as...

  9. Surveillance Angels

    OpenAIRE

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data. Human operators are supposed to give a semantic interpretation of the observed data. They are searching for suspicious or unwanted behaviour. The increase of surveillance sensors in the military ...

  10. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Rashidi Armin; Nakhjavani Manouchehr; Zandieh Ali; Khalilzadeh Omid; Ashraf Haleh; Esteghamati Alireza; Haghazali Mehrdad; Asgari Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available f...

  11. Applying the Maternal Near Miss Approach for the Evaluation of Quality of Obstetric Care: A Worked Example from a Multicenter Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Samira Maerrawi Haddad; Jose Guilherme Cecatti; Joao Paulo Souza; Maria Helena de Sousa; Mary Angela Parpinelli; Maria Laura Costa; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Brum, Ione R.; Moraes Filho, Olímpio B.; Feitosa, Francisco E.; Menezes, Carlos A.; Guanabara, Everardo M.; Moreira, Joaquim L.; Peret, Frederico A.; Schmaltz, Luiza E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess quality of care of women with severe maternal morbidity and to identify associated factors. Method. This is a national multicenter cross-sectional study performing surveillance for severe maternal morbidity, using the World Health Organization criteria. The expected number of maternal deaths was calculated with the maternal severity index (MSI) based on the severity of complication, and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each center was estimated. Analyses on the ...

  12. 世博期间上海市浦东新区医疗机构症状监测系统的建立与结果分析%The establishment and preliminary analysis of syndromic surveillance system of hospitals during World Expo in Pudong New Area, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱渭萍; 孙乔; 傅益飞; 王远萍; 薛曹怡; 叶楚楚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the methods of a community-based syndromes surveillance system and early warning, getting data source from medical institutions, on the background of health security for 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Methods We collected relative symptom of patients who went to the 21 hospitals in Pudong of Shanghai, depending on embedded modules in hospital information system ( HIS) , then the data were loaded into syndromes surveillance system database through health information network to analysis; and we probed reported numbers' abnormal situation by the cusum early warning model and the absolute value of early warning methods. Results From 1st May, 2010 to 31st October, a total of 105 352 targeted cases were monitored, syndrome with fever respiratory and diarrhea were the most common, Eastern Hospital and people' s hospital reported the most cases; a total of 191 early warning signals were issued during monitoring period, the largest number of signals were fever respiratory syndrome and diarrhea syndrome, and the least number was the severe central nervous system syndrome, the 1 level was the main signal strength. Conclusions A community-based syndromes surveillance system of infectious disease in medical institutions was successfully established, and it was perfectly applied during 2010 Shanghai World Expo in Pudong.%目的 以2010年上海世界博览会卫生保障为背景,以医疗机构为数据源,探讨建立浦东新区传染病症状监测系统和早期预警的方法.方法 依托医院信息系统(hospital information system,HIS)嵌入模块,采集上海市浦东新区21家医院就诊患者的相关症状,通过浦东新区卫生信息网导入症状监测系统数据库进行资料分析;并采用累积和预警模型和绝对值预警方法探测报告数异常情况.结果 2010年5月1日~10月31日期间,监测目标病例共计105352例,以发热呼吸道和腹泻症候群最为常见,东方医院和浦东新区人民医院报告病例

  13. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  14. Effects of conservative therapy applied before arthroscopic subacromial decompression on the clinical outcome in patients with stage 2 shoulder impingement syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Ali; YILDIZ, Vahit; Topal, Murat; TUNCER, Kutsi; KÖSE, Mehmet; Şenocak, Eyüp

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of conservative therapy applied before arthroscopic subacromial decompression on the clinical outcome in patients with stage 2 shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials and methods: Sixty-eight patients having stage 2 shoulder impingement syndrome and treated with arthroscopic subacromial decompression were included in the study. We divided these patients into 2 groups, whereby 32 (47%) patients received conservative therapy before arthroscopic subacromial decompres...

  15. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    -intestinal symptoms and types of cancers differs.Clinical awareness and early diagnosis of HPS is important, as affected patients and at-risk family members should be offered genetic counselling and surveillance. Surveillance in children with HPS might prevent or detect intestinal or extra-intestinal complications......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as......-intestinal cancer. The syndromes are rare and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.The diagnosis of HPS has traditionally been based on clinical criteria, but can sometimes be difficult as the severity of symptoms range considerably from only a few symptoms to very severe cases - even within the same family...

  16. Geographic information systems applied to the international surveillance and control of transboundary animal diseases, a focus on highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; De Simone, Lorenzo; Lubroth, Juan

    2007-01-01

    To respond to the lack of early warning in dealing with livestock diseases, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed and launched the Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) programme in 1994. Emphasis was placed on the prevention of emergencies due to transboundary epidemic diseases of livestock of significant economic, trade and/or food security importance. EMPRES early warning activities, mainly based on disease surveillance, reporting and epidemiological analysis are supported by the EMPRES-i information system which enables integration, analysis and sharing of animal health data, combined with relevant layers of information, such as socio-economic, production and climatic data. Indeed, data integration, analysis and mapping represent a key step towards a better understanding of the distribution and behaviour, source and evolution of a disease (or infection) for the definition of appropriate cost-effective disease control strategies. With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in South-East Asia and its rapid spread beyond its known original distribution range, through its EMPRES programme the FAO has invested time and resources in the implementation of several studies to reveal HPAI epidemiological features in specific ecosystems of Asia and advise member countries accordingly on the best disease control options. Some of the key findings are presented in this paper and illustrate the incredible potential of using geographic information systems as part of international early warning systems and their multiple applications in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases, such as HPAI. PMID:20422520

  17. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Influenza surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghendon, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of influenza surveillance are: collection of influenza virus isolates and analysis of their antigenic characteristics so that the most appropriate virus variants can be recommended as constituents of influenza vaccines for use during the next epidemiological season; collection and analysis of information on influenza morbidity and mortality; and earliest possible detection of influenza epidemics. Exact estimates of the specific morbidity and mortality due to influenza are ...

  19. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  20. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  1. Estimating vaccine effectiveness against severe influenza in England and Scotland 2011/2012: applying the screening method to data from intensive care surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H L; Andrews, N; Green, H K; Boddington, N L; Zhao, H; Reynolds, A; McMenamin, J; Pebody, R G

    2014-01-01

    Methods for estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe influenza are not well established. We used the screening method to estimate VE against influenza resulting in intensive care unit (ICU) admission in England and Scotland in 2011/2012. We extracted data on confirmed influenza ICU cases from severe influenza surveillance systems, and obtained their 2011/2012 trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) status from primary care. We compared case vaccine uptake with population vaccine uptake obtained from routine monitoring systems, adjusting for age group, specific risk group, region and week. Of 60 influenza ICU cases reported, vaccination status was available for 56 (93%). Adjusted VE against ICU admission for those aged ≥ 65 years was -10% [95% confidence interval (CI) -207 to 60], consistent with evidence of poor protection from the 2011/2012 TIV in 2011/2012. Adjusted VE for those aged <65 years in risk groups was -296% (95% CI -930 to -52), suggesting significant residual confounding using the screening method in those subject to selective vaccination. PMID:23591102

  2. Applying the Maternal Near Miss Approach for the Evaluation of Quality of Obstetric Care: A Worked Example from a Multicenter Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Maerrawi Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess quality of care of women with severe maternal morbidity and to identify associated factors. Method. This is a national multicenter cross-sectional study performing surveillance for severe maternal morbidity, using the World Health Organization criteria. The expected number of maternal deaths was calculated with the maternal severity index (MSI based on the severity of complication, and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR for each center was estimated. Analyses on the adequacy of care were performed. Results. 17 hospitals were classified as providing adequate and 10 as nonadequate care. Besides almost twofold increase in maternal mortality ratio, the main factors associated with nonadequate performance were geographic difficulty in accessing health services (P<0.001, delays related to quality of medical care (P=0.012, absence of blood derivatives (P=0.013, difficulties of communication between health services (P=0.004, and any delay during the whole process (P=0.039. Conclusions. This is an example of how evaluation of the performance of health services is possible, using a benchmarking tool specific to Obstetrics. In this study the MSI was a useful tool for identifying differences in maternal mortality ratios and factors associated with nonadequate performance of care.

  3. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  4. The Great East Japan Earthquake: a need to plan for post-disaster surveillance in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Partridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries.In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the “inter-disaster” period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster.

  5. Poincaré analysis of an overnight arterial oxygen saturation signal applied to the diagnosis of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of oxygen desaturations is a basic variable in polysomnographic studies for the diagnosis of sleep apnea. Several algorithms operating in the time domain already exist for sleep apnea detection via pulse oximetry, but in a disadvantageous way—they achieve either a high sensitivity or a high specificity. The aim of this study was to assess whether an alternative analysis of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) signals from overnight pulse oximetry could yield essential information on the diagnosis of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). SaO2 signals from 117 subjects were analyzed. The population was divided into a learning dataset (70 patients) and a test set (47 patients). The learning set was used for tuning thresholds among the applied Poincaré quantitative descriptors. Results showed that the presence of apnea events in SAHS patients caused an increase in the SD1 Poincaré parameter. This conclusion was assessed prospectively using the test dataset. 90.9% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity were obtained in the test group. We conclude that Poincaré analysis could be useful in the study of SAHS, contributing to reduce the demand for polysomnographic studies in SAHS screening

  6. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge; Larsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    mismatch repair (MMR) defects cause early and accelerated tumor development with a broad tumor spectrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the population-based Danish HNPCC registry, 407 MMR gene mutation carriers who had developed cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, were identified. These individuals formed 290...... remained when cancers diagnosed at surveillance were excluded, applied to maternal as well as paternal inheritance, and was independent of the MMR gene mutated. CONCLUSION: The effect from anticipation demonstrated in this large, population-based Lynch syndrome cohort underscores the need to initiate...

  7. Citizen Science and Wildlife Disease Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Petrovan, Silviu O; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Achieving effective wildlife disease surveillance is challenging. The incorporation of citizen science (CS) in wildlife health surveillance can be beneficial, particularly where resources are limited and cost-effectiveness is paramount. Reports of wildlife morbidity and mortality from the public facilitate large-scale surveillance, both in time and space, which would otherwise be financially infeasible, and raise awareness of incidents occurring on privately owned land. CS wildlife disease surveillance schemes benefit scientists, the participating public and wildlife alike. CS has been employed for targeted, scanning and syndromic surveillance of wildlife disease. Whilst opportunistic surveillance is most common, systematic observations enable the standardisation of observer effort and, combined with wildlife population monitoring schemes, can allow evaluation of disease impacts at the population level. Near-universal access to digital media has revolutionised reporting modalities and facilitated rapid and economical means of sharing feedback with participants. Here we review CS schemes for wildlife disease surveillance and highlight their scope, benefits, logistical considerations, financial implications and potential limitations. The need to adopt a collaborative and multidisciplinary approach to wildlife health surveillance is increasingly recognised and the general public can make a significant contribution through CS. PMID:26318592

  8. Real-Time Surveillance for Respiratory Disease Outbreaks, Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Adam; Aramini, Jeff; Edge, Graham; Moore, Kieran M.

    2009-01-01

    To validate the utility of a chief complaint–based emergency department surveillance system, we compared it with respiratory diagnostic data and calls to Telehealth Ontario about respiratory disease. This local syndromic surveillance system accurately monitored status of respiratory diseases in the community and contributed to early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks.

  9. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  10. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  11. Unidentified Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a major cause of school absence: surveillance outcomes from school-based clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Esther M; Emond, Alan M; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of conducting clinics for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in schools. Design School-based clinical project. Participants Children aged 11–16 years were enrolled in three state secondary schools in England. Main outcome measures Number of children newly diagnosed as having CFS/ME. Methods Attendance officers identified children missing ≥20% of school in a 6-week term without a known cause, excluding those with a single episod...

  12. 奥运食品ATP检测与人群症状监测结果相关性研究%CORRELATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN RESULTS OF ATP TEST AND SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE FOR BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎新宇; 高婷; 杨鹏; 王全意; 庞星火

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To realize correlation between results of ATP test and syndromic surveillance for Beijing Olympic games. [ Methods] Active rate of ATP test and number of symptoms were analyzed for studying correlation between them. [Results] Number of ATP test in Beijing Olympic venues was 922 and active rate was 14.21%. Jaundice patient was not appearing during the period of the 29th Olympic game. Other four symptoms number was 753 and general incidence was 309.88/ 100 000. The proportions of diarrhea and fever were 50.33% and 33.07%, respectively. By correlative analysis, the correlation between the lour symptoms and results of ATP lest were statistic significant. [Conclusion] ATP test and syndromic surveillance were important measurements for security of major events.%[目的]探讨奥运场馆餐饮 ATP 检测与人群症状发生的相关关系.[方法]统计分析奥运期间餐饮 ATP超过预警值的结果和发生症状人数,采用相关性分析方法探讨两者的关联性.[结果]奥运期间在奥运核心场馆共进行了 ATP 快速检测 922 件,超过预警值百分比为 14.21%.奥运期间未发生黄疸病人,其他 4 类症状共发生 753 人,发生率为 309.88/10 万;其中腹泻发生最多,占 50.33%,其次为发热,占33.07%;通过对二者进行相关性比较发现 4 种症状的发生与 ATP 检测呈现明显的相关性.[结论]在大型活动中开展食品卫生快速检测和症状监测是重要的保障措施.

  13. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo;

    2015-01-01

    events with only a small number of cases. The European Commission envisions comparability of surveillance output to enable cross-border surveillance. Evaluated against European infectious disease case definitions, syndromic surveillance can contribute to identify cases that might fulfil the clinical case...

  14. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  15. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  16. A Comparison of Vicarious and Written Training Techniques Applied to Early Stimulation by Parents of Their Down Syndrome Babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of vicarious and written training techniques to teach parents an early stimulation program for infants with Downs Syndrome. Found that infants whose parents were trained through observing a clinician stimulate their child had higher average developmental quotients in gross motor and language development between 6 and 24…

  17. Use of a large general practice syndromic surveillance system to monitor the progress of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Pebody, R; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Regan, M; Hippisley-Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency/QSurveillance national surveillance system utilizes QSurveillance®, a recently developed general practitioner database covering over 23 million people in the UK. We describe the spread of the first wave of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 using data on consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), respiratory illness and prescribing for influenza from 3400 contributing general practices. Daily data, provided from 27 April 2009 to 28 January 2010, were used to give a timely overview for those managing the pandemic nationally and locally. The first wave particularly affected London and the West Midlands with a peak in ILI in week 30. Children aged between 1 and 15 years had consistently high consultation rates for ILI. Daily ILI rates were used for modelling national weekly case estimates. The system enabled the 'real-time' monitoring of the pandemic to a small geographical area, linking morbidity and prescribing for influenza and other respiratory illnesses. PMID:21473803

  18. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  19. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  20. Secondary Surveillance Radar Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Schejbal, Vladimír; Bezoušek, Pavel; Pidanič, Jan; Chyba, Milan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a secondary surveillance radar (SSR) array antenna, which is intended for a system combining the secondary surveillance radar antenna and the primary surveillance radar antenna. It describes the patch array elements and the synthesis for the secondary surveillance radar array, considering both elevation and azimuth patterns for sum, difference, and sidelobe-suppression beams, and suspended stripline couplers. The utilization of multilayer techniques allows the connection...

  1. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-xiu-li Li; Qiong He; Zhong-lin Hu; Sheng-hua Chen; Yun-cheng Lv; Zheng-hai Liu; Yong Wen; Tian-hong Peng

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of ...

  2. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  3. Surveillance practices for the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of defining the term 'standard practice' for surveillance in dam safety management is highlighted. A good dam safety surveillance program needs to contain all the key parts embodied in the Canadian Dam Association's (CDA) Dam Safety Guidelines. They have a basic role in defining what standard practice is, but the present CDA guidelines require strengthening as surveillance practice evolves in the near future. Surveillance is mainly a means of providing an owner, or in the case of BC Hydro, the Director of Dam Safety, senior management and the Board of Directors with up-to-date performance information which is essential for the continuing risk control of the residual risks associated with the dams. Although automated systems are being more commonly applied in a proactive manner in special situations as a real time risk control process, surveillance practice today is reactive. The need is stressed for dam owners to go beyond today's standard practice, by utilizing proactive performance-based practice, and better integrating surveillance within dam risk management. The establishment of a good surveillance program and its ongoing success is dependent on a comprehensive dam safety management program. There is a commitment on the part of BC Hydro to moving from the standard practice of the past to new directions outlined herein, which includes a detailed and comprehensive, auditable surveillance management system, with a policy of continued improvement. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  4. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance of...... activists remains under-researched. This presentation explores visibility as a prerequisite and an obstacle to political participation. The dual capacity of visibility in social media enables both surveillance and counter-surveillance by making not only the surveilled actor, but also the surveilling actor...... visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  5. Tracking in radar surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stakkeland, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the detection part of a radar surveillance system, and specifically derive methods for estimating the clutter density in a CFAR system from scan to scan, by making some basic assumptions on the system configuration. It is shown how the gain in applying a Bayesian estimator depend on the system configuration, and the gain is analyzed for some well known CFAR configurations. As an intermediate result, the variance of the clutter density for some CFAR con...

  6. Consentful surveillance: supporting user understanding and control

    OpenAIRE

    Gomer, Richard C.; schraefel, monica c

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance and surveillance-like practices are common on the free web services that we use. We argue that, although such practices can provide value to users, they should be done ‘consentfully’ as a way of empowering individuals and applying consumer preference to the market. Our research on this subject raises some key challenges for interaction designers and researchers to address: explanations, timing, and measurement.

  7. Video Sensor Architecture for Surveillance Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Simó, José E.; Jordi Sánchez; Ginés Benet

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level s...

  8. Surveillance software based on agents system

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Molina

    2008-01-01

    The Applied Artificial Intelligence group has developed a surveillance system based on the agents theory and multiagents system in the Distributed Artificial Intelligence. The system allows that each data acquisition source could operate independently, but coordinated by a central host. The technology improves the surveillance process, reducing the human attention and introducing automatic alarms. They are looking for technical cooperation of partners interested in the technology.

  9. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  10. Genetic counseling and cascade genetic testing in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of inherited colorectal and endometrial cancers. Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a 10-80 % lifetime risk for colorectal cancer and a 15-60 % lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Both cancers are preventable through chemoprevention, intensive cancer surveillance, and risk-reducing surgery options. Efforts to identify as many individuals with Lynch syndrome as possible will prevent cancers and save lives. This includes the traditional cancer genetic counseling model whereby individuals with and without cancer are evaluated for a possible Lynch syndrome diagnosis based on their personal and family history of colon polyps and cancers. It also includes universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome whereby all individuals with colorectal or endometrial cancer are screened for tumor features of Lynch syndrome at the time of diagnosis. Those with tumors suspicious for Lynch syndrome are referred for cancer genetic counseling regardless of their family history of cancer. This two approaches must be maximized to attain high patient reach. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, cascade testing among the at-risk relatives of those diagnosed with Lynch syndrome is critically important to maximize the diagnosis of individuals with Lynch syndrome. In fact, the cost-effectiveness of universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome relies entirely on counseling and testing as many at-risk individuals as possible since young unaffected individuals stand to benefit the most from an early diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. This approach must be optimized to achieve high family reach. It will take a concerted effort from patients, clinicians and public health officials to improve current approaches to the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome and the prevention and treatment of Lynch syndrome-associated cancer but these lessons can be applied to other conditions as the ultimate example of personalized medicine. PMID:26969309

  11. Containment and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of containment and surveillance measures in complementing nuclear materials accountancy to achieve safeguards objectives is discussed. The variety of techniques used, particularly optical surveillance and sealing systems, is described. Containment and surveillance reduce the cost of IAEA inspections and reduce the intrusiveness of the IAEA into normal plant operations by reducing the frequency of physical inventory measurements. 10 refs., 12 figs., poster presentations included

  12. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) System, in particular. It brings out the multiple s...

  13. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  14. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  15. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  16. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events. PMID:27314657

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. Effects of ozone applied by spinal endoscopy in patients with chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães FNO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Nêuton de Oliveira Magalhães, Sandra Correia Soares, Jaqueline Melo Torres, Arthur Ungaretti, Mariana Fillipi Cacciacarro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Erich Talamoni FonoffPain Center and Division of Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilIntroduction: In the last two decades, ozone has emerged as a treatment for low back pain, applied by means of minimally invasive techniques. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the effect and safety of ozone therapy applied in the epidural space for chronic pain related to failed back surgery syndrome.Methods: The investigators studied 13 sequential patients of both sexes, between 18 and 70 years old, with persistent chronic pain (more than six months in the lumbar region and in the lower limbs related to failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS. Pain was classified as neuropathic and non-neuropathic regarding the topography (lumbar and lower limb, based on the DN4 questionnaire. The patients received the ozone gas in the lumbar epidural space via spinal-sacral endoscopy. Clinical evaluation was performed before, immediately after (24 hours, and 1, 3, and 6 months after intervention with visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Results: Overall, the patients had 43.7% reduction of lumbar pain, 60.9% reduction in leg pain in six months followed by 44.0% of improvement in ODI. The reduction of pain and in the disability index was markedly greater in patients with non-neuropathic predominant pain, 95.2%, 80.6%, and 75.3% improvement in lumbar, leg pain, and ODI respectively, while neuropathic predominant pain patients experienced only 12.5%, 42.4%, and 20.9% improvement, also respectively. No neurological or infectious complications were observed acutely or during the follow-up. The present data suggests that epidural ozone might be a therapeutic option for persistent low back pain, especially in non

  19. Methods for surveillance of noise signals from nuclear power plants using auto power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of methods for noise diagnostics applied in the nuclear power plant 'Bruno Leuschner' for surveillance of primary circuit is given. Considering a special example concept of surveillance of standard deviations is explained. (author)

  20. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Armin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MetS in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. Results The area under the curve (AUC (95%CI was 0.650 (0.631-0.670 for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703 with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF. The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6% and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0% for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. Conclusion We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  1. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  2. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Google Trends in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sungjin Cho; Chang Hwan Sohn; Min Woo Jo; Soo-Yong Shin; Jae Ho Lee; Seoung Mok Ryoo; Won Young Kim; Dong-Woo Seo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. METHODS: Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from t...

  3. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Google Trends in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sungjin; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Jo, Min Woo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae Ho; Ryoo, Seoung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Seo, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the...

  4. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  5. Immersive flight for surveillance applications

    OpenAIRE

    Righetti, Xavier; Cardin, Sylvain; Thalmann, Daniel; Vexo, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper , we present a VR-based first-person view paradigm applied to a tele-surveillance application. Using an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), we have developed an intuitive tangible interface between the pilot and his airship (blimp). The idea is to make transparent the manipulation of an embedded camera by controlling it instinctively with the head’s movement so that the user is available for other tasks such as piloting the blimp. In other words, the user becomes part of the interface. ...

  6. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  7. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can be diagnosed and begin in childhood. Mental disorders among children are described ...

  8. DIALYSIS SURVEILLANCE NETWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    A voluntary national surveillance system monitoring bloodstream and vascular infections. This is a yearly survey, done in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) that collects data on infection control practices, and the frequency of certain dialys...

  9. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  10. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Zajko

    2015-01-01

    Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital "content" through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the inte...

  11. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Indraveer Singh; Harshawardhan Patil

    2010-01-01

    Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up grada...

  12. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective This project was organized to facilitate discussions on whether successful novel flu surveillance can be conducted by jurisdictions with limited resources. The discussions will focus on gathering opinions regarding the best combination of surveillance systems to quickly and efficiently identify the presence of influenza A (H3N2)v and other novel influenza viruses in circulation. Introduction The past decade has witnessed rapid development and implementation of numerous syndromic and other advanced surveillance systems to supplement traditional laboratory testing to identify the presence of novel influenza strains and track the impact on local populations. While much of the development and widespread implementation of these systems had been supported by public health preparedness funding, the loss of these monies has greatly constrained the ability of public health agencies to staff and maintain these systems. The periodic appearance of novel flu viruses, such as H3N2v, requires agencies to carefully choose which systems will provide the most cost-effective data to support their public health practice. Methods This project will be facilitated by an experienced public health practitioner who has conducted surveillance for a variety of disease agents. Additional public health practitioners are being recruited among members of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) Public Health Practice Committee (PHPC) to contribute information on comparative approaches to cost effective surveillance. Questions were selected for discussion and responses will be collected from influenza surveillance coordinators using a web-based survey tool managed by ISDS staff on behalf of the PHPC. Survey responses and subsequent recommendations will be presented at a PHPC meeting. Results Initial questions selected for the survey tool and subsequent discussions include: What surveillance systems does your agency use for conducting influenza surveillance? Which

  13. EDF's surveillance on fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has 58 PWR reactors requiring an annual supply of approximately 2,300 fuel assemblies. The issues of safety and reliability are important concerning the fuel given the risk of generic manufacturing issues. Being a nuclear power operator, EDF is responsible for the safety of the fuel being used in their vessels. EDF is subject to a French law which requires in particular the surveillance of the manufacture of the components involved in safety. This law is in some way an opportunity. It permits the entities involved to have an influence on the quality of components supplied which is an important condition to exercise an operational responsibility. EDF has applied for 30 years surveillance of the manufacturing processes of suppliers of fuel assemblies and contracts have specific clauses in order to organize this surveillance. In order to focus the surveillance on important matters, critical characteristics of the fuel have been determined between EDF and the suppliers to ensure the safety requirements. Activities related to the manufacturing and having an influence on these characteristics are subject to the surveillance required by regulation authorities. In order to obtain fuel assemblies that fulfill the safety requirements, EDF considers that several aspects need to be treated correctly: - The clear and sufficient definition of the components that constitutes the assembly (technical file: drawings and specifications), a definition which takes into account as far as possible the critical characteristics. - The demonstration of the efficiency, in terms of results, of complex manufacturing or controls steps (equipment qualification) included in the global manufacturing process (efficiency which depends on parameters that need to be defined and determined). - The definition of manufacturing processes (manufacturing quality plan) and the demonstration of their efficiency (qualification of manufacturing processes) to produce components that meet safety requirements

  14. Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…

  15. Trends and directions of global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Recently, global health and global health surveillance have received unprecedented recognition of their importance because of the newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, new cycles of pandemics, and the threats of bioterrorism. The aim of this review is to provide an update of the current state of knowledge on health surveillance in a globalized world. Three key areas will be highlighted in this review: 1) the role of the new International Health Regulations, 2) the emergence of new global health networks for surveillance and bioterrorism, and 3) the reshaping of guidelines for the collection, dissemination, and interventions in global surveillance. A discussion is also presented of the more important challenges of global health surveillance. Global surveillance has been reshaped by important changes in the new International Health Regulations and the rapid development of new global networks for disease surveillance and bioterrorism. These networks provide for the first time at the global scale real-time information about potential outbreaks and epidemics of newly emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. The recent outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic provide evidence of the benefits of the new global monitoring and of the importance of the World Health Organization in its coordinating role in the multilateral response of the global public health community. PMID:20534776

  16. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  17. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  18. RFID: Dynamic Surveillance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraveer Singh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the modern security and monitoring domain is based upon Camera based Surveillance Architecture. Prison cells, corporate offices, government buildings, stock market, supermarkets etc all the seats utilize this structure in core. Most CCTV systems are used for surveillance which can include security monitoring, spying or for safety monitoring purposes. Although this system has been quite popular being affordable and visually administrable, it is no exception to improvements and up gradation. Thus in this paper we have come up with efficient proposals to upgrade the approach for Camera based Surveillance Architecture for security and Administration. This renewed approach is essentially based upon RFID technology where we are utilizing RFID tags and their readers as basic components. Unlike Camera-based surveillance, RFID-based approach can monitor and administer a quarter not only within some region of visibility but can efficiently do the same for locating the individuality (through Dynamic Surveillance as explained further. This approach emphasizes not only on overcoming the demerits of observation-based supervision, but it presents easier and effective monitoring methodologies using radio waves and their usable features in security and administration for areas with consumer pour out.

  19. Combining multicriteria decision analysis, ethics and health technology assessment: applying the EVIDEM decisionmaking framework to growth hormone for Turner syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Jean-Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To test and further develop a healthcare policy and clinical decision support framework using growth hormone (GH for Turner syndrome (TS as a complex case study. Methods The EVIDEM framework was further developed to complement the multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA Value Matrix, that includes 15 quantifiable components of decision clustered in four domains (quality of evidence, disease, intervention and economics, with a qualitative tool including six ethical and health system-related components of decision. An extensive review of the literature was performed to develop a health technology assessment report (HTA tailored to each component of decision, and content was validated by experts. A panel of representative stakeholders then estimated the MCDA value of GH for TS in Canada by assigning weights and scores to each MCDA component of decision and then considered the impact of non-quantifiable components of decision. Results Applying the framework revealed significant data gaps and the importance of aligning research questions with data needs to truly inform decision. Panelists estimated the value of GH for TS at 41% of maximum value on the MCDA scale, with good agreement at the individual level (retest value 40%; ICC: 0.687 and large variation across panelists. Main contributors to this panel specific value were "Improvement of efficacy", "Disease severity" and "Quality of evidence". Ethical considerations on utility, efficiency and fairness as well as potential misuse of GH had mixed effects on the perceived value of the treatment. Conclusions This framework is proposed as a pragmatic step beyond the current cost-effectiveness model, combining HTA, MCDA, values and ethics. It supports systematic consideration of all components of decision and available evidence for greater transparency. Further testing and validation is needed to build up MCDA approaches combined with pragmatic HTA in healthcare decisionmaking.

  20. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  1. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 11 (ASR-11) is a short-range digital, integrated primary and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) radar system with a 60 nautical...

  2. Surveillance-Based Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sanusi, Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objective to analyze the Integrated Behavioral & Biological Surveillance (IBBS) 2011 data for designing a condom utilization program. Introduction The IBBS is part of the Indonesian MoH HIV Surveillance System, which include Serological Surveillance, Behavioral Surveillance, Reproductive Tract Infection Survey, and monthly HIV/AIDS facility-based (hospitals, HCs, VCT Sites) monthly reports. The IBBS 2011 was conducted in 11 provinces (22 districts/municipalities) encompassing eight Most At Ri...

  3. National surveillance of poultry diseases in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Hamadeh, S K; Hilan, C; Kallas, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W

    1997-12-01

    From 1992 to mid-1996, a national survey of poultry diseases in Lebanon was conducted. This surveillance included meat breeder, layer breeder, commercial layer and chicken broiler flocks. The history, signs, lesions and laboratory tests of poultry were used in the diagnosis of prevalent poultry diseases. Culture techniques were used to screen for bacterial diseases; serological techniques and, to a lesser extent, culture techniques were used to diagnose viral diseases; and both serological and culture techniques were used to diagnose Mycoplasma infections. The outbreaks of diseases detected in broiler breeder flocks and the number of such flocks experiencing these diseases were as follows: femoral head necrosis (6), egg-drop syndrome (3), reovirus-associated malabsorption syndrome (3), synovitis (Mycoplasma synoviae infection) (7), swollen head syndrome (SHS) (3), tenosynovitis (viral arthritis) (1), lymphoid leukosis (3), avian encephalomyelitis (1), fowl pox (1) and aortic rupture (1). The disease outbreaks detected in layer breeders were as follows: SHS (2), bumble foot (2), egg-drop syndrome (3) and avian infectious bronchitis (IB) (1). The disease outbreaks detected in commercial layer flocks were as follows: egg-drop syndrome (5), avian infectious laryngotracheitis (2), avian IB (nephrogenic strain) (1), malabsorption (1), avian tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium) (1), Marek's disease (1), fowl pox (1), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis infection (1), salpingitis (1) and Heterakis gallinae infestation (1). The disease outbreaks detected in broiler flocks were as follows: colibacillosis (40), infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) (15), malabsorption syndrome (8), avian infectious laryngotracheitis (8), paratyphoids (salmonellosis) (7), femoral head necrosis (8), SHS (6), avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection) (6), synovitis (7), avian IB (6), botulism (1), avian encephalomyelitis (1) and gangrenous dermatitis (1). Diseases

  4. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  5. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS wil

  6. TUBERCULOSIS SURVEILLANCE REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TB Surveillance Reports contain tabular and graphic information about reported TB cases collected from 59 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United St...

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  8. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari...

  9. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randrianarivo-Solofoniaina Armand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP. The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease, by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS. Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of

  10. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  11. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  12. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  13. Microwaves in Airborne Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave spectrum is widespread due to its convenience. Therefore, enormous amount of information is available in the free space channel. Obviously, mining this channel for surveillance is quite common. Airborne surveillance offers significant advantages in military operations. This paper talks of the usage of microwaves in airborne surveillance systems, in general, and in the Indian airborne early warning and control (AEW&C System, in particular. It brings out the multiple sub-systems onboard the aircraft comprising the AEW&C system and their spectral coverage. Co-location of several systems has its own problems and resolving them in terms of geometric location, frequency band and time of operation are covered. AEW&C, being an airborne system, has several other requirements  including minimal weight, volume and power considerations, lightning protection, streamlining, structural integrity, thermal management, vibration tolerance, corrosion prevention, erosion resistance, static charge discharge capability, bird strike resilience, etc. The methods adopted to cater to all these requirements in the microwave systems that are used in the AEW&C system are discussed. Paper ultimately speaks of the microwave systems that are designed and developed for the Indian AEW&C system to surmount these unusual constraints.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.138-144, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4255

  14. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  15. Active screening and surveillance in the United Kingdom for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in returning travellers and pilgrims from the Middle East: a prospective descriptive study for the period 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowsan F. Atabani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory tract infections in travellers/pilgrims returning to the UK from the Middle East are mainly due to rhinoviruses, influenza A, and influenza B. Whilst MERS-CoV was not detected in the 202 patients studied, heightened awareness of the possibility of MERS-CoV and continuous proactive surveillance are essential to rapidly identify cases of MERS-CoV and other seasonal respiratory tract viruses such as avian influenza, in patients presenting to hospital. Early identification and isolation may prevent outbreaks in nosocomial settings.

  16. Privacy Enabling Technology for Video Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ouaret, Mourad; Abdeljaoued, Yousri; Navarro, Alfonso; Vergnenegre, Fabrice; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem privacy in video surveillance. We propose an efficient solution based on transform-domain scrambling of regions of interest in a video sequence. More specifically, the sign of selected transform coefficients is flipped during encoding. We address more specifically the case of Motion JPEG 2000. Simulation results show that the technique can be successfully applied to conceal information in regions of interest in the scene while providing with a good level ...

  17. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries.

  18. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  19. Tuberculose como doença definidora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: dez anos de evolução na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Tuberculosis as a disease defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ten years of surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cristina Coelho Soares

    2006-10-01

    Program for the Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome database from 1993 to 2002. RESULTS: The expanded definition of a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, implemented in 1998, resulted in a substantial increase in the number of reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, especially of those defined by immunologic criteria. Among the cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined only by disease, esophageal candidiasis, in its various forms, remained the most common opportunistic infection present at the time the cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were reported. Although Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was the second leading opportunistic infection in most of the years evaluated, it was surpassed by tuberculosis in 2001. CONCLUSION: Despite the decreased numbers of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by disease, tuberculosis remains a significant acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining event, currently more common than P. carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis. This is probably due to the high rate of tuberculosis prevalence in the city.

  20. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  1. Surveillance for Anthrax Cases Associated with Contaminated Letters, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Christina G.; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Redd, Stephen C.; Beach, Michael J.; Buehler, James; Bresnitz, Eddy A.; Pinner, Robert W.; Bell, Beth P; ,

    2002-01-01

    In October 2001, two inhalational anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax cases, resulting from the processing of Bacillus anthracis–containing envelopes at a New Jersey mail facility, were identified. Subsequently, we initiated stimulated passive hospital-based and enhanced passive surveillance for anthrax-compatible syndromes. From October 24 to December 17, 2001, hospitals reported 240,160 visits and 7,109 intensive-care unit admissions in the surveillance area (population 6.7 million persons)....

  2. Self-Surveillance Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jerry; Shilton, Katie; Estrin, D; Burke, Jeffrey A; Hansen, Mark,

    2011-01-01

    It has become cliché to observe that new information technologies endanger privacy. Typically, the threat is viewed as coming from Big Brother (the government) or Company Man (the firm). But for a nascent data practice we call “self-surveillance,” the threat may actually come from ourselves. Using various existing and emerging technologies, such as GPS-enabled smartphones, we are beginning to measure ourselves in granular detail – how long we sleep, where we drive, what we breathe, what w...

  3. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  4. Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Jeyamani

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dreaded complication of cirrhosis as it is the commonest cause of mortality in these patients. The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in the management of this tumor as nearly 50–70% of selected patients with early HCC survive for a median period of up to 5 years after liver transplantation, resection or local ablation. Surveillance has been found to be an effective tool to detect early tumors and expand the applicability of these curative trea...

  5. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards & Staff Annual Report & Financials Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of ...

  6. Posterior occipito-axial fixation applied C2 laminar screws for pediatric atlantoaxial instability caused by Down syndrome: Report of 2 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroki, Hiroshi; KUBO, Shinichiro; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Chosa, Etsuo

    2012-01-01

    Background Upper cervical spine instability is one of the most critical orthopedic problems in patients with Down syndrome. However, arthrodesis of the upper cervical spine in these patients can be very difficult to achieve and has a high complication rate because of mental retardation and accompanying various medical conditions of the vital organs. Even now, surgeries in such patients, especially pediatric cases, are challenging and the optimal operative procedure remains unsettled. The purp...

  7. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  8. Surveillance process of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of situations corresponding to different operation or shutdown phases of the reactor are defined. At each moment, the situation of the reactor is determined. Useful parameters for the power plant surveillance are grouped in functions each one corresponding to the accomplishment of a special task of the plant. For each the parameters of each one of the functions, its state is determined according to a category describing its aptitude to contribute to the accomplishment of the function. The most unfavorable state is assigned to at least one parameter of each function. The information related to the state of the situation and of each function. A control board with three zones of surveillance can be used. The invention can be applied, particularly, to the nuclear power plants equipped with a pressurized water reactor

  9. Computerized reactor surveillance and control system: An FBR example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor core surveillance is most often performed using analog processing approaches and signals from neutronic sensors (fission chambers, ionization chambers, SPND, etc.) or thermal sensors (thermocouples). The processing used is often extremely simplified. A significant improvement in the performance levels of these systems can be obtained by applying digital processing to these same signals. This paper presents the TRTC Core Temperature Processing System (''TRaitement des Temperatures Coeur or TRTC'') that ensures the thermal surveillance of a fast breeder reactor core, the Superphenix unit; we also present the ALPES system that is a development of this system and which significantly improves the performance of the surveillance and protection functions. We will show that these systems can be used in all types of reactors where surveillance systems use temperature measurements that are representative of core output temperatures. (author)

  10. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Multiple reports of equine herpesvirus type 1 in the UKFirst cases of dourine in Botswana and equine infectious anaemia in GreeceSummary of UK surveillance testing, October to December 2015These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27179087

  11. Equine disease surveillance: quarterly summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    National and international disease outbreaksAfrican horse sickness in South AfricaRising EHV-1 abortion cases in the UKSummary of surveillance testing, January to March 2016 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:27474057

  12. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  13. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  14. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... technologies can be found across many domains, including culture, food, learning, work and general living. Individuals use tools and techniques to track themselves, thereby translating their own habits, bodies, moods, and thoughts into objects to scrutinize and transform. In addition, self-tracking is often...... coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...

  15. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  16. A composite CBRN surveillance and testing service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    The terrorist threat coupled with a global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of environmental hazards, and CBRN early warning. The Air Force Institute for Operational Health (AFIOH) provides fundamental support to protect personnel from and mitigate the effects of untoward hazards exposures. Sustaining healthy communities since 1955, the organizational charter is to enhance warfighter mission effectiveness, protect health, improve readiness and reduce costs, assess and manage risks to human heath and safety, operational performance and the environment. The AFIOH Surveillance Directorate provides forward deployed and reach-back surveillance, agent identification, and environ-mental regulatory compliance testing. Three unique laboratories process and analyze over two million environmental samples and clinical specimens per year, providing analytical chemistry, radiological assessment, and infectious disease testing, in addition to supporting Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) clinical reference laboratory and force health protection testing. Each laboratory has an applied or investigational testing section where new technologies and techniques are evaluated, and expert consultative support to assist in technology assessments and test analyses. The Epidemiology Surveillance Laboratory and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory are critical assets of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Laboratory Response Network. Deployable assets provide direct support to the Combatant Commander and include the Air Force Radiological Assessment Team, and the Biological Augmentation Team. A diverse directorate, the synergistic CBRN response capabilities are a commander"s force protection tool, critical to maintaining combat power.

  17. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  18. Twenty-Year Summary of Surveillance for Human Hantavirus Infections, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Knust, Barbara; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years of surveillance for hantavirus in humans in the United States, 624 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported, 96% of which occurred in states west of the Mississippi River. Most hantavirus infections are caused by Sin Nombre virus, but cases of HPS caused by Bayou, Black Creek Canal, Monongahela, and New York viruses have been reported, and cases of domestically acquired hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome caused by Seoul virus have also occurred. R...

  19. Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Antiphospholipid Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Hughes Syndrome Table of Contents ( ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused ...

  20. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  1. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  2. Breast cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  3. Total process surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the current operating behaviour of a process or power plant is the key to maximizing the efficiency and safety of operation and the quality of the product. Early detection of plant component or sensor degradation and failure improves operating safety, product quality and plant availability. This paper describes the design and development of a Total Process Surveillance system which assimilates all the sensor information available on a plant to provide the operators with a succinct report on the status of the plant behaviour. The heart of the system is a robust model-based observer which can estimate internal plant states, and provides a residual signal with powerful fault detection and isolation features. Several results are presented which illustrate the performance of the system in detecting and isolating multiple fault scenarios in a fast reactor plant. A structure for the practical implementation of the system is described, and comments are given on its contribution to the final experimental work planned for AEA Technology's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). (Author)

  4. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay Victoria C; Smith Rachel A; Findeis Jill L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimi...

  5. The Effectiveness of IMF Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Biagio Bossone

    2008-01-01

    IMF surveillance of the international monetary and financial system is a global public good. Its effectiveness depends critically on the dynamics that underpin the mechanisms governing the IMF and global finance. These dynamics, in turn, reflect the interests and power of influence of countries (especially the largest), their cooperative attitude and international relations. Assessing the effectiveness of IMF surveillance, therefore, demands a clear understanding of the IMF and global financi...

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  7. Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Helen K. Green; Boddington, Nicola L.; Carvalho, Carlos F.A.; Osman, Husam K.; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison; Pebody, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative.

  8. Enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance of travelers from the Middle East to England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K; Boddington, Nicola L; Carvalho, Carlos F A; Osman, Husam K; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison; Pebody, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative. PMID:25148267

  9. Can lessons from public health disease surveillance be applied to environmental public health tracking? A experiência de vigilância epidemiológica poderia ser aplicada à vigilância no campo da saúde ambiental?

    OpenAIRE

    Beate Ritz; Ira Tager; John Balmes

    2006-01-01

    Disease surveillance has a century-long tradition in public health, and environmental data have been collected at a national level by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for several decades. Recently, the CDC announced an initiative to develop a environmental public health tracking (EPHT) network with "linkage" of existing environmental and chronic disease data. On the basis of experience with established disease surveillance systems, we suggest how a system capable of linking routinely ...

  10. Bayesian meta-analysis of test accuracy in the absence of a perfect reference test applied to bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Ulrike; Brunner, Florian; Steurer, Johann; Wertli, Maria M

    2015-11-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the accuracy of bone scintigraphy (BS) for the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome 1 (CRPS 1). In a meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, the evaluation of test accuracy is impeded by the use of different imperfect reference tests. The aim of our study is to summarize sensitivity and specificity of BS for CRPS 1 and to identify factors to explain heterogeneity. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to model test accuracy and threshold, and we present different models accounting for the imperfect nature of the reference tests, and assuming conditional dependence between BS and the reference test results. Further, we include disease duration as explanatory variable in the model. The models are compared using summary ROC curves and the deviance information criterion (DIC). Our results show that those models which account for different imperfect reference tests with conditional dependence and inclusion of the covariate are the ones with the smallest DIC. The sensitivity of BS was 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.73-0.97) and the overall specificity was 0.87 (0.73-0.95) in the model with the smallest DIC, in which missing values of the covariate are imputed within the Bayesian framework. The estimated effect of duration of symptoms on the threshold parameter was 0.17 (-0.25 to 0.57). We demonstrate that the Bayesian models presented in this paper are useful to address typical problems occurring in meta-analysis of diagnostic studies, including conditional dependence between index test and reference test, as well as missing values in the study-specific covariates. PMID:26479506

  11. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups

  12. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Pantex Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Pantex Plant from January 1, 1995 through December 31,1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Pantex and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center,located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The data presented apply only to Pantex. The main sections of the report are the same as in previous years; the 1995 report provides additional information describing the work force by age and occupational groups.

  13. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches. PMID:23569607

  14. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  15. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Heuristic learning parameter identification for surveillance and diagnostics of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Artifical Intelligence Heuristic Learning Algorithm for System parameter identification has been developed. This algorithm has been applied to the on-line surveillance of a pressure loop, simulating the dynamics of pressure disturbances in a PWR plant

  17. Continuous surveillance of transformers using artificial intelligence methods; Surveillance continue des transformateurs: application des methodes d'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, A.; Germond, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Boss, P.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The article describes a new method for the continuous surveillance of power transformers based on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. An experimental pilot project on a specially equipped, strategically important power transformer is described. Traditional surveillance methods and the use of mathematical models for the prediction of faults are described. The article describes the monitoring equipment used in the pilot project and the AI principles such as self-organising maps that are applied. The results obtained from the pilot project and methods for their graphical representation are discussed.

  18. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  19. A pattern recognition method for nuclear reactor core surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic surveillance principle based on a pattern recognition approach is described. The recognition is performed among a set of normal kind of working classes obtained by an unsupervised training. A recognition likehood criterion is used as abnormality decision rule. No hypothesis is made concerning the notion of abnormality. It is defined in opposition with a training data base assumed to be an exhaustive summary of normal behaviours. A core vibration surveillance method for a pressurized water reactor is developed. One of the aims of this study is the early detection of failures. The method allows on line applications and is able to give quick surveillance decisions (about one minute). The sensors are the four ex-core neutron ionization chambers. The extracted features are the characteristics of the neutron noise power spectrum densities resonances. The system is very flexible and adaptable to the statistical properties of the data. The abnormality decision rule severity is adjustable by a sensitivity parameter. The algorithms are heuristic but need only the definition of a small number of parameters. These parameters are optimized either by automatic procedures or by explicit experimental methods. The system is applied on data from a French 900 MW nuclear power reactor. A false alarm probability estimation is carried out by letting the surveillance process work on unknown normal data. Abnormality detection probability is calculated with several kinds of simulated abnormalities by adding a parasit frequency or a white noise. The experimental results obtained by the surveillance system validate the retained principle

  20. Applying molecular epidemiology in pediatric leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiology is the study of genetic and environmental risk for disease, with much effort centered on cancer. Childhood leukemia occurs in nearly a third of all patients newly diagnosed with pediatric cancer. only a small percentage of these new cases of childhood leukemia are associated with high penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been associated with a dysregulated immune system due to delayed infectious exposure at a young age. Identical twins with childhood leukemia suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia begins in utero and that the concordant presentation is due to a shared preleukemia subclone via placental transfer. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes find that leukemia risk may be attributed to population-based polymorphisms affecting folate metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, immunity, and B-cell development. More recently, genome-wide association studies for leukemia risk has led investigators to genes associated with B-cell development. When describing leukemia predisposition due to hereditary cancer syndromes, the following 6 categories become apparent on the basis of biology and clinical presentation: (1) genetic instability/DNA repair syndromes, (2) cell cycle/differentiation syndromes, (3) bone marrow failure syndromes, (4) telomere maintenance syndromes, (5) immunodeficiency syndromes, and (6) transcription factor syndromes and pure familial leukemia. understanding the molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia can affect the treatment and tumor surveillance strategies for these high risk patients and their family members. PMID:25973690

  1. Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Containment and Surveillance Equipment Compendium contains information sections describing the application and status of seals, optical surveillance systems, and monitors for international safeguards systems. The Compendium is a collection of information on equipment in use (generally by the IAEA) or under development in the US in diverse programs being conducted at numerous facilities under different sponsors. The Compendium establishes a baseline for the status and applications of C/S equipment and is a tool to assist in the planning of future C/S hardware development activities. The Appendix contains design concepts which can be developed to meet future goals

  2. Reactor vessel material surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B and W conducts surveillance programs for its 850-MW(e) class of reactors to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the full Charpy V-notch curves of the reactor vessel materials. Charpy and tensile specimens, which are machined from as-fabricated metal, heat-affected-zone metal (HAZ), and weld metal, are placed in six surveillance capsules containing dosimeters and temperature monitors. The capsules are then placed in three holder tubes, which are positioned so that the capsules are near the peak axial neutron flux. (U.S.)

  3. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analytical redundancy is of significant importance in order to obtain the maximum amount of information as to the state of the plant. A further logical step in this theory is the accommodation of failed or damaged transducers by deriving their measurement information from the available remaining transducers. A system capable of providing a clear and improved picture of the plant's behaviour under a range of normal and off-normal operating conditions would thus be of significant economical and safety benefit. In summary: A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical redundancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. The TOPS system provides a structured and complete means for plant data management under both normal and off-normal operating conditions and thus will significantly assist the operator during severe accident management

  4. Joubert Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Joubert Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... Organizations Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Joubert Syndrome? Joubert syndrome is a rare brain malformation ...

  5. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, ...

  6. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilston, Natasha; Skelly, Chris; Weinstein, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data. PMID:19878588

  7. Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelly Chris

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first documented transmission of Chikungunya within Europe took place in Italy during the summer of 2007. Chikungunya, a viral infection affecting millions of people across Africa and Asia, can be debilitating and no prophylactic treatment exists. Although imported cases are reported frequently across Europe, 2007 was the first confirmed European outbreak and available evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus was the vector responsible and the index case was a visitor from India. This paper proposed pan-European surveillance zones for Chikungunya, based on the climatic conditions necessary for vector activity and viral transmission. Pan-European surveillance provides the best hope for an early-warning of outbreaks, because national boundaries do not play a role in defining the risk of this new vector borne disease threat. A review of climates, where Chikungunya has been active, was used to inform the delineation of three pan-European surveillance zones. These vary in size each month across the June-September period of greatest risk. The zones stretch across southern Europe from Portugal to Turkey. Although the focus of this study was to define the geography of potential surveillance zones based on the climatic limits on the vector and virus, a preliminary examination of inward bound airline passengers was also undertaken. This indicated that France and Italy are likely to be at greater risk due to the number of visitors they receive from Chikungunya active regions, principally viraemic visitors from India. Therefore this study represents a first attempt at creating risk stratified surveillance zones, which we believe could be usefully refined with the use of higher resolution climate data and more complete air travel data.

  8. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  9. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  10. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  11. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C;

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  12. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance rates in commercially insured patients with noncirrhotic chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D S; Valderrama, A; Kamalakar, R; Sansgiry, S S; Babajanyan, S; Lewis, J D

    2015-09-01

    American association for the study of liver diseases (AASLD) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines recommend biannual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening for noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV), yet there are no data estimating surveillance rates or factors associated with surveillance. We performed a retrospective cohort study of US patients using the Truven Health Analytics databases from 2006 to 2010 and identified patients with noncirrhotic chronic HBV. Surveillance patterns were characterized using categorical and continuous outcomes, with the continuous measure of the proportion of time 'up to date' with surveillance (PUTDS), with the 6-month interval following each ultrasound categorized as 'up to date'. During a median follow-up of 26.0 (IQR: 16.2-40.0) months among 4576 noncirrhotic patients with chronic HBV (median age: 44 years, IQR: 36-52), only 306 (6.7%) had complete surveillance (one ultrasound every 6-month interval), 2727 (59.6%) incomplete (≥1 ultrasound) and 1543 (33.7%) none. The mean PUTDS was 0.34 ± 0.29, and the median was 0.32 (IQR: 0.03-0.52). In multinomial logistic regression models, patients diagnosed by a nongastroenterologist were significantly less likely to have complete surveillance (P HIV (P regression models, nongastroenterologist provider, health insurance subtype, HBV/HIV coinfection, rural status and metabolic syndrome were independently associated with decreased surveillance. Patients with HIV had an absolute decrease in the PUTDS of 0.24, while patients in less populated rural areas had an absolute decrease of 0.10. HCC surveillance rates in noncirrhotic patients with chronic HBV in the United States are poor and lower than reported rates of HCC surveillance in cirrhotic patients. PMID:25581816

  14. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application during a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in th...

  15. Video Sensor Architecture for Surveillance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Simó

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a flexible hardware and software architecture for a smart video sensor. This sensor has been applied in a video surveillance application where some of these video sensors are deployed, constituting the sensory nodes of a distributed surveillance system. In this system, a video sensor node processes images locally in order to extract objects of interest, and classify them. The sensor node reports the processing results to other nodes in the cloud (a user or higher level software in the form of an XML description. The hardware architecture of each sensor node has been developed using two DSP processors and an FPGA that controls, in a flexible way, the interconnection among processors and the image data flow. The developed node software is based on pluggable components and runs on a provided execution run-time. Some basic and application-specific software components have been developed, in particular: acquisition, segmentation, labeling, tracking, classification and feature extraction. Preliminary results demonstrate that the system can achieve up to 7.5 frames per second in the worst case, and the true positive rates in the classification of objects are better than 80%.

  16. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Grisotto, Laura; Berrocal, Veronica; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy) in the years 2013-2014. PMID:27087037

  17. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  18. Complementing the Surveillance Law Principles of the ECtHR with its Environmental Law Principles: An Integrated Technology Approach to a Human Rights Framework for Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Galetta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on surveillance, one notices a well maturing set of principles, namely: legality, legitimacy, proportionality (the standard check and, if the Court is ‘on it’, also necessity and subsidiarity (the closer scrutiny check. In this contribution, we go through the surveillance case law of the Court. We find that 1 not all surveillance is considered relevant to the right to privacy (the threshold problem; 2 when surveillance is subjected to a privacy right analysis, concerns about rights contained in other provisions, such as Articles 6, 13 and 14 of the Convention, are added; 3 not all surveillance that interferes with privacy is considered as problematic, hence differences in the Court’s view with regard to the legality requirement and the intensity of the scrutiny arise. This contribution goes beyond a straightforward analysis of the Court’s surveillance case law. In our second part we turn to Murphy and Ó Cuinn’s research on a ‘new technology’ approach in the Court’s case law and on principles that apply to a wide range of technology-related issues (from surveillance, to biomedicine, to polluting technologies. We focus in particular on the case law of the Court on environmental matters. We find that greater coherence could be reached in the Court’s case law on surveillance by integrating the environmental law principles of participation, precaution, access to information and access to justice in surveillance matters. Nevertheless, such a move would be very desirable and give new momentum to the Court’s case law on surveillance-related interferences.

  19. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Victoria C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  20. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  1. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  2. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. PMID:24633656

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  4. The Lynch syndrome: a management dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Amatucci, Chiara; Perotti, Bruno; Dezzi, Claudia; Girolami, Marco; Illuminati, Giulio; Angelici, Alberto M

    2013-05-01

    The case of a familial Lynch syndrome is reported. The criteria for early diagnosis, management and surveillance are briefly reviewed. A germline mutation of genes responsible for mismatch repair is at the basis of the Lynch syndrome. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal cancer and other tumors. Two members of the presently reported family developed colorectal cancer, whereas two others developed other neoplasms. The syndrome was confirmed in members of the same family with appropriate genetic workup. Clinical examination and endoscopy were consequently scheduled once-a-year. Given the high risk of neoplastic disease, such yearly controls can be proposed as the standard follow-up of this condition. PMID:23645768

  5. Corrosion surveillance developments at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade, a progressive development in corrosion appraisal technology has taken place at Ontario Hydro (OH). Initial approaches were based solely on non-destructive examinations (NDE), and failure investigations. Laboratory based techniques including anodic polarizations and under deposit corrosion simulations have been employed in an attempt to understand mechanisms and generate predictive information. Recent interest has centered on the use of electrochemical noise techniques to provide information on localized corrosion behaviour. These methods when applied in conjunction with field simulations enable a continuous monitoring approach to be used in the real environment. The data are acquired in real time, and spontaneous changes in corrosion rates and mechanisms can be followed as they occur. This paper reviews the application of traditional methods and new techniques for nuclear power plant corrosion surveillance and associated materials evaluation at OH. The new techniques under review are electrochemical potential noise (EPN), and electrochemical current noise (ECN)

  6. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive usage of video surveillance is rapidly increasing in developed countries. Continuous security threats to public safety demand use of such systems. Contemporary video surveillance systems offer advanced functionalities which threaten the privacy of those recorded in the video. There is a...... need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction of...... investigating the existing legal infrastructure for ensuring privacy in video surveillance and suggest guidelines in order to help those who want to deploy video surveillance while least compromising the privacy of people and complying with legal infrastructure....

  7. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  8. Kindler syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  9. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  10. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  11. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  13. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  14. Efficient Approach for Face Detection in Video Surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红; 石峰

    2003-01-01

    Security access control systems and automatic video surveillance systems are becoming increasingly important recently,and detecting human faces is one of the indispensable processes.In this paper,an approach is presented to detect faces in video surveillance.Firstly,both the skin-color and motion components are applied to extract skin-like regions.The skin-color segmentation algorithm is based on the BPNN (back-error-propagation neural network) and the motion component is obtained with frame difference algorithm.Secondly,the image is clustered into separated face candidates by using the region growing technique.Finally,the face candidates are further verified by the rule-based algorithm.Experiment results demonstrate that both the accuracy and processing speed are very promising and the approach can be applied for the practical use.

  15. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  16. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    William Waissmann

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs) in products of interest to health surveillance (HS). Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly ...

  17. Privacy, Surveillance and Public Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Neyland, D.

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance, privacy and public trust form a burgeoning presence within debates surrounding technological developments, particularly in the current 'war on terror' environment. Social, economic and political issues are invoked in collecting, categorizing, scrutinizing and mobilizing information on the everyday activities of the population. These are implicated in new legislative developments, ways of conceptualizing society and a growth in the industry of protest. However, what do we know ab...

  18. Quality assurance in preschool surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Wearmouth, E M; Lambert, P; Morland, R

    1994-01-01

    A quality assurance programme was used to evaluate community and primary care based preschool surveillance using the National Child Health Computer System in 40 examination centres. Quarterly reports were generated from returns from clinical medical officers and general practitioners to list non-attenders, uptake, and timeliness for the four preschool checks. These provided rapid and comparative feedback on personal performance for participating health professionals and led to marked rises in...

  19. Imaging Surveillance of Patients with Breast Cancer after Primary Treatment: Current Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  1. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  3. Syndromic surveillance:A necessary public health tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  4. Multimodality cardiac imaging in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Kristian H; Gopalan, Deepa; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-06-01

    Congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases contribute significantly to the threefold elevated risk of premature death in Turner syndrome. A multitude of cardiovascular anomalies and disorders, many of which deleteriously impact morbidity and mortality, is frequently left undetected and untreated because of poor adherence to screening programmes and complex clinical presentations. Imaging is essential for timely and effective primary and secondary disease prophylaxis that may alleviate the severe impact of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome. This review illustrates how cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome manifests in a complex manner that ranges in severity from incidental findings to potentially fatal anomalies. Recommendations regarding the use of imaging for screening and surveillance of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome are made, emphasising the key role of non-invasive and invasive cardiovascular imaging to the management of all patients with Turner syndrome. PMID:26843123

  5. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liming

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. Results The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP, measles and tuberculosis (TB surveillance systems got relatively high recognition

  6. Motion Pattern Extraction and Event Detection for Automatic Visual Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Yassine Benabbas; Nacim Ihaddadene; Chaabane Djeraba

    2011-01-01

    Efficient analysis of human behavior in video surveillance scenes is a very challenging problem. Most traditional approaches fail when applied in real conditions and contexts like amounts of persons, appearance ambiguity, and occlusion. In this work, we propose to deal with this problem by modeling the global motion information obtained from optical flow vectors. The obtained direction and magnitude models learn the dominant motion orientations and magnitudes at each spatial location of the ...

  7. Model-driven Architecture of a Maritime Surveillance System Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Monperrus, Martin; Long, Benoit; Champeau, Joël; Hoeltzener, Brigitte; Marchalot, Gabriel; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an experiment to apply a model-driven approach for systems engineering in an industrial context. This experiment consisted of setting up a model-driven simulation environment for a maritime surveillance system. The simulation is fully based on three models, each conforming to a specic metamodel. We discuss the main advances given by model-driven orientated simulation for systems engineering.

  8. An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V J; Dunagan, W C

    1993-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, t...

  9. Non-process instrumentation surveillance and test reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of operating experience, instrument failure modes, and degraded instrument performance has led to a reduction in Technical Specification surveillance and test requirements for nuclear power plant process instrumentation. These changes have resulted in lower plant operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) labor costs. This report explores the possibility of realizing similar savings by reducing requirements for non-process instrumentation. The project team reviewed generic Technical Specifications for the four major US nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendors (Westinghouse, General Electric, Combustion Engineering, and Babcock ampersand Wilcox) to identify nonprocess instrumentation for which surveillance/test requirements could be reduced. The team surveyed 10 utilities to identify specific non-process instrumentation at their plants for which requirements could be reduced. The team evaluated utility analytic approaches used to justify changes in surveillance/test requirements for process equipment to determine their applicability to non-process instrumentation. The report presents a prioritized list of non-process instrumentation systems suitable for surveillance/test requirements reduction. The top three systems in the list are vibration monitors, leak detection monitors, and chemistry monitors. In general, most non-process instrumentation governed by Technical Specification requirements are candidates for requirements reduction. If statistical requirements are somewhat relaxed, the analytic approaches previously used to reduce requirements for process instrumentation can be applied to non-process instrumentation. The report identifies as viable the technical approaches developed and successfully used by Southern California Edison, Arizona Public Service, and Boston Edison

  10. Active surveillance in prostate cancer: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, H; Giannarini, G; Loeb, S; Dasgupta, P; Murphy, D G; Ficarra, V

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the eligibility criteria, surveillance protocols and oncological outcomes of published active surveillance (AS) series. We also assessed the evidence for utility of novel tools for optimal risk stratification and surveillance of men suitable for AS. A non-systematic literature search of the Medline, Embase, and Scopus databases was performed in April 2015 using medical subject headings and free-text protocol. The search was conducted by applying free-text protocol with the following search terms: "active surveillance", "prostate cancer", "prostatic neoplasm", "watchful waiting", "low risk prostate cancer" and "very low risk prostate cancer". The definition of insignificant disease remains debatable as criteria for patient selection vary among studies. Tools for better selection of candidates and monitoring of the disease process have evolved since the conception of AS, including new biomarkers like phi, mpMRI and alternate biopsy strategies. AS is a sound strategy for reducing overtreatment of men with low-risk, and potentially selected men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer and shorter life expectancy, without compromising overall and cancer specific survival. More data are needed on the optimal integration of the new tools on AS paradigms and on the long-term health impact of AS in different populations. PMID:26054412

  11. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  12. Using internet search queries for infectious disease surveillance: screening diseases for suitability

    OpenAIRE

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Avril, Simon M R; Clements, Archie C. A.; Brownstein, John S.; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based surveillance systems provide a novel approach to monitoring infectious diseases. Surveillance systems built on internet data are economically, logistically and epidemiologically appealing and have shown significant promise. The potential for these systems has increased with increased internet availability and shifts in health-related information seeking behaviour. This approach to monitoring infectious diseases has, however, only been applied to single or small grou...

  13. Multiple views of DNA surveillance : the surveilled, the surveillants and the academics

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana; Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2012-01-01

    DNA profiling is frequently described as the gold standard for individual identification and thus an important tool for crime prevention, detection and deterrence. While the scholarly discourses tend to privilege a focus on the oppressive elements of DNA profiling and surveillance, the political and public discourses usually highlight the benefits of forensic DNA technologies to fight and prevent crime. Most arguments are based on abstract concepts with little empirical evidence to support th...

  14. A pooled analysis of the outcome of prospective colonoscopic surveillance for familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesher, David; Dove-Edwin, Isis; Sasieni, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    centers. DNA mismatch repair deficiency was excluded by genetic testing. Families were classified as FCC type X if they fulfilled the original Amsterdam criteria (AC) and late onset (LOFCC) if they fulfilled the AC apart from not having a cancer aged under 50. The most advanced findings on colonoscopy......Surveillance guidelines for the management of familial colorectal cancer (FCC), a dominant family history of colorectal cancer in which the polyposis syndromes and Lynch syndrome have been excluded, are not firmly established. The outcome of colonoscopic surveillance is studied using data from six...... were analyzed. One thousand five hundred eighty-five individuals (median age 47.3, 44% male) from 530 FCC families (349 FCC type X) underwent a total of 4,992 colonoscopies with 7,904 patient-years of follow-up. Results for FCC type X and LOFCC were very similar. At baseline, 22 prevalent asymptomatic...

  15. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Cases in the Country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V.; Bautista, Christian T.; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the patients enrolled in the study had acute renal failure. These 2 of 537 enrolled patients were the only patients in the study positive for hantavirus IgM antibodies. These results suggest that CCHF virus and hantavirus are contributing causes of acute febrile syndromes of infectious origin in Georgia. These findings support introduction of critical diagnostic approaches and confirm the need for additional surveillance in Georgia. PMID:24891463

  16. System surveillance program at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system Surveillance Program (SSP) is an industry accepted practice that has evolved over a number of years to the point where it is now recognized as the optimum way of ensuring system health. The SSP at Cernavoda is based on INPO good practices. It is a team effort coordinated and monitored by the system engineer (SE) and is designed to satisfy the following general purposes: - to ensure the station is operated and maintained in such a manner to be consistent with the operating license, operating policies and principles, design intent and safety analysis assumptions; - to ensure the systems are operated and maintained in such a manner to optimize reliability while being cost effective; - to ensure that systems and equipment performance is routinely monitored and, when necessary, a diagnostic testing program and subsequent corrective actions are implemented to predict and prevent potential future degradation. The SSP as described in this document applies to all systems. For all systems benefits in terms of cost savings, reliability, environmental protection and other key results can be achieved. This program is a dynamic process which is modified and improved based on the feedback from people the experience of whom in performing their tasks is used. Since many work groups are involved in implementing this program it is important to understand that good communication, information flow and a proactive attitude of all personnel are major prerequisites in developing a successful SSP at Cernavoda NPP. The document has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Program implementation; 2.1. System surveillance specification; 2.2. SE tasks to implement the program; 2.2.1. System walkdowns; 2.2.2. Review performance and maintenance history; 2.2.3. Records keeping; 2.3. Reporting methods; 2.4. Supervisory requirements; 3. Some program implementation results; 4. Conclusion

  17. SCORPIO: a framework for core surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first version of the core surveillance system SCORPIO was installed at Unit 2, Ringhals, in 1984. It was implemented on Norsk Data mini-computers with a fully graphical user-interface. The main purpose was to provide a practical tool for reactor operators and reactor physicists for on-line monitoring and predictive analysis of core behaviour. A second version of SCORPIO was developed in 1993-1995 and implemented on Unix workstations. In addition to upgrading the system at Ringhals, the system was installed by Duke Power, USA, on 7 reactors. SCORPIO was also installed on the Sizewell B reactor. Recently a new framework has been developed which further enhances the flexibility and capabilities for implementing core surveillance systems in different types of nuclear power plants. Modules can be added and replaced in an easy manner. It allows fast and reliable communication of data between modules based on the Software Bus tool developed by IFE. Further, the Picasso-3 user interface management system supports efficient implementation of different user interfaces. Both Unix and Windows NT platforms are supported. The new framework has been applied in development and installation of a SCORPIO-VVER version for the Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic. Here it was of particular importance to provide a flexible system for integration of modules originating from different companies. Development of a BWR version is now in progress. This means that SCORPIO will be available for all the major reactor types, and synergy is obtained by application of a common framework both with respect to system implementation and maintenance. By using the SCORPIO framework, the development time is reduced and the maintenance work is carried out more efficiently, compared to developing systems with lower-level tools. For instance, the MMI can be developed and tested independently of the physics modules

  18. Colonoscopy and chromoscopy in hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins Wessling, Erin; Lanspa, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    With hereditary colorectal cancer prevention studies it is difficult to demonstrate reduced mortality. Large populations are needed with well characterized genetics followed over a long period of time. Those studies do exist for standard white light colonoscopy surveillance in Lynch syndrome, but not for newer technologies including chromoscopy. For these newer technologies adenoma detection rate becomes the stand-in for mortality, and the assumption is made that surveillance efficacy impacts cancer occurrence. Though well-designed and important work exists in this area, the data do not support firm conclusions regarding the use of chromoscopy in Lynch syndrome. PMID:26892866

  19. Radiological evaluation, management, and surveillance of renal masses in Von Hippel-Lindau disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Choyke, P. [Department of Radiology, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anderson, C. [Department of Urology, St Georges Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Patel, U. [Department of Radiology, St Georges Hospital, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: uday.patel@stgeorges.nhs.uk

    2009-06-15

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a rare, autosomal-dominant condition that predisposes patients to developing renal cysts and tumours. VHL is the most common of the hereditary renal cancer syndromes, and is exclusively associated with the clear cell histological subtype of renal cell carcinoma. This review focuses on the genetics, surveillance, and management of complex renal masses in VHL. The current status of renal cyst analysis in general and in the context of VHL is also reviewed.

  20. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler

    2007-01-01

    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  1. Notifiable Disease Surveillance and Practicing Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Gérard; Ropers, Gwendolin; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Primary care physicians in Germany are essential participants in infectious disease surveillance through mandatory reporting. Feedback on such surveillance should reflect the needs and attitudes of these physicians. These issues were investigated in a questionnaire survey among 8,550 randomly sampled physicians in Germany in 2001. Of the 1,320 respondents, 59.3% claimed not to have received any feedback on infectious disease surveillance, and 3.7% perceived feedback as not important. Logistic...

  2. Health effects and medical surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  3. Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John P

    2016-02-01

    Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection reported in hospitals in England, affecting >45 000 patients and staff. A new system for reporting outbreaks of norovirus infection in hospitals, the Hospital Norovirus outbreak Reporting Scheme (HNORS), began in January 2009. Summary information on outbreaks is provided by infection control staff at hospitals and includes questions on the date the first and last person in the outbreak became symptomatic and whether closure of a bay or ward was needed. In the first 3 years (2009-2011) of the HNORS surveillance scheme, 4000 outbreaks were reported, affecting 40 000 patients and 10 000 staff. Over the last 3 years, these outbreaks have been associated with an average of 13 000 patients and 3400 staff becoming ill, with 15 000 lost bed-days annually. With the possible introduction of a vaccine on the horizon, targeted research with a more integrated approach to laboratory testing and outbreak reporting is essential to a greater understanding of the epidemiology of norovirus. PMID:26744431

  4. Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin K Y Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes, and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3-6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient = 0.231 at lag = -1 week. CONCLUSIONS: School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

  5. Laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The department of radiological protection of the ININ requests the collaboration of the Engineering Unit for the elaboration of the work project of the laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance. The emission of radioactive substances to the atmosphere like consequence of the normal operation of the Nuclear Center, constitutes an exhibition source from the man to the radiations that it should be appropriately watched over and controlled to be able to determine the population's potential exhibition that it lives in the area of influence of the installation. (Author)

  6. TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE VIDEO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, K.; Kavitha C; Kriti Tandon; Lakshmipriya.R

    2010-01-01

    Now-a-days, the application of the lane surveillance system increases quickly, for example, it is widely settled at the entrance of highways and toll booths to strengthen the traffic management and survey the public security. Accordingly, the size of the captured video data increases over time. So, it is quite important to study how to manage this video data and how to extract useful information from this large amount of video data. In order to process huge volume of data efficiently in tr...

  7. Offshore Surveillance of Wave Buoys

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrberg, Simon

    2007-01-01

    To gain further knowledge about the motion of the wave buoys involved in the Islandsberg project for wave power, a surveillance system has been designed. The base for the system consists of a lattice tower to be placed on one of two islets southwest of Lysekil: Klammerskären. The distance from the islets to the wave energy research park and the wave buoys is between 150 and 300 meters. The tower will be 12 meters high and in it a network camera will be mounted, together with a small wind turb...

  8. Digital Radar For Efficient Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsikrishna Chitithoti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to provide a high efficient surveillance for very costly material like jewelry, gold ornaments and diamonds. In this work an ultra-sonic sensor is collaboratedwith the digital radar, this sensor senses the range which belongs to it and the digital radar detects the obstacle which falls in that range and sounds alarm as soon as the alarm switched on the driver connected to firing gun will become on and the firing starts on that obstacle or person who come unauthorized . In this way our work can barge the costly equipment effectively.

  9. Digital Radar For Efficient Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Vamsikrishna Chitithoti; K Bala Krishna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work is to provide a high efficient surveillance for very costly material like jewelry, gold ornaments and diamonds. In this work an ultra-sonic sensor is collaboratedwith the digital radar, this sensor senses the range which belongs to it and the digital radar detects the obstacle which falls in that range and sounds alarm as soon as the alarm switched on the driver connected to firing gun will become on and the firing starts on that obstacle or person who come unauthorized . ...

  10. Reactor surveillance by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time noise analysis system is designed for the TRIGA reactor at Istanbul Technical University. By means of the noise techniques, reactor surveillance is performed together with failure diagnosis. The fast data processing is carried out by FFT in real-time so that malfunction or non-stationary operation of the reactor in long term can be identified by comparing the noise power spectra with the corresponding reference patterns while the decision making procedure is accomplished by the method of hypothesis testing. The system being computer based safety instrumentation involves CAMAC in conjunction with the RT-11 (PDP-11) single user dedicated environment. (author)

  11. The collaborative experience of creating the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheri H; Holtry, Rekha S; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard; Hung, Lang; Lombardo, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) implemented state and district surveillance nodes in a central aggregated node in the National Capital Region (NCR). Within this network, de-identified health information is integrated with other indicator data and is made available to local and state health departments for enhanced disease surveillance. Aggregated data made available to the central node enable public health practitioners to observe abnormal behavior of health indicators spanning jurisdictions and view geographical spread of outbreaks across regions.Forming a steering committee, the NCR Enhanced Surveillance Operating Group (ESOG), was key to overcoming several data-sharing issues. The committee was composed of epidemiologists and key public health practitioners from the 3 jurisdictions. The ESOG facilitated early system development and signing of the cross-jurisdictional data-sharing agreement. This agreement was the first of its kind at the time and provided the legal foundation for sharing aggregated health information across state/district boundaries for electronic disease surveillance.Electronic surveillance system for the early notification of community-based epidemics provides NCR users with a comprehensive regional view to ascertain the spread of disease, estimate resource needs, and implement control measures. This article aims to describe the creation of the NCR Disease Surveillance Network as an exceptional example of cooperation and potential that exists for regional surveillance activities. PMID:21464687

  12. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cushing's syndrome, also called hypercortisolism , is a rare endocrine disorder caused by chronic exposure of the body's tissues ... removing the tumor while minimizing the chance of endocrine deficiency or long-term ... for Cushing's Syndrome Clinical Trials ...

  13. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  14. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  15. Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental disorder ...

  16. Pseudoaminopterin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraoua, Lilia; Capri, Yline; Perrin, Laurence; Benmansour, Abdelmajjid; Verloes, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Pseudoaminopterin syndrome or aminopterin syndrome-like sine aminopterin (ASSA syndrome--OMIM 600325] is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome defined by characteristic dysmorphic features, skeletal defects, limb anomalies, cryptorchidism, and growth retardation. The syndrome owes its name to the fact that patients resemble the children exposed to aminopterin or to methotrexate, two dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors used for chemotherapy, or as an abortificient in early pregnancy. Ten patients have been described with pseudoaminopterin syndrome. Their phenotype is variable, and differs from the phenotype resulting from folic acid deprivation, leading to the notion that the pathogenesis may be more complex than simple vitamin deficiency. We report on an Algerian patient with pseudoaminopterin syndrome, review the previously reported cases and confirm that pseudoaminopterin syndrome does not result from a detectable contiguous gene imbalance as high resolution CGH array was normal in this child. PMID:22811276

  17. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder ... hearing and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from ...

  18. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of ...

  19. Proteus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Definition Common Signs Diagnostic Criteria (I have ... NIH to go with this criteria) Glossary Videos Proteus Syndrome is a condition which involves atypical growth ...

  20. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? What are the ... Syndrome Additional Resources for Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is one of the most ...

  1. Alagille syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Krantz, I D; Piccoli, D A; Spinner, N B

    1997-01-01

    Alagille syndrome (OMIM 118450) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with abnormalities of the liver, heart, eye, skeleton, and a characteristic facial appearance. Also referred to as the Alagille-Watson syndrome, syndromic bile duct paucity, and arteriohepatic dysplasia, it is a significant cause of neonatal jaundice and cholestasis in older children. In the fully expressed syndrome, affected subjects have intrahepatic bile duct paucity and cholestasis, in conjunction with cardiac ma...

  2. Is the HIV sentinel surveillance system adequate in China? Findings from an evaluation of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bulterys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: An external evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system (HSS, identify operational challenges at national and local levels and provide recommendations for improvement.Methods: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems were followed to assess the key attributes of HSS. Comprehensive assessment activities were conducted, including: using a detailed checklist to review surveillance guidelines, protocols and relevant documents; conducting self-administered, anonymous surveys with 286 local China CDC staff; and carrying out field observations in 32 sentinel sites in four provinces.Results: China has built an extensive HSS with 1888 sentinel sites to monitor HIV epidemic trends by population groups over time. The strengths of HSS lie in its flexibility, simplicity, usefulness and increase in coverage in locations and populations. With its rapid expansion in 2010, HSS faces challenges in maintaining acceptability, timeliness, data quality, representativeness and sustainability.Recommendations: Implementation of the national guidelines should be standardized by strengthening training, monitoring and supervision of all staff involved, including community-based organizations. National surveillance guidelines need to be revised to strengthen data quality and representativeness, particularly to include specific instructions on HIV testing result provision, collection of identifying information, sample size and sampling methods particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM, collection of refusal information, and data interpretation. Sustainability of China’s HSS could be strengthened by applying locally tailored surveillance strategies, strengthening coordination and cooperation among government agencies and ensuring financial and human resources.

  3. Cushing Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links Share this: Page Content What is Cushing’s syndrome? Cushing’s syndrome is a condition that occurs when the body’s ... medication or as a result of a tumor, Cushing’s syndrome can develop. Many factors influence whether this happens, ...

  4. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Dumping Syndrome Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ...

  5. Syndromic surveillance: etiologic study of acute febrile illness in dengue suspicious cases with negative serology. Brazil, Federal District, 2008 Vigilância sindrômica: estudo etiológico de doenças febris agudas a partir dos casos suspeitos de dengue com sorologia não reagente. Distrito Federal, Brasil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Domicio da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of identifying the etiology of acute febrile illness in patients suspected of having dengue, yet with non reagent serum, a descriptive study was conducted with 144 people using secondary serum samples collected during convalescence. The study was conducted between January and May of 2008. All the exams were re-tested for dengue, which was confirmed in 11.8% (n = 17; the samples that remained negative for dengue (n = 127 were tested for rubella, with 3.9% (n = 5 positive results. Among those non reactive for rubella (n = 122, tests were made for leptospirosis and hantavirus. Positive tests for leptospirosis were 13.9% (n = 17 and none for hantavirus. Non reactive results (70.8% were considered as Indefinite Febrile Illness (IFI. Low schooling was statistically associated with dengue, rubella and leptospirosis (p = 0.009, dyspnea was statistically associated with dengue and leptospirosis (p = 0.012, and exanthem/petechia with dengue and rubella (p = 0.001. Among those with leptospirosis, activities in empty or vacant lots showed statistical association with the disease (p = 0.013. Syndromic surveillance was shown to be an important tool in the etiologic identification of IFI in the Federal District of Brazil.Com o objetivo de identificar a etiologia de doenças febris agudas, em suspeitos de dengue com sorologia não reagente, realizou-se estudo descritivo com 144 pessoas utilizando amostras de soro coletados na convalescença, entre janeiro e março de 2008. Todos os exames foram re-testados para dengue, sendo as amostras negativas, processadas para rubéola (n = 127. Dentre as não reagentes para rubéola, submeteu-se ao teste para leptospirose (n = 122, e em se permanecendo sem diagnóstico, testou-se para hantavirose. Confirmou-se dengue em 11,8% (n = 17, rubéola em 3,9% (n = 5 e leptospirose em 13,9% (n = 17. Os resultados não reagentes foram considerados como doença febril aguda indiferenciada (DFI em 70.8% dos casos

  6. 中国2011-2014年发热伴血小板减少综合征流行特征分析%Epidemiological analysis on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome under the national surveillance data from 2011 to 2014, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昱; 周航; 牟笛; 殷文武; 余宏杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features and surveillance management programs on severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China from 2011 to 2014.Methods The analysis of epidemiological characteristics and surveillance management programs was based on the annual reporting data collected from the National Disease Reporting Information System while the description of cluster incidents was based on those reports collected from the Public Health Emergency Information Management System (PHEIMS).Association between age groups and fatality rate was tested under the Cochran-Armitage Trend Test.The difference of fatality rates between differing groups was analyzed,using the chi-square test,with statistical significance on α=0.05.Results Between 2011 and 2014,5 352 suspected,probable and lab-confirmed cases of SFTS were reported in 23 provinces,of which 16 provinces reported 2 750 lab-confirmed cases with a fatality of 7.9%,accounting for 51.4% of all the cases,nation-wide.Henan,Shandong,Hubei,Anhui,Liaoning,Zhejiang and Jiangsu reported 99.3% of those lab-confirmed cases.The period between April and October appeared the epidemic season,with its peak from May to July.Most cases were farmers,accounted for 88.3% of the lab-confirmed cases.People at the age between 50-74 occupied 67.6% of all the cases.Fatality of the disease continually increased from 3.7% in the age group 40-44 to 13.5% in the age group older than 80.Fatality rates appeared statistically different between the groups with or without misdiagnosis,with OR as 3.06 (95%CI:1.61-5.90).Secondary cases of the cluster incidents were most likely to result from contacting the blood of the index cases.Conclusion Number of reported SFTS cases showed a rising trend in China.Henan,Hubei,Anhui,Shandong and Liaoning provinces appeared at high risk of the disease.Geographical distribution of the SFTS cases' seemed highly sporadic,with May to July being the peak season.Farmers and elderly

  7. SCORPIO - WWER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institut for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(Authors)

  8. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institutt for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators, which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including VVERs. The main differences between VVERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a VVER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(author)

  9. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  10. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  11. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  12. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  13. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  14. A Novel Video Surveillance System Based on Multimedia Messaging Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandramathi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s communication world ensures that anybody can communicate to anyone anywhere anytime across the globe. The new mobile communication systems include not only voice but also data and video messages. Natural way to communicate is to send and receive messages. Multimedia messaging are essential drivers for continuous growth in new services beyond voice. In this study, multimedia messaging services available in the video cell phones are used for constructing a prototype video surveillance system. In this study, such a system is desired to monitor an area continuously and to capture the hazardous momentary event and to send this video image to the user as an MMS or as an email immediately. Since the SMS can only give the message but not the image, MMS and email messaging systems are chosen in this work. Extensive simulation and experiments were carried out and it is found that MMS can be applied for video surveillance system.

  15. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  16. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK BASED CONVEYOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  17. Ambient Surveillance by Probabilistic-Possibilistic Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method for quantifying ambient surveillance is presented, which is based on probabilistic-possibilistic perception. The human surveillance of a scene through observing camera sensed images on a monitor is modeled in three steps. First immersion of the observer is simulated by modeling perception o

  18. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television (CCTV)…

  19. Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Esmailnasab, N; G. Moradi; A Delaveri

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a common nmetabolic ndisorder, which leads to early Cardio Vascular Disease and diabetes type II. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Kurdistan, Iran. Method: The data was extracted from provincial section of Iranian national non-communicable surveillance survey conducted in 2005. The study was a population-based survey with multi-stage cluster sampling method. Adult Treatment Panel-III measures ...

  20. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report results from a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. Due to new developments in microelectronics and related software an approach to LMFBR core surveillance can be conceived that combines a number of measurements into a more intelligent decision-making data processing system. The following techniques are considered to contribute essentially to an integrated core surveillance system: - subassembly state and thermal hydraulics performance monitoring, - temperature noise analysis, - acoustic core surveillance, - failure characterization and failure prediction based on DND- and cover gas signals, and - flux tilting techniques. Starting from a description of these techniques it is shown that by combination and correlation of these individual techniques a higher degree of cost-effectiveness, reliability and accuracy can be achieved. (orig./GL)

  1. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Verhoef, J.; Jansen, W. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be longitud......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies, be...... various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... development of antibiotic resistance....

  2. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  3. Improved Global Capacity for Influenza Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outin-Blenman, Sajata; Moen, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2004–2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4–9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world. PMID:27192395

  4. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389614

  5. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  6. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  7. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by...... peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications...

  8. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1978. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1978 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and groundwater, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  10. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  11. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  12. Classical presentation of Gardner's syndrome in an Indian patient: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Verma; Varun Surya; Sonali Kadam; Umarji, Hemant R.

    2016-01-01

    Gardner's syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the presence of colonic polyposis, osteomas, and a multitude of soft-tissue tumors. Dental anomalies are present in estimated 30% of all affected individuals of Gardner's syndrome, so dental professionals play an important role in determining the early signs of the syndrome. The intestinal polyps have a 100% risk of undergoing malignant transformation if not treated thus, early diagnosis and regular surveillance are importan...

  13. Concepts for risk-based surveillance in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary public health: Review of current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopf Lea

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging animal and zoonotic diseases and increasing international trade have resulted in an increased demand for veterinary surveillance systems. However, human and financial resources available to support government veterinary services are becoming more and more limited in many countries world-wide. Intuitively, issues that present higher risks merit higher priority for surveillance resources as investments will yield higher benefit-cost ratios. The rapid rate of acceptance of this core concept of risk-based surveillance has outpaced the development of its theoretical and practical bases. Discussion The principal objectives of risk-based veterinary surveillance are to identify surveillance needs to protect the health of livestock and consumers, to set priorities, and to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. An important goal is to achieve a higher benefit-cost ratio with existing or reduced resources. We propose to define risk-based surveillance systems as those that apply risk assessment methods in different steps of traditional surveillance design for early detection and management of diseases or hazards. In risk-based designs, public health, economic and trade consequences of diseases play an important role in selection of diseases or hazards. Furthermore, certain strata of the population of interest have a higher probability to be sampled for detection of diseases or hazards. Evaluation of risk-based surveillance systems shall prove that the efficacy of risk-based systems is equal or higher than traditional systems; however, the efficiency (benefit-cost ratio shall be higher in risk-based surveillance systems. Summary Risk-based surveillance considerations are useful to support both strategic and operational decision making. This article highlights applications of risk-based surveillance systems in the veterinary field including food safety. Examples are provided for risk-based hazard selection, risk

  14. Methods to detect avian inlfuenza virus for food safety surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ping; Shu Geng; LI Ting-ting; LI Yu-shui; FENG Ting; WU Hua-nan

    2015-01-01

    Avian inlfuenza (AI), caused by the inlfuenza A virus, has been a global concern for public health. AI outbreaks not only impact the poultry production, but also give rise to a risk in food safety caused by viral contamination of poultry products in the food supply chain. Distinctions in AI outbreak between strains H5N1 and H7N9 indicate that early detection of the AI virus in poultry is crucial for the effective warning and control of AI to ensure food safety. Therefore, the establishment of a poultry surveilance system for food safety by early detection is urgent and critical. In this article, methods to detect AI virus, including current methods recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (Ofifce International des Epizooties, OIE) and novel techniques not commonly used or commercialized are reviewed and evaluated for feasibility of use in the poultry surveillance system. Conventional methods usualy applied for the purpose of AI diagnosis face some practical chalenges to establishing a comprehensive poultry surveilance program in the poultry supply chain. Diverse development of new technologies can meet the speciifc requirements of AI virus detec-tion in various stages or scenarios throughout the poultry supply chain where onsite, rapid and ultrasensitive methods are emphasized. Systematic approaches or integrated methods ought to be employed according to the application scenarios at every stage of the poultry supply chain to prevent AI outbreaks.

  15. Application of reliability-centered maintenance for surveillance interval extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) units 2 and 3 have both entered a nominal 24-month fuel cycle. The technical specifications for the containment area, containment high range, and containment airborne monitors currently include requirements for the performance of preventive maintenance (PM) at 18-month intervals. To avoid the need for an otherwise unnecessary unit shutdown, an evaluation was initiated to determine if surveillance intervals for technical specification PMs could be modified to support the 24-month fuel cycle. The basis for PM interval extension is derived from reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) methodology. This represents a new application of RCM that has been well received by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This methodology is being applied by Southern California Edison to several additional surveillance extensions. In the RCM methodology, the objective is to prescribe applicable and effective PM to ensure that a system or component will maintain its function and operability. The RCM analysis consists of an in-depth review of all related maintenance history and concentrates on operability failures and their method of detection. The combination of these two factors has proved to be an effective method of determining a surveillance's contribution to the goals of the PM program

  16. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments. PMID:25842000

  17. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  18. Applied Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Spencer G.

    Stratigraphy is a cornerstone of the Earth sciences. The study of layered rocks, especially their age determination and correlation, which are integral parts of stratigraphy, are key to fields as diverse as geoarchaeology and tectonics. In the Anglophile history of geology, in the early 1800s, the untutored English surveyor William Smith was the first practical stratigrapher, constructing a geological map of England based on his own applied stratigraphy. Smith has, thus, been seen as the first “industrial stratigrapher,” and practical applications of stratigraphy have since been essential to most of the extractive industries from mining to petroleum. Indeed, gasoline is in your automobile because of a tremendous use of applied stratigraphy in oil exploration, especially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Applied stratigraphy, thus, is a subject of broad interest to Earth scientists.

  19. Sequencing for Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases: from Laboratory to Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs have affected both human and animal populations throughout history, and can be grouped into four categories: 1 newly identified pathogens, 2 zoonotic pathogens, 3 pathogens or vectors adapted to new environments, and 4 pathogens with enhanced virulence. In recent decades, several EIDs have threatened the global community and drawn both public and scientific attention. These include human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, influenza strains H7N9 (bird flu and H1N1 (swine flu, Ebola virus disease, expanded multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, and most recently, Zika virus disease. These events underscore the need for comprehensive surveillance and quick response systems to combat today’s EIDs and prevent those of tomorrow.

  20. Acute Sin Nombre hantavirus infection without pulmonary syndrome, United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitsutani, P. T.; Denton, R. W.; Fritz, C. L.; Murray, R. A.; Todd, R. L.; Pape, W. J.; Wyatt Frampton, J.; Young, J C; Khan, A. S.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G.

    1999-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurs in most infections with Sin Nombre virus and other North American hantaviruses. We report five cases of acute hantavirus infection that did not fit the HPS case definition. The patients had characteristic prodromal symptoms without severe pulmonary involvement. These cases suggest that surveillance for HPS may need to be expanded.

  1. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  2. Laser technologies for on-site surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are situations, where video surveillance based on automated scene change detection systems may prove to be ineffective. In some cases, the changes in the image are too small to be properly detected. In others, false alarms are generated without objects (or people) moving. These alarms may be caused by changes in illumination, e.g., a faulty lamp or spurious reflections in places near water pools. Further, the absence of illumination during a blackout (whether it is caused by accident or on purpose) prevents cameras from their surveillance operation. There are high security installations for which it is necessary to introduce reliable, independent and effective sensors that can keep the surveillance work even during a blackout. Laser range scanners are electronic instruments measuring the distance from the instrument itself to the outside world along a specific direction. The type of the instrument to use depends on the range of distances to measure. The deflection of the laser beam (e.g., using a rotating mirror) enables the acquisition of the distance profiles of the surrounding premises in a very short time. Alarms are generated by comparing acquired distance measurements (organized as profiles - 2D Laser Surveillance, or in clouds of points - 3D Laser Surveillance) with previously acquired references. This is most effective for real-time detection of even small changes in the environment. The main feature of laser surveillance system is that it measures distances between the instrument itself and the real world, rather than measuring only appearance as video surveillance systems do. As such, any physical change occurring within the field of site of the laser instrument is immediately measured and detected. The fact that laser systems are self-illuminating and do not depend on the external illumination make them quite effective to work during blackouts. The paper introduces laser surveillance and shows how such systems complement well already existing video

  3. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  4. Waardenburg syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, A P; Newton, V E

    1997-01-01

    Auditory-pigmentary syndromes are caused by physical absence of melanocytes from the skin, hair, eyes, or the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Dominantly inherited examples with patchy depigmentation are usually labelled Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Type I WS, characterised by dystopia canthorum, is caused by loss of function mutations in the PAX3 gene. Type III WS (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome, with abnormalities of the arms) is an extreme presentation of type I; some but not all patients are ho...

  5. Sweet Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; Sever, Lale; Çalışkan, Salim; Kodakoğlu, Ramazan; Mat, Cem; Kaner, Gültekin; Arısoy, Nil

    1996-01-01

    Sweet syndrome is a vasculitis characterized with fever leucocytosis neutrophilia and dermal neutrophilic infiltration In children Sweet syndrome usually occurs with secondary to infection and in adults to malignancy We report a Sweet syndrome in a five years old girl with respiratory infections otitis dactylitis long lasting fever and cutaneous rash A neutrophilic dermal infiltration is noted in cutaneous biopsy These signs have disappeared with corticosteroid treatment In conclusion Sweet s...

  6. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  7. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  8. Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is characterized by sudden death associated with one of several ECG patterns including incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads. According to the ECG patterns there are three types of Brugada syndrome. Brugada syndrome is genetically determined and has an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission in about 50% of familial cases. Nowadays implantation of cardioverter-defibrillator is the only proven method of sudden cardiac death prevention.

  9. Velocardiofacial syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, A. C.; Super, M.

    1997-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is a syndrome of multiple anomalies that include cleft palate, cardiac defects, learning difficulties, speech disorder and characteristic facial features. It has an estimated incidence of 1 in 5000. The majority of cases have a microdeletion of chromosome 22q11.2. The phenotype of this condition shows considerable variation, not all the principal features are present in each case. Identification of the syndrome can be difficult as many of the anomalies are minor and ...

  10. POST-OPERATIVE NEURODEVELOPMENTAL FINDINGS IN SYNDROMIC AND NON-SYNDROMIC CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Enayatollah ABBAS NEJAD; Mehdi NIKOOBAKHAT

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the developmental situation of children that undergo operation because of syndromic and non-syndromic craniosynostosis.Materials & MethodsIn this prospective study, 24 children (4 to 16 months of age) who underwent neurosurgeryical intervention because of non-syndromic (79%) and syndromic (21%) craniosynostosis were recruited. For psychological evaluation, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II) was applied one month before and one year after surg...

  11. Sheehan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postpartum hypopituitarism; Postpartum pituitary insufficiency; Hypopituitarism Syndrome ... Malee MP. Pituitary and adrenal disorders in pregnancy. In: Gabbe ... Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  12. State of the reactor vessel surveillance programs in Korea and foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Kyu; Hwang, Jong Keun; Park, Keon Woo; Kim, Bum Sik; Jeong, Kyung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    ASTM standards are dominating all over the world in the field of the reactor vessel surveillance program. They are mainly used directly or that the national standards in use correspond quite well with ASTM. According to, however, increasing concerns about the protection of environment and safety of nuclear plant, various approaches to establish and reinforce the national standards are made actively in Europe. In addition, some methods to share the nuclear data by integrating the existing test, analysis procedures and units system are considered. For nuclear plants in Korea, MOST Notice No. 92-20 should be applied for all PWRs after UCN units 3 and 4 since it was promulgated at Dec. 1992. The notice almost reflects the contents of ASTM E 185. But, the notice has much to be desired to provide the technical back-ground for reactor vessel surveillance program because it is not a standard such as ASTM or ASME code but regulation such as CFR or RG. Several Korean Standards are also used in limited area of the surveillance program. Therefore, practical requirements and rules for surveillance program are in accordance with the ASTM and CFR. In this report, the state of application of the standards to the surveillance program in Korea and Europe are reviewed and their national standards re compared with US standards or regulations. Current level and the future prospect of surveillance technology for PWR vessel are discussed at this point of view. 15 tabs., 12 figs., 38 refs. (Author).

  13. What Is Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NDSS Home » Down Syndrome » What Is Down Syndrome? What Is Down Syndrome? In every cell in the ... chromosome 21 causes the characteristics of Down syndrome. What Causes Down Syndrome? Regardless of the type of ...

  14. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Marfan Syndrome KidsHealth > For Teens > Marfan Syndrome Print A ... a genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, ...

  15. Down Syndrome: Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Read in Chinese What causes Down syndrome? Down syndrome is caused by a duplication of all ... in persons with Down syndrome. How common is Down syndrome? The frequency of Down syndrome is approximately 1 ...

  16. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  17. Applied mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.C.; Hausen, D.M.; Hagni, R.D. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    A conference on applied mineralogy was held and figures were presented under the following headings: methodology (including image analysis); ore genesis; exploration; beneficiations (including precious metals); process mineralogy - low and high temperatures; and medical science applications. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  18. Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in China from 2006 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Fang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (HTSE, or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, is a group of rare and fatal diseases in central nervous system. Since outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE and variant CJD, a worldwide CJD surveillance network has been established under the proposition of WHO. In China, a national CJD surveillance system has started since 2002. The data of CJD surveillance from 2006 to 2007 was analyzed. Methods Total 12 provinces are included in CJD surveillance system. The surveillance unit in each province consists of one or two sentinel hospitals and the provincial CDC. All suspected CJD cases reported from CJD surveillance were diagnosed and subtyped based on the diagnostic criteria for CJD issued by WHO. Results Total 192 suspected CJD cases were reported and 5 genetic CJD, 51 probable and 30 possible sporadic CJD (sCJD cases were diagnosed. The collected sCJD cases distribute sporadically without geographical clustering and seasonal relativity and the highest incidences in both probable and possible sCJD cases appeared in the group of 60–69 year. The most common three foremost symptoms were progressive dementia, cerebellum and mental-related symptoms. The probable sCJD patients owning both typical EEG alteration and CSF protein 14-3-3 positive have more characteristic clinical syndromes than the ones having only one positive. The polymorphisms of codon 129 of all tested reported cases shows typical patterns of Han Chinese as previous reports, that M129M are predominant whereas M129V are seldom. Conclusion Chinese CJD patients possessed similar epidemiological and clinical characteristics as worldwide.

  19. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  20. Double-balloon endoscopy and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a new look at an old disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Stephanie; Snowberger, Noel; Demarco, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare disease characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation and intestinal hamartomatous polyposis. Life-threatening complications include intestinal obstruction and increased risk of gastrointestinal malignancies. While colonoscopy continues to serve as the gold standard for examination of the colon, newer techniques such as capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) are now being applied to both treatment and surveillance of this disease. Capsule endoscopy serves as a minimally invasive means of locating and characterizing polyps in symptomatic patients but is limited to detection only. DBE allows physicians to visit areas of the small bowel that were previously unreachable by older techniques and to treat lesions that are found. By using DBE to treat polyposis, hemorrhagic ulcers, angiodysplasia, strictures, and cancers, the number of small bowel resections can be decreased in these patients. PMID:17106494

  1. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  2. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lau, Eric HY

    2011-01-01

    Background: Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective: The aims of the study we...

  3. Disease surveillance in England and Wales, June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Targeted surveillance for bluetongue virus beginsHighlights from the scanning surveillance networkUpdate on international disease threatsMonitoring of colistin resistance in pigs in scanning surveillance submissions These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) June disease surveillance report. PMID:27365239

  4. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  5. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  6. Public Health Surveillance for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive surveillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease prevalence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to integrate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures to the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys and depression measures to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; other data collection systems have been similarly enhanced. Ongoing challenges to integration include variations in interview protocols, use of different measures of behavior and disease, different interval reference periods, inclusion of substance abuse disorders, dichotomous vs continuous variables, and approaches to data collection. Future directions can address linking surveillance efforts more closely to the needs of state programs, increasing child health measurements in surveys, and improving knowledge dissemination from survey analyses.

  7. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  8. Donning and doffing PPE for HPAI surveillance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instructions describing the proper donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) surveillance. This protocol...

  9. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  10. [Health surveillance: foundations, interfaces and tendencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaza, Antonio Luis Vicente; de Moraes, José Cássio

    2010-07-01

    The present article rescues initially the forms, content and operational projection of the epidemiological surveillance as indispensable tool for the knowledge field and public health practices. After that, we verify that the health surveillance model establishes an enlargement of this operational concept of surveillance by integrating the collectives and individuals practices in different health necessities dimensions, which includes beyond of the risks and damages control also the eco-socials determinants. In the sequence, we search to dimension the distinct levels of actuation of this sanitary practice articulated to the interventions of promotion, protection and recovery under a located and integrated logic of the unique system of Brazilian health. Finally, we argue that all the conceptual-operational model framework of public health surveillance itself constitutes as a politics and sanitary base for the consolidation of the health promotion paradigm in the collective health field. PMID:20694344

  11. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  12. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  13. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  14. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  15. Immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Niranjana A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2013-09-01

    The ER aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing, ERAAP (or ERAP1), is essential for trimming peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules. ERAP1 is inhibited by human cytomegalovirus, and ERAP1 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases. How the immune system detects ERAAP dysfunction, however, is unknown. We have shown previously that ERAAP-deficient cells present an immunogenic pMHC I repertoire, that elicits CD8+ T cell response in WT mice. Additionally, we discovered that the WT CD8+ T cells recognized novel peptides presented by non-classical, or MHC class Ib, molecules on ERAAP-deficient cells. The MHC Ib restricted WT CD8 T cells eliminated ERAAP-deficient cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified the FL9 peptide, presented by Qa-1(b), a MHC class Ib molecule exclusively on ERAAP-deficient cells. Remarkably, T cells specific for the FL9-Qa-1(b) complex were frequent in naïve WT mice, and had an antigen-experienced phenotype. Thus, novel non-classical pQa-1(b) complexes direct cytotoxic T cells to target cells with defective peptide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings, and the possible roles of pMHC Ib-specific T cells in immune surveillance for ERAAP dysfunction. PMID:23433779

  16. Detection and surveillance by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel with the conventional methods used for detecting nuclear explosions and revealing signs of proliferation and, as a consequence, the monitoring of human activities. Among the main advantages of satellites is their ability to carry out non-intrusive observations of any part of the Earth's surface at all times, while remaining in full compliance with legal requirements. Satellite-based detection is based on the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and various optical effects. The modification of signals as they traverse the atmosphere and ionosphere should also be taken into account, but such changes in no way hinder the detection. Ultra-high frequencies are the most suitable for detection since they are less affected by the ionosphere. Signals propagated in this way are characteristic and can be distinguished from those due to lightning storms. However, some important questions arise because of the recent discovery of a new type of lightning which propagates from the tops of clouds towards the ionosphere. The electromagnetic signal in some respects is similar to that produced by an explosion. Site surveillance depends on the analysis and processing of satellite imagery such as obtained by SPOT, Landsat or ERSI. More precise measurements obtained by interferometry (ERSI) enable the observation of small-amplitude strains with can lead to the discrimination of natural seismic events from nuclear explosions. (authors)

  17. At-Risk Populations for Osteosarcoma: The Syndromes and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. Calvert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Most cases are sporadic without a known genetic or environmental cause. Heritable genetic predisposition syndromes are associated with a small percentage of osteosarcomas. Study of these rare disorders has provided insight into the molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Screening of at-risk families and surveillance of affected individuals for these syndromes may permit earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment of osteosarcoma in these populations. This paper reviews the genetic and clinical features of the known osteosarcoma predisposition syndromes.

  18. Molecular biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis and their role in surveillance and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcea, G; Sharma, R A; Dennison, A; Steward, W P; Gescher, A; Berry, D P

    2003-05-01

    Modern medicine is increasingly focused towards population surveillance for disease, coupled with the implementation of preventative measures applied to 'at-risk' patients. Surveillance in colorectal cancer is limited by the cost and risk of endoscopy. Trials of putative chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer are hampered by difficulties in following up large cohorts of patients over long periods of time to ascertain the clinical effect. Research into possible pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis has revealed a range of biological intermediates which could be used in surveillance, the identification of high risk populations and early diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this paper was to review the possible role of biomarkers in surveillance and the timing of intervention. A literature review using both Medline and Web of Science was performed from 1995 onwards using keywords: biomarkers, colorectal cancer, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, surveillance and screening. Research has identified many potential biomarkers, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative DNA adducts and glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms, which could be applied in a clinical setting to screen for and detect colorectal cancer. Molecular biomarkers, such as COX-2, oxidative DNA adducts and GST polymorphisms offer new prospects in the detection of early colorectal cancer, surveillance of high-risk populations and prediction of the clinical effectiveness of chemopreventive drugs. Their role could be extended into surgical surveillance for potentially operable disease and post-operative follow-up for disease recurrence. Research should be directed at assessing complementary biomarkers to increase clinical effectiveness in determining management options for patients. PMID:12736102

  19. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K. Gupta, Ritu Gupta, Sunil Dutt Sharma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turner Syndrome is one of the important chromosomal disorders characterised by loss (total or part ofsex chromosome. The manifestations being peripheral edema, short stature, extra skin fold, webbing ofneck, renal and cardiovascular anomalies, sexual infantilism, learning disability etc. We present here aone month female baby who had classical features of Turner Syndrome. The karyotape analysis wasconsistent with the diagnosis.

  20. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan AB.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is an important cause of short stature in girls and primer amenorrhea in young women that is usually caused by loss of part or all of an X chromosome. This topic will review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome.

  1. Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Kathy

    Tourette Syndrome has a history of being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed due to its unusual and complex symptoms. This paper describes: the symptoms of Tourette Syndrome; its etiology; age of onset; therapeutic methods, such as drug therapy, psychotherapy, diet control, and hypnosis; educational implications; and employment prospects. Several…

  2. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep;

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  3. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  4. Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panov, Nenad; Stojanov, H; Sumanov, Gorgi; Panova, Blagica; Stojanovski, Angel; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Trajanovski, D; Asanova, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing work responsibilities, allocation of duties, loss of energy and motivation in everyday activities, emotional exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, insuffi cient time for rest and recreation, dissatisfaction in private life. All these symptoms can be cause of Burnout Syndrome. Aim: To see the importance of this syndrome, the consequences of job dissatisfaction, the environment, family and expression in drastic chan...

  5. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  6. Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K. Digra, Deep Aman Singh, Vikram Gupta, Ghanshyam Saini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a 11 year old boy and his father both Noonan’s. Noonan syndrome occurs in 1 out of 2000live births. Short stature, webbing of neck, pectus carinatum or pectus excavatum, hypertelorismcubitus valgus, epicanthus, downward slanted palpebral fissures, ptosis, microganthia and earabnormalities are the common features of Noonan syndrome.

  7. Bloom's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III ... Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A Spinal Muscular Atrophy Tay-Sachs Disease Usher Syndrome, Type 1F and Type III ...

  8. INTERPOL's surveillance network in curbing transnational terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Gardeazabal, Javier; Sandler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that INTERPOL surveillance – the Mobile INTERPOL Network Database (MIND) and the Fixed INTERPOL Network Database (FIND) – played in the War on Terror since its inception in 2005. MIND/FIND surveillance allows countries to screen people and documents systematically at border crossings against INTERPOL databases on terrorists, fugitives, and stolen and lost travel documents. Such documents have been used in the past by terrorists to transit borders. By applyi...

  9. Video Surveillance: Activities in a Cell Area

    OpenAIRE

    Thummanapalli, Shashidhar Rao; Kotla, Savarkar

    2015-01-01

    Considering todays growing society and developing technologies which are co-influential between each other, there is a larger scope of security concerns, traffic congestion due to improper planning and hence a greater need of more intelligent video surveillance. In this thesis, we have worked on developing such intelligent video surveillance system which mainly focusses on cell area such as parking spaces. The system operates on outdoor environment with a stationary camera; the main objective...

  10. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  11. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities

  12. Parallax-Robust Surveillance Video Stitching

    OpenAIRE

    Botao He; Shaohua Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallax-robust video stitching technique for timely synchronized surveillance video. An efficient two-stage video stitching procedure is proposed in this paper to build wide Field-of-View (FOV) videos for surveillance applications. In the stitching model calculation stage, we develop a layered warping algorithm to align the background scenes, which is location-dependent and turned out to be more robust to parallax than the traditional global projective warping methods. ...

  13. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  14. Workplace surveillance, privacy protection, and efficiency wages

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Patrick W

    2005-01-01

    Consider an employer who wants her employee to work hard. As is well known from the efficiency wage literature, the employer must pay the (wealth-constrained) employee a positive rent to provide incentives for exerting unobservable effort. Alternatively, the employer could make effort observable by costly workplace surveillance. It is argued that a privacy protection law preventing surveillance may increase the total surplus. While such a law reduces the employer?s profit, this loss can be ov...

  15. Tank Farm Operations Surveillance Automation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARQUEZ, D.L.

    2000-12-21

    The Nuclear Operations Project Services identified the need to improve manual tank farm surveillance data collection, review, distribution and storage practices often referred to as Operator Rounds. This document provides the analysis in terms of feasibility to improve the manual data collection methods by using handheld computer units, barcode technology, a database for storage and acquisitions, associated software, and operational procedures to increase the efficiency of Operator Rounds associated with surveillance activities.

  16. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  17. Utility of the ESSENCE Surveillance System in Monitoring the H1N1 Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtry, Rekha S; Hung, Lang M; Lewis, Sheri H

    2010-01-01

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE) enables health care practitioners to detect and monitor health indicators of public health importance. ESSENCE is used by public health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR); a cross-jurisdictional data sharing agreement has allowed cooperative health information sharing in the region since 2004. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the NCR from 2008 are compared to those of 2009. Important differences in the rates, timing, and demographic composition of ILI visits were found. By monitoring a regional surveillance system, public health practitioners had an increased ability to understand the magnitude and character of different ILI outbreaks. This increased ability provided crucial community-level information on which to base response and control measures for the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. This report underscores the utility of automated surveillance systems in monitoring community-based outbreaks. There are several limitations in this study that are inherent with syndrome-based surveillance, including utilizing chief complaints versus confirmed laboratory data, discerning real disease versus those healthcare-seeking behaviors driven by panic, and reliance on visit counts versus visit rates. PMID:23569593

  18. Barriers to, Efforts in, and Optimization of Integrated One Health Surveillance: A Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchtmann, Nathaniel; Herrmann, John Arthur; Hahn, Edwin C; Beasley, Val Richard

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient data from existing surveillance systems underlie societal tolerance of acute and slow-onset health disasters that threaten, harm, and kill vast numbers of humans, animals, and plants. Here we describe barriers to integrated "One Health" surveillance, including those related to a lack of medical services, professional divisions, incompatible vocabularies, isolated data sets, and territorial borders. We draw from publications of experts who justify broader and more integrated surveillance, education, and stewardship focused on preventing and mitigating disease emergence and re-emergence. In addition, we highlight efforts from Illinois, the United States and the broader world, pointing to examples of relevant education; ways to acquire, compile, and analyze diagnostic and syndromic data; mapping of diseases of humans and animals; and rapid communication of findings and recommendations. For the future, we propose using needed outcomes for health and sustainability to set priorities for One Health programs of education, surveillance, and stewardship. Professionals and paraprofessionals should gather, interpret, and widely communicate the implications of data, not only on infectious diseases, but also on toxic agents, malnutrition, ecological damage, the grave impacts of warfare, societal drivers underlying these problems, and the effectiveness of specific countermeasures. PMID:25894955

  19. Reviewing surveillance activities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides guidance to Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs) for reviewing surveillance activities at a nuclear power plant. In addition, the document contains reference material to support the review of surveillance activities, to assist within the Technical Support area and to ensure consistency between individual reviews. Drafts of the document have already been used on several OSART missions and found to be useful. The document first considers the objectives of an excellent surveillance programme. Investigations to determine the quality of the surveillance programme are then discussed. The attributes of an excellent surveillance programme are listed. Advice follows on how to phrase questions so as to obtain an informative response on surveillance features. Finally, specific equipment is mentioned that should be considered when reviewing functional tests. Four annexes provide examples drawn from operating nuclear power plants. They were selected to supplement the main text of the document with the best international practices as found in OSART reviews. They should in no way limit the acceptance and development of alternative approaches that lead to equivalent or better results. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Performance Measurement System: surveillance guide. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, Eric S.

    1976-03-30

    The guide provides uniform guidance for the Reactor Development and Demonstration Division (RDD) and other Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) organizations responsible for surveillance of the RDD Performance Measurement System (PMS) criteria for cost and schedule control systems. Guidance for implementation of the PMS criteria and acceptance of a contractor's management control system is provided in RDD/PMS-2, PMS Implementation Guide. The procedural guidance contained in the guide should be adapted to specific organizational structures and to specific situations as they arise. Details concerning the PMS surveillance of each contractor's management control system should be developed by the Cognizant Contracting Office (CCO), coordinated with the Cognizant Federal Auditor (CFA), and agreed upon by RDD Project Management. Any procedures employed should be consistent with the guidance contained herein and in the PMS Implementation Guide. The guidance furnished will provide assistance to: (1) RDD Project Management in formulating surveillance plans and determining resource requirements; (2) RDD surveillance personnel in accomplishing their surveillance functions; and (3) contractors in understanding the requirements of the surveillance program and responding to them.

  1. Surveillance from all angles? Some observations and comments

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschfield, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Surveillance activity may take the form of visual surveillance using CCTV, electronic surveillance of people (e.g. tagging of offenders) and items of property (e.g. tracking devices in vehicles) and voice surveillance (e.g. voice recognition software). Surveillance can also be targeted at individuals (potential victims of crime, offenders), items of property worn or carried by individuals (e.g. clothing, bags), other property (e.g. buildings, vehicles, goods) and places (towns ...

  2. NATIONAL IMPACTS OF CHANGES IN LIVESTOCK DISEASE SURVEILLANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Hillberg Seitzinger; Paarlberg, Philip L.; Kenneth H. Mathews, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This research estimates the U.S. economic welfare effects of livestock disease surveillance. One type of surveillance considers livestock diseases already in the United States. Annual national economic welfare increases $1.4 billion on average compared with a Federal surveillance budget for endemic diseases of $300 million annually. Other surveillance deals with reducing the risk of foreign animal diseases entering and becoming established. The estimated annual gain to producers from surveill...

  3. Discovery of predictive models in an injury surveillance database: an application of data mining in clinical research.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, J. H.; Durbin, D R; Winston, F. K.

    2000-01-01

    A new, evolutionary computation-based approach to discovering prediction models in surveillance data was developed and evaluated. This approach was operationalized in EpiCS, a type of learning classifier system specially adapted to model clinical data. In applying EpiCS to a large, prospective injury surveillance database, EpiCS was found to create accurate predictive models quickly that were highly robust, being able to classify > 99% of cases early during training. After training, EpiCS cla...

  4. Using the two-source capture–recapture method to estimate the incidence and case ascertainment of congenital rubella syndrome in Australia, 1993–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolee Martin; David Durrheim; Gulam Khandaker; Michelle Butler; Cheryl Jones

    2016-01-01

    To verify rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) elimination, countries need to ensure that their surveillance systems are sufficiently sensitive to capture almost all cases. This study aims to estimate the incidence of CRS in Australia and the sensitivity of CRS case ascertainment in the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System.

  5. Determination and evaluation of the mechanical properties of specimens in commercial LWR pressure vessel surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the requirements for a surveillance capsule program including types of mechanical property and neutron dosimetry specimens. Typical facilities used in a hot laboratory for testing specimens are presented. The types of data generated from mechanical property and neutron dosimetry specimens are discussed. In addition, the manner in which the generated data is evaluated and applied to a plant is described

  6. Foucault and the Architecture of Surveillance: Creating Regimes of Power in Schools, Shrines, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    Michel Foucault's critical studies concerning regimes of power are of special interest when applied to architecture. In particular, he warned of the hazards of building surveillance into architectural structures for the purpose of monitoring people and took as his historical exemplar English philosopher Jeremy Bentham's "Panopticon," a structure…

  7. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2013-10-01

    current status of WNV in mosquito populations across Europe and how this is informing our understanding of virus epidemiology. Key findings such as detection of virus, presence of vector species and invasive mosquito species are summarized, and some of the difficulties encountered when applying a cost-effective surveillance programme are highlighted.

  8. Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, P M; Makambwa, E

    2015-10-01

    Kounis syndrome is characterised by a group of symptoms that manifest as unstable vasospastic or non-vasospastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. It was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and coronary artery spasm or even myocardial infarction. Since then, this condition has evolved to include a number of mast cell activation disorders associated with acute coronary syndrome. There are many triggering factors, including reactions to multiple medications, exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome comprises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital organs. The incidence of this condition is difficult to establish owing to the number of potential instigating factors and its relatively infrequent documentation in the literature.We report the case of an HIV-negative 39-year-old man with no coronary risk factors or family history of premature coronary artery disease, who developed Kounis syndrome after the administration of fluoroquinolone for dysuria. However, to the best of our knowledge,no data on the incidence and prevalence of Kounis syndrome in South Africa have ever been reported in the literature. The recent understanding of Kounis syndrome has led to the condition being classified into three syndrome variants. PMID:26636160

  9. Correlation between national influenza surveillance data and google trends in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjin Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. METHODS: Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC influenza-like illness (ILI and virologic surveillance system. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the national surveillance and the Google Trends data for the overall period and for 5 influenza seasons. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient between the KCDC ILI and virologic surveillance data was 0.72 (p<0.05. The highest correlation was between the Google Trends query of H1N1 and the ILI data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.53 (p<0.05, for the overall study period. When compared with the KCDC virologic data, the Google Trends query of bird flu had the highest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 (p<0.05 in the 2010-11 season. The following queries showed a statistically significant correlation coefficient compared with ILI data for three consecutive seasons: Tamiflu (r = 0.59, 0.86, 0.90, p<0.05, new flu (r = 0.64, 0.43, 0.70, p<0.05 and flu (r = 0.68, 0.43, 0.77, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found that the Google Trends for certain queries using the survey on influenza correlated with national surveillance data in South Korea. The results of this study showed that Google Trends in the Korean language can be used as complementary data for influenza surveillance but was insufficient for the use of predictive models, such as Google Flu Trends.

  10. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  11. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed

  12. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  13. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  14. HYDROLETHALUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydrolethalus Syndrome (HLS is a rare lethal genetic syndrome, recognized as a consequence of a study on Meckle syndrome in Finland .1 HLS is characterized by multiple developmental defects of fetus which include fetal hydrocephalus, agenesis of corpus callosum, absent midline structures of brain, Cleft lip and cleft palate, defective lobulation of lungs, micrognathia and very characteristic abnormality of polydactyly. About 80% of patients have polydactyly, in hands it is postaxial and preaxial in feet with duplicated big toe. A highly characteristic hallux duplex is seen in almost no other situation .2 Club feet is also common.

  15. Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Ruth H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuroacanthocytosis (NA syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome which have a Huntington´s disease-like phenotype consisting of a choreatic movement disorder, psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline, and additional multi-system features including myopathy and axonal neuropathy. In addition, cardiomyopathy may occur in McLeod syndrome. Acanthocytes are also found in a proportion of patients with autosomal dominant Huntington's disease-like 2, autosomal recessive pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and several inherited disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, namely abetalipoproteinemia (Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome and hypobetalipoproteinemia leading to vitamin E malabsorption. The latter disorders are characterized by a peripheral neuropathy and sensory ataxia due to dorsal column degeneration, but movement disorders and cognitive impairment are not present. NA syndromes are caused by disease-specific genetic mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations cause neurodegeneration is not known. The association of the acanthocytic membrane abnormality with selective degeneration of the basal ganglia, however, suggests a common pathogenetic pathway. Laboratory tests include blood smears to detect acanthocytosis and determination of serum creatine kinase. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging may demonstrate striatal atrophy. Kell and Kx blood group antigens are reduced or absent in McLeod syndrome. Western blot for chorein demonstrates absence of this protein in red blood cells of chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Specific genetic testing is possible in all NA syndromes

  16. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xia (Vivian); Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured – i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)...

  17. Solid state track recorder pressure vessel surveillance neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid State Track Recorder neutron dosimetry methods developed under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Dosimetry Improvement Program have been applied for pressure vessel surveillance dosimetry at commercial nuclear power reactors. More than 800 SSTR neutron dosimeters have been deployed at twelve different power reactors during twenty-two cycles of operation. More than 300 SSTR have been analyzed, and results with uncertainties in the 2-5% range have been generally obtained. Several new areas of application of SSTRs for radiation damage assessment for safe routine operation or extended life operation of power reactors are planned and these applications are discussed. (author). 14 refs

  18. Ion chromatographic determination of transition metals in irradiated nuclear reactor surveillance samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, I

    1996-02-01

    The determination of transition metal ions in radioactive (+/-25 microCi/g) low-alloy steels (nuclear reactor surveillance samples) by ion chromatography (IC) is described. The analysis has been done directly without prior separation of the iron matrix. The eluted metal ions have been detected with a UV-visible spectrophotometric detector after post-column complexation with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The results are in a good agreement with the certified values for the standard reference material used. The method was applied to nuclear reactor surveillance samples for the determination of Cu, Mn, Co and Ni. PMID:15048428

  19. Lesson Eight Preexcitation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 吴文烈

    2003-01-01

    @@ The most frequently encountered type of ventricular preexcitation is that1 associated with AV bypass tracts.These connections are composed of2 strands of atrial-like muscle which may occur almost anywhere around the AV ring s.T he term Wolff-Parkinson-White(WPW) syndrome is applied to patients with both preexcitation on the ECG and paroxysmal tachycardias. AV bypass tracts can be associated with certain congenital abnormalities,the most important of which3 is Ebstein's anomaly.

  20. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  1. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each. PMID:20665025

  2. Piriformis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wallet sciatica; Hip socket neuropathy; Pelvic outlet syndrome; Low back pain - piriformis ... medical help immediately if: You have sudden severe pain in your lower back or legs, along with muscle weakness or numbness ...

  3. Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infant with Rett syndrome usually has normal development for the first 6 to 18 months. Symptoms range from ... of social engagement Ongoing, severe constipation and gastroesophageal reflux (GERD ) Poor circulation that can lead to cold ...

  4. Gardner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndromes. For more information, talk with an assisted reproduction specialist at a fertility clinic. How common is ... detected X-ray or computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan of the small bowel if adenomas are ...

  5. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome occurs when this muscle presses on your sciatic nerve (the nerve that goes from your spinal cord ... cause the piriformis muscle to press against the sciatic nerve, such as sitting, walking up stairs or running. ...

  6. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caved-in look. He also wore glasses for myopia (say: my-OH-pee-uh), or nearsightedness, which ... syndrome, this "glue" is weaker than normal. This causes changes in many systems of the body, but ...

  7. Aase syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a provider who has experience treating anemias. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary if other treatment fails. ... counseling is recommended if you have a family history of this syndrome and wish to become pregnant.

  8. Hunter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your health care provider for more information. Bone marrow transplant has been tried for the early-onset form, ... to have children and who have a family history of Hunter syndrome. Prenatal testing is available. Carrier ...

  9. Hurler syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your health care provider for more information. Bone marrow transplant has been used in several people with this ... Call your provider if: You have a family history of Hurler syndrome and are considering having children ...

  10. [Heptopulmonary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Antonio; Díaz, Ainhoa; Iruzubieta, Paula; Salcines, José Ramón; Crespo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by the presence of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and arterial hypoxemia. It is usually associated with cirrhosis of any origin, but has been described in other liver diseases, both acute and chronic, and not always associated with portal hypertension. The gold standard method to detect pulmonary vascular dilations is contrast enhancement echocardiography with saline and is essential for the diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome. These dilatations reflect changes in the pulmonary microvasculature (vasodilatation, intravascular monocyte accumulation, and angiogenesis) and induce a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or even true intrapulmonary shunts, which eventually trigger hypoxemia. This syndrome worsens patients' prognosis and impairs their quality of life and may lead to the need for liver transplantation, which is the only effective and definitive treatment. In this article, we review the etiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic features of this syndrome. PMID:25840463

  11. Turcot Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure done in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It allows people who carry a specific known ... screening? If you are concerned about your family history and think your family may have Turcot syndrome, ...

  12. Levator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... are variations of levator syndrome. The muscle spasm causes pain that typically is not related to defecation. ...

  13. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health Search Search form Search A–Z Index Español Menu Home ... children, the thyroid is important for normal growth and development. Children with Pendred syndrome, however, rarely have problems ...

  14. Goodpasture syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glomerulonephritis with pulmonary hemorrhage; Pulmonary renal syndrome; Glomerulonephritis - pulmonary hemorrhage ... when urinating Nausea and vomiting Pale skin Swelling (edema) in any area of the body, especially in the legs

  15. Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methylphenidate and clonidine in children with ADHD and tics. Developing New Treatments for Tourette Syndrome: Clinical and Basic Science Dialogue Publicaciones en Español Síndrome de Tourette Prepared ...

  16. Alport Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome diagnosed? Your healthcare provider will have to watch your signs, symptoms, and look at your family ... 05/2016 - 10:00am Philadelphia, PA Kidney Camp Sun, 07/17/2016 - 6:00pm Ingleside, IL Register ...

  17. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie;

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart...

  18. [DIDMOAD syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicanoğlu, R; Canbakan, B; Yildiz, N; Arikan, E; Kundur, H; Bahtiyar, K; Sayali, E

    1994-01-01

    The DIDMOAD or so called Wolfram syndrome is a hereditary disease with autosomal-recessive transmission showing 4 main features: diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, nervus opticus atrophia and deafness. Beside this it shows multiple organ involvement. Our 38-year old male patient, showing all above mentioned features except deafness had urinary tract involvement and neurological symptoms. EEG, cerebral MRI, tests with evoked potentials and HLA-typing were performed to discuss the aetiopathogenetic background in our patient. Almost all symptoms of the Wolfram syndrome can be mixed up with complications of diabetes mellitus, which is usually the first symptom of the Wolfram syndrome. Because of this, wrong diagnosis is not rare. Hence in differential diagnosis in any diabetes mellitus type I patient, the possibility of the Wolfram syndrome should be discussed. PMID:8023526

  19. Heyde's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heyde's syndrome implies an association of calcified aortic stenosis with the high gradient of pressure and angiodysplasic bleeding from the digestive tract. It has been proven that in patients with this syndrome, acquired form of von Willebrand type II A develops. Replacing of aortic valves by artificial ones brings about the spontaneous retreat of coagulation disorder, and the stoppage of the digestive tract bleeding. Case report. We reported two patients with the Heyde's syndrome. In one of the patients the aortic valves were replaced by biologic valves, after which the digestive tract bleeding stopped, while the second patient was treated conservatively due to a high operation risk. Conclusion. Patients with Heyde's syndrome are a complex multidisciplinary problem, thus their adequate treatment requires a team work in order to provide the most rational type of therapy for each patient separately.

  20. Reifenstein syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male sex hormones (androgens). Testosterone is a male sex hormone. This disorder is a type of androgen insufficiency syndrome. ... Donohoue PA. Disorders of sex development. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ... J, Schor N, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . ...

  1. HELLP syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10 to ... have high blood pressure and are diagnosed with preeclampsia before they develop HELLP syndrome. In some cases, ...

  2. Prostate cancer: a review of active surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund L

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lars Lund,1,2 Niels Svolgaard,1 Mads Hvid Poulsen1 1Department of Urology, Odense University Hospital, 2Clinical Institute, Southern University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease can be followed with active surveillance. In 1995, the first prospective studies were initiated to assess the feasibility of active surveillance, in which the decision to intervene was determined by prostate-specific antigen and/or histological progression. The strategy was to provide therapy individualized to the biological behavior of the cancer. Clinical trials assessing active surveillance have usually included patients younger than 70 years of age, although the guidelines have changed over time for Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen, eg, doubling time, thereby changing the indication for active treatment. The present review focuses on patient selection, prospective studies reported in the literature, and future directions. Keywords: active surveillance, prostate cancer, prospective studies, review

  3. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  4. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS and two institution-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer Anna M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World Health Organization (WHO injury surveillance guidelines have been applied to evaluate systems operating in three different contexts. Methods The attributes of a good surveillance system as well as instructions for conducting evaluations, outlined in the WHO injury surveillance guidelines, were used to develop an analytical framework. Using this framework, a comparative analysis of the application of the guidelines was conducted using; the Aboriginal Community-Centered Injury Surveillance System (ACCISS from Canada, the Shantou-Emergency Department Injury Surveillance Project (S-EDISP from China, and the Yorkhill-Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (Y-CHIRPP imported from Canada and implemented in Scotland. Results The WHO guidelines provide only a basic platform for evaluation. The guidelines over emphasize epidemiologic attributes and methods and under emphasize public health and injury prevention perspectives requiring adaptation for context-based relevance. Evaluation elements related to the dissemination and use of knowledge, acceptability, and the sustainability of ISS are notably inadequate. From a public health perspective, alternative reference points are required for re-conceptualizing evaluation paradigms. This paper offers an ISS evaluation template that considers how the WHO guidelines could be adapted and applied. Conclusions Findings suggest that attributes of a good surveillance system, when used as evaluation metrics

  5. Kindler syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviarasan P; Prasad P; Shradda; Viswanathan P

    2005-01-01

    Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderm...

  6. Turner Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran Sudarshan; G Sree Vijayabala; KS Prem Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate th...

  7. Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes Pendred's syndrome in three siblings of a consanguineous marriage, belonging to Rahimyar Khan. The children presented with deafmutism and goiters. The investigations included scintigram, perchlorate discharge test and audiometery. The perchlorate discharge was positive in index case. Bilateral sensorineural hearing defect was detected on Pure Tone Average (PTA) audiometry. Meticulous clinical and laboratory evaluation is mandatory for the detection of rare disorders like Pendred's syndrome. (author)

  8. Repeated biopsies in prostate cancer patients on active surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Marcussen, Niels; Berg, Kasper Drimer;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical implications of interobserver variation in the assessment of re-biopsies obtained during active surveillance (AS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 107 low-risk prostate cancer patients with a total of 93 diagnostic biopsy sets and 109 re-biopsy sets were...... included. The ISUP 2005 Gleason scoring system was applied for the histopathological assessment of all biopsies. Three different definitions of histopathological progression were applied. Unweighted and linear weighted Kappa statistics were used to compare the interobserver agreement. RESULTS: The overall...... recommendations would have changed in up to 10.1% (95% CI: 5.4%-17.7%) of the 109 re-biopsy sets. CONCLUSION: Kappa statistics demonstrated a strong agreement between the histological evaluations. Still, up to 10% of AS patients would receive different treatment recommendation depending upon which...

  9. A new pattern recognition scheme for on-line reactor component surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new pattern recognition scheme for on-line vibration monitoring of primary reactor components has been developed. The surveillance scheme was demonstrated in an on-line microcomputer-based vibration monitoring system for main coolant pump shaft crack monitoring and vibration monitoring of primary reactor components. The system uses reactor noise signals to characterise reactor component state. The performance of the surveillance scheme has been evaluated extensively. The surveillance system is demonstrated by applying it to simulated vibration data. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in a number of on-line tests. The system has proven to be able to maintain extremely low false alarm rates, is sensitive to changes in plant vibration and can diagnose a wide variety of plant malfunctions that manifest themselves in the plant vibration. 34 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Cases in the Country of Georgia: Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance Study Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T.; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Wölfel, Silke; Wölfel, Roman; Rivard, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal information is available on the incidence of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus and hantavirus infections in Georgia. From 2008 to 2011, 537 patients with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours without a diagnosis were enrolled into a sentinel surveillance study to investigate the incidence of nine pathogens, including CCHF virus and hantavirus. Of 14 patients with a hemorrhagic fever syndrome, 3 patients tested positive for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Two of the pati...

  11. “Jones-ing” for a Solution: Commercial Street Surveillance and Privacy Torts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Hargreaves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While street surveillance technologies such as Google Street View are deployed with no discriminatory intent, there is selective scrutiny applied to the published imagery by the anonymous crowd. Disproportionately directed at women and members of ethnic minority groups, this scrutiny means the social risks of street surveillance are not equal. This paper considers the possibility of invasion of privacy actions in tort brought against the commercial service provider as a possible solution. Analysis suggests that Canadian law has evolved in a way such that it is exceedingly difficult to make a claim for “privacy” in tort when the plaintiff is located in public space. This evolution exists in order to ensure that innocuous behavior not be rendered actionable. Furthermore, conceptual reasons exist to suggest that actions in tort are unlikely to be the best solution to the problems posed by commercial street surveillance. While any individual case of embarrassment or nuisance matters, broader “macro-harms” that impact entire communities reflect perhaps the most serious problem associated with the selective scrutiny of street surveillance imagery. Yet, it seems difficult to justify attaching liability for those harms to the commercial providers. While limits need to be placed on the operation of these street surveillance programmes, it is unlikely that invasion of privacy actions are the most effective way to achieve that goal.

  12. Policy-driven development of cost-effective, risk-based surveillance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, M; Jemmi, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    Animal health and residue surveillance verifies the good health status of the animal population, thereby supporting international free trade of animals and animal products. However, active surveillance is costly and time-consuming. The development of cost-effective tools for animal health and food hazard surveillance is therefore a priority for decision-makers in the field of veterinary public health. The assumption of this paper is that outcome-based formulation of standards, legislation leaving room for risk-based approaches and close collaboration and a mutual understanding and exchange between scientists and policy makers are essential for cost-effective surveillance. We illustrate this using the following examples: (i) a risk-based sample size calculation for surveys to substantiate freedom from diseases/infection, (ii) a cost-effective national surveillance system for Bluetongue using scenario tree modelling and (iii) a framework for risk-based residue monitoring. Surveys to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and enzootic bovine leucosis between 2002 and 2009 saved over 6 million € by applying a risk-based sample size calculation approach, and by taking into account prior information from repeated surveys. An open, progressive policy making process stimulates research and science to develop risk-based and cost-efficient survey methodologies. Early involvement of policy makers in scientific developments facilitates implementation of new findings and full exploitation of benefits for producers and consumers. PMID:22265642

  13. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  14. Learning about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What ... Down syndrome? People who have Down syndrome have learning difficulties, mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearance, and ...

  15. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OralHealth > Topics > Burning Mouth Syndrome > Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning Mouth Syndrome Main Content Key Points Symptoms Diagnosis Primary and Secondary BMS Treatment Helpful Tips Key Points Burning mouth syndrome is burning pain in the mouth that may ...

  16. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions

  17. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  18. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations

  19. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations.

  20. Improvements to Technical Specifications surveillance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1983 an NRC task group was formed to investigate problems with surveillance testing required by Technical Specifications, and to recommend approaches to effect improvements. NUREG-1024 (''Technical Specifications-Enhancing Safety Impact'') resulted, and it contained recommendations to review the basis for test frequencies; to ensure that the tests promote safety and do not degrade equipment; and to review surveillance tests so that they do not unnecessarily burden personnel. The Technical Specifications Improvement Program (TSIP) was established in December 1984 to provide the framework for rewriting and improving the Technical Specifications. As an element of the TSIP, all Technical Specifications surveillance requirements were comprehensively examined as recommended in NUREG-1024. The results of that effort are presented in this report. The study found that while some testing at power is essential to verify equipment and system operability, safety can be improved, equipment degradation decreased, and unnecessary personnel burden relaxed by reducing the amount of testing at power

  1. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index......-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current...

  2. Digital image surveillance for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic technologies utilized for optical surveillance equipment for IAEA safeguards are mostly dictated by the trends in the commercial market. When in the late 1970s the 8 mm amateur movie film market was gradually subsumed in the market for video home system cameras and video cassette recorders, the IAEA had to cope with this trend and consequently embarked upon developing surveillance equipment by adapting the technology developed for the domestic and security markets. Currently, there is a technological trend towards digital imaging, digital processing, digital storage and digital transmission of image data which will probably continue during the next ten years. The paper describes the move to digital image surveillance, which is planned for IAEA safeguards, and its advantages for present and recommended future approaches, as well as its requirements and limitations. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  4. Laser technologies for on-site surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveillance techniques are based on the detection of changes. These changes can be caused by moving objects or people, or by modifications made to the environment itself. Visual surveillance uses optical means, e.g., the analysis of an image acquired by a surveillance camera. These techniques are effective in detecting objects moving within the surveyed area. There are situations, however, where optical surveillance may prove to be unreliable. In some cases, the changes in the image are too small to be properly detected with scene change detectors. In other cases, alarms are generated without objects (or people) moving. These false alarms may be caused by changes in illumination, e.g., a faulty lamp or spurious reflections in places near water pools. Further, the absence of illumination during a blackout (whether it is caused by accident or on purpose) prevents cameras from their surveillance operation. There are high security installations for which it is necessary to introduce reliable, independent and effective sensors that can keep the surveillance work even during a blackout. Laser range scanners are electronic instruments measuring the distance from the instrument itself to the outside world along a specific direction. The type of the instrument to use depends on the range of distances to measure. Indeed, whereas for large distances (e.g. between 1 and 200m) it is possible to use time-of-flight instruments, for short distances (e.g., from a few centimetres to about 1.5m) a triangulation laser striping system is used. The deflection of the laser beam (e.g., using rotating mirrors) enables the acquisition of the distance profiles (or matrices) of the surrounding premises in a very short time

  5. Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, B; La Vieille, S

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance, namely the continuous monitoring of diseases and health determinants in a population, has developed over the past fifteen years, in the sphere of human health as well as in animal health. All epidemiological surveillance networks include the following four stages: data collection, data transmission, data processing and dissemination of information. However, despite this basic similarity, the very many networks existing in France are extremely varied in nature. At the national level, the bodies involved in epidemiological surveillance for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments and, to a lesser degree, the Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer. In the field, the networks rely on the Direction des services vétérinaires, veterinary practitioners, laboratories in each département, and livestock producers' groups (especially animal health protection groups). Some twenty French networks currently in operation are presented in this article according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases, epidemiological surveillance is carried out almost entirely by the Direction générale de la santé and the Directions départementales d'action sanitaire et sociale, the Institut de veille sanitaire and the various Centres nationaux de référence (CNRs). Most human infectious diseases are monitored by one or more of the following broad categories of networks: reporting of notifiable diseases, the CNRs, the network of sentinel doctors, the network of hospital laboratories and departments, and medical causes of death. An example where surveillance is covered by several networks is also presented, namely surveillance for salmonellosis and Salmonella. Lastly, methods for evaluating networks are discussed. PMID:10779198

  6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A clinically empirical approach to its definition and study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanicolaou Dimitris A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria. Methods This population-based case control study enrolled 227 adults identified from the population of Wichita with: (1 CFS (n = 58; (2 non-fatigued controls matched to CFS on sex, race, age and body mass index (n = 55; (3 persons with medically unexplained fatigue not CFS, which we term ISF (n = 59; (4 CFS accompanied by melancholic depression (n = 27; and (5 ISF plus melancholic depression (n = 28. Participants were admitted to a hospital for two days and underwent medical history and physical examination, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and laboratory testing to identify medical and psychiatric conditions exclusionary for CFS. Illness classification at the time of the clinical study utilized two algorithms: (1 the same criteria as in the surveillance study; (2 a standardized clinically empirical algorithm based on quantitative assessment of the major domains of CFS (impairment, fatigue, and accompanying symptoms. Results One hundred and sixty-four participants had no exclusionary conditions at the time of this study. Clinically empirical classification identified 43 subjects as CFS, 57 as ISF, and 64 as not ill. There was minimal association between the empirical classification and classification by the surveillance criteria. Subjects empirically classified as CFS had significantly worse impairment (evaluated by the SF-36, more severe fatigue (documented by the multidimensional fatigue inventory, more frequent and severe accompanying symptoms than those with ISF, who in turn had significantly worse scores than the not ill; this was not true for classification by the surveillance algorithm. Conclusion The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with

  7. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  8. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  9. Event-driven surveillance possibilities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The Web has become a rich source of personal information in the last few years. People twitter, blog, and chat online. Current feelings, experiences or latest news are posted. For instance, first hints to disease outbreaks, customer preferences, or political changes could be identified with this data. Surveillance or early warning systems enable such detection of changes and support humans in getting information on changing situations. However, the variety of data that could be considered for surveillance is immense, ranging from sensor-measured values to collected counts and information extra

  10. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  11. Risk based surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First step towards the risk based regulation is to determine the optimal surveillance test intervals for the safety equipment which is tested at nuclear power plant operation. In the paper we have presented the process of optimal surveillance test interval optimization from our perspective. It consist of three levels: component level, system level and plant level. It bases on the results of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment and is focused to minimize risk. At component and system level the risk measure is component or system mean unavailability respectively. At plant level the risk measure is core damage frequency. (author)

  12. Learning from state surveillance of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longjohn, Matt; Sheon, Amy R; Card-Higginson, Paula; Nader, Philip R; Mason, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Data on childhood obesity collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention helped reveal the nation's epidemic of overweight and obese children. But more information is needed. Collecting body mass index (BMI)-the widely accepted measurement of childhood weight status-at the state and local levels can be instrumental in identifying and tracking obesity trends, designing interventions to help overweight children, and guiding broader policy solutions. Approximately thirty states have enacted or proposed BMI surveillance laws and regulations. Arkansas stands out as the state with the highest-quality surveillance data. Innovative strategies being pursued in a number of other states should be explored for broader dissemination. PMID:20194988

  13. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  14. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  15. Design of a Miniature Autonomous Surveillance Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chang-e; HUANG Qiang; HUANG Yuan-can

    2009-01-01

    The small size of miniature robots poses great challenges for the mechanical and deetrieal design and the implementation of autonomous capabilities.In this paper,the mechanical and electrical design for a twowheeled cylindrical miniature autonomous robot ("BMS-1",BIT MicroScout-1) is presented and some autonomous capabilities are implemented by multiple sensors and some arithmetic models.Several experimental results show that BMS-1 is useful for surveillance in confined spaces and suitable for large-scale surveillance due to some autonomous capabilities.

  16. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2014-06-01

    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  17. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting - Implications for Non-Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jui-Hung; Chen, Chaur-Dong; Tiger Li, Zheng-Rong; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tung, Tsung-Hwa; Chu, Yin-Hsia; Cheng, Hau-Yuan; Liu, Jien-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lin, Chien-Chou; Tsai, Wu-Hsiung; Ku, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chi-Kung; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    sites. Syndromic surveillance, spatial analysis and monitoring changes in epidemiological characteristics using a geographical information system, as well as epidemic prediction models involving epidemiological, meteorological and environmental variables will be helpful for early risk communication to increase awareness. PMID:27501302

  18. The Critical Role of Early Dengue Surveillance and Limitations of Clinical Reporting – Implications for Non-Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jui-Hung; Chen, Chaur-Dong; Chu, Yin-Hsia; Cheng, Hau-Yuan; Liu, Jien-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lin, Chien-Chou; Tsai, Wu-Hsiung; Ku, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chi-Kung; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    breeding sites. Syndromic surveillance, spatial analysis and monitoring changes in epidemiological characteristics using a geographical information system, as well as epidemic prediction models involving epidemiological, meteorological and environmental variables will be helpful for early risk communication to increase awareness. PMID:27501302

  19. Extended surveillance as a support to PLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The safe exploitation of the reactor pressure vessel was and is always a major concern in nuclear power plant life management. At present, issues like Plant Life Extension, where utilities look into the possibility of license renewal after 40 years of operation, are becoming relevant in the USA. In other countries PLIM beyond the design life of the NPP could also be desirable from the economic viewpoint. The limiting factor could, however, be the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The reactor pressure vessel surveillance procedures as defined by regulatory legislation is limited and can be supplemented with valuable information that can be extracted in parallel to conventional surveillance testing or through additional testing on surveillance material. This is justified for several reasons: 1. The current methodology is semi-empirical, contains flaws and is in a number of cases over conservative. Without giving in on safety, we need to try and understand the material behavior more fundamentally; 2. Some reactor surveillance materials demonstrate inconsistent behavior with respect to the overall trend. These materials are called 'outlier' materials. But are they really outliers or is this connected to the indexing methodology used? 3. Additional data, for example the results of instrumented Charpy-V impact tests, have been obtained on many surveillance test specimens and are not adequately exploited in the actual surveillance methodology; 4. Scientific research provides substantial information and understanding of degradation mechanisms in reactor pressure vessel steels. Although we will not concentrate on this topic, the development of powerful microscopic investigation techniques, like FEGSTEM, APFIM, SANS, positron annihilation, internal friction, ... led to an intensified development of radiation damage modelling and are an input to micromechanical modelling. Moreover, due to the ever increasing computer power, additional multi-scale (time and

  20. The relevance of WHO injury surveillance guidelines for evaluation: learning from the aboriginal community-centered injury surveillance system (ACCISS) and two institution-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Auer Anna M; Dobmeier Teresa M; Haglund Bo JA; Tillgren Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past three decades, the capacity to develop and implement injury surveillance systems (ISS) has grown worldwide and is reflected by the diversity of data gathering environments in which ISS operate. The capacity to evaluate ISS, however, is less advanced and existing evaluation guidelines are ambiguous. Furthermore, the applied relevance of these guidelines to evaluate ISS operating in various settings is unclear. The aim of this paper was to examine how the World...

  1. Overview of preparedness and response for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Al-Abaidani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several countries in the Middle East and around 22 countries worldwide have reported cases of human infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV. The exceptionally high fatality rate resulting from MERS-CoV infection in conjunction with the paucity of knowledge about this emerging virus has led to major public and international concern. Within the framework of the national acute respiratory illness surveillance, the Ministry of Health in the Sultanate of Oman has announced two confirmed cases of MERS-CoV to date. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiological aspects of these two cases and to highlight the importance of public health preparedness and response. The absence of secondary cases among contacts of the reported cases can be seen as evidence of the effectiveness of infection prevention and control precautions as an important pillar of the national preparedness and response plan applied in the health care institutions in Oman.

  2. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  3. Antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Crowther, Mark; Branch, Ware; Khamashta, Munther A

    2010-10-30

    The antiphospholipid syndrome causes venous, arterial, and small-vessel thrombosis; pregnancy loss; and preterm delivery for patients with severe pre-eclampsia or placental insufficiency. Other clinical manifestations are cardiac valvular disease, renal thrombotic microangiopathy, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, and cognitive impairment. Antiphospholipid antibodies promote activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets; and overproduction of tissue factor and thromboxane A2. Complement activation might have a central pathogenetic role. Of the different antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant is the strongest predictor of features related to antiphospholipid syndrome. Therapy of thrombosis is based on long-term oral anticoagulation and patients with arterial events should be treated aggressively. Primary thromboprophylaxis is recommended in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and probably in purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Obstetric care is based on combined medical-obstetric high-risk management and treatment with aspirin and heparin. Hydroxychloroquine is a potential additional treatment for this syndrome. Possible future therapies for non-pregnant patients with antiphospholipid syndrome are statins, rituximab, and new anticoagulant drugs. PMID:20822807

  4. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ... STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow ...

  5. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint behavio

  6. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Lert France; Hope Vivian; Elford Jonathan; Graz Bertrand; Gervasoni Jean-Pierre; Spencer Brenda; Jeannin André; Dubois-Arber Françoise; Ward Helen; Haour-Knipe Mary; Low Nicola; van de Laar Marita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance syst...

  7. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  8. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome:An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rubayat; Rahman; Ghassan; M; Hammoud; Ashraf; A; Al-mashhrawi; Khulood; T; Ahmed; Jamal; A; Ibdah

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased dramatically by 80% over the past two decades in the United States. Numerous basic science and clinical studies have documented a strong association between hepatocellular carcinoma and the metabolic syndrome. These studies have documented that, in most patients, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma through the cirrhotic process. However, minority of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis.This review summarizes the current literature of the link between hepatocellular carcinoma and metabolic syndrome with special emphasis on various components of the metabolic syndrome including risk of association with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia,and hypertension. Current understanding of pathophysiology, clinical features, treatments, outcomes,and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in the background of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is reviewed. With the current epidemic of metabolic syndrome, the number of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing.Subsequently, it is expected that the incidence and prevalence of HCC will also increase. It is very important for the scientific community to shed more light on the pathogenesis of HCC with metabolic syndrome,both with and without cirrhosis. At the same time it is also important to quantify the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with the metabolic syndrome in a prospective setting and develop surveillance recommendations for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  9. Surveillance of nuclear instruments by noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron noise analysis allows the surveillance of nuclear instruments. The method consists in the calculation of an indicator of detector good operating by a signal analysis technique. A change of this indicator shows a degradation of the static and dynamic detector behaviour. Examples of applications in nuclear plants are given

  10. Active surveillance for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Klotz, Laurence H;

    2014-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as an observational strategy to delay or avoid curative treatment without compromising long-term cancer-specific survival. The 10 studies included in this review, published between 2008 and 2013, generally agreed upon patients selection for the AS...

  11. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle

  12. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS... aftercare as a condition of release; (2) Who have a known history of drug abuse; or (3) Who are suspected...

  13. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  14. Fast flux test facility coupon surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a single source of reference for all current information that deals with the implementation of criteria and requirements for the FFTF Coupon Surveillance Program. Accelerated irradiation of samples of reactor structures and their post-irradiation testing are described

  15. Gastrointestinal Infections Annual Surveillance Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Agency (PHA)�has a lead role in protecting the population from infection and environmental hazards through a range of core functions including communicable disease surveillance and monitoring, operational support & advice, and education, training and research.�

  16. Current Western Reactions to Mass Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The chapter investigates social mobilisation going beyond our traditional understandings of social movement in a German context. Since the summer of 2013, an extensive system of surveillance came to the attention of the general public. It was learned that the American NSA, the British GCHQ and ot...

  17. Atucha I nuclear power plant surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a review of the main characteristics of the Atucha I nuclear power plant and its pressure vessel, the embrittlement surveillance capsules and the irradiation conditions are described; Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were performed on the irradiated samples, and results are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations: transition temperature shifts, displacement per atom values. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Following Ambulatory Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Chanu; Huang, Susan S.; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Kaganov, Rebecca; Bruce, Christina; Lankiewicz, Julie; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah S.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed 4045 ambulatory surgery patients for surgical site infection (SSI) using claims-based triggers for medical chart review. Of 98 patients flagged by codes suggestive of SSI, 35 had confirmed SSIs. SSI rates ranged from 0 to 3.2% for common procedures. Claims may be useful for SSI surveillance following ambulatory surgery.

  19. 48 CFR 42.1104 - Surveillance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... production surveillance on the basis of (1) the criticality (degree of importance to the Government) assigned by the contracting officer (see 42.1105) to the supplies or services and (2) consideration of the... contractor's financial capability. (vii) Any supplementary written instructions from the contracting...

  20. Surveillance in stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Treatment results on 695 stage I testicular cancer patients followed with surveillance are described. Seminoma (SGCT) was present in 394 patients and nonseminoma (NSGCT) in 301 patients. Relapses were detected in 155 patients (22%), in 69 patients with SGCT (17%) and 86 with NSGCT (29%). In...