WorldWideScience

Sample records for applying radiation safety

  1. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  2. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal

  3. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, known as CFSAN, is one of six product-oriented centers, in addition to a nationwide field force, that carry out the...

  4. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  5. Applying System Engineering to Pharmaceutical Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Leveson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While engineering techniques are used in the development of medical devices and have been applied to individual healthcare processes, such as the use of checklists in surgery and ICUs, the application of system engineering techniques to larger healthcare systems is less common. System safety is the part of system engineering that uses modeling and analysis to identify hazards and to design the system to eliminate or control them. In this paper, we demonstrate how to apply a new, safety engineering static and dynamic modeling and analysis approach to healthcare systems. Pharmaceutical safety is used as the example in the paper, but the same approach is potentially applicable to other complex healthcare systems. System engineering techniques can be used in re-engineering the system as a whole to achieve the system goals, including both enhancing the safety of current drugs while, at the same time, encouraging the development of new drugs.

  6. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  7. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auxier, J.A.; Davis, D.M.

    1978-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following: radiation monitoring with regard to personnel monitoring and health physics instrumentation; environs surveillance with regard to atmospheric monitoring, water monitoring, radiation background measurements, and soil and grass samples; radiation and safety surveys with regard to laboratory operations monitoring, radiation incidents, and laundry monitoring; industrial safety and special projects with regard to accident analysis, disabling injuries, and safety awards. (HLW)

  8. Recent Upgrades at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory; Stewart, Dean Andrew [Idaho National Laboratory; Loftus, Larry Shayne [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility operated by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). FSP researchers use the STAR facility to carry out experiments in tritium permeation and retention in various fusion materials, including wall armor tile materials. FSP researchers also perform other experimentation as well to support safety assessment in fusion development. This lab, in its present two-building configuration, has been in operation for over ten years. The main experiments at STAR are briefly described. This paper discusses recent work to enhance personnel safety at the facility. The STAR facility is a Department of Energy less than hazard category 3 facility; the personnel safety approach calls for ventilation and tritium monitoring for radiation protection. The tritium areas of STAR have about 4 to 12 air changes per hour, with air flow being once through and then routed to the facility vent stack. Additional radiation monitoring has been installed to read the laboratory room air where experiments with tritium are conducted. These ion chambers and bubblers are used to verify that no significant tritium concentrations are present in the experiment rooms. Standby electrical power has been added to the facility exhaust blower so that proper ventilation will now operate during commercial power outages as well as the real-time tritium air monitors.

  9. New adventures in biomedical engineering: Radiation safety program management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickey, D.M. (Washington Hospital Center, DC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As biomedical/clinical engineers expand their managerial expertise into nontraditional areas, it makes sense that they pursue areas where their formal training in physics and mathematics can be applied. Radiation safety requires having the educational background to understand atomic structure, the nature of radioactivity, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and instrumentation. Program management requires having the administrative experience to manage people, data, files, documentation, and budgets. Radiation safety program management also requires an understanding of how best to prepare for a surprise inspection, similar to but technically more specific than other inspections and surveys previously experienced by the BME/CE professional.

  10. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  11. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  12. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  13. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  14. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  15. HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, J.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1998-11-04

    The HRIBF Tandem Accelerator Radiation Safety System was designed to permit experimenters and operations staff controlled access to beam transport and experiment areas with accelerated beam present. Neutron-Gamma detectors are mounted in eaeh area at points of maximum dose rate and the resulting signals are integrated by redundan~ circuitry; beam is stopped if dose rate or integrated dose exceeds established limits. This paper will describe the system, in use for several vears at the HRIBF, and discuss changes recently made to modernize the system and to make the system compliant with DOE Order 5480.25 and related ORNL updated safety rules.

  16. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this section, and has achieved a level of radiation safety knowledge sufficient to function... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for Radiation Safety Officer. 35.50 Section 35.50... Requirements § 35.50 Training for Radiation Safety Officer. Except as provided in § 35.57, the licensee...

  17. OBTAINING FOOD SAFETY BY APPLYING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRIVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the confidence of the trading partners and consumers in the products which are sold on the market, enterprises producing food are required to implement the food safety system HACCP,a particularly useful system because the manufacturer is not able to fully control finished products . SR EN ISO 22000:2005 establishes requirements for a food safety management system where an organization in the food chain needs to proove its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe at the time of human consumption. This paper presents the main steps which ensure food safety using the HACCP system, and SR EN ISO 20000:2005 requirements for food safety.

  18. Applying a realistic evaluation model to occupational safety interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent literature characterizes occupational safety interventions as complex social activities, applied in complex and dynamic social systems. Hence, the actual outcomes of an intervention will vary, depending on the intervention, the implementation process, context, personal...... and qualitative methods. This revised model has, however, not been applied in a real life context. Method: The model is applied in a controlled, four-component, integrated behaviour-based and safety culture-based safety intervention study (2008-2010) in a medium-sized wood manufacturing company. The interventions...... involve the company’s safety committee, safety manager, safety groups and 130 workers. Results: The model provides a framework for more valid evidence of what works within injury prevention. Affective commitment and role behaviour among key actors are identified as crucial for the implementation...

  19. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

  20. Addressing a radiation safety sentinel event alert: one state's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, James B; Lane, Thomas; Rutar, Frank; McGowan, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Commission issued a Sentinel Event Alert in August 2011 to address the radiation risks related to diagnostic medical imaging. The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) and Nebraska Coalition for Patient Safety (NCPS) sent a survey to Nebraska hospital radiology departments in May 2012 to solicit responses regarding radiation safety management practices. Survey results demonstrate that Nebraska hospitals perform well in many radiation safety efforts, but lack in others, as well as the need for additional research to track or compare progress. Nebraska's experience can serve as a model for other states to perform similar radiation safety management research.

  1. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  3. The knowledge, attitude and behavior on the radiation safety management for dental hygiene major students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yeo Reong; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kim, Yong Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hyon Chul [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Suseong College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Kyung [Radiation Safety Management Commission, Daegu Health College, (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study tries to find the educational basis based on the radiation safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to check the level of radiation safety behavior in domestic students who study dental hygiene. The students of 3rd and 4th grades in 83 universities which have registered on the Korean University Education Council were involved, and they were given a questionnaire for this study. The questionnaire was provided via visit with 20 copies to each university (total 1660 copies), mail by post and e-mail. Among them, we analyzed only 723 copies that we can trust. The data were analyzed with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Pearson’s correlation using the SPSS/WIN 15.0. As a result, there are correlations in the students’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding the radiation safety management. It means that the education which can improve the knowledge and attitudes should be applied to increase the action level of the radiation safety. In addition, the physical environment is the most closely correlated with the individual behavior, so it will be limited to improve the behavioral levels of the radiation safety if the physical environment is not prepared. Therefore, the physical environment should be supported to enhance the level of the radiation safety activity, and to increase the individual attitude level of radiation safety. The knowledge level of the radiation safety management is relatively lower than the attitudes level, and the behavior level is the lowest. Therefore, the education policy of the safety behavior must be enhanced. For domestic students, the educational intervention is necessary to improve their behavioral level of radiation safety management because they will be able to reduce the amount of radiation exposure of their patients in dental care after getting a job.

  4. A prediction model for the radiation safety management behavior of medical cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hye; Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ssang Tae [CareCamp Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This study attempted to provide reference materials for improving the behavior level in radiation safety managements by drawing a prediction model that affects the radiation safety management behavior because the radiation safety management of medical Cyclotrons, which can be used to produce radioisotopes, is an important factor that protects radiation caused diseases not only for radiological operators but average users. In addition, this study obtained follows results through the investigation applied from January 2 to January 30, 2008 for the radiation safety managers employed in 24 authorized organizations, which have already installed Cyclotrons, through applying a specific form of questionnaire in which the validity was guaranteed by reference study, site investigation, and focus discussion by related experts. The radiation safety management were configured as seven steps: step 1 is a production preparation step, step 2 is an RI production step, step 3 is a synthesis step, step 4 is a distribution step, step 5 is a quality control step, step 6 is a carriage container packing step, and step 7 is a transportation step. It was recognized that the distribution step was the most exposed as 15 subjects (62.5%), the items of 'the sanction and permission related works' and 'the guarantee of installation facilities and production equipment' were the most difficult as 9 subjects (37.5%), and in the trouble steps in such exposure, the item of 'the synthesis and distribution' steps were 4 times, respectively (30.8%). In the score of the behavior level in radiation safety managements, the minimum and maximum scores were 2.42 and 4.00, respectively, and the average score was 3.46 {+-} 0.47 out of 4. Prosperity and well-being programs in the behavior and job in radiation safety managements (r=0.529) represented a significant correlation statistically. In the drawing of a prediction model based on the factors that affected the behavior in

  5. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  6. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  7. Radiation safety and vascular access: attitudes among cardiologists worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Asrar A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Shroff, Adhir R. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: To determine opinions and perceptions of interventional cardiologists on the topic of radiation and vascular access choice. Background: Transradial approach for cardiac catheterization has been increasing in popularity worldwide. There is evidence that transradial access (TRA) may be associated with increasing radiation doses compared to transfemoral access (TFA). Methods: We distributed a questionnaire to collect opinions of interventional cardiologists around the world. Results: Interventional cardiologists (n = 5332) were contacted by email to complete an on-line survey from September to October 2013. The response rate was 20% (n = 1084). TRA was used in 54% of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Most TRAs (80%) were performed with right radial access (RRA). Interventionalists perceived that TRA was associated with higher radiation exposure compared to TFA and that RRA was associated with higher radiation exposure that left radial access (LRA). Older interventionalists were more likely to use radiation protection equipment and those who underwent radiation safety training gave more importance to ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Nearly half the respondents stated they would perform more TRA if the radiation exposure was similar to TFA. While interventionalists in the United States placed less importance to certain radiation protective equipment, European operators were more concerned with physician and patient radiation. Conclusions: Interventionalists worldwide reported higher perceived radiation doses with TRA compared to TFA and RRA compared to LRA. Efforts should be directed toward encouraging consistent radiation safety training. Major investment and application of novel radiation protection tools and radiation dose reduction strategies should be pursued. - Highlights: • We examined radiation safety and arterial access practices among 1000 cardiologists. • Radial access is perceived as having higher radiation dose compared to

  8. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  9. Characteristics of radiation safety for synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2011-07-01

    Radiation safety problems are discussed for typical electron accelerators, synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. The radiation sources at the beamline of the facilities are SR, including XFEL, gas bremsstrahlung and high-energy gamma ray and photo-neutrons due to electron beam loss. The radiation safety problems for each source are compared by using 8 GeV class SR and XFEL facilities as an example.

  10. Optical fiber applied to radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Francisco A.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Vasconcelos, Danilo C., E-mail: fanbra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: danilochagas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the production of optical fibers cables has make possible the development of a range of spectroscopic probes for in situ analysis performing beyond nondestructive tests, environmental monitoring, security investigation, application in radiotherapy for dose monitoring, verification and validation. In this work, a system using an optical fiber cable to light signal transmission from a NaI(Tl) radiation detector is presented. The innovative device takes advantage mainly of the optical fibers small signal attenuation and immunity to electromagnetic interference to application for radiation detection systems. The main aim was to simplify the detection system making it to reach areas where the conventional device cannot access due to its lack of mobility and external dimensions. Some tests with this innovative system are presented and the results stimulate the continuity of the researches. (author)

  11. Army Programs: The Army Radiation Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    area or very high radiation area. (For example, medical and dental diagnostic x-ray systems do not require an ARA.) However, commanders will...the testing of nuclear explosive devices or from past nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl that contribute to background radiation. Background radiation

  12. Developments of radiation safety requirements for the management of radiation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seock [Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Ho [Gachun University of Medicine and science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Yuon Young [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    The approach of the risk-informed regulatory options was studied to develop the radiation safety requirements for the managements for radiation devices. The task analysis, exposure, accident scenario development, risk analysis, and systematic approach for regulatory options was considered in full, based on the NRC report, 'NUREG/CR-6642', and the translation of its core part was conducted for ongoing research. In this methodology, the diamond tree that includes human factors, etc, additionally with normal event tree, was used. According to the analysis results of this approach, the risk analysis and the development of regulatory options were applied for the electron linear accelerators and the qualitative results were obtained. Because the field user groups were participated in this study could contribute to the basis establishment of the risk-informed regulation policy through securing consensus and inducing particle interests. It will make an important role of establishing the detail plan of ongoing research.

  13. What Parents Should Know about Medical Radiation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 health care professionals in radiology, pediatrics, medical physics, and radiation safety. References Amis ES, Jr., Butler PF, Applegate KE, et al. American College of Radiology white paper on radiation dose in medicine. Journal of the American College of Radiology 2007; 4: ...

  14. Radiation Authority and Nuclear Safety in Finland (STUK); La autoridad de Radiacion y Seguridad Nuclear de Finlandia (STUK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Created in 1958 as an institute in charge of inspecting radioactive equipment used in hospitals, STUK is nowadays a specialised organisation whose functions cover all fields for applying radiation and nuclear safety. (Author)

  15. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A.L.; Oldfather, D.E.; Lindner, A.F.

    1993-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies.

  16. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  17. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986.

  18. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  19. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  20. The increased use of radiation requires enhanced activities regarding radiation safety control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    More recently, companies that have obtained permission to use radioactive materials or radiation device and registered radiation workers have increased by 10% and 4% respectively. The increased use of radiation could have an effect on radiation safety control. However, there is not nearly enough manpower and budget compared to the number of workers and facilities. This paper will suggest a counteroffer thought analyzing pending issues. The results of this paper indicate that there are 47 and 31.3 workers per radiation protection officer in educational and research institutes, respectively. There are 20.1 persons per RPO in hospitals, even though there are 2 RPOs appointed. Those with a special license as a radioisotope handler were ruled out as possible managers because medical doctors who have a special license for radioisotope handling normally have no experience with radiation safety. The number of staff members and budget have been insufficient for safety control at most educational and research institutes. It is necessary to build an optimized safety control system for effective Radiation Safety Control. This will reduce the risk factor of safety, and a few RPOs can be supplied for efficiency and convenience.

  1. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Information is reported in sections entitled: radiation monitoring; Environmental Management Program; radiation and safety surveys; industrial safety and special projects; Office of Operational Safety; and training, lectures, publications, and professional activities. There were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 35 employees received whole body dose equivalents of 10 mSv (1 rem) or greater. There were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. The quantity of those radionuclides of primary concern in the Clinch River, based on the concentration measured at White Oak Dam and the dilution afforded by the Clinch River, averaged 0.16 percent of the concentration guide. The average background level at the Perimeter Air Monitoring (PAM) stations during 1980 was 9.0 ..mu..rad/h (0.090 ..mu..Gy/h). Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 1.5 Bq/kg (0.04 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.7 Bq/kg (0.02 pCi/g) to 16 Bq/kg (0.43 pCi/g). Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.04 Bq/kg (0.001 pCi/g) to 0.07 Bq/kg (0.002 pCi/g), and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.37 Bq/kg (0.01 pCi/g) to 12 Bq/kg (0.33 pCi/g).

  2. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  3. Statistical Decision Theory Applied to Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, T. E.; El-Mahdi, Anas M.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical decision theory has been applied to the treatment planning decision of radiation therapy. The decision involves the choice of parameters which determine the radiation dose distribution. To choose among dose distributions requires a decision rule which reflects the uncertainty of possible outcomes for any specific dose distribution and the various risks associated with each outcome. A relative gravity or morbidity is assigned to each possible complication of treatment. In this stud...

  4. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  5. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  6. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  7. Radiation Safety Management Guidelines for PET-CT: Focus on Behavior and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Wook [Cancer Imaging Center, National University Cancer Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daegu Health College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Our purpose is to specify behavior and environmental factors aimed at reducing the exposed dosage caused by PET-CT and to develop radiation safety management guidelines adequate for domestic circumstances. We have used a multistep-multimethod as the methodological approach to design and to carry out the research both in quality and quantity, including an analysis on previous studies, professional consultations and a survey. The survey includes responses from 139 practitioners in charged of 109 PET-CTs installed throughout Korea(reported by the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2010). The research use 156 questions using Cronbach's {alpha} (alpha) coefficients which were: 0.818 for 'the necessity of setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; 0.916 for 'the necessity of radiation protection', 'setting and installing the radiation protective environment'; and 0.885 for 'radiation protection'. The check list, derived from the radiation safety management guidelines focused on behavior and environment, was composed of 20 items for the radiation protective environment: including 5 items for the patient; 4 items for the guardian; 3 items for the radiologist; and 8 items applied to everyone involved; for a total of 26 items for the radiation protective behavior including: 12 items for the patient; 1 item for the guardian, 7 items for the radiologist; and 6 items applied to everyone involved. The specific check list is shown in (Table 5-6). Since our country has no safety management guidelines of its own to reduce the exposed dosage caused by PET-CTs, we believe the guidelines developed through this study means great deal to the field as it is not only appropriate for domestic circumstances, but also contains specific check lists for each target who may be exposed to radiation in regards to behavior and environment.

  8. Radiation therapy of prostate cancer applied with cooling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuhata, Akihiko; Ogawa, Katsuaki; Miyazaki, Machiko; Iwai, Hiroshi [Yokosuka National Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Takeda, Takashi

    1995-05-01

    The radio-sensitivity of prostate carcinoma is a resistant one. Also a prostate locates close to rectum, urethra and bladder of which mucus membranes are intermediate sensitive for irradiation, and causes side effects frequently. In this study, we applied with hyperfraction and local membrane cooling to the radiation therapy of the prostate cancer. This brought favorable clinical results with decreased morbidities. (author).

  9. Establishment of database for radiation exposure and safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G. S.; Kim, J. H. [Science Culture Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    The nuclear electric energy in our country plays a major role for the national industrial development as well as for the secure living of the peoples. It is, however, considered as a socially dreadful elements because of the radiation materials exposed into the environment. In effect, the DB is intended to serve for the reference to the epidemical study upon the low-level radiation exposure involving the nuclear facilities, radio-isotope business enterprises, and the related workers at the radiation sites. In connection with the development of nuclear energy, the low-level radiation, associated with the radioisotope materials exposed into our environment out of nuclear facilities, is believed to possibly raise significant hazardous effects toward human persons. Therefor, it is necessary to take a positive counter measures by means of comprehensive quantitative estimates on its possibilities. In consequence, the low-level radiation effects do not bring about the immediate hazard cases, however, appear to possibly pose the lately caused diseases such as cancer cause, life reduction, and creation of mutation, etc. Therefore, it is intended to set up the social security with the secure safety, by conducting an advanced safety study on the low-level radiation.

  10. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    transparent basis for making decisions in safety matters. During the year it has however become apparent that further improvement measures are necessary. The plant has had a relatively large number of operational disturbances during 2007 which have been analysed in order to implement suitable measures. Modernisation projects follow the time schedules which were decided earlier for implementation in order to comply with the regulations. Some measures are already completed, others are underway, and the programme will continue until 2013. SKI is supervising the progress of the modernisation and the improvements to the physical protection of the plants. Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB has applied for permission to increase the thermal power in reactors Forsmark 1-3. The government hasn't yet granted permission for these power increases. SKI has approved trial operation for Ringhals 1 and Ringhals 3 at the increased power levels during the year. For Ringhals 3 this is the first stage of the planned power increases. Ringhals has also applied to increase the thermal power in Ringhals 4. The government has granted permission for the thermal power increase in Oskarshamn 3. SKI is currently performing a safety review of this application. Oskarshamn have made an application to increase the thermal power in Oskarshamn 2. During 2007 SKI has performed inspections to control how nuclear safeguards are managed by the nuclear power stations. In all 80 inspections have been carried out. Nothing has been found during these inspections to indicate that there are any deficiencies in the nuclear safeguard activities. No serious incidents or accidents have occurred resulting in abnormal radiation exposure of personnel. Radioactive releases from the plants have resulted in calculated doses to the most exposed person in the critical group that are well below the environmental impact goal of 10 microsievert. Forsmark, which in recent years has had recurrent problems with the measurement of airborne

  11. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology. (orig.)

  12. Update on radiation safety and dose reduction in pediatric neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Mahadevappa

    2015-09-01

    The number of medical X-ray imaging procedures is growing exponentially across the globe. Even though the overall benefit from medical X-ray imaging procedures far outweighs any associated risks, it is crucial to take all necessary steps to minimize radiation risks to children without jeopardizing image quality. Among the X-ray imaging studies, except for interventional fluoroscopy procedures, CT studies constitute higher dose and therefore draw considerable scrutiny. A number of technological advances have provided ways for better and safer CT imaging. This article provides an update on the radiation safety of patients and staff and discusses dose optimization in medical X-ray imaging within pediatric neuroradiology.

  13. Delivering a radiation protection dividend: systemic capacity-building for the radiation safety profession in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hilton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many African countries planning to enter the nuclear energy “family” have little or no experience of meeting associated radiation safety demands, whether operational or regulatory. Uses of radiation in medicine in the continent, whether for diagnostic or clinical purposes, are rapidly growing while the costs of equipment, and hence of access to services, are falling fast. In consequence, many patients and healthcare workers are facing a wide array of unfamiliar challenges, both operational and ethical, without any formal regulatory or professional framework for managing them safely. This, combined with heighted awareness of safety issues post Fukushima, means the already intense pressure on radiation safety professionals in such domains as NORM industries and security threatens to reach breaking point. A systematic competency-based capacity-building programme for RP professionals in Africa is required (Resolution of the Third AFRIRPA13 Regional Conference, Nairobi, September 2010. The goal is to meet recruitment and HR needs in the rapidly emerging radiation safety sector, while also addressing stakeholder concerns in respect of promoting and meeting professional and ethical standards. The desired outcome is an RP “dividend” to society as a whole. A curriculum model is presented, aligned to safety procedures and best practices such as Safety Integrity Level and Layer of Protection analysis; it emphasizes proactive risk communication both with direct and indirect stakeholders; and it outlines disciplinary options and procedures for managers and responsible persons for dealing with unsafe or dangerous behavior at work. This paper reports on progress to date. It presents a five-tier development pathway starting from a generic foundation course, suitable for all RP professionals, accompanied by specialist courses by domain, activity or industry. Delivery options are discussed. Part of the content has already been developed and delivered as

  14. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  15. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  16. 77 FR 26287 - Cooperative Agreement To Support the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, JIFSAN (U01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the support of the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN). FDA believes that.... FDA faces an increasing number of critical and complex food safety and public health issues...

  17. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  18. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety on dental hygienist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Jun, Sung Hee [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of this study is to draw an educational plant for reducing the probability of troubles caused by radiation for dental hygienists who are the major applicants of radiation equipments used in dental offices. This study investigated the knowledge and self-efficacy, which is the major variable that affects the attitude and behavior, on the radiation safety that is an educational approach. Also, this study obtained following results from a survey for 25 days from June 15, 2008 that was applied for 225 dental hygienists worked at dental offices and clinics in the area of Youngnam in order to verify the relationship between such variables. The average scores for the knowledge, attitude, and behavior were 54.28±16.33, 87.93±9.75, and 59.85±14.76, respectively. Also, the average score of the self-efficacy was 72.88±8.60. In the knowledge level for the radiation safety, ‘a case that prepares personal dosimeters’, ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’, ‘a case that presents 6⁓10 dental hygienists’, ‘a case that presents radiological technologists’, and ‘a case that is a general hospital’ represented high values. In the attitude level for the radiation safety, ‘a case who is a married person’, ‘a case that prepares personal dosimeters’, and ‘a case that is a general hospital’ showed high values. In the behavior level for the radiation safety, ‘a case that shows a career in dental hygienist or radiographic for 6⁓10 years’, ‘a case that attends radiation safety education’, ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’ showed high values. Also, in the self-efficacy level, ‘a case that who has a high education level more than graduate school education’ and ‘a case that establishes protection facilities’ represented high values. In the relationship between the knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy for the radiation safety, it showed statistically significant differences in this

  19. A Study on Enhancement of Understanding of Radiation and Safety Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Uk; Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Concerns for radiation exposure have been increased from small and big radiation works or experiments with radiation generator (RG) or radiation isotopes (RI) at institutions using radiation in Korea. Actually, due to radiation exposure occurred on the process of handling RI, etc., The exposure should be maintained as low as reasonably possible. To do this, above all, suitable training and establishment of safety culture have to be preceded. In this respect, an education institution is a place where people learn first about handling radiations in various specialties with purposes including academic research, and the first learned habits and practices acts as the basis for safety management of radiation when they continue to do radiation work after going into the society. Hereford, it is needed to establish the right safety culture on radiation for its safe managing. In the present study, the direction for the right understandings and safety improvement are suggested through the radiation survey on education institutions and preparation of safety guidances for users. The basic guidance at the radiation experiment was prepared for the right understanding of the radiation to prevent radiation accidents from careless handling by workers based on the surveyed results for education institutions. It is expected to be used as fundamentals for improvement for radiation safety management of workers and researchers and, further, safety policy for national nuclear energy and radiations.

  20. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Sinan Gültekin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS, 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS, 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible.

  1. Recent advances in applied nanoscience for food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoing developments in nanotechnology offer potential to transform agriculture in several areas, including food safety, quality, packaging, product traceability, food processing, and bioactive delivery. These nanoscience-based applications utilize the unique properties of materials with a dimension...

  2. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  3. An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing often lead to similar conclusions. Management acknowledges the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) or Director of Radiation Safety's concern but asks the RSO to provide benchmarking and justification for additional full-time equivalents (FTEs). The RSO must determine a method to benchmark and justify additional staffing needs while struggling to maintain a safe and compliant radiation safety program. Benchmarking and justification are extremely important tools that are commonly used to demonstrate the need for increased staffing in other disciplines and are tools that can be used by radiation safety professionals. Parameters that most RSOs would expect to be positive predictors of radiation safety staff size generally are and can be emphasized in benchmarking and justification report summaries. Facilities with large radiation safety departments tend to have large numbers of authorized users, be broad-scope programs, be subject to increased controls regulations, have large clinical operations, have significant numbers of academic radiation-producing machines, and have laser safety responsibilities.

  4. Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division, annual report for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Activities during the past year are summarized for the Health Physics Department, the Environmental Management Department, and the Safety Department. The Health Physics Department conducts radiation and safety surveys, provides personnel monitoring services for both external and internal radiation, and procures, services, and calibrates appropriate portable and stationary health physics instruments. The Environmental Management Department insures that the activities of the various organizations within ORNL are carried out in a responsible and safe manner. This responsibility involves the measurement, field monitoring, and evaluation of the amounts of radionuclides and hazardous materials released to the environment and the control of hazardous materials used within ORNL. The department also collaborates in the design of ORNL Facilities to help reduce the level of materials released to the environment. The Safety Department is responsible for maintaining a high level of staff safety. This includes aspects of both operational and industrial safety and also coordinates the activities of the Director's Safety Review Committee. (ACR)

  5. 24 CFR 1005.111 - What safety and quality standards apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What safety and quality standards... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.111 What safety and quality standards apply? (a) Loans guaranteed under section 184 must be for dwelling units which meet the safety and...

  6. Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries.

  7. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Сommunication 2. Ensuring radiation safety during the universiade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second communication, the authors present and analyze in detail in chronological order all the activities performed in the course of providing radiation safety of the XXVII World Summer Universiade in Kazan. Special attention is given to assessing the effectiveness of the measures envisaged and implemented. Recommendations to improve the planning system have been developed, the list of measures ensuring radiation safety of the participants and guests to be held before and during large-scale events to ensure radiation safety was specified.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ana Paula; Franca, Adriana S; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

  9. Safety Training: Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace

    CERN Multimedia

    Isabelle Cusato

    2010-01-01

        We propose a half day awareness session on the hazards posed by a poor posture while working on a screen (back pain, eyestrain, sore wrists…) and best practices to address them. The next sessions will be held on 18 November 2010 (morning session in French and afternoon session in English). The registration via the Safety Training catalogue is mandatory. Places will be allocated in order of receipt. For any further information, please contact Isabelle Cusato, 73811.  

  10. Report for spreading culture of medical radiation safety in Korea: Mainly the activities of the Korean alliance for radiation safety and culture in medicine (KARSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yong Su; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Choi, In Seok [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Do, Kyung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Soo [Dept. of Radiation Safety, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    There are many concerns about radiation exposure in Korea after Fukushima Nuclear Plant Accident on 2011 in Japan. As some isotope materials are detected in Korea, people get worried about the radioactive material. In addition, the mass media create an air of anxiety that jump on the people’s fear instead of scientific approach. Therefore, for curbing this flow, health, medical institute from the world provide a variety of information about medical radiation safety and hold the campaign which can give people the image that medical radiation is safe. At this, the Korean Food and Drug Administration(KFDA) suggested that make the alliance of medical radiation safety and culture on August, 2011. Seven societies and institutions related medical radiation started to research and advertise the culture of medical radiation safety in Korea. In this report, mainly introduce the activities of the Korean Alliance for Radiation Safety and Culture in Medicine(KARSM) for spreading culture of medical radiation safety from 2011 to 2012.

  11. Application of an informatics-based decision-making framework and process to the assessment of radiation safety in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Mark D; Myers, David S; Cash, Leigh J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R; Boecker, Bruce B; Grissom, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between ∼1 and 100 nm, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this paper presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  12. Radiation Safety Professional Certification Process in a Multi-Disciplinary Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.; Jones, P.; Ilson, R.

    2004-07-01

    There is no one set of criteria that defines the radiation safety professional in Canada. The many varied positions, from university and medical to industry and mining, define different qualifications to manage radiation safety programs. The national regulatory body has to assess many different qualifications when determining if an individual is acceptable to be approved for the role of radiation safety officer under any given licence. Some professional organizations specify education requirements and work experience as a prerequisite to certification. The education component specifies a degree of some type but does not identify specific courses or competencies within that degree. This could result in individuals with varying levels of radiation safety experience and training. The Canadian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA), responding to a need identified by the membership of the association, has initiated a process where the varying levels of knowledge of radiation safety can be addressed for radiation safety professionals. By identifying a core level set of radiation safety competencies, the basic level of radiation safety officer for smaller organizations can be met. By adding specialty areas, education can be pursued to define the more complex needs of larger organizations. This competency based process meets the needs of licensees who do not require highly trained health physicists in order to meet the licensing requirements and at the same time provides a stepping stone for those who wish to pursue a more specialized health physics option. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuschner, R. G. K.; Robinson, T. P.; Hugas, M.;

    2010-01-01

    Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) is a generic risk assessment approach applied by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to notified biological agents aiming at simplifying risk assessments across different scientific Panels and Units. The aim of this review is to outline the implementation...... and value of the QPS assessment for EFSA and to explain its principles such as the unambiguous identity of a taxonomic unit, the body of knowledge including potential safety concerns and how these considerations lead to a list of biological agents recommended for QPS which EFSA keeps updated through...

  14. Food Safety Detection Methods Applied to National Special Rectification of Product Quality and Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Afour-month period of national special rectification for product quality and food safety officially started on August 25, and was focused on eight fields, including those of agricultural products and processed foods.

  15. Neuro-oncology update: radiation safety and nursing care during interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, T.M.; Drake, D.K.; Sewchand, W.

    1987-12-01

    Radiation control and safety are major considerations for nursing personnel during the care of patients receiving brachytherapy. Since the theory and practice of radiation applications are not part of the routine curriculum of nursing programs, the education of nurses and other health care professionals in radiation safety procedures is important. Regulatory agencies recommend that an annual safety course be given to all persons frequenting, using, or associated with patients containing radioactive materials. This article presents pertinent aspects of the principles and procedures of radiation safety, the role of personnel dose-monitoring devices, and the value of additional radiation control features, such as a lead cubicle, during interstitial brain implants. One institution's protocol and procedures for the care of high-intensity iridium-192 brain implants are discussed. Preoperative teaching guidelines and nursing interventions included in the protocol focus on radiation control principles.

  16. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  17. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Paul; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Methorst, Rob; van Wee, Bert; Wegman, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space) and for risk (crash and injury risk). The framework's three determinants for travel behaviour are locations of activities; resistances (generalized transport costs); needs, opportunities, and abilities. Crash and injury risks are modelled by the three 'safety pillars': infrastructure, road users and the vehicles they use. Creating a link in the framework between risk and exposure is important because of the 'non-linear relationship' between them, i.e. risk tends to decrease as exposure increases. Furthermore, 'perceived' risk (a type of travel resistance) plays a role in mode choice, i.e. the perception that a certain type of vehicle is unsafe can be a deterrent to its use. This paper uses theories to explain how the elements in the model interact. Cycling is an area where governments typically have goals for both mobility and safety. To exemplify application of the model, the paper uses the framework to link research on cycling (safety) to land use and infrastructure. The model's value lies in its ability to identify potential consequences of measures and policies for both exposure and risk. This is important from a scientific perspective and for policy makers who often have objectives for both mobility and safety.

  18. The Art World's Concept of Negative Space Applied to System Safety Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Tools from several different disciplines can improve system safety management. This paper relates the Art World with our system safety world, showing useful art schools of thought applied to system safety management, developing an art theory-system safety bridge. This bridge is then used to demonstrate relations with risk management, the legal system, personnel management and basic management (establishing priorities). One goal of this presentation/paper is simply to be a fun diversion from the many technical topics presented during the conference.

  19. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Hagenzieker, M. Methorst, R. Wee, B. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising factors for risk (crash and injury risk), and for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of traffic over time and space). The model’s value lies in its ability to identify potential ef

  20. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Hagenzieker, M. Methorst, R. Wee, B. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  1. A conceptual framework for road safety and mobility applied to cycling safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Methorst, R.; Van Wee, G.P.; Wegman, F.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific literature lacks a model which combines exposure to risk, risk, and the relationship between them. This paper presents a conceptual road safety framework comprising mutually interacting factors for exposure to risk resulting from travel behaviour (volumes, modal split, and distribution of

  2. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  3. Study on development of education model and its evaluation system for radiation safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, K W; Nam, Y M

    2002-01-01

    As one of the detailed action strategy of multi object preparedness for strengthening of radiation safety management by MOST, this project was performed, in order to promote the safety culture for user and radiation worker through effective education program. For the prevention of radiological accident and effective implementation of radiation safety education and training, this project has been carried out the development of education model and its evaluation system on radiation safety. In the development of new education model, education course was classified; new and old radiation worker, temporary worker, lecturer and manager. The education model includes the contents of expanding the education opportunity and workplace training. In the development of evaluation system, the recognition criteria for commission-education institute and inside-education institute which should establish by law were suggested for evaluation program. The recognition criteria contains classification, student, method, facilities, ...

  4. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in

  5. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety www.imagegently.org What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes to create pictures of the human body. ...

  6. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  7. Dynamic solar radiation control in buildings by applying electrochromic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelle, B.P.; Gustavsen, A.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Smart windows like electrochromic windows (ECWs) are windows which are able to regulate the solar radiation throughput by application of an external voltage. The ECWs may decrease heating, cooling and electricity loads in buildings by admitting the optimum level of solar energy and daylight into the buildings at any given time, e.g. cold winter climate versus warm summer climate demands. In order to achieve as dynamic and flexible solar radiation control as possible, the ECWs may be characterized by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for various electrochromic material and window combinations and configurations enables one to select the most appropriate electrochromic materials and ECWs for specific buildings. Measurements and calculations were carried out on two different electrochromic window devices. (Author)

  8. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS Communication 1. Ensuring radiation safety at the preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorist attack at theBostonMarathon, Federal and Republican executive bodies took increased security measures during the XXVII World Summer Universiade inKazan. Bodies and Organizations of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being (Rospotrebnadzor were participants of all preparatory activities and directly provided security of the Student Games inKazan. This report analyzes the experience of providing radiation safety by Rospotrebnadzor experts at the stage of preparation for the Universiade. So far, Rospotrebnadzor organizations had no experience of providing radiation safety of such large-scale events. Analysis of the performed work with account for both positive and negative experiences is especially important in the context of preparations for the safety providing of the Olympic Winter Games inSochiin 2014. 

  9. Chemical analysis applied to the radiation sterilization of solid ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S.; Maquille, A.; Tilquin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of radiation sterilization of ketoprofen from a chemical point of view. Although irradiated ketoprofen has already been studied in the literature [Katusin-Razem et al., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73 111-116 (2005)], new results, on the basis of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and the use of hyphenated techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS), are obtained. The ESR spectra of irradiated ketoprofen consists of four unresolved resonance peaks and the mean G-value of ketoprofen is found to be 4 +/- 0.9 nmoles/J, which is very small. HPLC-UV analyses indicate that no significant loss of ketoprofen is detected after irradiation. LC-MS-MS analyses show that the structures of the non-volatile final products are similar to ketoprofen. Benzaldehyde is detected in the irradiated samples after dynamic-extraction GC-MS. The analyses show that ketoprofen is radioresistant and therefore might be radiosterilized.

  10. Report on administrative work at radiation safety center in fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Sakuma, Yoichi; Kawano, Takao; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Shinotsuka, Kazunori; Asakura, Yamato; Miyake, Hitoshi

    2002-05-01

    National Institute for Fusion Science constructed Large Helical Device (LHD) which is the largest magnetic confinement plasma experimental device using super conductive magnet coils. It took eight years to construct and the first plasma shot had been carried out on March 1998. Since then plasma confinement experiments have been improved. This is the report of administrative work at the radiation safety center considering radiation protection for workers at the LHD and related devices, and radiation monitoring in the site. Major scope is as follows. (1) Radiation measurement and dose monitoring in the radiation controlled area and in the site using particularly developed monitoring system named as Radiation Monitoring System Applicable to Fusion Experiments (RMSAFE). (2) Establishment of education and registration system for radiation workers and access control system for the LHD controlled area. I hope that as like the published report of fiscal year 1999, the present report will be helpful for management of future radiation protection in the research institute. (author)

  11. Nonspherical Radiation Driven Wind Models Applied to Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauxo, F. X.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. In this work we present a model for the structure of a radiatively driven wind in the meridional plane of a hot star. Rotation effects and simulation of viscous forces were included in the motion equations. The line radiation force is considered with the inclusion of the finite disk correction in self-consistent computations which also contain gravity darkening as well as distortion of the star by rotation. An application to a typical BlV star leads to mass-flux ratios between equator and pole of the order of 10 and mass loss rates in the range 5.l0 to Mo/yr. Our envelope models are flattened towards the equator and the wind terminal velocities in that region are rather high (1000 Km/s). However, in the region near the star the equatorial velocity field is dominated by rotation. RESUMEN. Se presenta un modelo de la estructura de un viento empujado radiativamente en el plano meridional de una estrella caliente. Se incluyeron en las ecuaciones de movimiento los efectos de rotaci6n y la simulaci6n de fuerzas viscosas. Se consider6 la fuerza de las lineas de radiaci6n incluyendo la correcci6n de disco finito en calculos autoconsistentes los cuales incluyen oscurecimiento gravitacional asi como distorsi6n de la estrella por rotaci6n. La aplicaci6n a una estrella tipica BlV lleva a cocientes de flujo de masa entre el ecuador y el polo del orden de 10 de perdida de masa en el intervalo 5.l0 a 10 Mo/ano. Nuestros modelos de envolvente estan achatados hacia el ecuador y las velocidads terminales del viento en esa regi6n son bastante altas (1000 Km/s). Sin embargo, en la regi6n cercana a la estrella el campo de velocidad ecuatorial esta dominado por la rotaci6n. Key words: STARS-BE -- STARS-WINDS

  12. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  13. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  14. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Commercial aircrew members and frequent flyers face radiation hazards from the effects of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. During significant solar events,...

  15. Radiation safety knowledge and practices among Irish orthopaedic trainees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2014-04-23

    Fluoroscopy is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery, particularly in a trauma setting. Exposure of patients and staff to ionising radiation has been studied extensively; however, little work has been done to evaluate current knowledge and practices among orthopaedic trainees.

  16. Automated Radiation Measurements for Aviation Safety (ARMAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing state-of-the-art for physics-based, data-driven, climatological specification of the global radiation environment is the capability embodied by Nowcast...

  17. Deformation field validation and inversion applied to adaptive radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Olteanu, Luiza A M; Madani, Indira; Duprez, Fréderic; Berwouts, Dieter; Speleers, Bruno; De Neve, Wilfried

    2013-08-07

    Development and implementation of chronological and anti-chronological adaptive dose accumulation strategies in adaptive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. An algorithm based on Newton iterations was implemented to efficiently compute inverse deformation fields (DFs). Four verification steps were performed to ensure a valid dose propagation: intra-cell folding detection finds zero or negative Jacobian determinants in the input DF; inter-cell folding detection is implemented on the resolution of the output DF; a region growing algorithm detects undefined values in the output DF; DF domains can be composed and displayed on the CT data. In 2011, one patient with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer selected from a three phase adaptive DPBN study was used to illustrate the algorithms implemented for adaptive chronological and anti-chronological dose accumulation. The patient received three (18)F-FDG-PET/CTs prior to each treatment phase and one CT after finalizing treatment. Contour propagation and DF generation between two consecutive CTs was performed in Atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS). Deformable image registration based dose accumulations were performed on CT1 and CT4. Dose propagation was done using combinations of DFs or their inversions. We have implemented a chronological and anti-chronological dose accumulation algorithm based on DF inversion. Algorithms were designed and implemented to detect cell folding.

  18. Calibration and investigation of infrared camera systems applying blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Juergen; Fischer, Joachim

    2001-03-01

    An experimental facility is presented, which allows calibration and detailed investigation of infrared camera systems. Various blackbodies operating in the temperature range from -60 degree(s)C up to 3000 degree(s)C serve as standard radiation sources, enabling calibration of camera systems in a wide temperature and spectral range with highest accuracy. Quantitative results and precise long-term investigations, especially in detecting climatic trends, require accurate traceability to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). For the used blackbodies the traceability to ITS- 90 is either realized by standard platinum resistance thermometers (in the temperature range below 962 degree(s)C) or by absolute and relative radiometry (in the temperature range above 962 degree(s)C). This traceability is fundamental for implementation of quality assurance systems and realization of different standardizations, for example according ISO 9000. For investigation of the angular and the temperature resolution our set-up enables minimum resolvable (MRTD) and minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) measurements in the various temperature ranges. A collimator system may be used to image the MRTD and MDTD targets to infinity. As internal calibration of infrared camera systems critically depends on the temperature of the surrounding, the calibration and investigation of the cameras is performed in a climate box, which allows a detailed controlling of the environmental parameters like humidity and temperature. Experimental results obtained for different camera systems are presented and discussed.

  19. Deformation field validation and inversion applied to adaptive radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Olteanu, Luiza A. M.; Madani, Indira; Duprez, Fréderic; Berwouts, Dieter; Speleers, Bruno; De Neve, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    Development and implementation of chronological and anti-chronological adaptive dose accumulation strategies in adaptive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. An algorithm based on Newton iterations was implemented to efficiently compute inverse deformation fields (DFs). Four verification steps were performed to ensure a valid dose propagation: intra-cell folding detection finds zero or negative Jacobian determinants in the input DF; inter-cell folding detection is implemented on the resolution of the output DF; a region growing algorithm detects undefined values in the output DF; DF domains can be composed and displayed on the CT data. In 2011, one patient with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer selected from a three phase adaptive DPBN study was used to illustrate the algorithms implemented for adaptive chronological and anti-chronological dose accumulation. The patient received three 18F-FDG-PET/CTs prior to each treatment phase and one CT after finalizing treatment. Contour propagation and DF generation between two consecutive CTs was performed in Atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS). Deformable image registration based dose accumulations were performed on CT1 and CT4. Dose propagation was done using combinations of DFs or their inversions. We have implemented a chronological and anti-chronological dose accumulation algorithm based on DF inversion. Algorithms were designed and implemented to detect cell folding.

  20. Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ludlow, John B. [Graduate Program in Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2013-09-15

    X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.

  1. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  2. EVALUATION OF BRACHYTHERAPY FACILITY SHIELDING STATUS IN KOREA OBTAINED FROM RADIATION SAFETY REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI HYUN KEUM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight radiation safety reports for brachytherapy equipment were evaluated to determine the current status of brachytherapy units in Korea and to assess how radiation oncology departments in Korea complete radiation safety reports. The following data was collected: radiation safety report publication year, brachytherapy unit manufacturer, type and activity of the source that was used, affiliation of the drafter, exposure rate constant, the treatment time used to calculate workload and the HVL values used to calculate shielding design goal values. A significant number of the reports (47.4% included the personal information of the drafter. The treatment time estimates varied widely from 12 to 2,400 min/week. There was acceptable variation in the exposure rate constant values (ranging between 0.469 and 0.592 (R-m2/Ci·hr, as well as in the HVLs of concrete, steel and lead for Iridium-192 sources that were used to calculate shielding design goal values. There is a need for standard guidelines for completing radiation safety reports that realistically reflect the current clinical situation of radiation oncology departments in Korea. The present study may be useful for formulating these guidelines.

  3. A Quantitative Feasibility Study on Potential Safety Improvement Effects of Advanced Safety Features in APR-1400 when Applied to OPR-1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ualikhan Zhiyenbayev [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to test the feasibility of the applications using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Particularly, three of those advanced safety features are selected as follows: 1. Providing an additional Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG); 2. Increasing the capacity of Class 1E batteries; 3. Placing a Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) inside containment, i.e., change from RWST to IRWST. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400) adopts several advanced safety features compared to its predecessor, the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR-1000), which includes an additional Emergency Diesel Generator, increase in battery capacity, in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), and so on. Considering the remarkable advantages of these safety features in safety improvement and the design similarities between APR-1400 and OPR-1000, it is feasible to apply key advanced safety features of APR-1400 to OPR-1000 to enhance the safety. The selected safety features are incorporated into OPR-1000 PSA model using the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) for PSA and CDFs are re-evaluated for each application and combination of three applications. Based on current results, it is concluded that three of key advanced safety features of APR-1400 can be effectively applied to OPR-1000, resulting in considerable safety improvement. In aggregate, three advanced safety features, which are an additional EDG, increased battery capacity and IRWST, can reduce the CDF of OPR-1000 by more than 15% when applied altogether.

  4. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: monique.lacroix@iaf.inrs.ca; Turgis, M. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Borsa, J. [MDS Nordion, 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario, K2K 2P7 (Canada); Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S. [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Sciences Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Quebec (Canada); Han, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  5. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  6. Systems Engineering and Safety Issues in Scientific Facilities Subject to Ionizing Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bonnal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The conception and development of large- scale scientific facilities emitting ionizing radiations rely more on project management practices in use in the process industry than on systems engineering practices. This paper aims to highlight possible reasons for this present situation and to propose some ways to enhance systems engineering so that the specific radiation safety requirements are considered and integrated in the approach. To do so, we have reviewed lessons learned from the management of large-scale scientific projects and more specifically that of the Large Hadron Collider project at CERN. It is shown that project management and systems engineering practices are complementary and can beneficially be assembled in an integrated and lean managerial framework that grants the appropriate amount of focus to safety and radiation safety aspects.

  7. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  9. Radiation safety issues in the water treatment plant - Indoor radon and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsikene, A.; Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    the second stage filters, classifying them as radioactive material. {sup 222}Rn activity generated in the filter columns was compared to {sup 222}Rn activity entering the plant with raw water; the latter was estimated via liquid scintillation technique. The results indicate that {sup 222}Rn inflow is insignificant compared to the {sup 222}Rn generation in the columns. The estimated difference is in six orders of magnitude. Six alpha-track detectors were placed inside the treatment plant (in filter hall and working rooms) for measuring {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn indoor air concentrations. The obtained results are above 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. According to the Estonian Standard EVS 840:2009 'Design of radon-safe buildings', the annual radon concentration in living-, rest- and workrooms should remain below 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. The implemented investigation presented in this paper reveals the importance of monitoring radiation safety of the workers of this water treatment plant. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  11. The radiation measurement applied to beam lifetime study on the synchrotron radiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxiong; Li, Juexin; Liu, Zuping; Cui, Yonggang; Gong, Guanghua; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    To collect beam loss information from an accelerator radiation field is helpful to machine study and operation. For a synchrotron radiation storage ring, shower electrons give a distinct clue to loss location and a BLM-XS model detector is suitable to detect them. Recently, we set up a new beam loss monitoring system by this method for National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) storage ring. It does not interfere with the vacuum chamber and machine operation. Different from other systems, the detectors are used in pairs, fixed on opposite sides of the chamber separately. Some interesting phenomena about beam lifetime were observed. We located exactly where an excessive beam loss took place during ramping process and solved the problem. It was proved that gas accumulated at the front ends of photo-beam lines strongly impacted the electron beam and led to beam lifetime decreases. The cause of beam lifetime decrease because of superconducting wiggler is discussed.

  12. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  13. Is Scores Derived from the Most Internationally Applied Patient Safety Culture Assessment Tool Correct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Moghri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, known as HSOPS, is an internationally well known and widely used tool for measuring patient safety culture in hospitals. It includes 12 dimensions with positive and negative wording questions. The distribution of these questions in different dimensions is uneven and provides the risk of acquiescence bias. The aim of this study was to assess the questionnaire against this bias.Methods: Three hundred nurses were assigned into study and control groups randomly. Short form of HSOPS was distributed in the control group and totally reversed form of it was given to the study group. Percent positive scores and t-test were applied for data analysis. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS Version 16.Results: Finally a total of 272 nurses completed the questionnaire. All dimensions with positive wording items in both groups had higher scores compared with their negative worded format. The first dimension "organizational learning and continued improvement" which had the only statistically significant difference, got 16.2% less score in the study group comparing the other group. In addition six out of 18 differences in questions were statistically significant.Conclusion: The popular and widely used HSOPS is subject to acquiescence bias. The bias might lead to exaggerate the status of some patient safety culture composites. Balancing the number of positive and negative worded items in each composite could mitigate the mentioned bias and provide a more valid estimation of different elements of patient safety culture.

  14. Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.; Murray, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time radiation dose predictions of biologically harmful radiation at commercial airline altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP reanalysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. In this paper we discuss the concept and design of the NAIRAS model, and present recent progress in the implementation and give examples of the model results. Specifically, we show predictions of representative annual background exposure levels and radiation exposure levels for selected SEP events during solar cycle 23, with emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure. We discuss the key uncertainties and areas that need improvement in both model and data, the timeline for project completion, and access to model results.

  15. [Risk Analysis applied to food safety in Brazil: prospects and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Virgínia de Almeida; Miranda, Maria Spínola

    2011-04-01

    The scope of this case study is to discuss the ideas of the Brazilian Codex Alimentarius Committee (CCAB) coordinated by National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), with respect to the Codex Alimentarius norm on Risk Analysis (RA) applied to Food Safety. The objectives of this investigation were to identify and analyze the opinion of CCAB members on RA and to register their proposals for the application of this norm in Brazil, highlighting the local limitations and potential detected. CCAB members were found to be in favor of the Codex Alimentarius initiative of instituting an RA norm to promote the health safety of foods that circulate on the international market. There was a consensus that the Brazilian government should incorporate RA as official policy to improve the country's system of food control and leverage Brazilian food exports. They acknowledge that Brazil has the technical-scientific capacity to apply this norm, though they stressed several political and institutional limitations. The members consider RA to be a valid initiative for tackling risks in food, due to its ability to improve food safety control measures adopted by the government.

  16. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  17. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE PROVISION FOR RADIATION SAFETY OF THE POPULATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P.V.Ramzaev”The article is devoted to the actual issues ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety providing at the present stage. The important role of radiation-hygienic passportization is underlined in the process of the obtaining of objective information of radiation situation in the country, of population exposure doses from the all sources: artificial and natural, from the use of ionizing irradiation sources in medicine. The leading role is shown of the natural ionizing irradiation sources in the level of the country population exposure. The main directions of activities are stated aimed on the decreasing of population exposure doses from the natural sources. The brief characteristics is given of the radiation situation on the territories radioactively contaminated after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP, in the Pacific Ocean basin after the accident on the “Fukushima-1”NPP, of the main measures for radiation protection providing and for counteraction to radiation terrorism during the period of international sports and mass actions which were carried out in Russia in the last years (XXVII World Summer Universiade in2013 inKazan, XXII Olympic and XI Winter Paralympics Games in2014 inSochi. The most important tasks are defined for the improvement ofRussian Federationpopulation radiation safety at the present stage.

  18. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014.

  19. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  20. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-01

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  1. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  2. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  3. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  4. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  5. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  6. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansberry, David R., E-mail: hansbedr@njms.rutgers.edu; Ramchand, Tekchand, E-mail: ramchate@njms.rutgers.edu; Patel, Shyam, E-mail: patel288@njms.rutgers.edu; Kraus, Carl, E-mail: krauscf@njms.rutgers.edu; Jung, Jin, E-mail: jungjk@njms.rutgers.edu; Agarwal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.agarwal@rutgers.edu; Gonzales, Sharon F., E-mail: gonzalsh@njms.rutgers.edu; Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@njms.rutgers.edu

    2014-09-15

    Introduction: Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Methods: Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. Results: The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. Conclusions: All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material.

  7. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  8. Safety Culture in activities involving ionising radiation-education project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M.; Sanches, M. P.; Levy, P. J.; Levy, D. S.

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) requires a Radiological Protection Plan for all installations authorized to work with radioactive material and a qualified Radiological Protection Supervisor. The CNEN requires the certification of practical experience in the area plus a qualification exam, applied by them. ATOMO, has opted to develop on-line courses, using multimedia resources, available at the time this congress takes place. OMICCRON, a multimedia enterprise, is in charge of the program and design. First, the research and brochures have to be adapted for the electronic language, through links, hot words and icons, especially developed for additional information. Besides the images and graphs from the original brochures, Omiccron developed, in graphic computing, specific animation explaining the procedures in more details, illustrating and simplifying the comprehension of the more complex subjects. The CD ROM presentation was enhanced with some slide displays, automatically changing the pictures, as the explanations are given. For practical visualization of these complex and important procedures, the CD also shows some technical videos. At the end of each unit covering a specific subject, the students will be submitted to self-evaluation tests, for more profitable results. This CD is not only an electronic brochure, but mainly an on-line course with weekly Internet support via e-mail or chat site, where the learners will access the instructors and a frequent questions database, useful links and related sites, permanently upgraded. Before going to the following module, the learner has to pass a written test prepared by ATOMO, via Internet. At the end of the course, a certificate will be given. The control will be made through the use of a password, provided for the authorized company and /or users. The instructors will evaluate the learners' advancement by Internet. In the case of companies, this tool will be equally offered, by using

  9. A framework for quality improvement and patient safety education in radiation oncology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Anamaria; Greenwalt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In training future radiation oncologists, we must begin to focus on training future QI specialists. Our patients are demanding better quality and safer care, and accrediting bodies are requiring it. We must equip radiation oncology trainees to be leaders in this new world. To that end, a QI/PS educational program should contain 2 components: a didactic portion focused on teaching basic QI tools as well as an overview of the quality and safety goals of the institution, and an experiential component, ideally a resident-led QI project mentored by an expert faculty member and that is linked to the department's and institution's goals.

  10. EURISOL-DS Multi‐MW Target: Radiological Protection, Radiation Safety and Shielding Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Y. Romanets and R. Luís (ITN)

    The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed study and analysis of all aspects related toradioprotection and radiation safety of the spallation target area and the whole spaces reservedfor the fission targets and spallation target maintenance. Operational and no‐operationalconditions were considered for an evaluation of the radiation safety conditions.An analysis of the proposed shielding dimensions and configuration was performed for thesystem during operation time. Parameters as activation, dose rate, energy deposition, etc. aremore important for the no‐operation period, in order to evaluate the hazard level anddetermine the staff access type to the maintenance areas (direct or remote control).Such elements as the fission targets and the whole structure involved on it were studied in moredetail because of the disposal issues, after operation. Activation, dose rate and residual nuclideswere studied for each element of the assembly. All parameters were analyzed according to their...

  11. Public information and education on radiation safety and protection in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaloeis, Azhar [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jalan KH Abdul Rohim, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of public information and education concerning nuclear science and technology in general and radiation safety and protection in particular in Indonesia from the perspective of promoting the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology in the country. The role of nuclear science and technology in Indonesia is first introduced, followed by an overview of the nuclear activities in the country. Basic considerations, major objectives of the public information and education program on radiation safety and protection as well as basic and operational strategies to achieve those objectives are then presented. Major programs including highlights of the past and present activities as well as prospect on future course of actions are discussed. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo method of radiative transfer applied to a turbulent flame modeling with LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Gicquel, Olivier; Veynante, Denis; Taine, Jean

    2009-06-01

    Radiative transfer plays an important role in the numerical simulation of turbulent combustion. However, for the reason that combustion and radiation are characterized by different time scales and different spatial and chemical treatments, the radiation effect is often neglected or roughly modelled. The coupling of a large eddy simulation combustion solver and a radiation solver through a dedicated language, CORBA, is investigated. Two formulations of Monte Carlo method (Forward Method and Emission Reciprocity Method) employed to resolve RTE have been compared in a one-dimensional flame test case using three-dimensional calculation grids with absorbing and emitting media in order to validate the Monte Carlo radiative solver and to choose the most efficient model for coupling. Then the results obtained using two different RTE solvers (Reciprocity Monte Carlo method and Discrete Ordinate Method) applied on a three-dimensional flame holder set-up with a correlated-k distribution model describing the real gas medium spectral radiative properties are compared not only in terms of the physical behavior of the flame, but also in computational performance (storage requirement, CPU time and parallelization efficiency). To cite this article: J. Zhang et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  13. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  14. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  15. GPU-based Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer scheme applied to AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Heymann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray-tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust...

  16. EICT Based Diagnostic Tool and Monitoring System for EMF Radiation to Sustain Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and communication towers on health issues are being well documented today. However, exact correlation between radiation of communication towers and their radiation levels, are not monitored. Aim of this paper is to study, analyze, apply networking and data mining technologies to develop an EICT based Diagnostic tool and Monitoring system for electromagnetic radiation levels into environment. This system is to network all mobile towers of each service provider as a single entity and then connect all service providers to a central monitoring agency online for continuous monitoring. Since very large numbers of mobile towers exist in India, each state can have its own regional network which is further networked with national central network. This can be enlarged to entire world for monitoring the EMF radiation levels near every mobile tower. For these regional national and international networks the connectivity is to be instituted by the respective service provider. In this paper an attempt is made to logically apply Data Mining and networking technologies to develop a central EICT based diagnostic tool and monitoring system for EMF radiation from each transmission tower. With this system regional, national and international agencies/authorities can monitor the EMF radiation at each and every transmission tower area continuously and verify them with exposure standards. It is proposed to display this information using Integrated Display System in front of monitoring authority at appropriate levels.

  17. Reduction of adult fingers visualized on pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs after radiation technologist and PICU staff radiation safety education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, J.R.; Duncan, M.D.; Burbridge, B.E., E-mail: jentynan@hotmail.com [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    A recent publication from our centre revealed a disturbing finding of a significant incidence of adult fingers seen on the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) chest radiographs. This is inappropriate occupational exposure to diagnostic radiation. We hypothesized that the incidence of adult fingers on PICU chest radiographs would decline after radiation safety educational seminars were given to the medical radiation technologists and PICU staff. The present study's objectives were addressed by using a pretest-posttest design. Two cross-sectional PICU chest radiograph samples, taken before and after the administration of radiation safety education for our medical radiation technologists and PICU staff, were compared by using a {chi}{sup 2} test. There was a 61.2% and 76.9% reduction in extraneous adult fingers, directly exposed to the x-ray beam and those seen in the coned regions of the film, respectively, on PICU chest radiographs (66.7% reduction overall). This reduction was statistically significant ({chi}2 = 20.613, P < .001). Limiting unnecessary occupational radiation exposure is a critical issue in radiology. There was a statistically and clinically significant association between radiation safety education and the decreased number of adult fingers seen on PICU chest radiographs. This study provides preliminary evidence in favour of the benefit of radiation safety seminars. (author)

  18. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, Marta; Kadi, Yacine; Otto, Thomas; Tecchio, L

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  19. Design of the EURISOL multi-MW target assembly: radiation and safety issues

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, M; Kadi, Y; Otto, T; Tecchio, L; Otto, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The multi-MW target proposed for the EURISOL facility will be based on fission of uranium (or thorium) compounds to produce rare isotopes far from stability. A two-step process is used for the isotope production. First, neutrons are generated in a liquid mercury target, irradiated by the 1 GeV proton or deuteron beam, provided by the EURISOL linac driver. Then, the neutrons induce fission in a surrounding assembly of uranium carbide. R&D projects on several aspects of the target assembly are ongoing. Key criteria for the target design are a maximum beam power capability of 4 MW, a remote handling system with minimum downtime and maximum reliability, as well as radiation safety, minimization of hazards and the classification of the facility. In the framework of the ongoing radiation characterization and safety studies, radiation transport simulations have been performed to calculate the prompt radiation dose in the target and surrounding materials, as well as to determine shielding material and angle-depen...

  20. Radiation safety and protection in U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, A G; Hunter, N; Grammer, S

    1986-07-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.

  1. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  2. Radiation safety issues in Y-90 microsphere selective hepatic radioembolization therapy: possible radiation exposure from the patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Yun Hwan; Uhm, Soon Ho; Seo, Yeon Seok; Park, Eun Kyung; Oh, Sun Young; Jeong, Eu Gene; Lee, Sin Ae; Choe, Jae Gol [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the possible external radiation dose to other individuals from patients treated with Y-90 resin microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We designed the study prospectively to estimate the possible radiation dose to other individuals from patients who had been treated with Y-90 microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. We estimated the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) using two methods: 'theoretical' TEDEs according to the administered activity and 'measured' TEDE based on the 'measured' ambient radiation exposure rate. We compared the results from each method to determine when we can release patients from confinement at the earliest time complying with the patient release criteria. A total of 20 administrations of Y-90 resin microspheres were done in 18 patients. The average administered activity was 1.2{+-}0.77 (0.28-2.97) GBq. The 'theoretical' TEDEs were in the range of 0.8-10 {mu}Sv. The 'measured' TEDEs were in the range of 2.31-185 {mu}Sv. The measured TEDEs tend to be higher than the theoretical TEDEs. The values of theoretical and measured TEDE were both far less than 1 mSv, the upper limit at which the licensee can release a patient without any written documents. The effective dose equivalent caused by the Y-90 microsphere administered patient is very low. It is safe in terms of radiation safety to the other individuals when Y-90 microsphere radioembolization therapy is done with dose less than 3 GBq. Because the measured TEDE tends to be higher than the theoretical TEDE, it is recommended to use 'measured' TEDE for determining patient release

  3. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in rectal cancer patient: safety and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Asari Sami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility due to pelvic radiation for advanced rectal cancer treatment is a major concern particularly in young patients. Pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition may offer preservation of ovarian function during the treatment however its use is limited. Aim The study investigates the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition and its effect on ovarian function in the treatment o locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Charts review of all young female patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer, underwent laparoscopic ovarian transposition, then received preoperative radiotherapy at king Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 2003–2007. Results During the period studied three single patients age between 21–27 years underwent pre-radiation laparoscopic ovarian transposition for advanced rectal cancer. All required pretreatment laparoscopic diversion stoma due to rectal stricture secondary to tumor that was performed at the same time. One patient died of metastatic disease during treatment. The ovarian hormonal levels (FSH and LH were normal in two patients. One has had normal menstrual period and other had amenorrhoea after 4 months follow-up however her ovarian hormonal level were within normal limits. Conclusions Laparoscopic ovarian transposition before pelvic radiation in advanced rectal cancer treatment is an effective and feasible way of preservation of ovarian function in young patients at risk of radiotherapy induced ovarian failure. However, this procedure is still under used and it is advisable to discuss and propose it to suitable patients.

  4. Analysis of technologies and experiences for reducing occupational radiation dose and study for applying to regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Moon Soo; Lee, Un Jang; Song, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Byeong Soo; Kim, Chong Uk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    To reduce Occupational Radiation Dose (ORD) effectively and enhance the radiological safety, the comprehensive assessment of the experiences to reduce ORD should be made by regulatory body as well as utilities. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the experiences for reducing ORD from the regulatory viewpoint. With the research objective, the followings are performed in this research; analysis of occupational dose trends at domestic and foreign NPPs, identification of the effective technologies for reducing ORD, examination of the effects of the technologies for reducing ORD, derivation of the regulatory means for implementing he research results. From this study, the regulatory means for effective reduction of ORD are derived. Hence, the results can be utilized as a basic materials for ALARA requirements.

  5. A contribution from fundamental and applied technetium chemistry to the nuclear waste disposal safety case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totskiy, Yury; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Huber, Florian; Gaona, Xavier; Schaefer, Thorsten; Altmaier, Marcus; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    concentrated solutions over the entire pH range. Complete and improved chemical, thermodynamic and activity (SIT, Pitzer) models were derived. The second part of this work focuses on applied Tc chemistry in near-natural systems. Interaction of Tc(VII) with crystalline rock material from a prospective repository site (Nizhnekansky massif, Russia) and from an underground research laboratory (AespoeHRL, Sweden) were studied. Drilling of the Aespoecores were performed under anoxic conditions. Part of the material was artificially oxidized to test the importance of sample preservation. Batch sorption studies under variation of the Tc(VII) concentration were performed in synthetic groundwater simulate to estimate the retention kinetics and R{sub s} values. For better understanding of the retention mechanisms, advanced surface sensitive analytics (XPS, XANES) were carried out and the data compared to reference systems. Tc migration behavior was further investigated by injections of Tc(VII)-containing groundwater simulant into the natural fracture in the unoxidized Aespoediorite core. The data obtained are compared with the results of batch sorption studies and will be used for subsequent geochemical reactive transport modeling. This work highlights the importance of combining fundamental Tc chemistry and applied studies in order to derive a comprehensive assessment of Tc mobilization and retention processes in support of the nuclear waste disposal Safety Case.

  6. Evaluation of experimental methods for assessing safety for ultrasound radiation force elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurczynski, M J; Duck, F A; Shipley, J A; Bamber, J C; Melodelima, D

    2009-08-01

    Standard test tools have been evaluated for the assessment of safety associated with a prototype transducer intended for a novel radiation force elastographic imaging system. In particular, safety has been evaluated by direct measurement of temperature rise, using a standard thermal test object, and detection of inertial cavitation from acoustic emission. These direct measurements have been compared with values of the thermal index and mechanical index, calculated from acoustic measurements in water using standard formulae. It is concluded that measurements using a thermal test object can be an effective alternative to the calculation of thermal index for evaluating thermal hazard. Measurement of the threshold for cavitation was subject to considerable variability, and it is concluded that the mechanical index still remains the preferred standard means for assessing cavitation hazard.

  7. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, E [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ezzell, G [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Miller, B [Henry Ford Health System, Clinton Township, MI (United States); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA, and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good

  8. Incident learning and failure-mode-and-effects-analysis guided safety initiatives in radiation medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay eKapur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By combining incident learning and process failure-mode-and-effects-analysis in a structure-process-outcome framework we have created a risk profile for our radiation medicine practice and implemented evidence-based risk mitigation initiatives focused on patient safety. Based on reactive reviews of incidents reported in our departmental incident-reporting system and proactive failure-mode-and-effects-analysis, high safety-risk procedures in our paperless radiation medicine process and latent risk factors were identified. Six initiatives aimed at the mitigation of associated severity, likelihood of occurrence and detectability risks were implemented. These were the standardization of care pathways and toxicity grading, pre-treatment-planning peer review, a policy to thwart delay-rushed processes, an electronic whiteboard to enhance coordination and the use of six-sigma metrics to monitor operational efficiencies. The effectiveness of these initiatives over a three year period was assessed using process and outcome specific metrics within the framework of the department structure. There has been a 47% increase in incident reporting, with no increase in adverse events. Care pathways have been used with greater than 97% clinical compliance rate. The implementation of peer review prior to treatment planning and use of the whiteboard have provided opportunities for proactive detection and correction of errors. There has been a twofold drop in the occurrence of high-risk procedural delays. Patient treatment start delays are routinely enforced on cases that would have historically been rushed. Z-scores for high risk procedures have steadily improved from 1.78 to 2.35. The initiatives resulted in sustained reductions of failure-mode risks as measured by a set of evidence-based metrics over a three year period. These augment or incorporate many of the published recommendations for patient safety in radiation medicine by translating them to clinical

  9. Research projects of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety 1996-1997; Saeteilyturvakeskuksen tutkimushankkeet 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R.; Koponen, H. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The research activities of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are based on the Centre`s primary task of preventing and restricting adverse effects of radiation. As a rule, studies concerning nuclear safety (part 1 of the publication) are studies originating from the regulatory function of STUK; these are directed and funded by the Centre but the Centre does not carry them out itself. In contrast, studies dealing with radiation exposure and health risks (part 2 of the publication) are conducted by the Centre itself, often in cooperation with some other research institute or university. Results of these studies are published in open scientific literature.

  10. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-04-28

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit.

  11. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; /Duke U.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /SLAC

    2007-12-17

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a

  12. Modern Chiral Forces Applied to the Nucleon-Deuteron Radiative Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiński, Roman; Golak, Jacek; Topolnicki, Kacper; Witała, Henryk; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Krebs, Hermann; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Nogga, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction with semi-local regularization up to the fifth order of chiral expansion is applied to the nucleon-deuteron radiative capture process. Our theoretical approach is based on the formalism of Faddeev equations and the Siegert theorem is exploited to construct the electromagnetic current operator. The very weak dependence of the differential cross section on values of the regularization parameter is observed. This suggests that the improved chiral two-body interaction is a promising starting point to study electromagnetic processes at low energies.

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  14. Investigation on the radiation induced conductivity of space-applied polyimide under cyclic electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Long; Wu, Yiyong; Sun, Chengyue; Xiao, Jingdong; Shi, Yaping; Ma, Guoliang; He, Shiyu

    2012-11-01

    Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) is an important property of dielectric materials to evaluate the charge/discharge effect in orbit-service spacecraft. RIC of space-applied polyimide film was in situ measured and studied under continuous and cyclic electron irradiation in this paper. The results indicate that, for cyclic electron irradiation, there is a similar increasing-mode of RIC to those for continuous irradiation with the electron irradiation time. However, under the cyclic electron irradiation, the RIC of polyimide shows an obvious irradiation-history characteristic, namely preliminary irradiation dose effect (PIDE). In this case, the steady RIC value presents an "overshoot" behavior in the first few irradiation cycles and then decrease to a stable one as that under continuous irradiation. Prolonging the initial irradiation duration may avoid occurrence of overshoot phenomenon. The behaviors of irradiation-induced free radicals in polyimide could be applied to explain the RIC evolution processes.

  15. A novel safety assessment strategy applied to non-selective extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.; Leeman, W.R.; Verheij, E.R.; Dutman, A.E.; Stee, L.L.P. van; Munch Nielsen, L.; Ronsmans, S.; Noteborn, H.; Krul, L.

    2015-01-01

    A main challenge in food safety research is to demonstrate that processing of foodstuffs does not lead to the formation of substances for which the safety upon consumption might be questioned. This is especially so since food is a complex matrix in which the analytical detection of substances, and c

  16. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures `Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998` organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  17. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  18. 20 CFR 645.260 - What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... participants in Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.260 Section 645.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program and Administrative Requirements § 645.260 What health and safety provisions apply to participants in...

  19. The basis and safety of food irradiation. Advantages of radiation treatment for food sanitation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The food irradiation has the history of more than 60 years in its development. However, its commercial application has not been promoted well in Japan even though the safety of irradiated foods was confirmed. Recently, relevant authorities in 52 countries have given clearance to many commodities, and irradiated foods are commercially distributed in USA and EU countries. The international situation makes some unavoidable circumstances which can not close the commercialization of food irradiation in Japan. The present report contains the basis and application of food irradiation, and history of development in the World and Japan. Moreover, the safety of irradiated foods are demonstrated from many evidences of researches in animal feeding tests, in analysis of radiolytic products, in nutritional evaluations and in microbiological studies of irradiated foods. Especially, it makes obvious from the results of many researches that unique radiolytic products can not be produced by irradiation of foods. Because main radiation effects are induced by oxidation degradation of food components as similar to natural oxidation by heating or UV light. Radiation engineering for commercial process and identification methods of irradiated foods are also presented. (author)

  20. GPU-based Monte Carlo Dust Radiative Transfer Scheme Applied to Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Frank; Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    2012-05-01

    A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman & Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck & Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.

  1. A note on the net radiation method applied to a system composed of a semitransparent film between two glazings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, J.; Dijk, van H.A.L.

    1994-01-01

    The net radiation method is applied to obtain an expression for the thermal radiation heat transfer between a double glazed window unit which contains a semitransparent grey film in the cavity. The results are interpreted in terms of network modelling equations. The total heat transfer equals the re

  2. Distance-Based Access Modifiers Applied to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2004-01-01

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in ubiquitous computing research. Security is a recurring concern, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: preventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants, even in a worst-case scenario where...... be performed within a physical proximity that ensures safety. We use a declarative approach integrated with an IDL language to express location-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home audio-video devices, using infrared communication and a local-area network...... an unauthorized user gains remote control of the facilities. We address this safety issue at the middleware level by restricting the operations that can be performed on devices according to the physical location of the user initiating the request. Operations that pose a potential safety hazard can only...

  3. Is Scores Derived from the Most Internationally Applied Patient Safety Culture Assessment Tool Correct?

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Moghri; Ali Akbari Sari; Mehdi Yousefi; Hasan Zahmatkesh; Ranjbar Mohammad Ezzatabadi; Pejman Hamouzadeh; Satar Rezaei; Jamil Sadeghifar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, known as HSOPS, is an internationally well known and widely used tool for measuring patient safety culture in hospitals. It includes 12 dimensions with positive and negative wording questions. The distribution of these questions in different dimensions is uneven and provides the risk of acquiescence bias. The aim of this study was to assess the questionnaire against this bias. Methods Three hundred nurses were assigned into study ...

  4. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A [Nebraska Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact.

  5. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  6. Radiation safety protocol for high dose 131I therapy of thyroid carcinoma in patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Almodovar, Samuel; Bass, William B; Ojha, Buddhiwardhan

    2007-02-01

    Iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer on patients receiving dialysis poses unique radiation safety challenges. Exposure to gamma and beta negative particles by the hemodialysis (HD) staff is a concern that has not been well studied. A 53-y-old male patient on HD for chronic renal failure was scheduled for 131I high dose therapy as treatment for thyroid papillary carcinoma. The patient was on HD every other day, prior to ablation. A high dose of 131I (3,607.5 MBq) was required. The patient was admitted for 131I therapy, and continued HD. Thyroid cancer ablation therapy was administered according to our institutional protocol. New radiation safety measures were developed and implemented in order to give the patient an optimal treatment dose, reduce radiation to the patient (critical organs and whole body), and to protect the HD personnel. This included placing two lead shields between the patient and the HD nurse, and HD monitoring by two alternating nurses to reduce their radiation exposure. Film badges were used to measure radiation exposure to the nursing staff. Dosimetry calculations were obtained to determine radiation absorbed doses by the optic lens, skin, and whole body. Quality control verification for this shielding arrangement proved to be effective in protecting the HD staff against gamma and beta negative radiation from recent 131I high dose therapy. Implementation of this model proved to be an effective and adequate radiation safety protocol for limiting radiation exposure to the HD staff. The patient was given 3607.5 MBq for optimal treatment after HD. Hemodialysis was repeated after approximately 48 and 96 h to remove excess 131I and reduce radiation to the patient.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  8. An initial radiation safety needs assessment of Costa Rica: the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society's strategic planning appraisal for participation in the "Radiation Safety Without Borders" initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Felknor, S A

    2002-05-01

    In response to the Health Physics Society's recent 'radiation safety without borders" initiative, the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society selected Costa Rica as its partner country of choice. To develop an understanding of the radiation safety needs of this country, the fall 2001 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity class was tasked with the assignment of assessing the possible radiation safety needs and concerns for this country. The assignment culminated in a class presentation to the membership of the South Texas Chapter during its annual fall meeting. Using library and web based resources, tile students reviewed a number of public health and radiation-related topics. Life expectancies were found to be equivalent to the United States, even though significant differences in per capita health expenditures were noted. Costa Rica exhibited lower population mortality rates from major causes such as cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and external sources. Maternal and infant mortality rates were found to be much higher in Costa Rica than in the United States. Naturally occurring radiation sources such as uranium deposits were not identified as apparent major radiation issues of concern, although ultraviolet radiation exposures are consistently high. Several recent events in the country and the region involving patient overexposures suggest that concerns are likely focused on ensuring the proper use and maintenance of healing arts radiation equipment. The lack of available information on radioactive waste disposal suggests that waste handling also may be an issue warranting attention. The exercise proved to be very educational for the students, and the information gathered will serve to focus the Chapter's efforts when technical exchanges are initiated. The importance of linking this initiative to other existing programs within the country is also discussed.

  9. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  10. RiskSOAP: Introducing and applying a methodology of risk self-awareness in road tunnel safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimichailidou, Maria Mikela; Dokas, Ioannis M

    2016-05-01

    Complex socio-technical systems, such as road tunnels, can be designed and developed with more or less elements that can either positively or negatively affect the capability of their agents to recognise imminent threats or vulnerabilities that possibly lead to accidents. This capability is called risk Situation Awareness (SA) provision. Having as a motive the introduction of better tools for designing and developing systems that are self-aware of their vulnerabilities and react to prevent accidents and losses, this paper introduces the Risk Situation Awareness Provision (RiskSOAP) methodology to the field of road tunnel safety, as a means to measure this capability in this kind of systems. The main objective is to test the soundness and the applicability of RiskSOAP to infrastructure, which is advanced in terms of technology, human integration, and minimum number of safety requirements imposed by international bodies. RiskSOAP is applied to a specific road tunnel in Greece and the accompanying indicator is calculated twice, once for the tunnel design as defined by updated European safety standards and once for the 'as-is' tunnel composition, which complies with the necessary safety requirements, but calls for enhancing safety according to what EU and PIARC further suggest. The derived values indicate the extent to which each tunnel version is capable of comprehending its threats and vulnerabilities based on its elements. The former tunnel version seems to be more enhanced both in terms of it risk awareness capability and safety as well. Another interesting finding is that despite the advanced tunnel safety specifications, there is still room for enriching the safe design and maintenance of the road tunnel.

  11. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membré, J.M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this produ

  12. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  13. Radiation safety aspects in application of isotopes for industrial radiography in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, D. [Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Industrial Radiography arose out of the widespread applications of X-rays pioneered by Roentgen about 100 years back. It is routinely used in studying the integrity of structural materials and like most countries in the world, its use in Bangladesh is increasing at a faster rate. This is because Bangladesh is a developing country of 3rd world and in the backdrop of agrarian poverty ridden economy, its population may exceed 125 millions by 2000 AD, leaving some 12 millions people unemployed. To support them, therefore, immense activities are activated in different sectors. Accordingly, increasing importance on NDT is given and in most cases particular application of Gamma radiography is preferred using Iridium Isotope Ir-192. Consequently the points of implications of isotopes are in Open Field and Inservice Inspection Radiography, Handling of Radiation Emergencies, Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials and Hazardous Effects and Risk of Ionizing Radiation, etc. Accordingly over exposure of Ir-192 Radionuclides, Accidents and Unusual Occurrences: Case Studies, Training Courses on Safety and Regulation of Sealed Sources, Licenses for Radiography Operation including Safe Disposal of Isotopes are the salient issues to be viewed in appropriate perspectives. The role played by Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and Bangladesh Society for NDT in collaboration with other members of the international committee for NDT are furthering the safe industrialization process

  14. Efficacy and safety of polaprezinc as a preventive drug for radiation-induced stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Tsuboi, Keita; Nakao, Norio [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Irie, Miwa [Takarazuka Municipal Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Izumi, Masayuki [Minamiosaka Total Health Care Center, Osaka (Japan); Irie, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Hiromi; Muro, Chikaaki [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan). Hospital

    2002-03-01

    Radiation-induced stomatitis is one of the adverse effects of total body irradiation (TBI). We examined the usefulness of oral polaprezinc as a preventive drug for stomatitis. The present study was conducted with 19 patients who were diagnosed with hematologic malignancy and who underwent TBI as pretreatment for bone marrow transplantation, peripheral blood stem transplantation, or cord blood stem cell transplantation. Eleven patients ingested the suspension of polaprezinc and 2% carmellose sodium (carboxymethylcellulose sodium: CMC) beginning the day before TBI (P-CMC group), while the other eight patients did not ingest P-CMC (control group). The severity of stomatitis was assessed in each group during a four-weeks period. Stomatitis (Grade:{>=}3) developed in one of 11 patients in the polaprezinc group and in 4 of 8 patients in the control group (P=0.046). The times at which stomatitis development ranged between weeks 1 and 2 after the onset of TBI in the two groups. No adverse reaction owing to the ingestion of P-CMC was observed. These results suggested the efficacy and safety of polaprezinc as a preventive drug for radiation-induced stomatitis. (author)

  15. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. E-mail: huto@omega.kee.hu; Polyak-Feher, K.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10 deg. C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  16. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  17. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10{sup {minus}4}/y.

  18. 78 FR 51754 - Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ..., requesting to replace its security plan with a new radiation safety plan. DATES: Submit comments by September... authorizes the licensee to possess depleted uranium. The proposed change is to modify License Condition No... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72...

  19. A study on the radiation and environment safety -Development of technology for biological dosimetry-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun Kee Jung; Park, Hyo Kook; Kim, Sang Bok; Park Sun Yung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Adult rats were treated a single, whole body exposure to a dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 Gy. The animals were sacrificed 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours following exposure. The amount of serum acute phase proteins(haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, transferrin) were measured by competitive ELISA. In the 0.1 Gy irradiated rats, serum haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and alpha-1 antitrypsin were 400% higher and serum transferrin was 50% lower as compared to controls, 96 hours after irradiation. Ceruloplasmin increased by 400%, 24 hours after irradiation, but 96 hours after irradiation, the concentration of this protein in rat returned to normal level. On the other hand, no changes were observed in the case of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. In the group of the 3.0 Gy irradiated rats, transferrin increased by 200%, 96 hours after irradiation. These biochemical responses to radiation did not show dose-dependent relation, but the sensitivity of the indicators was high enough to detect absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy. The above results can be applied to the measurements of acute phase reactants in human serum for the assessment of exposure doses in radiation workers and patients under radiation therapy. 39 figs, 72 refs. (Author).

  20. An Efficient Computation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber, Applied to Resistive Wall Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Warnock, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight...

  1. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  2. The nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France in 2003; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    Nine points are reviewed: the law project relative to the safety and openness in nuclear field, the safety of the European PWR type Reactor, the priorities in radiation protection, inspection of radiation protection, the surveillance of patients exposure to ionizing radiations, the hot days and dryness of summer 2003 and the functioning of nuclear power plant, the national planning of radioactive waste management, the becoming of high level and years living radioactive waste, the European nuclear policy. (N.C.)

  3. Radiation safety during remediation of the SevRAO facilities: 10 years of regulatory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, M K; Shandala, N; Kiselev, S; Simakov, A; Titov, A; Seregin, V; Kryuchkov, V; Shcheblanov, V; Bogdanova, L; Grachev, M; Smith, G M

    2015-09-01

    In compliance with the fundamentals of the government's policy in the field of nuclear and radiation safety approved by the President of the Russian Federation, Russia has developed a national program for decommissioning of its nuclear legacy. Under this program, the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' is carrying out remediation of a Site for Temporary Storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) at Andreeva Bay located in Northwest Russia. The short term plan includes implementation of the most critical stage of remediation, which involves the recovery of SNF from what have historically been poorly maintained storage facilities. SNF and RW are stored in non-standard conditions in tanks designed in some cases for other purposes. It is planned to transport recovered SNF to PA 'Mayak' in the southern Urals. This article analyses the current state of the radiation safety supervision of workers and the public in terms of the regulatory preparedness to implement effective supervision of radiation safety during radiation-hazardous operations. It presents the results of long-term radiation monitoring, which serve as informative indicators of the effectiveness of the site remediation and describes the evolving radiation situation. The state of radiation protection and health care service support for emergency preparedness is characterized by the need to further study the issues of the regulator-operator interactions to prevent and mitigate consequences of a radiological accident at the facility. Having in mind the continuing intensification of practical management activities related to SNF and RW in the whole of northwest Russia, it is reasonable to coordinate the activities of the supervision bodies within a strategic master plan. Arrangements for this master plan are discussed, including a proposed programme of actions to enhance the regulatory supervision in order to support accelerated mitigation of threats related to the nuclear legacy in the

  4. Applying decision trial and evaluation laboratory as a decision tool for effective safety management system in aviation transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Ebubechukwu Onyegiri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the aviation industry, the weak engineering controls and lapses associated with safety management systems (SMSs are responsible for the seemingly unprecedented disasters. A previous study has confirmed the difficulties experienced by safety managers with SMSs and the need to direct research to this area of investigation for more insights and progress in the evaluation and maintenance of SMSs in the aviation industry. The purpose of this work is to examine the application of Decision Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL to the aviation industry in developing countries with illustration using the Nigerian aviation survey data for the validation of the method. The advantage of the procedure over other decision making methods is in its ability to apply feedback in its decision making. It also affords us the opportunity of breaking down the complex aviation SMS components and elements which are multi-variate in nature through the analysis of the contributions of the diverse system criteria from the perspective of cause and effects, which in turn yields easier and yet more effective aviation transportation accident pre-corrective actions. In this work, six revised components of an SMS were identified and DEMATEL was applied to obtain their direct and indirect impacts and influences on the overall SMS performance. Data collection was by the survey questionnaire, which served as the initial direct-relation matrix, coded in Matlab software for establishing the impact relation map (IRM. The IRM was then plotted in MS Excel spread-sheet software. From our results, safety structure and regulation has the highest impact level on an SMS with a corresponding positive relation level value. In conclusion, the results agree with those of previous researchers that used grey relational analysis. Thus, DEMATEL serves as a great tool and resource for the safety manager.

  5. Trends of international standard procedures on dosimetry systems and irradiated foods applied in the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Kwan Soo; Park, Soon Yeon [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Recently, with new radiation technology being developed and used in advanced industries, the business opportunity of radiation processing has been increasing. For the industrial application of developed products, it is required to review scientific and technical aspects of standard procedures applied to radiation processes. Standard procedures describe requirements of products manufactured under standard processing conditions. In fields related to the operation control of the multi-purpose radiation processing facilities, the ISO 11137 and Codex stan-106 are famous standards adopted as national standards in the advanced countries. The ISO 11137 is applied to supply criteria of medical devices for the validation and routine control of radiation sterilization including variability and uncertainty of dosimetry systems. Korean national standards on the food irradiation are significantly different from Codex stan-106 in parts such as the labelling. Therefore, prior to implementation of the labelling on the labelling on irradiated foods starting from year 2010, it is necessary to revise the inconsistent labelling to the reasonable level of international standard for the promotion and reenforcement of competition in industries using radiation processing technology.

  6. Safety of Redo Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases after Selective Interarterial Radiation Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection is the only potentially curative strategy in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Unfortunately, only about 10%–15% of patients are candidates for resection. Preoperative chemotherapy aims to increase the number of patients that may be eligible for liver resection by downsizing liver metastases. For patients with unresectable, chemotherapy refractory CLM the available treatment options are limited. Selective interarterial radiation therapy (SIRT is one of the most promising treatment options for this group of patients. Although only a small number of these patients have been reported as becoming candidates for potentially curative hepatic resection following sufficient reduction in the volume of liver metastases, the question arises regarding the safety of liver resection in these patients. We report a case of a patient who presented unresectable liver relapse of CLM after previous right hepatectomy. He underwent SIRT which resulted in downsizing of the liver metastases making the patient candidate for left lateral sectionectomy. He underwent the redo hepatectomy without any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of redo hepatectomy after SIRT for CLM.

  7. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keong, C C; Zin, W M Wan; Ibrahim, P; Ibrahim, S, E-mail: chai@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  8. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, C. C.; Zin, W. M. Wan; Ibrahim, P.; Ibrahim, S.

    2010-05-01

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Fiducial Marker Implantation for CyberKnife Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Hong, Seong; Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, Yun Woo; Chang, A Ram [Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Seok Beom [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and technical success rate of an ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantation in preparation for CyberKnife radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 270 percutaneous ultrasound-guided fiducial marker implantations in 77 patients, which were performed from June 2008 through March 2011. Of 270 implantations, 104 were implanted in metastatic lymph nodes, 96 were in the liver, 39 were in the pancreas, and 31 were in the prostate. During and after the implantation, major and minor procedure-related complications were documented. We defined technical success as the implantation enabling adequate treatment planning and CT simulation. The major and minor complication rates were 1% and 21%, respectively. One patient who had an implantation in the liver suffered severe abdominal pain, biloma, and pleural effusion, which were considered as major complication. Abdominal pain was the most common complication in 11 patients (14%). Among nine patients who had markers inserted in the prostate, one had transient hematuria for less than 24 hours, and the other experienced transient voiding difficulty. Of the 270 implantations, 261 were successful (97%). The reasons for unsuccessful implantations included migration of fiducial markers (five implantations, 2%) and failure to discriminate the fiducial markers (three implantations, 1%). Among the unsuccessful implantation cases, six patients required additional procedures (8%). The symptomatic complications following ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantation of fiducial markers are relatively low. However, careful consideration of the relatively higher rate of migration and discrimination failure is needed when performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous implantations of fiducial markers.

  10. [Evaluation of the risk of delayed adverse effects of chronic combined exposure to radiation and chemical factors with the purpose to ensure safety in orbital and exploration space missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafirkin, A V; Mukhamedieva, L N; Tatarkin, S V; Barantseva, M Iu

    2012-01-01

    The work had the aim to anatomize the existing issues with providing safety in extended orbital and exploration missions for ensuing estimation of actual values of the total radiation risk for the crew, and risks of other delayed effects of simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation and chemical pollutants in cabin air, and a number of other stressful factors inevitable in space flight. The flow of chronic experiments for separate and combined studies with reproduction of air makeup and radiation doses in actual orbital and predicted exploration missions is outlined. To set safety limits, new approaches should be applied to the description of gradual norm degradation to pathologies in addition to several generalized quantitative indices of adaptation and straining of the regulatory systems, as well as of effectiveness of the compensatory body reserve against separate and combined exposure.

  11. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  12. The evaluation of four different diffuse radiation correction models applied to shadow ring measurements for Beer Sheva, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I.; Evseev, Efim G.

    2007-09-01

    The measurement of the horizontal diffuse radiation, a priori a straightforward task, is fraught with difficulties. It is possible to measure the diffuse radiation by both direct and indirect methods. The most accurate method is probably the indirect one, which utilizes concurrent measurements of the horizontal global and the normal incidence beam radiation. The disadvantage of this method is the relatively expensive tracking system required for measuring the latter. The diffuse radiation can be measured directly with a pyranometer outfitted with either an occulting disk or shadow ring, which prevent the beam radiation from impinging on the pyranometer sensor. The former method can provide accurate measurements of the diffuse radiation but requires a relatively expensive sun tracking system in the east-west axis. The shadow ring is a stationary device with regard to the east-west axis and blocks the beam radiation component by creating a permanent shadow on the pyranometer sensor. The disadvantage of the shadow ring is that it also blocks a portion of the sky, which necessitates a geometrical correction factor. There is also a need to correct for anisotropic sky conditions. Four correction models have been applied to the data and the results evaluated and ranked.

  13. The assessment of four different correction models applied to the diffuse radiation measured with a shadow ring using global and normal beam radiation measurements for Beer Sheva, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudish, Avraham I.; Evseev, Efim G. [Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, E D Bergmann Campus, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2008-02-15

    The measurement of the diffuse radiation incident on a horizontal surface, a priori a straightforward task, is fraught with difficulties. It is possible to measure the diffuse radiation by three different techniques: two of which measure it directly and the third indirectly. The most accurate is the indirect one, which is based upon the concurrent measurements of the horizontal global and the normal incidence beam radiation. The disadvantage of this being the relatively expensive tracking system required for measuring the latter. The diffuse radiation can be measured directly with a pyranometer outfitted with either an occulting disk or shadow ring, which prevent the beam radiation from impinging on the pyranometer sensor. The occulting disk can provide accurate measurements of the diffuse radiation but it requires a relatively expensive sun tracking system in the east-west axis. The shadow ring is a stationary device with regard to the east-west axis and blocks the beam radiation component by creating a permanent shadow on the pyranometer sensor. The major disadvantage of the shadow ring is that it also blocks that portion of the diffuse radiation obscured by the shadow ring. This introduces a measurement error that must be corrected to account for that portion of the sky obscured by the shadow band. In addition to this geometric correction factor there is a need to correct for anisotropic sky conditions. Four correction models have been applied to the data for Beer Sheva, Israel and the results have been evaluated both graphically and statistically. An attempt has been made to score the relative performance of the models under different sky conditions. (author)

  14. Viimsi water treatment plant for Ra removal: NORM residue/waste generation, radiation safety issues, and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Realo, E.; Jantsikene, A.; Lumiste, L.; Vaeaer, K.; Isakar, K.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In early 2012, the first large-scale water treatment plant, specifically designed to remove Ra-isotopes from groundwater, was commissioned in Viimsi parish, North-Estonia. The plant serves approximately 15 000 consumers with maximum production capacity of 6000 m{sup 3}/d. The chosen water treatment technology is chemical free and is based on co-precipitation and adsorption with Fe(OH){sub 3} and MnO{sub 2} flocks, and adsorption of residual Ra onto zeolite sand. The chosen technology is a complex approach and is designed to reduce high Fe and Mn concentrations as well as dissolved gases along with Ra isotopes. It is proved to be well adapted with hydro-chemical conditions of the groundwater feeding the plant. As the novel technology has been applied for the first time on a large scale, the plant was taken under long-term investigation when commissioned. The latter focuses on three areas: Ra removal efficiency and its dynamics, build-up of radioactive waste, and radiation safety. The average Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations in raw water feeding the plant are approximately 0.5 Bq/L and 0.6 Bq/L, respectively, resulting in total indicative dose of 0.4 mSv/y. Operating conditions of the plant are restricted by the established indicative value of 0.1 mSv/y for drinking water, i.e. a minimum 75% removal efficiency for Ra is required. Results of the studies show that the plant operates at Ra-removal efficiency of 98% or higher without the need of regeneration or replacement of filtering materials within the first two years. Measurements confirm that ∼90% of Ra accumulates in the solid filter media, 8-9% is washed out by backwash system as liquid effluent and 1-2% is fed on to the consumer distribution network. It has been calculated that at the level of current production capacity (below 3000 m{sup 3}/d) the yearly accumulation rate in the plant is approximately 300 and 400 MBq/y for Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively. These values strongly exceed the exemption

  15. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Div. of Cardiology; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Community Medicine; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Div. of Internal Medicine

    2015-10-15

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm{sup 2}), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm{sup 2} per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm{sup 2}/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm{sup 2}), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm{sup 2}), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm{sup 2}), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm{sup 2}/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm{sup 2}). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  16. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  17. Do angles of obliquity apply to 30 degrees scattered radiation from megavoltage beams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Peter J; Styczynski, John R

    2008-10-01

    The angle of obliquity is used in radiation shielding calculations to account for the longer path length x rays will see when obliquely incident on the protective barrier. According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), use of the angle of obliquity is explicitly assumed for primary radiation, so that an angle of obliquity for secondary radiation is never addressed. However, in the example section of the latest report, it specifically recommends against using an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation. To check this assumption, the existence or not of an angle of obliquity for scattered radiation has been investigated for bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV and for barriers consisting of concrete, lead, and steel using a Monte Carlo approach. The MCNP Monte Carlo code, v4.2C, has been used to generate scattered radiation at 30 degrees from a water phantom and incident on a secondary barrier at the same angle relative to the normal to the barrier. The barrier thickness was increased from zero to a thickness sufficient to reduce the fluence (f4 tally) to concrete (5 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 21.7 degrees +/- 5.6 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 29.7 degrees +/- 3.9 degrees . The results for the first TVL in lead (3 energies) show an average angle of obliquity of 27.7 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees , and for the first two TVLs averaged 20.5 degrees +/- 5.8 degrees . There are no data in the NCRP reports for 30 degrees scattered radiation attenuated by steel with which to make a comparison.

  18. Analysis of radiation environmental safety for China's Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Bin; Wu, Qing-Biao; Ma, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Li, Nan; Wu, Jing-Min; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

    2010-07-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is going to be located in Dalang Town, Dongguan City in the Guangdong Province. In this paper we report the results of the parameters related with environment safety based on experiential calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The main project of the accelerator is an under ground construction. On top there is a 0.5 m concrete and 5.0 m soil covering for shielding, which can reduce the dose out of the tunnel's top down to 0.2 μSv/h. For the residents on the boundary of the CSNS, the dose produced by skyshine, which is caused by the penetrated radiation leaking from the top of the accelerator, is no more than 0.68 μSv/a. When CSNS is operating normally, the maximal annual effective dose due to the emission of gas from the tunnel is 2.40×10-3 mSv/a to the public adult, and 2.29×10-3 mSv/a to a child, both values are two orders of magnitude less than the limiting value for control and management. CSNS may give rise to an activation of the soil and groundwater in the nearest tunnels, where the main productions are 3H, 7Be, 22Na, 54Mn, etc. But the specific activity is less than the exempt specific activity in the national standard GB13376-92. So it is safe to say that the environmental impact caused by the activation of soil and groundwater is insignificant. To sum up, for CSNS, as a powerful neutron source device, driven by a high-energy high-current proton accelerator, a lot of potential factors affecting the environment exist. However, as long as effective shieldings for protection are adopted and strict rules are drafted, the environmental impact can be kept under control within the limits of the national standard.

  19. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  20. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  1. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  2. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from on in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10%. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5% at the TOA over ocean/land and 15% at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20%. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported.

  3. Transdermal penetration of topically applied fluorescent dyes with and without the influence of Water Filtered Infrared-A-Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Grone, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Optical methods were used to investigate the influence of water filtered infrared A radiation (wIRA) on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances. The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic dye fluoresceine and the lipophilic dye curcumin in a standard o/w emulsion were determined by tape stripping, in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, the penetration was investigated in vivo by laser scanning microscopy. Three different protocols (mode A-C) were us...

  4. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  5. Study of Phase Reconstruction Techniques applied to Smith-Purcell Radiation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, Nicolas; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Khodnevych, Vitalii

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of coherent radiation at accelerators typically give the absolute value of the beam profile Fourier transform but not its phase. Phase reconstruction techniques such as Hilbert transform or Kramers Kronig reconstruction are used to recover such phase. We report a study of the performances of these methods and how to optimize the reconstructed profiles.

  6. Study of Phase Reconstruction Techniques applied to Smith-Purcell Radiation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, Nicolas; Vieille-Grosjean, Mélissa; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Khodnevych, Vitalii

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of coherent radiation at accelerators typically give the absolute value of the beam profile Fourier transform but not its phase. Phase reconstruction techniques such as Hilbert transform or Kramers Kronig reconstruction are used to recover such phase. We report a study of the performances of these methods and how to optimize the reconstructed profiles.

  7. The possibilities of applying a risk-oriented approach to the NPP reliability and safety enhancement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Yu. A.

    2014-10-01

    An analysis and some generalizations of approaches to risk assessments are presented. Interconnection between different interpretations of the "risk" notion is shown, and the possibility of applying the fuzzy set theory to risk assessments is demonstrated. A generalized formulation of the risk assessment notion is proposed in applying risk-oriented approaches to the problem of enhancing reliability and safety in nuclear power engineering. The solution of problems using the developed risk-oriented approaches aimed at achieving more reliable and safe operation of NPPs is described. The results of studies aimed at determining the need (advisability) to modernize/replace NPP elements and systems are presented together with the results obtained from elaborating the methodical principles of introducing the repair concept based on the equipment technical state. The possibility of reducing the scope of tests and altering the NPP systems maintenance strategy is substantiated using the risk-oriented approach. A probabilistic model for estimating the validity of boric acid concentration measurements is developed.

  8. Radiative transfer modeling applied to sea water constituent determination. [Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    Optical radiation from the sea is influenced by pigments dissolved in the water and contained in discrete organisms suspended in the sea, and by pigmented and unpigmented inorganic and organic particles. The problem of extracting the information concerning these pigments and particulates from the optical properties of the sea is addressed and the properties which determine characteristics of the radiation that a remote sensor will detect and measure are considered. The results of the application of the volume scattering function model to the data collected in the Gulf of Mexico and its environs indicate that the size distribution of the concentrations of particles found in the sea can be predicted from measurements of the volume scattering function. Furthermore, with the volume scattering function model and knowledge of the absorption spectra of dissolved pigments, the radiative transfer model can compute a distribution of particle sizes and indices of refraction and concentration of dissolved pigments that give an upwelling light spectrum that closely matches measurements of that spectrum at sea.

  9. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2001; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laatu roentgendiagnostiikassa 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The obligations of the medical exposure directive (97/43/Euratom) for hospitals dominate the current activities in radiation protection in medical radiology. The directive gives special emphasis to radiation exposure of children, to examinations with high radiation doses and to radiation exposure in health screening programmes. The most important examinations with high doses are radiological interventions, where even acute skin effects are possible, and the computed tomography where the number of CT examinations makes only about 5% from the total number of x-ray examinations but the collective effective dose about 40% from the combined collective effective dose of all x-ray examinations. In the research projects financed by the European Commission, radiation exposures to paediatric patients have been measured in radiography, fluoroscopy and CT, and various dose assessment methods have been compared to develop a method for national follow-up of patients' radiation dose. The newest research project is focused on dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional radiology and digital imaging. Other actual topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, and clinical audits. This report deals with new radiation protection guides and recommendations and the education and training of radiological staff in radiation protection. One important topic is the development of national follow-up method of radiation exposure to patients and comparison of various dose assessment methods. Quality assurance in health care and in paediatric radiology, and the acceptance test and quality assurance measurements of radiological equipment are also described. (orig.)

  10. [The control of radiation protection in the field of radiotherapy by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, J-L

    2007-11-01

    During the last months, several incidents at radiotherapy services occurred in France; one of these accidents led to the death of several patients or required further heavy surgical acts. In this context, ASN (Autorité de sûreté nucléaire) issued an experimental guide for the notification of radiation protection events and achieved, in dialogue with professional organisations, a new scale intended to facilitate public information on radiotherapy incidents. ASN is also fully involved in the preparation of the action plan managed by the Health ministry in order to improve the safety of treatment in radiotherapy.

  11. Applying graphics processor units to Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential in using of using a graphics processor unit (GPU for Monte-Carlo (MC-based radiation dose calculations. The percent depth dose (PDD of photons in a medium with known absorption and scattering coefficients is computed using a MC simulation running on both a standard CPU and a GPU. We demonstrate that the GPU′s capability for massive parallel processing provides a significant acceleration in the MC calculation, and offers a significant advantage for distributed stochastic simulations on a single computer. Harnessing this potential of GPUs will help in the early adoption of MC for routine planning in a clinical environment.

  12. Initial experience with an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron on operation and radiation safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-shielded medical cyclotron (11 MeV was commissioned at our center, to produce positron emitters, namely, 18 F, 15 O, 13 N and 11 C for positron emission tomography (PET imaging. Presently the cyclotron has been exclusively used for the production of 18 F - for 18 F-FDG imaging. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - production were monitored. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were also monitored to assess the radiation safety status in the facility. The target material, 18 O water, is bombarded with proton beam from the cyclotron to produce 18 F - ion that is used for the synthesis of 18 F-FDG. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18 F - were observed during 292 production runs out of a total of more than 400 runs. The radiation dose levels were also measured in the facility at various locations during cyclotron production runs and in the radiochemistry laboratory during 18 F-FDG syntheses. It was observed that rinsing the target after delivery increased the number of production runs in a given target, as well as resulted in a better correlation between the duration of bombardment and the end of bombardment 18 F - activity with absolutely clean target after being rebuilt. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were observed to be well within prescribed limits with safe work practice.

  13. Standardization Safety Management of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Supervision in Colleges and Universities%高校核与辐射安全监管规范化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪霞; 刘朋; 陈永清

    2016-01-01

    针对目前高校核与辐射安全监管方面存在的问题,以苏州大学核与辐射安全监管为研究对象,对高校核与辐射安全监管进行探索与实践。规范化核与辐射的安全监管可以促进大学的安全监管水平。%It has the important meaning to formulate university related safety administrative regulations and security standard, specially regarding standardized safety supervision of the nuclear and radiation, It can promote the university security supervision being scientiifc, standardized normative, and raise the university safety supervision being level. In view of the problems which exist in present university safety supervision on nuclear and radiation, taking the actual situation of Suzhou University safety supervision on nuclear and radiation as an example, it has been explored about the safety supervision on nuclear and radiation.

  14. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral assistance to Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in various projects financed by the European Union. The purpose of this project-oriented report is to provide the Swedish Government and other funding agencies as well as other interested audiences in Sweden and abroad with an encompassing understanding of our work and in particular the work performed during 2008. the activities are divided into four subfields: Nuclear waste management; Reactor safety; Radiation safety and emergency preparedness; and, Nuclear non-proliferation. SSM implements projects in the field of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in Russia. The problems in this field also exist in other countries, yet the concentration of nuclear and radioactive materials are nowhere higher than in north-west Russia. And given the fact that most of these materials stem from the Cold War era and remain stored under conditions that vary from 'possibly acceptable' to 'wildly appalling' it is obvious that Sweden's first priority in the field of managing nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste lies in this part of Russia. The prioritisation and selection of projects in reactor safety are established following thorough discussions with the partners in Russia and Ukraine. For specific guidance on safety and recommended safety improvements at RBMK and VVER reactors, SSM relies on analyses and handbooks established by the IAEA in the 1990s. In 2008, there were 16 projects in reactor safety. SSM implements a large number of projects in the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness. The activities are at a first glance at some distance from the activities covered and

  15. US Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Medical Devices and Radiation Oncology: Can Reform Improve Safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Hattangadi, Jona A.; O'Reilly, James T.; Recht, Abram

    2011-01-01

    A review of the issues involved in medical device regulation in radiation oncology, including a general review of federal medical device regulation and explanations of the legal and regulatory framework.

  16. Experimental design of mixture applied to study PVP hydrogels properties crosslinked by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Mara Tania S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: maratalcantara@uol.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taqueda, Maria Elena S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogels are three dimensional hydrophilic crosslinked polymeric networks that have capacity to swell by absorbing water or biological fluids without dissolve. Hydrogels have been widely used in different application fields from agriculture, industry and in biomedicine. The properties of a hydrogel are extremely important in selecting which materials are suitable for a specific application. So mixtures can offer hydrogels with different properties to different applications. The PVP hydrogels were prepared by gamma radiation of an aqueous polymer solution and crosslinked by gamma ray, an effective and simple method for hydrogel formation that offers some advantages over the other techniques. In this work, a mixture experimental design was used to study the relationship between polymer cross-linking and swelling properties of PVP hydrogels with PEG as plasticizer and agar as gellifier. The gel fraction was measured for every mixture specified for the experiment D-optimal designs. (author)

  17. Multidisciplinary approach of early breast cancer: The biology applied to radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azria David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Early breast cancer treatment is based on a multimodality approach with the application of clinical and histological prognostic factors to determine locoregional and systemic treatments. The entire scientific community is strongly involved in the management of this disease: radiologists for screening and early diagnosis, gynecologists, surgical oncologists and radiation oncologists for locoregional treatment, pathologists and biologists for personalized characterization, genetic counselors for BRCA mutation history and medical oncologists for systemic therapies. Recently, new biological tools have established various prognostic subsets of breast cancer and developed predictive markers for miscellaneous treatments. The aim of this article is to highlight the contribution of biological tools in the locoregional management of early breast cancer.

  18. The spatial statistics formalism applied to mapping electromagnetic radiation in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesus M; Rufo, Montaña; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Determining the electromagnetic radiation levels in urban areas is a complicated task. Various approaches have been taken, including numerical simulations using different models of propagation, sampling campaigns to measure field values with which to validate theoretical models, and the formalism of spatial statistics. In the work, we present here that this latter technique was used to construct maps of electric field and its associated uncertainty from experimental data. For this purpose, a field meter and a broadband probe sensitive in the 100-kHz-3-GHz frequency range were used to take 1,020 measurements around buildings and along the perimeter of the area. The distance between sampling points was 5 m. The results were stored in a geographic information system to facilitate data handling and analysis, in particular, the application of the formalism of spatial statistical to the analysis of the distribution of the field levels over the study area. The spatial structure was analyzed using the variographic technique, with the field levels at non-sampled points being interpolated by kriging. The results indicated that, in the urban area analyzed in the present work, the linear density of sampling points could be reduced to a distance which coincides with the length of the blocks of buildings without the statistical parameters varying significantly and with the field level maps being reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronov, SA; Voronov, YA; Onishchenko, EM; Simakov, AB; Sosnovtsev, VV; Suchkov, SI; Sugrobova, TA

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas-filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blow-out ti

  20. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S.B.

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Faster with CLEAN: an exploration of the effects of applying a nonlinear deconvolution method to a novel radiation mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, Matthew J.; Taylor, Christopher T.; Hutchinson, Simon; Bowring, Nicholas J.

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the suitability and potential of reducing the acquisition requirements of a novel radiation mapper through the application of the non-linear deconvolution technique, CLEAN. The radiation mapper generates a threshold image of the target scene, at a user defined distance, using a single pixel detector manually scanned across the scene . This paper provides a discussion of the factors involved and merits of incorporating CLEAN into the system. In this paper we describe the modifications to the system for the generation of an intensity map and the relationship between resolution and acquisition time for a target scene. The factors influencing image fidelity for a scene are identified and discussed with the impact on fill-factor of the intensity image, which in turn determines the ability of the operator to accurately identify features of the radiation source within a target scene. The CLEAN algorithm and its variants have been extensively developed by the radio astronomy community to improve the image fidelity of data collected by sparse interferometric arrays. However, the algorithm has demonstrated surprising adaptability including terrestrial imagery, as detailed in Taylor et al. SPIE 9078-19 and Bose et al., IEEE 2002. CLEAN can be applied directly to raw data via a bespoke algorithm. However, this investigation is a proof-of-concept and thus requires a well tested verification method. We have opted to use the public ally available implementation of CLEAN found in the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. The use of CASA for this purpose dictates the use of simulated input data and radio astronomy standard parameters. Finally, this paper presents the results of applying CLEAN to our simulated target scene, with a discussion of the potential merits a bespoke implementation would yield.

  2. Report on the actual state of the basic, applied research and industrial applications of the radiation in Mexico; Informe sobre el estado actual de la investigacion basica, aplicada y aplicaciones industriales de la radiacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, H

    1991-07-15

    In this report the main works of basic, applied research and industrial applications that are carried out in Mexico, about radiations (radiation chemistry, technology, applications, use and isotope production, etc.): infrastructure, radiation sources, groups and research programs are presented. (Author)

  3. External Beam Radiation Therapy and Abiraterone in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer: Safety and Effect on Tissue Androgens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eunpi [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mostaghel, Elahe A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Russell, Kenneth J.; Liao, Jay J.; Konodi, Mark A. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Kurland, Brenda F. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Marck, Brett T. [Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Matsumoto, Alvin M. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dalkin, Bruce L. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States); Montgomery, R. Bruce, E-mail: rbmontgo@uw.edu [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Optimizing androgen suppression may provide better control of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous trials have supported the benefit of combining androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiation therapy in men with locally advanced or high-grade disease. Addition of abiraterone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) with radiation has not been reported. We examined the safety of this combination as well as its impact on androgen suppression. Methods and Materials: A prospective, phase 2 study was conducted in men with localized PCa treated with 6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent abiraterone with LHRHa and radiation. Duration of adjuvant LHRHa was at the discretion of the treating clinician. Prostate biopsy assays were obtained prior to the start of therapy and prior to radiation. Sera and tissue androgen levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 22 men with intermediate- (n=3) and high-risk PCa (n=19) received study therapy. Sixteen men completed the intended course of abiraterone, and 19 men completed planned radiation to 77.4 to 81 Gy. Radiation to pelvic nodes was administered in 20 men. The following grade 3 toxicities were reported: lymphopenia (14 patients), fatigue (1 patient), transaminitis (2 patients), hypertension (2 patients), and hypokalemia (1 patient). There were no grade 4 toxicities. All 21 men who complied with at least 3 months of abiraterone therapy had a preradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration nadir of <0.3 ng/mL. Median levels of tissue androgen downstream of CYP17A were significantly suppressed after treatment with abiraterone, and upstream steroids were increased. At median follow-up of 21 months (range: 3-37 months), only 1 patient (who had discontinued abiraterone at 3 months) had biochemical relapse. Conclusions: Addition of abiraterone to LHRHa with radiation is safe and achieves effective prostatic androgen suppression

  4. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  5. Behavior and awareness of thyroid cancer patients in Korea having non-hospitalized low-dose radioiodine treatment with regard to radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seog Gyun; Paeng, Jin Chul; Eo, Jae Seon; Shim, Hye Kyung; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, non-hospitalized low-dose (NH-LD) radioiodine treatment (RIT) has also increased rapidly. The radioactivity limit that is allowed to be administered without hospitalization depends on individual calculation, based partly on patients' behavior. In this study, Korean patients' behavior in relation to radiation safety in NHLD RIT was surveyed. A total of 218 patients who underwent NH-LD RIT of 1.1 GBq {sup 131}I in a single center were surveyed. The patients underwent RIT with a standard protocol and the survey was performed by interview when they visited subsequently for a whole-body scan. The survey questionnaire included three parts of questions: general information, behavior relating to isolation during RIT, and awareness of radiation safety. After administration of radioiodine, 40% of patients who returned home used mass transportation, and another 47% went home by taxi or in car driven by another person. Isolation at home was generally sufficient. However, 7% of patients did not stay in a separate room. Among the 218 patients, 34% did not go home and chose self-isolation away from home, mostly due to concerns about radiation safety of family members. However, the places were mostly public places, including hotels, resorts, and hospitals. About half of the patients replied that access to radiation safety information was not easy and their awareness of radiation safety was not satisfactory. As a result, 45% of patients wanted hospitalized RIT. In many countries, including Korea, RIT is continuously increasing. Considering the radiation safety of patients' family members or the public and the convenience of patients, the pretreatment education of patients should be enhanced. In addition, the hospitalization of patients having low-dose therapy is recommended to be seriously considered and expanded, with the expansion of dedicated treatment facilities

  6. Safety assessment and environmental impact assessment: Application to regulation of nuclear and radiation safety, with special consideration to Lepse related operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, V.G. [Gosatomnadzor (Russian Federation); Smith, G.M.; Stone, D.M. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    This report discusses the links between safety assessment and environmental impact assessment as applied to operations for unloading of spent nuclear fuel from the Lepse storage vessel. Regulatory responsibilities and regulatory requirements in these areas are under discussion and development in the Russian Federation and in other countries. The authors provide a briefing, based on inputs from Russian and western organisations, of their understanding of the situation at the time the work was done. They also make a variety of suggestions according to their perspectives. These suggestions should be relevant to the Lepse situation and to some other nuclear activities, bur do not represent the position of any particular organisation. Accordingly, this report is published by the SSI with the intention to promote discussion and interaction among relevant authorities.

  7. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2002. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2002. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und verwaltete Ressortforschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesumweltministeriums (BMU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergler, I.; Bernhard, C.; Goedde, R.; Loebke-Reinl, A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2004-03-01

    The Federal Office of Radiation Protection awards research projects in the field of radiation protection on the behalf of the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The findings of these projects serve as decision-making aids in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of the BMU's specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as technical evaluation of the research and study projects is the task of the Federal Office of Radiation Protection. The present report provides information on the preliminary and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects in the year 2002 within the BMU's Applied Research Programme. (orig.) [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit Untersuchungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung der Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2002. (orig.)

  8. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, C [comp.

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2010; Rapport sur la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection des installations nucleaires de Fessenheim - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  10. Assessing school disaster preparedness by applying a comprehensive school safety framework: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.

  11. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) — A Summary Report of the Results of the EMRAS Programme (2003-2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.;

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the results and achievements of the IAEA programme called EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety), which ran from 2003 to 2007. The activities of the various working groups focused on the compilation of a handbook of parameter values...... for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments, on the test and comparison of models to assess the transfer of tritium and 14C to biota and humans, on the validation of models for dose reconstruction due to 131I after the Chernobyl accident, on modelling the transfer of radionuclides...... in aquatic systems, on remediation of rural and urban sites with radioactive residues, and on the impact of environmental radioactivity on non-human species. The book concludes with a summary of the outcomes of the EMRAS programme and is accompanied by a CD-ROM which provides details of the work...

  12. Radiochromic film for dosimetric measurements in radiation shielding composites synthesized for applied in radiology procedures of high dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C. C. P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Baptista N, A. T.; Faria, L. O., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients. However, although specifics procedures of high dose, as fluoroscopy, Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography (CT) make up a small percent of the imaging procedures, they contribute to significantly increase dose to population. The patients may suffer tissue damage. The probability of deterministic effects incidence depends on the type of procedure performed, exposure time, and the amount of applied dose at the irradiated area. Calibrated radiochromic films can identify size and distribution of the radiated fields and measure intensities of doses. Radiochromic films are sensitive for doses ranging from 0.1 to 20 c Gy and they have the same response for X-rays effective energies ranging from 20 to 100 keV. New radiation attenuators materials have been widely investigated resulting in dose reduction entrance skin dose. In this work, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}:8 % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were obtained by mixing them with P(VDF-Tr Fe) copolymers matrix from casting method and then characterized by Ftir. Dosimetric measurements were obtained with Xr-Q A2 Gafchromic radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to the X-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam were exposed to an absorbed dose of 10 mGy of RQR5 beam quality (70 kV X-ray beam). Under the same conditions, irradiated Xr-Q A2 films were stored and scanned measurement in order to obtain a more reliable result. The attenuation factors, evaluated by Xr-Q A2 radiochromic films, indicate that both composites are good candidates for use as patient radiation shielding in high dose medical procedures. (Author)

  13. The UK Met Office global circulation model with a sophisticated radiation scheme applied to the hot Jupiter HD 209458b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, David S.; Mayne, Nathan J.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Manners, James; Tremblin, Pascal; Drummond, Benjamin; Smith, Chris; Acreman, David M.; Homeier, Derek

    2016-10-01

    To study the complexity of hot Jupiter atmospheres revealed by observations of increasing quality, we have adapted the UK Met Office Global Circulation Model (GCM), the Unified Model (UM), to these exoplanets. The UM solves the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations with a height-varying gravity, avoiding the simplifications used in most GCMs currently applied to exoplanets. In this work we present the coupling of the UM dynamical core to an accurate radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and correlated-k method with state-of-the-art opacities from ExoMol. Our first application of this model is devoted to the extensively studied hot Jupiter HD 209458b. We have derived synthetic emission spectra and phase curves, and compare them to both previous models also based on state-of-the-art radiative transfer, and to observations. We find a reasonable agreement between observations and both our days side emission and hot spot offset, however, our night side emissions is too large. Overall our results are qualitatively similar to those found by Showman et al. (2009, ApJ, 699, 564) with the SPARC/MITgcm, however, we note several quantitative differences: Our simulations show significant variation in the position of the hottest part of the atmosphere with pressure, as expected from simple timescale arguments, and in contrast to the "vertical coherency" found by Showman et al. (2009). We also see significant quantitative differences in calculated synthetic observations. Our comparisons strengthen the need for detailed intercomparisons of dynamical cores, radiation schemes and post-processing tools to understand these differences. This effort is necessary in order to make robust conclusions about these atmospheres based on GCM results.

  14. The UK Met Office GCM with a sophisticated radiation scheme applied to the hot Jupiter HD 209458b

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, David S; Baraffe, Isabelle; Manners, James; Tremblin, Pascal; Drummond, Benjamin; Smith, Chris; Acreman, David M; Homeier, Derek

    2016-01-01

    To study the complexity of hot Jupiter atmospheres revealed by observations of increasing quality, we have adapted the UK Met Office Global Circulation Model (GCM), the Unified Model (UM), to these exoplanets. The UM solves the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations with a height-varying gravity, avoiding the simplifications used in most GCMs currently applied to exoplanets. In this work we present the coupling of the UM dynamical core to an accurate radiation scheme based on the two-stream approximation and correlated-k method with state-of-the-art opacities from ExoMol. Our first application of this model is devoted to the extensively studied hot Jupiter HD 209458b. We derive synthetic emission spectra and phase curves, and compare them to both previous models also based on state-of-the-art radiative transfer, and to observations. We find a reasonable a agreement between observations and both our days side emission and hot spot offset, however, our night side emissions is too large. Overall our results are qualita...

  15. High-voltage safety fuses for the transition-radiation tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, S A; Onishchenko, E M; Simakov, A B; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Sugrobova, T A

    2004-01-01

    A safety fuse has been designed for the electrical protection of gas- filled detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The fuse is a polished lithium niobate plate with a titanium strip of 91-kOmega resistance deposited by the photolithographic technique. The forced blowout time of the fuse is 10-50 ms; whereupon the leakage current through it is less than 1 nA at a 2-kV voltage. The resistance of the fuse case is greater than or equivalent equal' greater than 10**1**2 Omega. Its overall dimensions are 5.8 multiplied by 3.8 multiplied by 2 mm.

  16. Safety, immunization coverage and determinants of a new kind of Hepatitis B vaccine firstly applied in Ningbo, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sijia; Ma, Xiao; Ni, Hongxia; Zhou, Shaoying; Hu, Danbiao; Shi, Honghui; Chen, Xiaoying; Dong, Hongjun; Xu, Guozhang

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate safety and immunization coverage of a new kind of recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) in Ningbo city, China. Two groups were carried out in 2 of 11 randomly selected countries in Ningbo in 2009. All of the infants born from July 1 to December 31, 2009 were enrolled as subjects and received 3 doses of HepB at 0, 1, 6 month. Control group (N = 3452) received current HepB derived from Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast (HepB made by recombinant DNA techniques in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast, HepB-SCY; 5 μg/0.5 ml per dose) and experimental group (N = 5104) received the new kind of HepB derived from Hansenula polymorpha Yeast (HepB made by recombinant DNA techniques in Hansenula polymorpha Yeast, HepB-HPY; 10 μg/0.5 ml per dose). 3-dose and timely birth dose (TBD) coverage were available and compared between 2 groups. Standard structured questionnaires were applied to record information from parents and hospitals for selecting determinants of coverage. The data were analyzed using stepwise multiple logistic regression models. After each dose, HepB-related adverse events (AEs) and recta-temperature were recorded for 7 days. 3-dose coverage in control group (89.98%) was higher than that in experimental group (χ2 = 575.1173, P < 0.0001). TBD coverage in control and experimental group were 98.41% and 98.53%, respectively. No statistically significant difference in TBD coverage was found between 2 groups (χ2 = 0.0623, P = 0.8029). A total of 9 local AEs were reported, 4 for control group and 5 for experimental group. The percentages of subjects reporting AEs were similar across the 2 vaccination groups. No serious or immediate reactions were found in this study. From logistic models, receiving 10 μg vaccine (odds ratio [OR]:0.38; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.34-0.44) and mother migrating from other cities (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.42-0.47) were the determinants for non-acceptance of 3 doses of HepB; infants born from low grade hospitals and native mothers

  17. Training in nuclear and radiation safety in Latin American and Caribbean; Capacitacion en seguridad nuclear y radiologica en America Latina y el Caribe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopulos, S.; Diaz, O.; Larcher, A.; Echenique, L.; Nicolas, R., E-mail: spapadopulos@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: odiaz@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: alarcher@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: lechenique@arn.gob.ar, E-mail: rnicolas@arn.gob.ar [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, R.; Quintana, G., E-mail: alombar@fi.uba, E-mail: quinta@fi.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires (FI/UBA), (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2013-07-01

    From thirty-three years, Argentina has taken the commitment to train professionals in the field of nuclear and radiation safety for the care and protection of workers and public in general. Sponsored by the IAEA and supported by the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Buenos Aires (FIUBA), an undertaking was made to encourage the training of scientists and experts in the countries of the region in order to establish a strong safety culture in radiation in individuals and maintaining high standards of safety practices using ionizing radiation. In 2012, the Graduate Course in Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources has acquired the status of 'Specialization' of the FIUBA, a category that further hierarchies skills training in the subject. This is a highly anticipated achievement by the implications for academic institutions, national and regional level, contributing to the strengthening of the Regional Training Center for Latin America and the Caribbean, acknowledged in a long-term agreement between the IAEA and Argentina in September 2008. Due to increased demand for nuclear activity, it is important to continue and deepen further training in radiological and nuclear areas. In order to satisfy both national and regional needs a process of increase on training offer training is being carried out, under the jurisdiction frame of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. This paper presents the achievements of the country so far as regards training of human resource in radiation protection and nuclear safety in the region and highlights the challenges ahead for the extension of the offer in education and training. (author)

  18. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2005; Rapport annuel: la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn (Nuclear safety authority) considers that 2005 was a satisfactory year in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection. However, further progress can and must be made. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. 2005 was marked by significant progress in the process of harmonizing national nuclear safety policies Against a backdrop of the preparation of a bill on management of radioactive materials and waste, to be presented to Parliament in March 2006, 2005 was a year of important milestones. The Asn control activities encompass the following seven areas: development of general regulations for nuclear safety and radiation protection; management of individual authorization requests and receipt of declarations; inspection of nuclear activities; organisation of radiological surveillance of individuals and of the environment; preparation for management of emergency situations and implementation if necessary; contribution to public information on nuclear safety and radiation protection; determination of the French position within international community. Main topics in 2005: government bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field; the challenges and ambitions of the Asn; controlling exposure to radon; EPR Reactor Project Safety; working towards a law on radioactive waste in 2006; I.R.R.T.: an international audit of Asn in 2006; harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe; Chernobyl: what has been achieved over the past 20 years; informing the Public; internal authorizations. (N.C.)

  19. Establish the Foundation of Environmental Assessment Technique in ROK via the International Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety Managed by IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Soo; Choi, Y. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, H. S.; Ahn, S. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Hwang, W. T.; Seo, K. S

    2005-08-15

    Tritiated water (HTO) released from the nuclear facilities can easily be absorbed by plants via their stomata and incorporated into organics by metabolic processes such as photosynthesis. Organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant cells is mostly inexchangeable and remains at harvest to contribute some to the ingestion radiation dose (Barry et al., 1999). In assessing the ingestion dose due to an accidental release of HTO, a dynamic model simulating its environmental behaviors is needed. Various types of dynamic HTO models have been developed in many different countries. Joint international researches have been conducted many times for model comparisons and validations (BIOMOVS II, 1996a, 1996b). In 2003, however, with the understanding of an insufficiency in the validation test, the IAEA started on a joint international research program for the validation of environmental models (EMRAS : Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) as a successor to the BIOMASS (2001). The KAERI submitted 'a scenario of an acute soybean exposure to HTO' to the Tritium Working Group (Theme 1) in the EMRAS program. It was accepted as Task 2 of the working group. This report is the result of a joint research for the KAERI scenario carried out by the EMRAS tritium working group with the KAERI playing a role of a coordinator.

  20. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  1. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  2. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-01

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel + whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines.

  3. Regulation on expert knowledge in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-25

    The regulation is to be applied to licenses according to paragraphs 3, 15, 16, 20, 20a of the Radiation Protection Law, paragraphs 6, 7, 9 of the Atomic Law, to notices according to paragraphs 4, 17 of the Radiation Protection Law as well as in the prospecting, mining and processing of radioactive minerals. It regulates the extent and evidence of the special knowledge required for radiation protection of radiological safety officers and personnel responsible for radiation protection.

  4. Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärgman, Jonas; Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco

    2017-03-15

    As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters.

  5. Training Programs on Radiological Safety for users of Ionizing Radiations in Peru; Programas de formacion en proteccion radiologica para usuarios de radiaciones ionizantes en el Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    2003-07-01

    In Peru, people who work with ionizing radiations must have an authorization (Individual License) as established in the Radiological Safety Regulations, which are the mandatory rules. The Technical Office of the National Authority (OTAN), which is the technical organ of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) in charge of controlling radiations within the country, grants the authorization after the candidate demonstrates that he/she knows the specific use of the technique using radiations, as well as the aspects related to safety and radiological protection. Since it was created in 1972, the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (VSEN) from IPEN has carried out different training courses so that people can work safety with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and investigation. The analysis of the radiological safety programs carried out by CSEN during the last 30 years, which allowed the training of more than 2200 people in the country and, at the same time, made possible the securing of the respective Individual License, is presented in this work. The courses, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear gauges gamma irradiator, etc..., are part of the continuous education program of CSEN. (Author)

  6. ASN annual report 2007 - ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2007; ASN rapport annuel 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 2007 annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) presents the highlights of the year in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France. The year 2007 was marked by the implementation of a new legislative and regulatory framework created by the 13 June 2006 Act on transparency and security in the nuclear field (TSN) and the 28 June Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. As in the previous two years, the year was relatively satisfactory from the nuclear safety viewpoint and slightly less so with regard to small-scale nuclear activities. For two years now, the medical field has been marked by the declaration to ASN of a number of serious radiotherapy accidents which have led to several deaths or the need for extensive surgery. The following main topics are reviewed in the document: 1 - the decrees implementing the 'TSN' act and the 'Waste' act; 2 - the new ASN, one year on; 3 - ASN regulatory actions in the field of radiotherapy; 4 - regulation of new installations; 5 - the key issues for regulation of existing installations; 6 - nuclear safety and radiation protection research; 7 - policy for management of the post-accident phase of a radiological emergency; 8 - sites and soils polluted by radioactive materials; 9 - international harmonization of nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  7. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  8. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  9. LED灯具光辐射安全相关标准介绍%Standards about Optical Radiation Safety of LED Luminaires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓晨; 蔡喆; 彭振坚

    2011-01-01

    This is a introduction of standard publications about optical radiation safety of LED luminaries,including ICNIRP optical radiation guidelines,IEC laser products safety,and the IEC,CIE,EU,ANSI/IESNA standards for photobiological safety of lamp and lamp systems.The difference and relations of these standards are analyzed.%介绍了关于LED光辐射安全的主要标准,包括国际非电离辐射防护委员会的光辐射导则、国际照明委员会、国际电工委员会、欧盟、北美的激光产品或灯和灯系统的光生物安全性标准,分析了这些标准的差异和联系。

  10. Radiation Leukemogenesis: Applying Basic Science of Epidemiological Estimates of Low Dose Risks and Dose-Rate Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    The next stage of work has been to examine more closely the A-bomb leukemia data which provides the underpinnings of the risk estimation of CML in the above mentioned manuscript. The paper by Hoel and Li (Health Physics 75:241-50) shows how the linear-quadratic model has basic non-linearities at the low dose region for the leukemias including CML. Pierce et. al., (Radiation Research 123:275-84) have developed distributions for the uncertainty in the estimated exposures of the A-bomb cohort. Kellerer, et. al., (Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 36:73-83) has further considered possible errors in the estimated neutron values and with changing RBE values with dose and has hypothesized that the tumor response due to gamma may not be linear. We have incorporated his neutron model and have constricted new A-bomb doses based on his model adjustments. The Hoel and Li dose response analysis has also been applied using the Kellerer neutron dose adjustments for the leukemias. Finally, both Pierce's dose uncertainties and Kellerer neutron adjustments are combined as well as the varying RBE with dose as suggested by Rossi and Zaider and used for leukemia dose-response analysis. First the results of Hoel and Li showing a significantly improved fit of the linear-quadratic dose response by the inclusion of a threshold (i.e. low-dose nonlinearity) persisted. This work has been complete for both solid tumor as well as leukemia for both mortality as well as incidence data. The results are given in the manuscript described below which has been submitted to Health Physics.

  11. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  12. Evaluation of safety, an unavoidable requirement in the applications of ionizing radiations; La evaluacion de la seguridad un requisito de seguridad insoslayable en las aplicaciones de las radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres, E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The safety assessments should be conducted as a means to evaluate compliance with safety requirements (and thus the application of fundamental safety principles) for all facilities and activities in order to determine the measures to be taken to ensure safety. It is an essential tool in decision making. For long time we have linked the safety assessment to nuclear facilities and not to all practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in daily life. However, the main purpose of the safety assessment is to determine if it has reached an appropriate level of safety for an installation or activity and if it has fulfilled the objectives of safety and basic safety criteria set by the designer, operating organization and the regulatory body under the protection and safety requirements set out in the International Basic safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. This paper presents some criteria and personal experiences with the new international recommendations on this subject and its practical application in the region and demonstrates the importance of this requirement. Reflects the need to train personnel of the operator and the regulatory body in the proportional application of this requirement in practice with ionizing radiation.

  13. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  14. A Demonstration of Advanced Safety Analysis Tools and Methods Applied to Large Break LOCA and Fuel Analysis for PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Laboratory; Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently proposing a rulemaking designated as 10 CFR 50.46c to revise the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA)/emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria to include the effects of higher burnup on fuel/cladding performance. We propose a demonstration problem of a representative four-loop PWR plant to study the impact of this new rule in the US nuclear fleet. Within the scope of evaluation for the 10 CFR 50.46c rule, aspects of safety, operations, and economics are considered in the industry application demonstration presented in this paper. An advanced safety analysis approach is used, by integrating the probabilistic element with deterministic methods for LOCA analysis, a novel approach to solving these types of multi-physics, multi-scale problems.

  15. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, RF Ministry of Health and Social Development. 46, Zhivopisnaya St., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management' ' RosRAO' 183017, Murmansk, Lobova st., 100 (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management - 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency, 184682, Snezhnogorsk, Valentina Biryukova St., 5/1 (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Postboks 55, 1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data

  16. [The application of total quality management (TQM) in quality management of radiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui-yao; Fu, Shen; Li, Bin

    2009-03-01

    The strategies and methods of the total quality management (TQM) need to applied in quality management of radiation therapy. We should improve the level of quality control and quality assurance in radiation therapy. By establishing quality control system in radiation therapy, standardization of radiation therapy workflow, strengthening quality control of devices and physical technique and paying attention to safety protection and staff training.

  17. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J

    2013-01-01

    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration.

  18. Development of CHF correlation “MG-NV” for low pressure and low velocity conditions applied to PWR safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumura, T.; Yodo, T.; Makino, Y.; Suemura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is one of the important parameters in the safety analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). If the CHF is reached, an abrupt drop occurs in the heat transfer between the fuel rod cladding and the reactor coolant, which may induce a large temperature excursion of fuel cladding and a subsequent fuel failure. Therefore, accurate prediction of CHF is required in order to assure a sufficient safety margin in the PWR core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, ltd (MHI) is developing a new series of CHF correlations which covers various fuel designs and wide range of fluid conditions with sufficient reliability. In this paper, a new CHF correlation, MG-NV (Mitsubishi Generalized correlation for Non-Vane grid spacers) is presented. This correlation is one of the basic components of the new correlation series and was developed to cover low pressure and low velocity conditions where the rod bundle CHF data are limited. The CHF correlation was developed based on open CHF database and provides conservative but more reliable rod bundle CHF predictions compared with the conventional CHF correlations used in safety analyses at low pressure condition, such as Main Steam Line Break event. (author)

  19. Long-term safety and efficacy of fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy for spinal metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, Frederick; Glatz, Stefan; Toussaint, Andre; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Patients with long life expectancy despite metastatic status might benefit from long-term local control of spinal metastases. Dose-intensified radiotherapy (RT) is believed to control tumor growth better and thus offers longer pain relief. This single-institution study reports on fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases in patients with good life expectancy based on performance status, extent of metastases, histology, and time to metastasis. Between 2004 and 2010, 36 treatment sites in 32 patients (median age 55 years; male 61 %; median Karnofsky performance score 85) were treated with fractionated SBRT. The median treatment dose was 60 Gy (range, 48.5-65 Gy) given in a median of 20 fractions (range, 17-33); the median maximum dose to the planning risk volume for the spinal cord (PRV-SC) was 46.6 Gy. All patients suffering from pain prior to RT reported pain relief after treatment; after a median follow-up of 20.3 months, 61 % of treatment sites were pain-free, another 25 % associated with mild pain. In 86 % of treatments, patients were free from neurological symptoms at the time of the last clinical follow-up. Acute grade 1 toxicities (CTCAE 3.0) were observed in 11 patients. Myelopathy did not occur in any patient. Radiologically controlled freedom from local progression was 92 and 84 % after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 19.6 months. Patient selection resulted in long OS despite metastatic disease, and dose-intensified fractionated SBRT for spinal metastases was safe and achieved long-term local tumor control and palliation of pain. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit guter Lebenserwartung trotz metastasierter Erkrankung koennten von einer lang andauernden lokalen Kontrolle von Wirbelsaeulenmetastasen profitieren. Eine dosisintensivierte Radiotherapie (RT) kann vermutlich eine bessere Tumorkontrolle und daher eine laengere Schmerzpalliation erreichen. Ausgewertet wurden die monozentrischen

  20. The whole body counting laboratory of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority; Straalsaekerhetsmyndighetens helkroppslaboratorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Risco Norrlid, Lilian; Oestergren, Inger

    2010-03-15

    One of the first whole body counting (WBC) facilities in the world sensitive enough for in vivo measurements was started by Rolf Sievert 1950 at the Radio-Physics Department at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. During many years this was the WBC facility of the national regulatory authority and went through different modernisations along the years. During 2004-2007 the facility was rebuilt in its new location in Solna strand and the laboratory thus moved. The latter detectors, sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors from the late 80's and most electronic were kept. The measurement geometry and the background conditions have changed. This report describes the new facility's characteristics and presents the results for a first round of measurements on a non-contaminated group of persons for control of Cs-137 and K-40. The background in the new facility was monitored during 2007-2009 and is stable but higher than in the former location. The cause for the higher background is related to the presence of Radon progeny in the laboratory environment due to a different ventilation system. The limits of detection are 22 Bq for Cs-137 and 300 Bq for K-40, this for a half an hour measurement of a person of 75 kg weight. Measurements were run on a control group of persons to determine the activity concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40. The control group was populated with persons who had taken part in previous control groups at the former location. The purpose was to compare the activity concentrations of K-40 at the new laboratory in Solna strand and the former laboratory at Karolinska, since it is well known that the concentration of K-40 doesn't change significantly for the same person. The comparison revealed an underestimation of K-40 for most of the cases. A correction to the activities of Cs-137 and K-40 was applied for each member of the group. The correction factor is based on the theoretical estimation of K-40, which depends on the particular length

  1. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection.

  2. Verification of BGA type FPGA logic applied to a control equipment with Safety Class using the special socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, YounHu; Yoo, Kwanwoo; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This article aims to provide the verification method for BGA-type FPGA of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) developed as Safety Class. The logic of FPGA in the control device with Safety Class is the circuit to control overall logic of PLC. This device converts to the different module from the input signals for both digital and analogue of the equipment in the field and outputs their data. In addition, it should perform the logical controls such as backplane communication control and data communication. We suggest acquiring method of the data signal with efficient logic using the socket in this article. Proposed test socket is made by simpler process than former one, and the process is done in batches by which cost can be reduces, and the test socket can be quickly produced in response to any request. Also, it is possible to reduce the wear by reducing the contact force of the ball phenomenon. The structure on the basis of silicon can be reduced the modification, and it has excellent linearity. At the logic verification, the operation that state data block is designed in the FPGA could be easily confirmed by using a socket.

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  4. The feasibility and safety of applying the magnetic navigation system to manage chronically occluded vessels: A single centre experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramcharitar (Steve); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); M. van der Ent (Martin); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: Applying the Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) to manage chronic total occlusions (CTOs). The MNS precisely directs a magnetised guidewire in vivo through two permanent external magnets. Methods and results: The first 43 consecutive MNS treated CTOs were retrospectively evaluated. C

  5. An iterative method applied to optimize the design of PIN photodiodes for enhanced radiation tolerance and maximum light response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedola, A.P., E-mail: ariel.cedola@ing.unlp.edu.a [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Dpto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 116, C.C. 91, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cappelletti, M.A. [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Dpto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 116, C.C. 91, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casas, G. [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Dpto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 116, C.C. 91, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Roque Saenz Pena 352, Bernal 1876, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peltzer y Blanca, E.L. [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales y Dispositivos Electronicos (GEMyDE), Dpto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 116, C.C. 91, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB), CONICET - UNLP - CIC, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-11

    An iterative method based on numerical simulations was developed to enhance the proton radiation tolerance and the responsivity of Si PIN photodiodes. The method allows to calculate the optimal values of the intrinsic layer thickness and the incident light wavelength, in function of the light intensity and the maximum proton fluence to be supported by the device. These results minimize the effects of radiation on the total reverse current of the photodiode and maximize its response to light. The implementation of the method is useful in the design of devices whose operation point should not suffer variations due to radiation.

  6. Safety of a topically applied metaflumizone spot-on formulation for flea control in cats and kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, K; Lindahl, R G

    2007-12-15

    Four laboratory studies were conducted in cats of various ages to evaluate the safety of a novel low-volume topical spot-on containing 20% metaflumizone (ProMeris for Cats, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) when used in cats according to the recommended minimum dosage of 40mg metaflumizonekg(-1) delivered via fixed volume doses of 0.8ml for cats 4.0kg. Study parameters included body weight, food consumption, clinical, physical and neurological examinations, and clinical pathology including complete hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry and urinalysis. Exaggerated and repeated topical applications of metaflumizone at 1x, 3x and 5x the proposed recommended dose in adult cats and kittens 8 weeks of age had no effect on mortality, body weight, food consumption, clinical, physical or neurological examinations, or clinical pathology parameters. Transient salivation was sporadically noted following some, but not all treatment applications. It occurred and resolved within minutes of treatment application in all groups, including cats treated with placebo. Consequently, it was not considered a direct result of treatment with the active ingredient, metaflumizone. Cats orally administered 10% of the recommended topical dose exhibited considerable avoidance behaviors including spitting, head shaking, and salivation. Therefore, voluntary oral exposure is unlikely. No other adverse signs were observed. Repeated use of metaflumizone caused no adverse health effects when administered at 5x the recommended dose and is safe when used as directed, even on kittens as young as 8 weeks of age.

  7. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-07-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  8. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  9. An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Knuteson, R. O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Revercomb, H. E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Dedecker, R. G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, W. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) detectors provide excellent sensitivity to infrared radiation and are used in passive infrared remote sensors such as the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). However, MCT detectors have a nonlinear response and thus this nonlinearity must be characterized and corrected to provide accurate infrared radiance observations. This paper discusses the significance of the nonlinearity correction applied to AERI data and its impacts on the parameters retrieved from the AERI spectra. It also evaluates the accuracy of the scheme used to determine the nonlinearity of the MCT detectors used in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s AERIs.

  10. Comparison of the MACCS2 atmospheric transport model with Lagrangian puff models as applied to deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Garzon, Caroline D; Lagdon, Richard H

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of a new facility in terms of potential impacts from routine and accidental releases is typically evaluated using conservative models and assumptions to assure dose standards are not exceeded. However, overly conservative dose estimates that exceed target doses can result in unnecessary and costly facility design changes. This paper examines one such case involving the U.S. Department of Energy's pretreatment facility of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2) was run using conservative parameter values in prescribed guidance to demonstrate that the dose from a postulated airborne release would not exceed the guideline dose of 0.25 Sv. External review of default model parameters identified the deposition velocity of 1.0 cm s as being non-conservative. The deposition velocity calculated using resistance models was in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 cm s-1. A value of 0.1 cm s-1 would result in the dose guideline being exceeded. To test the overall conservatism of the MACCS2 transport model, the 95th percentile hourly average dispersion factor based on one year of meteorological data was compared to dispersion factors generated from two state-of-the-art Lagrangian puff models. The 95th percentile dispersion factor from MACCS2 was a factor of 3 to 6 higher compared to those of the Lagrangian puff models at a distance of 9.3 km and a deposition velocity of 0.1 cm s-1. Thus, the inherent conservatism in MACCS2 more than compensated for the high deposition velocity used in the assessment. Applications of models like MACCS2 with a conservative set of parameters are essentially screening calculations, and failure to meet dose criteria should not trigger facility design changes but prompt a more in-depth analysis using probabilistic methods with a defined margin of safety in the target dose. A sample application of the probabilistic approach is provided.

  11. Usability and Safety of Software Medical Devices: Need for Multidisciplinary Expertise to Apply the IEC 62366: 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras Da Costa, Sabrina; Beuscart-Zéphir, M C; Bastien, J-M Christian; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Software medical devices must now comply with the "ergonomics" essential requirement of the Medical Device Directive. However, the usability standard aiming to guide the manufacturers is very difficult to understand and apply. Relying on a triangulation of methods, this study aims to highlight the need to combine various expertises to be able to grasp the standard. To identify the areas of expertise on which the usability standard relies, an analytical review of this document was performed as well as an analysis of a discussion forum dedicated to it and an analysis of a case study of its application for CE marking. The results show that the IEC 62366 is a usability standard structured as a risk management one. It obviously requires Human Factors/Ergonomics expertise to be able to correctly identify and prevent risks of use errors, but it also requires risk management expertise to be able to grasp the issues of the risk analysis and master the related methods.

  12. Radiation safety and quality assurance in diagnostic x-ray imaging 1999; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laadunvarmistus roentgendiagnostiikassa 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servonmaa, A. [ed.

    1999-04-01

    In the European Union, the Directive 97/43/Euratom concerning the medical use of radiation brings many new tasks to radiation users. Quality assurance, patient dose measurement, staff training and clinical audit are among the most essential of these tasks. The Finnish radiation legislation has been modified to comply with the Directive. Much work is still required for practical implementation of these rules. This report deals with applications of the medical radiation Directive. Most applications are still at the planning stage, and clear guidance is lacking. However, the users have to know in time about these plans and future duties concerning them. Experience on quality assurance and clinical audit in hospitals are especially valuable in providing practical information on benefits and problems of these practices. Other radiation related topics, such as radiation risks, radioactivity in foods, and use of radiation in other European countries, are also included in the report. (orig.)

  13. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... radiation, electrons, neutrons, and other particulate radiation include: Ionizing electromagnetic radiation... radiation and ionizing electromagnetic radiation: Electron microscopes. Neutron generators. (b) Examples...

  14. The shielding against radiation produced by powder metallurgy with tungsten copper alloy applied on transport equipment for radio-pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cione, Francisco C.; Sene, Frank F.; Souza, Armando C. de; Betini, Evandro G.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: fceoni@hotmail.com, E-mail: ffsene@hotmail.com, E-mail: armandocirilo@yahoo.com, E-mail: evandrobetini@gmail.com, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzuto, Marcia A., E-mail: marizzutto@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    Safety is mandatory on medicine radiopharmaceutical transportation and dependent on radiation shielding material. The focus of the present work is to minimize the use of harmful materials as lead and depleted uranium usually used in packages transportation. The tungsten-copper composite obtained by powder metallurgy (PM) is non-toxic. In powder metallurgy the density and the porosity of the compacted parts depends basically upon particle size distribution of each component, mixture, compacting pressure and sintering temperature cycle. The tungsten-copper composite, when used for shielding charged particles, X-rays, gamma photons or other photons of lower energy require proper interpretation of the radiation transport phenomena. The radioactive energy reduction varies according to the porosity and density of the materials used as shielding. The main factor for radiation attenuation is the cross section value for tungsten. The motivation research factor is an optimization of the tungsten and cooper composition in order to achieve the best linear absorption coefficient given by equation I{sub (x)} = I{sub 0}e{sup (-ux)}. Experiments were conducted to quantify the effective radiation shielding properties of tungsten-copper composite produced by PM, varying the cooper amount in the composite. The studied compositions were 15%, 20% and 25% copper in mass. The Compaction pressure was 270 MPa and the sintering atmosphere was in 1.1 atm in N{sub 2}+H{sub 2}. The sintering temperature was 980 deg C for 2 h. The linear absorption coefficient factor was similar either for the green and the sintered compacts, due the amount of porosity did not affect the radiation attenuation. Thus the sintered was meant for size reduction and mechanical properties enhancement. (author)

  15. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively.

  16. Radiation dose reduction in CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine: Feasibility of a new institutional protocol for improved patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artner Juraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image guided spinal injections are successfully used in the management of low back pain and sciatica. The main benefit of CT-guided injections is the safe, fast and precise needle placement, but the radiation exposure remains a serious concern. The purpose of the study was to test a new institutional low-dose protocol for CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine to reduce radiation exposure while increasing accuracy and safety for the patients. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective database during a 4-month period (Oct-Dec 2011 at a German University hospital using a newly established low-dose-CT-protocol for periradicular injections in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation and nerve root entrapment. Inclusion criteria were acute or chronic nerve root irritation due to lumbar disc hernia, age over 18, compliance and informed consent. Excluded were patients suffering from severe obesity (BMI > 30, coagulopathy, allergy to injected substances, infection and non-compliant patients. Outcome parameters consisted of the measured dose length product (mGycm2, the amount of scans, age, gender, BMI and the peri-interventional complications. The results were compared to 50 patients, treated in the standard-interventional CT-protocol for spinal injections, performed in June-Oct 2011, who met the above mentioned inclusion criteria. Results A total amount of 100 patients were enrolled in the study. A significant radiation dose reduction (average 85.31% was achieved using the institutional low-dose protocol compared to standard intervention mode in CT-guided periradicular injections in lumbar spine. Using the low-dose protocol did not increase the complications rate in the analyzed cohort. Conclusions Low-dose-CT-protocols for lumbar perineural injections significantly reduce the exposure to radiation of non-obese patients without an increase of complications. This increases long-time patient

  17. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  18. A milestone in safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Over recent days, we’ve achieved some historic milestones in LHC physics as we’ve made the transition from proton to ion running. These have been widely reported and I’ve communicated the news to you by e-mail. Less visible, but nonetheless vital to the functioning of the Lab, is an agreement that we’ll be signing with our Host States on 15 November. It will be the second tripartite agreement to be signed in as many months, and it is set to streamline our radiation protection and radiation safety.   The new agreement replaces existing bilateral agreements governing the procedures applying on the French and Swiss parts of the site. From an operational point of view, the new agreement simplifies matters by harmonising administrative processes while guaranteeing best practice in terms of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. The agreement is the result of many months of detailed discussions with the Autorité de Sûret&eac...

  19. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in 2006; Rapport annuel: la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    For the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Asn), the year 2006 was marked by two important nuclear laws being passed, one of which brought about a major change in its status. The year was a relatively satisfactory one with regard to nuclear safety, although the picture was more contrasted concerning radiation protection: in this area, more particularly in the medical field, the overall impression of good progress is offset by the declaration of a number of radiotherapy accidents. Given the benefits expected from radiotherapy treatment by the patient suffering from cancer, the conditions in which this activity is carried out are a subject of major concern for Asn, in the light of the serious risks linked to patient over-exposure. ( some important points as follows: the law on transparency and security in the nuclear field, the law on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, Asn: an independent administrative authority, EPR reactor project safety, I.R.R.S.: an international audit of Asn in 2006, harmonization of nuclear safety, cancer radiotherapy, improved information of the public after the T.S.N. law, taking account of organisational and human factors). (N.C.)

  20. Análise de Risco aplicada aos alimentos no Brasil: perspectivas e desafios Risk Analysis applied to food safety in Brazil: prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia de Almeida Figueiredo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de caso no qual se discutiram as ideias do Comitê do Codex Alimentarius do Brasil (CCAB, coordenado pelo Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial (Inmetro sobre a norma Codex Alimentarius de Análise de Risco aplicada aos alimentos (AR. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e analisar a opinião dos membros do CCAB sobre AR e levantar as propostas para a adoção desta norma no país, destacando as limitações e as potencialidades locais apontadas. Os membros do CCAB mostraram-se favoráveis à iniciativa do Codex em instituir a norma AR para promover a segurança sanitária dos alimentos que transitam no mercado internacional. Houve concordância no sentido de que o governo brasileiro deva incorporar a AR como política oficial para melhorar o sistema de controle de alimentos do país e para fortalecer as exportações brasileiras de alimentos. Reconheceram que o Brasil dispõe de capacidade técnico-científica para aplicar essa norma, porém destacaram várias limitações político-institucionais. Os membros reconhecem a AR como uma iniciativa valiosa para enfrentar os riscos dos alimentos, devido a sua capacidade de aprimorar as ações de controle sanitário de alimentos realizadas pelo governo.The scope of this case study is to discuss the ideas of the Brazilian Codex Alimentarius Committee (CCAB coordinated by National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality (Inmetro, with respect to the Codex Alimentarius norm on Risk Analysis (RA applied to Food Safety. The objectives of this investigation were to identify and analyze the opinion of CCAB members on RA and to register their proposals for the application of this norm in Brazil, highlighting the local limitations and potential detected. CCAB members were found to be in favor of the Codex Alimentarius initiative of instituting an RA norm to promote the health safety of foods that circulate on the

  1. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2005; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2005. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In 2005, the Asn pursued its significant investment in radiation protection and reaffirms its ambition to become as efficient in radiation protection as it is in nuclear safety as of 2009. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. The Asn plans to step up its efforts to ensure better monitoring of patient exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide better management of radon-related risks, particularly in housing. Fully aware that its newfound power in this area requires outside evaluation, the Asn has asked the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to organize an I.R.R.S. (Integrated Regulatory Review Service) assignment consisting of a peer-conducted audit. The IAEA has confirmed that this audit will take place in November 2006. (N.C.)

  2. ACTIVITIES OF SAINT-PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV FOR PROVISION OF RADIATION SAFETY OF XXII WINTER OLYMPIC AND XI WINTER PARALYMPICS GAMES OF 2014 IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of the experience of Rospotrebnadzor radiological units’ activities for  radiation  safety  provision  of  the  participators  and  guests  of  XXII  Winter  Olympic  Games  in  Sochi  and  also of Sochi city inhabitants as during the period of preparations for the Games so during the period of the Olympic and Paralympics Games. Peculiarities of organization of activities of Rospotrebnadzor specialists are considered for  the  preparation  period  and  main  period,  the  occurred  problems  of  technical  and  methodical  provision  of radiation control which was carried out for the purpose of counteraction to possible actions of radiation terrorism are considered as well. The role is noted of the specialists of Radiation Hygiene Institute in the methodical and organizational provision of the whole complex of carried-out activities.

  3. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology; standardization of input parameters for the calculation of annual dose from routine releases from commercial reactor effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, I. H.; Cho, D.; Youn, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, H. K. [Soonchunhyang University, Ahsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This research is to develop a standard methodology for determining the input parameters that impose a substantial impact on radiation doses of residential individuals in the vicinity of four nuclear power plants in Korea. We have selected critical nuclei, pathways and organs related to the human exposure via simulated estimation with K-DOSE 60 based on the updated ICRP-60 and sensitivity analyses. From the results, we found that 1) the critical nuclides were found to be {sup 3}H, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 60}Co for Kori plants and {sup 14}C, {sup 41}Ar for Wolsong plants. The most critical pathway was 'vegetable intake' for adults and 'milk intake' for infants. However, there was no preference in the effective organs, and 2) sensitivity analyses showed that the chemical composition in a nuclide much more influenced upon the radiation dose than any other input parameters such as food intake, radiation discharge, and transfer/concentration coefficients by more than 102 factor. The effect of transfer/concentration coefficients on the radiation dose was negligible. All input parameters showed highly estimated correlation with the radiation dose, approximated to 1.0, except for food intake in Wolsong power plant (partial correlation coefficient (PCC)=0.877). Consequently, we suggest that a prediction model or scenarios for food intake reflecting the current living trend and a formal publications including details of chemical components in the critical nuclei from each plant are needed. Also, standardized domestic values of the parameters used in the calculation must replace the values of the existed or default-set imported factors via properly designed experiments and/or modelling such as transport of liquid discharge in waters nearby the plants, exposure tests on corps and plants so on. 4 figs., 576 tabs. (Author)

  4. Investigation of P(VDF-TrFE)/ZrO{sub 2}-MMA polymer composites applied to radiation shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C.C.P. [Depto. de Engenharia Nuclear - UFMG, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Baptista Neto, A.T.; Santos, A.P.; Faria, L.O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, C.P. 941, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to high radiation dose in medical diagnostic imaging procedures can lead patients to suffer tissue damaging. However, there are several studies that identify significant dose reduction with the use of radiation protective attenuators, minimizing the delivered dose in the region that covers the main beam, while preserving the diagnostic quality of the generated image. Most radiation attenuator materials are produced from shielding metal containing composites, whose efficiency is the goal of investigations around the world. In this context, polymeric materials were chosen for this investigation in order to provide light-weighted and flexible protective composites, a must in personal protective shielding. Therefore, this work is concerned to the investigation of poly(vinylidene fluoride - try-fluor-ethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymers mixed with zirconia nanoparticles. The resulting polymer composites, prepared with 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 at.% of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, were investigated for application as protective shielding in some interventional radiology procedures. Two variety of composites were produced, one using pure ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the other using sol-gel route with zirconium butoxide as the precursor for zirconium oxide nano-clusters. The P(VDFTrFE)/ ZrO2-MMA polymer composites produced by sol-gel route have provided a much better dispersion of the pure ZrO{sub 2} material into the P(VDF-TrFE) host matrix. UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the composite samples. FTIR data reveal a possible link between the MMA monomers with the P(VDF-TrFE) chain through shared C=O bonds. The radiation shielding characterization was conducted by using a 70 kV x-rays beam which is applicable, for instances, in catheter angiography. The results demonstrate that composites with 10% of ZrO{sub 2}, and only 1.0 mm thick, can attenuate 60% of the x-rays beam. The composite density was evaluated to be

  5. Radiation synthesis and characteristics of PTFE-g-PSSA ion exchange membrane applied in vanadium redox battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto polytetrafiuoroethylene (PTFE) membranes was studied by a simultaneous irradiation technique. Grafting was carried out using γ-radiation from a 60Co source at room temperature.Effects of absorbed dose, atmosphere, dose rate, and the concentration of initial monomer on the degree of grafting (DOG) were investigated and the most appropriate grafting condition was obtained. Subsequently, sulphonation of the grafted PTFE membrane (PTFE-g-PS) was carried out and a series of ion exchange membranes (PTFE-g-PSSA) was prepared. Further characterizations of FTIR, TGA, and SEM testified that grafting and sulphonation of the membranes were successfully processed; moreover, grafting of styrene not only occurred in the surface of PTFE membrane, but also in the micropores of the membrane. Ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity were found increase with the grafting yield. The results suggest that at a low dose, such as 17 kGy, the ion exchange membrane (IEM) which will be suitable for vanadium redox battery (VRB) use can be obtained.

  6. Applying the conventional moving average filter for estimation of low radiation doses using EPR spectroscopy: Benefits and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Radiation Dosimetry Department, Ministry of Scientific Research, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, Giza, Haram 12211 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Salman Bin AbdulAziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-11

    Alanine/EPR is the most common dosimetry system for high radiation doses because of its high stability and wide linear response, however, use of alanine in most of medical applications still require special sophisticated methodologies and techniques in order to extend alanine detection limit to low levels of radiation doses. One of these techniques is the use of digital processing of acquired alanine spectra for enhancing useful components in spectra while useless features are suppressed. Simple moving average filter (MA) impacts on alanine EPR spectra have been studied in terms of peak-to-peak height, peak-to-peak line width, and associated uncertainty. Three types of the used filter were investigated: upward MA, central MA, and downward MA filters, effects of each on the peak position for different values of filter width were studied. It was found that MA filter always lead to the reduction in signal intensity and the increase of line width of the central peak of alanine spectrum. Peak position also changes in cases of the upward MA and downward MA filters while no significant changes were observed in the case of central MA. Uncertainties associated to the averaging process were evaluated and plotted versus the filter width resulting in a linear relationship. Filter width value should be carefully selected in order to avoid probable distortion in processed spectra while gaining less noisy spectra with less associated uncertainties.

  7. Protective Effect of Topically Applied Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri Against Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Chronic Skin Damage in Guinea Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟明亮; 曹鹏利; 于国英; 朱莉; 王跃军; 王春波

    2003-01-01

    Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF) , a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed:(1)PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner.(2)PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px.(3)The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant (P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that topical application of PCF provided broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

  8. Use of information technologies to contribute for optimizing the safety radiation management in Cuba; Uso de las tecnologias de la informacion, para contribuir a la optimizacion de la gestion de la seguridad radiologica en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Hernandez Saiz, A.; Manzano de Armas, J., E-mail: zury@cphr.edu.cu [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in Cuba, with the development of a group of information management tools to implement radiation safety systemic and proactive approaches to safety and ICT supported. These tools were designed for different organisms with responsibility for the security at the country level, to the regulatory authority, for user entities, for individual monitoring services and other radiation protection services. It describes the philosophy of information management model used, the characteristics of the developed tools and their integration, the work performed for the homogenization of information available and the ability to capture and deliver data at different levels in decision making. The tools developed are based on the use of variables and indicators of importance to the safety and the systemic approach adopted allows to facilitate the optimization process for supervision of safety practices as well as contribute to the management of knowledge in radiation safety, through a synergistic combination of process data, information, information management systems, and the creative and innovative radiation safety experts.

  9. Food safety through the training of 2-alcilciclobutanonas in processed foods by ionizing radiation; Seguranca alimentar atraves da formacao de 2-alcilciclobutanonas em alimentos processados por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Rodrigo Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Food irradiation is a means of preserving food which uses a processing technique that exposes the foods at a controlled high energy ionizing radiation. The treatment with the use of ionizing radiation in foods has many applications technologically and technically feasible, including the ability to improve the microbiological safety and reducing levels of pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting the germination of tubers plant application, preserving stored foods or the stability of storage and is also used to increase the shelf life of certain products due to the reduction of contamination by microorganisms. Due to the increase of international trade in food and the growing regulatory requirements of consumer markets increasingly importing and exporting countries have shown interest in food irradiation and conducted research in the practical application of this technology and detection methods of treatment. Numerous surveys were conducted worldwide, resulting in efficient protocols to identify which foods were irradiated or not. Until then, the 'myth' that irradiated food could not be detected and they were not formed any single radiation products has been replaced by the knowledge that many changes can occur in irradiated foods and these changes could be used as tools to identify this technology. The radiation processing resulting in characteristic patterns formations of saturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, methyl and ethyl esters and 2-alcilciclobutanonas, depending on the fatty acid composition of the lipid that composes the food. Thus the purpose of this study was to collect data to compare the effects of different doses of gamma radiation and electron in foods that have fat to determine possible changes resulting from the use of irradiation, as the presence of 2-Alcilciclobutanonas and also show main equipment used for food irradiation and its categories, with the aim of informing the general public. (author)

  10. Generation of 13.9 m radiation from CO2 by cascade lasing or externally applied CO2 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utpal Nundy

    2010-11-01

    13.9 m radiation from the 1000–0110 transition can be obtained from a CO2 laser by saturating the 0001–1000, 10.6 m transition with an internally generated q-switched pulse or by the application of an external 10.6 m pulse. Because of Fermi resonance between the symmetric stretch and the bending modes, decay of population from the 1000 level is fast, and such lasers operate at low power and energies. A theoretical model was developed to study such lasers. The results of the calculations indicate that a large-aperture E-beam-sustained discharge is effective for excitation of the cryogenically cooled gain medium, which uses He rich mixture at low pressure. The system is scalable and capable of generating large powers and energies.

  11. Estimating mineral abundances of clay and gypsum mixtures using radiative transfer models applied to visible-near infrared reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. M.; Milliken, R. E.; Li, S.

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative mineral abundances of lab derived clay-gypsum mixtures were estimated using a revised Hapke VIS-NIR and Shkuratov radiative transfer model. Montmorillonite-gypsum mixtures were used to test the effectiveness of the model in distinguishing between subtle differences in minor absorption features that are diagnostic of mineralogy in the presence of strong H2O absorptions that are not always diagnostic of distinct phases or mineral abundance. The optical constants (k-values) for both endmembers were determined from bi-directional reflectance spectra measured in RELAB as well as on an ASD FieldSpec3 in a controlled laboratory setting. Multiple size fractions were measured in order to derive a single k-value from optimization of the optical path length in the radiative transfer models. It is shown that with careful experimental conditions, optical constants can be accurately determined from powdered samples using a field spectrometer, consistent with previous studies. Variability in the montmorillonite hydration level increased the uncertainties in the derived k-values, but estimated modal abundances for the mixtures were still within 5% of the measured values. Results suggest that the Hapke model works well in distinguishing between hydrated phases that have overlapping H2O absorptions and it is able to detect gypsum and montmorillonite in these simple mixtures where they are present at levels of ∼10%. Care must be taken however to derive k-values from a sample with appropriate H2O content relative to the modeled spectra. These initial results are promising for the potential quantitative analysis of orbital remote sensing data of hydrated minerals, including more complex clay and sulfate assemblages such as mudstones examined by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater.

  12. Tissue elasticity estimated by acoustic radiation force impulse quantification depends on the applied transducer force: an experimental study in kidney transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syversveen, Trygve; Berstad, Audun E.; Brabrand, Knut; Abildgaard, Andreas [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Midtvedt, Karsten [Oslo University Hospital, Medical Department, Section of Nephrology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Stroem, Erik H. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-15

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification estimates tissue elasticity by measuring shear-wave velocity (SWV) and has been applied to various organs. We evaluated the impact of variations in the transducer force applied to the skin on the SWV ultrasound measurements in kidney transplant cortex and ARFI's ability to detect fibrosis in kidney transplants. SWV measurements were performed in the cortex of 31 patients with kidney allografts referred for surveillance biopsies. A mechanical device held the transducer and applied forces were equal to a compression weight of 22, 275, 490, 975, 2,040 and 2,990 g. SWV group means were significantly different by repeat measures ANOVA [F(2.85,85.91) = 84.75, P < 0.0005 for 22, 275, 490, 975 and 2,040 g compression weight] and also by pairwise comparisons. Biopsy specimens were sufficient for histological evaluation in 29 of 31 patients. Twelve had grade 0, 11 grade 1, five grade 2 and one grade 3 fibrosis. One-way ANOVA showed no difference in SWV performed with any of the applied transducer forces between grafts with various degrees of fibrosis. SWV measurements in kidney transplants are dependent on the applied transducer force and do not differ in grafts with different grades of fibrosis. (orig.)

  13. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  14. Studying in Australia at The University of Sydney:Bachelor of Applied Science(Medical Radiation Sciences) Diagnostic Radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria; Fang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The University of Sydney offers a range of undergraduate courses in the area of health sciences,including the Bachelor of Applied Science(MRS) Diagnostic Radiography.The degree prepares students for clinical practice as diagnostic radiographers, working in places such as emergency wards or private clinics.According to a medical practitioner’s request, radiographers aim to work closely with radiologists to

  15. Radiation processing to ensure safety of minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus): optimization of dose for the elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokane, V S; Hajare, S; Shashidhar, R; Sharma, A; Bandekar, J R

    2006-02-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are in demand, because they offer convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe because of possible contamination with pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Shigella species. Therefore, this study was carried out to optimize the radiation dose necessary to ensure the safety of precut carrot and cucumber. Decimal reduction doses (D-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium MTCC 98 were ca. 0.164 kGy in carrot samples and 0.178 kGy in cucumber samples. D-values of Listeria monocytogenes were determined to be 0.312 and 0.345 kGy in carrot and cucumber samples, respectively. Studies of inoculated, packaged, minimally processed carrot and cucumber samples showed that treatment with a 1-kGy dose of gamma radiation eliminated up to 4 log CFU/g of Salmonella Typhimurium and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes. However, treatment with a 2-kGy dose was necessary to eliminate these pathogens by 5 log CFU/g. Storage studies showed that both Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were able to grow at 10 degrees C in inoculated control samples. Neither of these pathogens could be recovered from radiation-processed samples after storage for up to 8 days.

  16. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry; Les codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  17. A Monte Carlo simulation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere applied to ToTaL-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuda, M.; Masieri, S.; Bortoli, D.; Margelli, F.; Ravegnani, F.; Petritoli, A.; Kostadinov, I.; Giovanelli, G.; Cupini, E.

    2009-09-01

    In the frame of DOAS, a Monte Carlo code has been developed, to calculate, for a given detector with assigned diameter and field of view, the single and multiple scattering radiance. Very general 3-D geometry is foreseen. Spatial distribution along the detector axis for the single and total scattering radiance are computed. Ground reflected contributions to the solar radiance are estimated. Differential effects due to small perturbations in physical parameters, such as ozone density, can simultaneously be taken into account in the same calculation. The code has been applied to ToTaL-DOAS (Topographic Target Light scattering-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) measurements.

  18. Radio Frequency Radiation of Millimeter Wave Length: An Evaluation of Potential Occupational Safety Issues Relating to Surface Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    frequency. Although most systems operate at low powers, certain military and commercial applications operate at much higher powers, suggesting the...Paper------------------------------- RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION OF MILLIMETER WAVE LENGTH: POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL...is being developed that makes use of the millimeter wave (MMW) range (30-300 GHz) of the radio frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As

  19. Radiological safety and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sea Young; Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, T. Y.; Lee, J. L.; Kim, B. W.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Chung, R. I.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Han, Y. D.; Lee, J. I.; Lee, K. C.; Yoon, J. H.; Sul, C. W.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Seo, K. W.; Yoon, Y. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of radiological safety and control program of 1995. This program consists of working area monitoring including HANARO, personnel radiation monitoring, education for radiation protection. As a result, the objectives of radiation protection have been achieved satisfactorily through the activities mentioned above. Also, the calibration services were provided to insure accurate radiation measurement in the radiation working places. 21 figs., 39 tabs., 5 refs. (Author) .new.

  20. User interface features of information-analytical system for radiation safety of personnel on the example of the northwest center for radioactive waste management 'SEVRAO'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizhov, K.; Kryuchkov, V.; Simakov, A.; Tsovyanov, A. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Krasnoshekov, A.; Kosnikov, A. [Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management ' SevRAO' - a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management ' RosRAO' (Russian Federation); Kemsky, I. [Regional management No. 120 of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Algorithms for radiation protection services and regulators were developed. They provide guidelines for choosing actions in planning the elimination of accidents. Method is based on work with a grid of radiation field, which is obtained by interpolation of the measured values. Based on these algorithms, was developed a software with a graphical representation of the original data and the results of calculations. It allows us to evaluate the quality of information received from the monitoring team, search for the best routes on site and find points that make a maximum contribution to the collective dose. Regulator should control about 250 parameters of the radiation situation. Basically, this is a list of control points and the reference values of dose rate at these points for the technical area, buildings and structures located at the industrial site. For each point are two control values - the dose rate at rest and during work. It is more important for regulator to compare the radiation situation with control levels, but not only to see radiation situation itself. Our software graphically present information as areas on the map. Regulator with a glance at the screen can see where levels have been exceeded. It has shown that an important condition for the software implementation is that when facility use it, the operator's efficiency increases, while working time stay constant or reduces. This statement applies for input data into the database, mathematical analysis and present the results in a report drawn up in accordance with the rules of the company. On the example of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' shown that the installation of information-analytical system helped to reduce the time for entering and processing data on the radiation measurements. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  1. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  2. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  3. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  4. A Monte Carlo-based radiation safety assessment for astronauts in an environment with confined magnetic field shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Gong, Chunhui; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    The active shielding technique has great potential for radiation protection in space exploration because it has the advantage of a significant mass saving compared with the passive shielding technique. This paper demonstrates a Monte Carlo-based approach to evaluating the shielding effectiveness of the active shielding technique using confined magnetic fields (CMFs). The International Commission on Radiological Protection reference anthropomorphic phantom, as well as the toroidal CMF, was modeled using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. The penetrating primary particle fluence, organ-specific dose equivalent, and male effective dose were calculated for particles in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). Results show that the SPE protons can be easily shielded against, even almost completely deflected, by the toroidal magnetic field. GCR particles can also be more effectively shielded against by increasing the magnetic field strength. Our results also show that the introduction of a structural Al wall in the CMF did not provide additional shielding for GCR; in fact it can weaken the total shielding effect of the CMF. This study demonstrated the feasibility of accurately determining the radiation field inside the environment and evaluating the organ dose equivalents for astronauts under active shielding using the CMF.

  5. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Brian J. [Imaging Technology Group, GE Healthcare Medical Diagnostics, Amersham, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom); Wall, Anders; Soerensen, Jens [Uppsala University, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, Silvia [Uppsala University, Section of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry in humans of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine, a synthetic L-leucine analogue being investigated as a potential diagnostic biomarker for neoplasia. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 6 healthy volunteers were acquired at up to 16 time points up to about 5 h after a bolus administration of [{sup 18}F]fluciclovine (153.8 {+-} 2.2 MBq). Venous blood samples were taken up to about 4 h post-injection from which {sup 18}F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma were measured. Urine was collected as voided up to 4 h post-injection, from which the excreted {sup 18}F activity was measured. Absolute values of the {sup 18}F activity contained in up to 11 source regions (brain, salivary glands, lung, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, red bone marrow, kidneys, uterus and urinary bladder contents) were determined directly from quantitative analysis of the images. For each source region, the {sup 18}F activity decay-corrected and normalised to that injected, as a function of time, was fit by an analytical function which was subsequently integrated to yield the cumulated activity normalised to the injected activity. These normalised cumulated activities were then used as input to the Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment/EXponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) package to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry of each subject following the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. An effective dose was then estimated for each subject. [{sup 18}F]Fluciclovine was clinically well tolerated in this study. Very little {sup 18}F was excreted with only a mean value of 3.3 % present in the urine at about 4 h post-injection; no activity within the intestinal contents was noted. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (13.8 %), red bone marrow (11.1 %) and lung (7.1 %). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses per unit administered activity were received by the pancreas (102.2 {mu

  6. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2013. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2013. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Goedde, Ralph; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela (comps.)

    2014-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2013.

  7. Safety techniques in the change of nuclear systems. Radiation protection at spallation neutron sources and transmutation facilities; Sicherheitstechnik im Wandel Nuklearer Systeme. Strahlenschutz bei Spallationsneutronenquellen und Transmutationsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuenighoff, Kay

    2009-07-01

    : production of secondary particles, induced radiotoxicity, energy deposition, and the moderation of neutrons and their transport through neutron guides. All these topics are discussed, and numerical solutions are presented. To answer questions concerning the radiation protection of such facilities complex numerical simulations are mandatory. Especially the strong interest in the field of basic research in cold neutron beams requires not only the study of the interaction of high energetic particles with matter, but furthermore the investigation of the influence of neutron optical phenomenons. The presented numerical methods allow the engineer responsible for radiation protection to analyse radiological hazards during the design phase of a project and the early and cheap implementation of technical solutions improving safety. Quoted as an example spallation neutron sources as well as energy amplifiers are discussed. At the end the philosophy of the safety of high power accelerator driven systems are discussed from the point of view of a safety scientist. (orig.)

  8. ESA radiation and micro-meteoroid models applied to Space Weathering of atmosphere-less bodies: icy moons and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Claire; Altobelli, Nicolas; Cornet, Thomas; Schmidt, Jürgen; Navarro, Sara; Erd, Christian; Witasse, Olivier; Rodmann, Jens; Mints, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    The Galilean moons reveal large albedo variations on their surfaces, in particular between their leading and trailing hemispheres. The differences observed are likely the results of a balance between various weathering processes of the surface, determined by the moons' local environment. Chemical and physical alterations occur at the surface, triggered by multiple exogenic energy deposit processes (radiolysis, plasma sputtering, micro-meteoroids impacts, …).The observed variations are probably due to anisotropy in the energy fluxes received on each hemisphere and due to to a different relative contribution of the weathering agents (plasma, dust…) as function of the distance to Jupiter. We will be testing this hypothesis by estimating quantitatively the kinetic energy flux impacting different part of the surfaces of the Galilean moons. This work is essential in the context of the future missions to the Jovian moons, such as the JUICE ESA mission, as a proper understanding of the moons' surface history can be achieved only if one is able to constrain the balance between exogenic and endogenic alteration processes.Impacts of dust particles coming from the Galilean moons and evolving dynamically in the Jovian system will be simulated using the Jovian Micrometeoroid Environment Model (JMEM) [1]. Direct interplanetary dust impacts are simulated using the prediction of the Interplanetary Micrometeoroid Environment Model (IMEM) [2] computed at Jupiter's Hill radius, taking into account gravitational focusing by the planet. Finally, electron and ion fluxes interacting with different parts of the moons' surfaces can be estimated using the Jovian Specification Environment model (JOSE) [3].In parallel, signature of surface weathering will be assessed using reflectance maps based on the Galileo imaging data.Those models will also be applied, for comparison, to other atmosphere-less bodies of the solar system such as the asteroids Ceres, Vesta and Pallas.References[1] Liu et

  9. Analysis of ferritic stainless steel tube applied in radiation furnaces; Analise de tubos de aco inoxidavel ferritico para aplicacao em fornos de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.C.R.; Spim, J.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Lab. de Fundicao], e-mail: spim@ufrgs.br; Santos, C.A. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the change in mechanic properties and phase transformations of ferritic stainless steel tube, ASTM 268 Gr 446, applied in high temperature conditions. The work has used tubes from radiation furnaces of the PETROBRAS Xisto Industrialization Unit. The samples used for comparison were obtained from new tubes and tubes already used in furnaces. The test analyses were optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, hardness and microhardness test and tension test. Results have shown that the new tubes presented a ferritic matrix and in old tubes were observed a great quantity of sigma phase and carbides. Along with the thickness of the tubes it was verified that the inside region presented an increase of sulfate and the outside region an increase of carbides. (author)

  10. Theoretical and experimental drying of a cylindrical sample by applying hot air and infrared radiation in an inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of a cylindrical sample in a fluidized bed dryer containing inert particles was studied. For this purpose, a pilot-scaled fluidized bed dryer was constructed in which two different heat sources, hot air and infrared radiation were applied, and pieces of carrot were chosen as test samples. The heat transfer coefficient for cylindrical objects in a fluidized bed was also measured. The heat absorption coefficient for carrot was studied. The absorption coefficient can be computed by dividing the absorbed heat by the carrot to the heat absorbed for the water and black ink. In this regard, absorbed heat values by the carrot, water and black ink were used A mathematical model was proposed based on the mass and heat transfer phenomena within the drying sample. The results obtained by the proposed model were in favorable agreement with the experimental data.

  11. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Department of Biomedical Physics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  12. Vacuum application increases therapeutic safety and allows intensified local radiation treatment of malignant soft-tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, J.; Bach, A.D.; Horsch, R.E. [University Medical Center Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Strnad, V.; Sauer, R. [University Medical Center Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: In order to simplify and improve outcome of radiation therapy and final defect coverage in patients suffering from invasive soft-tissue tumors, brachytherapy and application of V.A.C.uum-assisted closure (V.A.C. {sup registered}) were combined with delaying flap incision. Patients and Methods: Two patients were excised as radically as possible and brachytherapy tubes were implanted directly on the tumor bed. At the same time, flaps for later defect coverage were preconditioned by circumcision. Brachytherapy and external-beam irradiation were performed directly on the vacuum sponge followed by subsequent defect coverage with the preconditioned flaps. Results: Excision significantly reduced tumor masses in both patients; in one case sensible and motor function of the involved extremity was clearly improved. V.A.C. {sup registered} coverage allowed repeated brachytherapy and external-beam applications following exact placing of plastic tubes and FLABs on the tumor bed. Sequential irradiation had no effect on neighboring flap tissues, which healed without impairment following transposition. Conclusion: Combination of V.A.C. {sup registered} and brachytherapy can effectively replace circumstantial and laborious IORT (intraoperative radiotherapy) procedures. Exact placement of tubes on the tumor bed without subsequent tissue coverage is conserving preconditioned flap tissues, which are transposed for final defect coverage at the end of radiotherapy. However, by circumventing radiation exposure of these tissues, a possible later irradiation sequence can be performed without endangering defect-covering flaps. (orig.)

  13. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  14. To evaluation of radiation safety due to consumption of species fished out in the far east region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Onishenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of safety assessment for population of the Russian Federation due to consumption of the Far East region commercial fish contaminated in consequence of the Fukushima nuclear disaster are presented. Estimation of radionuclide level in certain commercial fish species taking into account maximum 137 Cs contamination rate of ocean water on the migration path was performed. Authors worked out 3 fish products consumption scenarios and calculated respective annual 137 Cs intakes. Assessment of health risk associated with 137 Cs in fish products for Russian population was carried out. It was determined that in 2014 maximum 137 Cs dose received with fish products was no more than 365 Bq/year and considered as permissible health risk level. Cancer risk evolution modeling showed that lifetime cancer risk level is minimal. Hence, monitoring of associated with 137 Cs water pollution health risk had to be continued till complete elimination of consequences of Fukushima-1 accident.

  15. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  16. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible.

  17. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer: analysis of safety, feasibility, and early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Adele Sorel Kress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the 3rd leading cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. Many patients with CRC develop hepatic metastases as the sole site of metastases. Historical treatment options were limited to resection or conventional radiation therapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT has emerged as a rational treatment approach. This study reviews our experience with SBRT for patients with liver metastases from CRC.Material and Methods: Fourteen histologically confirmed hepatic CRC metastases in 11 consecutive patients were identified between November, 2004 and June, 2009 at Georgetown University. All patients underwent CT-based treatment planning; a few also had MRI or PET/CT. All patients had fiducial markers placed under CT guidance and were treated using the CyberKnife system. Treatment response and toxicities were examined; survival and local control were evaluated.Results: Most patients were treated to a single hepatic lesion (n=8, with a few treated to 2 lesions (n=3. Median treatment volume was 99.7 cm3, and lesions were treated to a median BED10 of 49.7 Gy (range: 28 – 100.8 Gy. Median follow-up was 21 months; median survival was 16.1 months, with 2-year actuarial survival of 25.7%. One-year local control was 72%. Among patients with post-treatment imaging, 8 had stable disease (80% and 2 had progressive disease (20% at first follow-up. The most common grade 1-2 acute toxicities included nausea and alterations in liver function tests; there was one grade 3 toxicity (elevated bilirubin, and no grade 4-5 toxicities.Discussion: SBRT is safe and feasible for the treatment of limited hepatic metastases from CRC. Our results compare favorably with outcomes from previous studies of SBRT. Further studies are needed to better define patient eligibility, study the role of combined modality treatment, optimize treatment parameters, and characterize quality of life after treatment.

  18. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2014. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela

    2015-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  19. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  20. IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation--COMAR technical information statement radiofrequency safety and utility Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushberg, Jerrold T; Foster, Kenneth R; Hatfield, James B; Thansandote, Arthur; Tell, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    This Technical Information Statement describes Smart Meter technology as used with modern electric power metering systems and focuses on the radio frequency (RF) emissions associated with their operation relative to human RF exposure limits. Smart Meters typically employ low power (-1 W or less) transmitters that wirelessly send electric energy usage data to the utility company several times per day in the form of brief, pulsed emissions in the unlicensed frequency bands of 902-928 MHz and 2.4-2.48 GHz or on other nearby frequencies. Most Smart Meters operate as wireless mesh networks where each Smart Meter can communicate with other neighboring meters to relay data to a data collection point in the region. This communication process includes RF emissions from Smart Meters representing energy usage as well as the relaying of data from other meters and emissions associated with maintaining the meter's hierarchy within the wireless network. As a consequence, most Smart Meters emit RF pulses throughout the day, more at certain times and less at others. However, the duty cycle associated with all of these emissions is very small, typically less than 1%, and most of the time far less than 1%, meaning that most Smart Meters actually transmit RF fields for only a few minutes per day at most. The low peak power of Smart Meters and the very low duty cycles lead to the fact that accessible RF fields near Smart Meters are far below both U.S. and international RF safety limits whether judged on the basis of instantaneous peak power densities or time-averaged exposures. This conclusion holds for Smart Meters alone or installed in large banks of meters.

  1. 地铁高频电磁辐射的安全评估%Safety evaluation of high frequency electromagnetic radiation in subway train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文颖; 逯迈

    2016-01-01

    In order to effectively evaluate the safety in high frequency electromagnetic environment radiated by antenna of passenger information system (PIS) of subway train, the 5.8 GHz frequency Yagi-antenna and the human body model was designed. By using the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation software, the high frequency electromagnetic environment model of the driver's cab of B-type subway train under the electromagnetic exposure of antenna was established while the occupational electromagnetic exposure of subway train driver was simulated. The results showed that when the input power of the antenna reached its maximum value of 50 W, compared with the limit values for electromagnetic occupational exposure constituted by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the specific absorption rate of human body model was 0.63 mW/kg, which was lower than the basic limitation 10 W/kg; the strength of electric field was 72.37 V/m, which was lower than the reference limitation 137 W/kg; the intensity of magnetic field was 0.72 A/m, which was higher than the reference limitation 0.36 A/m. The intensity of magnetic field would be 0.33 A/m, which was lower than the reference limitation when antenna's input power was 10 W. It demonstrates that in such electromagnetic environment, the high frequency electromagnetic radiation in driver's cab would be harmful to subway train driver's health. Therefore, the input power of antenna should be lower than 10 W to ensure that the driver is in the safety electromagnetic exposure environment.%为有效评估B型地铁乘客信息系统天线(Passenger information system, PIS)对司机室高频电磁辐射的安全性,设计PIS系统所用的5.8 GHz八木天线和司机人体模型,利用三维电磁仿真软件构建在PIS系统天线辐射下的地铁司机室高频电磁环境模型,数值模拟天线在不同输入功率条件下对地铁司机人体模型的高频电磁辐射影响.仿真结果表明,当

  2. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E

    2001-08-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. In addition the department was responsible for the tasks 'Applied Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness', 'Dosimetry', 'Environmental Monitoring', and Irradiation and Isotope Services'. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  3. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  4. SU-E-T-248: Near Real-Time Analysis of Radiation Delivery and Imaging, Accuracy to Ensure Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesooriya, K; Seitter, K; Desai, V; Read, P; Larner, J [University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and optimize an effective software method for comparing planned to delivered control point machine parameters for all VARIAN TrueBeam treatments so as to permit (1) assessment of a large patient pool throughout their treatment course to quantify treatment technique specific systematic and random uncertainty of observables, (2) quantify the site specific daily imaging shifts required for target alignment, and (3) define tolerance levels for mechanical parameters and imaging parameters based on statistical analysis data gathered, and the dosimetric impact of variations. Methods: Treatment and imaging log files were directly compared to plan parameters for Eclipse and Pinnacle planned treatments via 3D, IMRT, control point, RapidArc, and electrons. Each control point from all beams/arcs (7984) for all fractions (1940) of all patients treated over six months were analyzed. At each control point gantry angle, collimator angle, couch angle, jaw positions, MLC positions, MU were compared. Additionally per-treatment isocenter shifts were calculated. Results were analyzed as a whole in treatment type subsets: IMRT, 3D, RapidArc; and in treatment site subsets: brain, chest/mediastinum, esophagus, H and N, lung, pelvis, prostate. Results: Daily imaging isocenter shifts from initial external tattoo alignment were dependent on the treatment site with < 0.5 cm translational shifts for H and N, Brain, and lung SBRT, while pelvis, esophagus shifts were ∼1 cm. Mechanical delivery parameters were within tolerance levels for all sub-beams. The largest variations were for RapidArc plans: gantry angle 0.11±0.12,collimator angle 0.00±0.00, jaw positions 0.48±0.26, MLC leaf positions 0.66±0.08, MU 0.14±0.34. Conclusion: Per-control point validation reveals deviations between planned and delivered parameters. If used in a near real-time error checking system, patient safety can be improved by equipping the treatment delivery system with additional forcing

  5. Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine. Proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Think Tank Held on February 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Cummings, Jennifer E; Gerber, Thomas C; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-06-01

    Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert "think tank" reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.

  6. Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine: proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Think Tank held on February 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Pamela S; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Cummings, Jennifer E; Gerber, Thomas C; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-05-15

    Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert “think tank” reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community, but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.

  7. Normas básicas de seguridad durante el manejo de equipos de radiaciones no ionizantes Safety basic rules when handling non-ionizing radiation equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Armida Bretones

    2012-03-01

    this Prevention Department in cooperation with The Medical Physics Department a procedure based on basic preventive criteria has been elaborated to guarantee health and safety of the employees who handle non-ionizing radiation emitting equipment in our hospital and specialized centers. To draw the procedure: scientific literature related to the electromagnetic fields effects over health has been checked, periodical working meetings have been held between both above mentioned departments; non-ionizing radiation equipment have been identified as well as the places they are based or used; and expert people advice has been used. The procedure sets control and follow-up measurements both for people and equipment such as follows: Shortwave, microwave and magnetic therapy, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Laser, Ultraviolet radiation. The procedure and illustrative posters have been deployed to the linked departments, the information and training having been given to the employees who work with kind of equipment.

  8. Guidance for the definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.-E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Knochenhauer, M. (Scandpower AB (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The project 'The Validity of Safety Goals' has been financed jointly by NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), SSM (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority) and the Swedish and Finnish nuclear utilities. The national financing went through NPSAG, the Nordic PSA Group (Swedish contributions) and SAFIR2010, the Finnish research programme on NPP safety (Finnish contributions). The project has been performed in four phases during 2006-2010. This guidance document aims at describing, on the basis of the work performed throughout the project, issues to consider when defining, applying and interpreting probabilistic safety criteria. Thus, the basic aim of the document is to serve as a checklist and toolbox for the definition and application of probabilistic safety criteria. The document describes the terminology and concepts involved, the levels of criteria and relations between these, how to define a probabilistic safety criterion, how to apply a probabilistic safety criterion, on what to apply the probabilistic safety criterion, and how to interpret the result of the application. The document specifically deals with what makes up a probabilistic safety criterion, i.e., the risk metric, the frequency criterion, the PSA used for assessing compliance and the application procedure for the criterion. It also discusses the concept of subsidiary criteria, i.e., different levels of safety goals. The results from the project can be used as a platform for discussions at the utilities on how to define and use quantitative safety goals. The results can also be used by safety authorities as a reference for risk-informed regulation. The outcome can have an impact on the requirements on PSA, e.g., regarding quality, scope, level of detail, and documentation. Finally, the results can be expected to support on-going activities concerning risk-informed applications. (Author)

  9. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  10. 综合手术救治方舱X线辐射安全性评估%Safety Evaluation of X-ray Radiation in Comprehensive Surgical Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 梁明; 姚天明; 孙景阳; 邵会雨; 韩雅玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the radiation safety when using the c-arm X-ray machine in the comprehensive surgical shelter,so as to ensure the health of the medical staff and patients.Methods The radiation dose detectors were used to assess the radiation doses when the surgical personnel besides the bed operated the c-arm X-ray machine.Results When the C-arm X-ray machine was used during the operation,the mean measurements of the dose rates for the head,neck,chest,abdomen and leg of the medical staff were all lower than those in the national standard.The dose decreased as the distance between the machine and the staff increased,with the mean value lower than that in the national standard.Conclusion The radiation doses of the medical staffs and patients exposed to the C-arm X-ray machine in the surgical shelter is lower than that in the national standard,while the protection awareness and training have to be enhanced in order to defense their health.%目的:评估综合手术救治方舱C型臂X线机术中应用的放射安全性,保障医务人员和患者的健康.方法:采用辐射剂量检测仪现场检测C型臂X线机在术中应用时床边手术人员及距离C型臂不同位置的受照射剂量率,评价其放射情况.结果:C型臂X线机在术中应用时,床边手术人员的头部、颈部、胸部、腹部和腿部受照射的剂量率检测均值均低于国家标准规定的限值、受照射剂量随着手术人员与C型臂距离的增加而减小,均值均低于国家标准规定的限值.结论:综合手术救治方舱内C型臂X线机应用时术者接受的射线辐射剂量低于国家标准规定的限值,医务人员和患者相对安全.但是依然需要加强防护意识,增加防护训练,进一步降低医务人员和患者的受照射剂量,最大限度减小电离辐射对医务人员和患者健康的影响.

  11. Safety analysis and lay-out aspects of shieldings against particle radiation at the example of spallation facilities in the megawatt range; Sicherheitstechnische Analyse und Auslegungsaspekte von Abschirmungen gegen Teilchenstrahlung am Beispiel von Spallationsanlagen im Megawatt Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslik, R.

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses the shielding of particle radiation from high current accelerators, spallation neutron sources and so called ADS-facilities (Accelerator Driven Systems). ADS-facilities are expected to gain importance in the future for transmutation of long-lived isotopes from fission reactors as well as for energy production. In this paper physical properties of the radiation as well as safety relevant requirements and corresponding shielding concepts are discussed. New concepts for the layout and design of such shielding are presented. Focal point of this work will be the fundamental difference between conventional fission reactor shielding and the safety relevant issues of shielding from high-energy radiation. Key point of this paper is the safety assessment of shielding issues of high current accelerators, spallation targets and ADS-blanket systems as well as neutron scattering instruments at spallation neutron sources. Safety relevant shielding requirements are presented and discussed. For the layout and design of the shielding for spallation sources computer base calculations methods are used. A discussion and comparison of the most important methods like semi-empirical, deterministic and stochastic codes are presented. Another key point within the presented paper is the discussion of shielding materials and their shielding efficiency concerning different types of radiation. The use of recycling material, as a cost efficient solution, is discussed. Based on the conducted analysis, flowcharts for a systematic layout and design of adequate shielding for targets and accelerators have been developed and are discussed in this paper. By use of these flowcharts layout and engineering design of future ADS-facilities can be performed. (orig.)

  12. A study on room design and radiation safety around room for Co-60 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit converted from room for Ir-192 after loading HDR brachytherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Gurjar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Use of Co-60 source in place of Ir-192 in high dose rate brachytherapy unit (HDR unit has come for discussion in recent publications. Co-60 based system has been advocated for centers which have fewer brachytherapy procedures as it has comparative economically and administrative advantage. This study has direct practical application for such institutions, which are at the cusp of moving from Ir-192 to Co-60 based brachytherapy. Aims: Conversion of Ir-192 HDR room to Co-60 HDR room and to analyze radiation safety around the room. Materials and Methods: Uniform thickness of 15 cm concrete was added to all walls (except one wall adjoining to linear accelerator bunker to convert existing room forIr-192 HDR unit to suitable room for Co-60 HDR unit. Radiation survey around room was done. Actual and calculated wall thicknesses were compared. Results: Radiation survey data indicates that modified room is suitable for Co-60 HDR unit and all values are in full conformity to annual dose limits mentioned in Safety Code for Radiation Therapy Sources (SCRTS, Atomic Energy Regulatory Body (AERB; the regulatory body in India. Also, modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits mentioned in Safety Report Series No. 47 of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. However, console wall thickness (0.45 m is less than the calculated thickness (0.53 m for instantaneous dose rate (IDR design dose limit (7.5 ΅Sv/h as perabove safety report of IAEA. Conclusions: The modified wall thicknesses are appropriate for annual design dose limits. However, console wall thickness is less than the required thickness for IDR design dose limit. It has been suggested to add 2.64 cm steel on console wall. It has been found that design dose limits should be considered while making room layout plan and regulatory body should add these constraints inSCRTS.

  13. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  14. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  15. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  16. DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure report, _Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security. December 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Hagemeyer, Yolanda McCormick

    2012-12-12

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2011 occupational radiation dose data along with trends over the past 5 years, and provides instructions to submit successful as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) projects.

  17. Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.A. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.

  18. The study on safety facility criteria for radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Choi, M. H.; Han, S. H. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-12-15

    The radioactive waste repository are necessary to install the engineered safety systems to secure the safety for operation of the repository in the event of fire and earthquake. Since the development of safety facility criteria requires a thorough understanding about the characteristics of the engineered safety systems, we should investigate by means of literature survey and visit SKB. In particular, definition, composition of the systems, functional requirement of the systems, engineered safety systems of foreign countries, system design, operation and maintenance requirement should be investigated : fire protection system, ventilation system, drainage system, I and C system, electric system, radiation monitoring system. This proposed criteria consist of purpose, scope of application, ventilation system, fire protection system, drainage system, electric system and this proposed criteria can be applied as a basic reference for the final criteria.

  19. An improved method for producing radiation hybrids applied to human chromosome 19. Technical progress report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L.

    1992-04-01

    At the initiation of the grant we had just produced radiation hybrids from a monochromosomal microcell hybrid containing human chromosome 19 as its only human component. Radiation hybrids were produced using doses of radiation ranging from 1000--8000 rads. Lethally irradiated cells were then fused to hamster recipients (CHTG49) and selected for growth in histidinol. Approximately 240 clones were isolated and 75 clones were expanded for the isolation of DNA. This report describes in situ hybridization studies and the introduction of markers into human chromosome 19.

  20. 台州市医疗机构辐射安全现状及影响因素分析%Analysis on the Influential Factors of Medical Institutions’ Radiation Safety, Taizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辰星; 林丹君; 胡珈铭

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the situation and influential factors of medical institutions’ radiation safety.Methods: Questionnaires were used to survey the situation and influential factors of radiation safety of 200 people in some medical units of Taizhou city .The situation of re-spondents’ general data, related factors of radiation safety, the knowledge of radiation safety, radiation safety work experience exchange, the at-tention to security, participating in radiation safety training, and wearing personal dosimeter were statistically analyzed.Results: Economy and culture, productivity development and employee empowerment had low correlation with radiation safety (all R 0.7); Radiation safety and the exchange of experience working in the tertiary hospitals was better than that in the secondary hospital or other hospitals , and the secondary hospitals’ was better than that in other hospitals (all P0.05) among sen-ior and intermediate titles.Participating in safety training courses at the undergraduate and graduate degrees were better than that in college educa-tion and below (all P0.05). Conclusion:Factors concerning hospital management and personal security awareness are highly correlated with radiation safety , which should be given attention.It should be strengthened between hospitals and radiation workers to communicate and learn about radiation safety.%目的:探讨医疗机构辐射安全现状及影响因素。方法:对浙江省台州市部分医疗单位共200人进行辐射安全现状及其影响因素的问卷调查。统计分析调查对象的一般资料、辐射安全的相关因素、辐射安全知晓、辐射安全工作经验交流、对安全防护的重视、参加辐射安全培训班和佩戴个人剂量计的情况。结果:经济文化与生产力发展、员工授权与辐射安全低度相关(均R<0.5);组织承诺、激励约束、沟通报告等与辐射安全中度相关(均0.5<R<0.7);管理者安

  1. Applied radiation physics: The use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and the development of new insect sterilization protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Ramaninder K.

    X-rays have great potential of applications in a wide variety of fields. This dissertation presents the use of x-rays for the structural characterization of aqueous emulsions and for insect sterilization. The stabilization of hydrophobic colloids, such as oil droplets, in water has attracted scientist for a variety of scientific, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Several studies have been done to understand the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. The work of Pashley and his coworkers has demonstrated that the removal of dissolved gasses from water enhances the dispersion of hydrophobic oil in water and these surfactant-free emulsions do not lose their stability when the previously removed gasses are reintroduced. However, very little is known about the structure and stability of these emulsions over time or even to what extent they form. The formation of a stable emulsion in the complete absence of a surfactant could provide an alternative approach to a physiologically safe drug carrier. In this dissertation we demonstrate the formation of stabilized surfactant-free degassed emulsions of hydrocarbons - hexane, heptane and octane and silicone oil in ultra-pure water. The enhancement of dispersion of oil droplets by degassing was large for highly hydrophobic silicone oil. Turbidity measurements and small angle x-ray scattering results show that the uniformly dispersed oil droplets weakly aggregate over a period of several hours. Gentle perturbation re-generates the dispersion to nearly initial conditions. The control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease, such as dengue fever and malaria, is a high priority in today's global economy. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a method of insect extermination without the use of pesticides, has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipterans are applied to mosquito populations

  2. Safety first! managing risks for a daisy chain of medical devices connected to the IT-network - first experiences applying IEC 80001-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Janko; Röhrig, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The best way to ensure patient safety is to eliminate errors. To avoid errors and resulting harm from medical devices, there are rules and laws in Germany to ensure a certain quality and process [1,2]. This does not cover scenarios where devices are connected to a data network, forming a medical IT network. Arising risks need to be addressed by operating organizations, such as hospitals. International standard IEC 80001-1 offers a process for this and defines roles and responsibilities [3]. The aim of our study was to assess the application of risk management for a small initial project. We studied a daisy chain of medical devices connected to the IT network. The number of involved proprietary protocols and interface-definitions complicates the risk management, if just for the number of involved manufacturers. Identified risks could all be addressed and did not block the setup's deployment. Risk management creates an extra effort, but can reduce harm and potential financial liabilities. We can recommend starting with small projects to familiarize with the process.

  3. Effectiveness of Surgical Safety Check List applied in operation room%《手术安全核查表》在手术室的应用效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王地萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of Surgical Safety Check List applied during operation . Methods Relative information of patients ,receiving operation ,were checked by anesthesiologists ,nurse in opera-tion room and operation doctors before anesthesia ,operation and after operation .Results After the practice of opera-tion safety verification ,104 cases with hidden danger were discovered and treated in time ,and the operations were successfully completed .Conclusion Implementation of Surgical Safety Check List could effectively reduce the opera-tion risks ,improve the quality of nursing management ,promote team cooperation and ensure operation safety .%目的探讨《手术安全核查表》在手术过程中的应用效果。方法采取患者入手术室后,由麻醉医生、手术室护士、手术医生在麻醉实施前、手术切皮前、患者离室前3个时刻共同对手术患者相关信息进行核查。结果在实施手术安全核查后,及时发现隐患104例,并给予及时处理,顺利完成了手术。结论《手术安全核查表》的实施可有效降低手术风险、提高护理管理质量、密切团队协作、保障患者手术安全。

  4. Extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy versus retrograde ureteroscopy: is radiation exposure a criterion when we choose which modern treatment to apply for ureteric stones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Pricop

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare two major urological procedures in terms of patient exposure to radiation. We evaluated 175 patients, that were subjected to retrograde ureteroscopy (URS and extracorporeal shock waves lithotripsy (ESWL for lumbar or pelvic ureteral lithiasis, at two urological departments. The C-arm Siemens (produced in 2010 by Siemens AG, Germany was used for ureteroscopy. The radiological devices of the lithotripters used in this study in the two clinical centers had similar characteristics. We evaluated patient exposure to ionizing radiation by using a relevant parameter, the air kerma-area product (PKA; all values in cGy cm2, calculated from the radiation dose values recorded by the fluoroscopy device. PKA depends on technical parameters that change due to anatomical characteristics of each case examined, such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and stone location. For the patients subjected to ESWL for lumbar ureteral lithiasis the mean of PKA (cGy cm2 was 509 (SD=180, while for those treated for pelvic ureteral lithiasis the mean of PKA was 342 (SD=201. In the URS group for lumbar ureteral lithiasis, the mean of PKA (cGy cm2 was 892 (SD=436, while for patients with pelvic ureteral lithiasis, the mean of PKA was 601 (SD=429. The patients treated by URS had higher exposure to ionizing radiation dose than patients treated by ESWL. The risk factors of higher radiation doses were obesity, exposure time, and localization of the stones.

  5. Safety and efficacy of semiextended field intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in locally advanced cervical cancer patients: An observational study of 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Meng-Hao

    2017-03-01

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) are at risk of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis. Pelvic concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the current standard treatment for LACC, has a PALN failure rate of 9% according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90-01, suggesting that it may not completely eliminate all microscopic tumors in the PALNs. To minimize the toxicities associated with conventional prophylactic extended-field radiotherapy, our institute use prophylactic semiextended field radiotherapy that includes only the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels. Use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is another means of reducing the incidence of toxicity. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic semiextended field IMRT (SEF-IMRT) and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with LACC.We retrospectively assessed survival and toxicity in 76 patients with stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer and negative PALNs who received prophylactic SEF-IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m) between 2004 and 2013. The region targeted by SEF-IMRT included the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels, and the prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Brachytherapy was administered at a dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions. Survival outcomes were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0.All patients completed the planned SEF-IMRT, as well as brachytherapy. Acute grade ≥3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematologic toxicities were observed in 2, 0, and 41 patients, respectively. The median follow-up time after SEF-IMRT was 55 (range, 11-124) months. Eight patients developed out-field distant recurrences without PALN failure, and 1 patient experienced out-field PALN failure with simultaneous distant metastasis. No patients had late genitourinary toxicities, and 3 patients had late grade 3

  6. Nuclear Safety Charter; Charte Surete Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The AREVA 'Values Charter' reaffirmed the priority that must be given to the requirement for a very high level of safety, which applies in particular to the nuclear field. The purpose of this Nuclear Safety Charter is to set forth the group's commitments in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection so as to ensure that this requirement is met throughout the life cycle of the facilities. It should enable each of us, in carrying out our duties, to commit to this requirement personally, for the company, and for all stakeholders. These commitments are anchored in organizational and action principles and in complete transparency. They build on a safety culture shared by all personnel and maintained by periodic refresher training. They are implemented through Safety, Health, and Environmental management systems. The purpose of these commitments, beyond strict compliance with the laws and regulations in force in countries in which we operate as a group, is to foster a continuous improvement initiative aimed at continually enhancing our overall performance as a group. Content: 1 - Organization: responsibility of the group's executive management and subsidiaries, prime responsibility of the operator, a system of clearly defined responsibilities that draws on skilled support and on independent control of operating personnel, the general inspectorate: a shared expertise and an independent control of the operating organization, an organization that can be adapted for emergency management. 2 - Action principles: nuclear safety applies to every stage in the plant life cycle, lessons learned are analyzed and capitalized through the continuous improvement initiative, analyzing risks in advance is the basis of Areva's safety culture, employees are empowered to improve nuclear Safety, the group is committed to a voluntary radiation protection initiative And a sustained effort in reducing waste and effluent from facility Operations, employees and

  7. Study of radiation safety conditions in different hospitals in Nepal; Estudio de las condiciones de seguridad radiologica en diferentes hospitales de Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanchan, P. A.; Jha, L. N.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Herandez Rodriguez, R.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Casado Villalon, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    Radiology in Nepal began in 1923, but the current date there aren't infrastructure in radiation protection to control the use of ionizing radiation in different areas. Only recently Nepal is part of the IAEA and this should be a support and an acceleration creating the right conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of radiation protection in medicine. Due to the lack of regulation, monitoring or quality control, not even recommended.

  8. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs.

  9. Applied study on the chinese medicine - micro-magnetic field - thermal radiation coupling fitness theory%MMT 耦合健身理论应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪诺; 陈洪凯; 唐红梅

    2013-01-01

    It is an important scientific way to stimulate activity of acupoints in human body. This paper introduces MMT coupling fitness theory (the chinese medicine -micro-magnetic field - thermal radiation coupling fitness theory), which pays at ention to fitness of accupoints in areas such as head, waist and foot. Based on the MMT coupling fitness theory, three steps to develop an fitness waistband for human bod are discussed in detail in the paper, firstly, the fitness waistband for human body is designed with waistband, tourmaline ceramic powder at aching in the waistband, magnetic iron oxide, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) package. From exterior to interior close to the body, tourmaline ceramic powder , magnetic iron oxide and TCM package are set in the fitness waistband. Secondly, paying at ention to 19 acupoints in area of waistband, dominant fitness positions at the front and the back of the fitness waistband are set, definitely, the front position includes 13 acupoints such as life-gate and yin chiao, and the back position includes 6 acupoints such as Shangliao and shenshu. Thirdly, TCM package in the fitness waistband is composed of radix dipsaci, ricinus communis, marjoram, evodiae feuctus, tuckahoe, zhuifeng umbrel a, semen cassiae, gynostemma, dreams take root, epimedium, and drynaria rhizome, and the optimal weight ratio by these traditional Chinese medicines achieved. Clinical trials identify effectiveness of the fitness waistband, to 85.9% under the experimental conditions. Results in the paper are valuable in promoting applied researches of the MMT coupling fitness theory.%激发穴位经脉活性是人体保健的重要科学途径。介绍了 MMT 耦合健身理论,该理论重视人体头部、腰部和脚底穴位的保健功能。基于 MMT 耦合健身理论,详细论述了健身腰带的研发过程:1)人体保健腰带包括腰带、附着在腰带上的电气石陶瓷粉、磁性氧化铁和药包,腰带从外侧到靠近人体

  10. Systematic for assessment of occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation; Sistematica para la valoracion de la exposicion laboral frente a radiaciones ultravioletas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anies Escartin, J.; Perramon Llado, A.

    2011-07-01

    The approval of Royal Decree 486/2010 of 23 April on the protection of health and safety of workers from risks related to exposure to artificial optical radiation, moves to state law a framework of protection against the radiation. This should involve a significant intensification of control at work is conducted in this radiation. Despite the complexity of the issue and limit values ??difficult to apply (for incoherent ultraviolet radiation enters the bounding box up to 5 different values ??may apply), requires a systematic analysis of the problem well done. In this paper we consider the ultraviolet radiation generated by artificial sources.

  11. 关于提高运行核电厂现场辐射安全监督管理有效性的探讨%Discussion about how to improve the effectiveness of radiation safety supervision and administration for operating nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩然; 王海平

    2016-01-01

    Radiation safety is an important part of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plant (NPP), and the effectiveness of radiation safety supervision and administration will influences the radiation safety of NPP directly. This paper introduces and analyzes the purpose of radiation safety supervision and administration, supervision mode and the existing problems, and about how to improve the effectiveness of radiation safety supervision and administration of NPP are proposed with my own opinions.%辐射安全是运行核电厂核安全的重要组成部分,而核电厂辐射安全监督管理的有效性对电厂辐射安全有直接的影响。本文介绍和分析了运行核电厂辐射安全监督管理的目的、方式及存在的问题,重点对如何提高运行核电厂现场辐射安全监督管理的有效性提出自己的见解。

  12. The Prototype Database for Management of Revision and Compilation of Nuclear & Radiation Safety Regulations and Standards%核与辐射安全法规标准制修订管理原型数据库系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文海; 张弛; 樊赟; 杨丽丽; 刘黎明; 李小丁

    2011-01-01

    介绍了核与辐射安全法规标准制修订管理系统的基本需求,原型数据库系统的数据结构、终端软件的功能以及原型数据库系统的应用情况。%The article describes basic needs of users of a database for management of revision and compilation of nuclear radiation safety regulations and standards,the data structure of the Prototype Database, the function of the Client software of the Prototype Database and the application of the Prototype Database.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Qingre Buyi Decoction(清热补益煎剂)in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Proctitis:A Prospective,Randomized and Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王烈; 张再重; 涂小煌; 邹忠东; 刘建华; 王瑜

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficiency,safety,and possible mechanisms of Qingre Buyi Decoction(清热补益煎剂,QBD)in the treatment of acute radiation proctitis(ARP).Methods:This study was a single center,prospective,single blind,randomized,and placebo-controlled clinical trial.A total of 60 patients with ARP was equally and randomly distributed into the control group(conventional treatment)and the combination group(conventional treatment plus QBD).The changes of main Chinese medicine clinical symptoms and signs...

  14. Management information system on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  15. Safety Culture in organisations, facilities and activities entailing ionising radiation sources; Cultura de Seguridad en organizaciones, instalaciones y actividades con fuentes de radiacion ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro Fernandez, R.; Cruz Suarez, R.; Arciniega Torres, J.; Blanes Tabernero, A.; Bomben, A. M.; Da Silva Silveira, C.; Ordonez Gutierrez, E. B.; Perera Meas, J. F.; Ramirez Quijada, R.; Videla Valdebenito, R.

    2016-08-01

    The Latin American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities is an association created in 1997 with the aim of promoting the highest levels of nuclear and radiological safety and security among its member countries. (Author)

  16. Tracking management applied to patient safety management in nursing practice: effect analysis%追踪管理法在护理安全管理中的应用及效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段霞; 施雁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨追踪管理法在护理安全管理中的作用.方法 成立追踪管理小组,对护理不良事件实行个案追踪和系统追踪,根据事件危险程度针对性处理,增订或修改完善有关制度,避免护理不良事件的再次发生.结果 应用追踪管理法后护理不良事件发生率显著下降,上报率显著提升,与实施前比较,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 追踪管理法对护理安全防范起到积极作用,能有效降低护理不良事件发生,保障患者安全.%Objective To explore the role of tracking management applied to patient safety management in nursing practice. Methods We established a tracking management team, implemented case tracking and system tracking for adverse nursing events, took corresponding measures in terms of risk level of adverse nursing events, and updated or revised the system, to let these adverse nursing events never happen again. Results After implement of the tracking management, incidence rate of adverse nursing events was significantly decreased, and report rate of the events was significantly increased (P<0. 01 for both). Conclusion The tracking management plays an active role in ensuring nursing safety, which reduces occurrence of adverse nursing events and ensure patient safety.

  17. The IRSN Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety Cadarache Center; L'IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Centre de Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The research programs of the IRSN in the Cadarache Center concern the nuclear safety (reactor safety, nuclear fuels behavior during accidents, fires in nuclear installations), the protection and the control of radioactive materials, the human and the environment protection. The programs are presented and discussed. This presentation includes also the regional impact of the Institute at Cadarache (economical impact, relations with the universities and international meetings). (A.L.B.)

  18. X-ray holographic microscopy with zone plates applied to biological samples in the water window using 3rd harmonic radiation from the free-electron laser FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, T; Heine, R; Mancuso, A P; Staier, F; Christophis, C; Pettitt, M E; Sakdinawat, A; Treusch, R; Guerassimova, N; Feldhaus, J; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Eisebitt, S; Beyer, A; Gölzhäuser, A; Weckert, E; Grunze, M; Vartanyants, I A; Rosenhahn, A

    2011-06-06

    The imaging of hydrated biological samples - especially in the energy window of 284-540 eV, where water does not obscure the signal of soft organic matter and biologically relevant elements - is of tremendous interest for life sciences. Free-electron lasers can provide highly intense and coherent pulses, which allow single pulse imaging to overcome resolution limits set by radiation damage. One current challenge is to match both the desired energy and the intensity of the light source. We present the first images of dehydrated biological material acquired with 3rd harmonic radiation from FLASH by digital in-line zone plate holography as one step towards the vision of imaging hydrated biological material with photons in the water window. We also demonstrate the first application of ultrathin molecular sheets as suitable substrates for future free-electron laser experiments with biological samples in the form of a rat fibroblast cell and marine biofouling bacteria Cobetia marina.

  19. Assessment of evolutive and prognostic indicators applied to accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation; Evaluacion de indicadores pronosticos y evolutivos aplicables a situaciones accidentales de sobreexposicion a radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera Carrillo, M. de Lourdes; Cardenas, J. [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Dubner, D.; Perez, M. del Rosario; Gisone, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Radiopatologia; Carnot, J. [Hospital Clinico Quirurgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The acute radiation syndrome has been characterized in different ways that involve risk for life and health of the people overexposed to ionizing radiations. This work intends to test a therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI) model as conditioning to bone marrow transplantation. With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures, a study was carried out in 46 patients undergoing TBI receiving doses between 10 Gy and 12 Gy. The following parameters were assessed: lipo peroxyde plasmatic levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity, reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental overexposed patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia.

  20. A system for protecting the environment from ionising radiation. Selecting reference fauna and flora, and the possible dose models and environmental geometries that could be applied to them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentreath, R.J. [Environmental Systems Science Centre, University of Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 227, RG6 6AB Reading (United Kingdom); Woodhead, D.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, CEFAS Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Suffolk NR33 0HT Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-28

    In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a 'reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometries within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources.

  1. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  2. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo W. T. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs with phased arrays (PAs. These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs, the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs. For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  3. Medical Linear Accelerator Radiation Safety and Occupational Safety Management of the Implementation of the Thinking Path%医用直线加速器放射安全问题与职业安全管理的实施路径探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琰

    2015-01-01

    Output in the process of medical linear accelerator in the treatment of running ray energy is larger, at the same time, the equipment in the running process will produce other electromagnetic radiation, the radiation can cause harm to people's health, this requires that the hospital can to do a good job of radiation protection in the process of equipment oper-ation, reduce the radiation damage. This article through to the medical linear accelerator radiation characteristics were stud-ied, and analyzed the medical linear accelerator radiation hazard, and put forward the countermeasures, hoping to provide beneficial for the research on medical linear accelerator radiation safety problems.%医用直线加速器在治疗运行过程中输出的射线能量比较大,与此同时,设备在运行过程中会产生其他的电磁辐射,这些辐射会对人们的身体健康造成伤害,这就需要医院在设备运行过程中能够做好防辐射工作,减少辐射伤害现象的发生。该文通过对医用直线加速器的放射特征进行研究,并分析了医用直线加速器的辐射危害,还提出了应对措施,希望能够为医用直线加速器放射安全问题研究提供有益借鉴。

  4. Tendencias en investigación sobre seguridad y salud laboral: Propuesta metodológica aplicada al sector de la construcción Trends in research about occupational safety and health: Methodology applied to the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Isabel Carvajal Peláez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un análisis de las tendencias en investigación sobre seguridad y salud ocupacional aplicadas al sector de la construcción. Se investigaron fuentes publicadas en inglés (1930 -2007 y se encontraron más de 250 artículos. Para clasificar la información, se propone el "ciclo riesgo accidente" formado por cinco pasos que reflejan la realidad de la seguridad laboral en la construcción. Para cada paso, se seleccionaron las publicaciones más representativas y se elaboraron árboles de evolución lógica teniendo en cuenta el contenido, grado de importancia, orden cronológico, aplicación sobre cada tema, etc. Con estos árboles, se pasa de lo general a lo particular en forma cronológica, para demostrar las tendencias actuales en investigación en seguridad y salud en la construcción y podemos concluir que la investigación en este aspecto sigue siendo escasa, tratándose de un campo lleno de oportunidades y con un futuro prometedor.This article analyzes trends in research in occupational safety and health applied to the construction industry. The sources of information published in English (1930-2007 and found more than 250 articles. In order to classify these documents, is proposed the "risk-accident cycle" composes by five steps that reflect the reality of occupational safety and health in the construction industry. For each one of them, the papers more representative were selected and later elaborated a tree of chronological evolution considering aspects such as the content, degree of importance, chronological order, application on each subject, etc. With the elaboration of these trees, show the passage of the general to the particular in chronological form, for demonstrating the actual trends in research in safety and health in the construction. As a final remark, nowadays, research in safety and health in the construction is still very limited, being a field with many opportunities and a promising future.

  5. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  6. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  7. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  8. Usage of low-intensity laser radiation for the treatment of the inflammatory processes of the oral cavity mucosa after applying removable plate dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivradzhiyan, Edvard; Lesnykh, Nikolay; Kunin, Vadim; Mutafyan, Mikhail

    1995-04-01

    Effective methods of reveling overload zones of the oral mucosa under the bases of plane dentures, the effect of low intensity laser radiation ont he increase of its resistance are discussed. At present removable plate dentures of different modifications to a certain degree restore aesthetic proportions of the face, phonetics and malfunction of the teeth and jaws. Besides, removable bridge are known not to secure even distribution of mastication pressure along the whole dentures bed which results in the development of inflammatory and dystrophic processes, and, finally in the accelerated atrophy of the oral mucosa and bony tissue of the alveolar process of upper and alveolar parts of the mandible. Many papers are devoted to the anti-inflammatory effect of laser therapy. Improvement of metabolic processes and revascularization of the dentures bed mucosa, normalization of the oral microflora structure, anesthetizing effect is noted too. At the same time there are no papers about studying the therapeutic effect of low intensity laser radiation intraumatic dentures stomatitis, inflammation of the oral mucosa in the literature available for us. To increase the functional effectiveness of removable plate dentures, profilaxy of inflammation and dystrophic phenomena and to decrease adaptation period we have developed methods of early detection of overload zone of oral mucosa at the initial stages of acute inflammation with the help of macrohistochemical reaction. Visible with the naked eye for the timely and precise correction of the dentures.

  9. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  10. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Home Health Care: The Facts (PDF Version) (PDF - 65KB) MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products ...

  11. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and public health : review of safety levels; Exposicion a radiaciones no ionizantes ambientales y salud publica: Una revision de las bases biomedicas de los limites de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, A.; Trillo, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    The potential health effects of the exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation are a source of increasing interest on the part of the public and the authorities. This article summarizes the theoretical-experimental basis supporting the safety levels proposed by international committees, and reviews the recent scientific literature on non-ionizing radiation's bioeffects that are relevant to the validation or modification of the present exposure limits. Because of its social interest, special consideration is given to power frequency fields (50-60Hz) and to the radio communication signals of mobile telephony. The paper also describes how interpretations of the scientific evidence, other than those of the international committees, have generated some controversy and have provided a basis for more restrictive limits, like those adopted in Europe by Switzerland and Italy. The article also identifies some gaps in the present scientific knowledge on the bioelectromagnetics discipline and proposes that additional research is needed to complete our present knowledge on the biological responses to non-ionizing radiation. (Author) 80 refs.

  12. Development of quality assurance procedures for production of sealed radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, J H; Cho, W K; Han, H S; Hong, S B; Kim, K H; Kim, S D; Lee, Y G; Lim, N J

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance procedures for sealed radiation sources production using HANARO and RIPF have been developed. The detailed quality assurance procedures are essential to manage the whole work process effectively and ensure the quality of the produced sealed sources. Through applying this quality assurance procedures to the entire production works of the sealed radiation sources, it is expected that the quality of the products, the safety of the works and the satisfaction of the customers will be increased.

  13. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  14. Radiation during pregnancy: physical aspects relevant to radiological safety of the fetus; Radioterapia durante a gravidez: aspectos fisicos relevantes para seguranca radiologica do feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Pasqueta, Jessica; Branco, Isabela S.L.; Meira, Luiza L.C.; Morelli, Humberto A.S., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br, E-mail: marco@cetea.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias

    2013-08-15

    The work presents the physical and radiological protection procedures involved in radiotherapy performed in patients during pregnancy that contribute to the security and development of the fetus. We analyzed clinical cases studies with confirmed pregnancy undergoing radiotherapy. The study also analyzed the dosimetry protocols specific to different treatment fields considering the absorbed dose in the region estimated fetal through experimental measurements and computer simulations presented in the literature. It is discussed the concepts of radiation fetuses presented in the Report of the AAPM TG 36 focusing on the influence of the use of appropriate shielding and peripheral dose distribution outside the primary radiation field. Studies show no consensus on the threshold dose for fetal exposure, with values ranging between 2 and 25 cGy, depending on gestational age and position within the abdomen. As recommended by the organs of radiological protection in Brazil, the equivalent dose of radiation to the abdomen of pregnant women occupationally exposed should not exceed 2.0 mSv for the entire period of pregnancy. The measurements show that the main factors contributing to the increase in dose to the fetus are: radiation trail head, scattering from the collimator and dispersion by tissue irradiated region to the region surrounding the fetus. The results of research and clinical situations illustrated in reviewed scientific articles indicate that radiotherapy in pregnant patients is feasible, provided that the dose to the fetus is less than the threshold values, which can be achieved by the use of screens and settings fields Radiation appropriate and properly planned by experts who should simulate physical prior to treatment. The work aims to contribute to subsidize the treatment decision in radiotherapy procedures in pregnant patients pointing out the risks and benefits when the need for treatment. (author)

  15. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  16. RADIATION SAFETY JUSTIFICATION FOR THE LONG-TERM STORAGE OF GAS CONDENSATE IN THE UNDERGROUND RESERVOURS FORMED BY THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents approaches to the safety justification of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs formed by the nuclear explosion technology. Gas condensate and brine are the intermediate level liquid radioactive waste containing isotopes: 3Н, 137Cs and 90Sr, in traces - 239Pu, 235U, 241Am.Safety of the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the underground reservoirs is assessed on the base of the multi-barrier principle implementation, used during radioactive waste disposal. It is shown that the gas condensate and brine long-term storage in the sealed underground reservoirs formed by nuclear explosion technologies in salt domes does not lead to the surface radioactive contamination and population exposure.

  17. Applying the new gamma ray imager diagnostic to measurements of runaway electron Bremsstrahlung radiation in the DIII-D Tokamak (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Pace, D. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Commaux, N.; Eidietis, N. W.; Hollmann, E. M.; Shiraki, D.

    2016-11-01

    A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5-100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead "pinhole camera" mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second. Digital signal processing routines combining shaping filters are performed during PHA to reject noise and record gamma ray energy. The GRI setup and PHA algorithms will be described and initial data from experiments will be presented. A synthetic diagnostic is developed to generate the gamma ray spectrum of a GRI channel given the plasma information and a prescribed distribution function. Magnetic reconstructions of the plasma are used to calculate the angle between every GRI sightline and orient and discriminate gamma rays emitted by a field-aligned RE distribution function.

  18. Mechanical analysis of ferritic stainless steel applied in radiation tubes in high temperature; Analise mecanica de acos inoxidaveis ferriticos aplicados em tubos de radiacao em altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreto, J.A.; Ponte, H.A.; Oliveira, V.L.; Silva, C.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays Brazilian oil refineries face an important challenge: to adjust their units to the processing of more aggressive crudes. The use of this kind of oil has caused an increase on corrosion on process streams in high temperatures. This study's objective is to evaluate the changes in mechanic properties and phases processing occurred in tubes from de radiation furnaces type A268/446 Tp ferritic stainless steel tubes used in conditions of high temperatures. For comparison samples of the APM/Kanthal alloy tube were examined. Hot tensile tests were performed in the studied materials evidence bodies. The evidence bodies for the hot tensile tests were extracted from the longitudinal position of the tubes and were machined with cylindrical shape with threads. There was a series of trials for each tube (at different traction speeds) at temperature of 600 deg C. With the traction test it was possible to evaluate resistance and ductility characteristics and was used to establish criteria for quality control to ensure satisfactory performance in certain applications. Data testing creep were performed in the evidence bodies taken from the longitudinal position of the tubes in constant charge form. Data testing creep were executed in the constant stress mode at various levels of temperature. Through data testing creep it was possible to predict for how long the material is good for use. Data from testing creep were treated by the method of Larson and Miller. (author)

  19. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy.

  20. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  1. Safety in paediatric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, D.; Filice, I.; Murray, D.; Thomas, K. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Those of us working in a dedicated paediatric environment are aware of the important safety issues with regard to paediatrics. Our goal when working with paediatric patients, the goal is to obtain the best quality images while keeping patients safe and their distress to a minimum. This article will discuss some of the issues regarding paediatric safety in a diagnostic imaging department, including radiation doses and the risk to paediatric patients, reducing medication errors, safe sedation practice and environmental safety. Also discussed are some conditions requiring special consideration to maintain patient safety such as epiglottitis and suspected child abuse. Promotion of a patient/family-centered care system will create an environment of trust where parents or guardians will know that their children are being well cared for in a safe, effective environment. (author)

  2. Official announcement of recommendations issued by the RSK (Reactor Safety Commission) and the SSK (Radiation Protection Commission). As of 11 October 1994; Bekanntmachung von Empfehlungen der Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission und der Strahlenschutzkommission. Vom 11. Oktober 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-23

    The RSK and the SSK have found satisfactory evidence that the planned surface and underground facilities and equipment of the repository fulfill the safety requirements given, and that the planned operations for emplacement and storage can be performed with due safety. RSK and SSK put emphasis on the fact that the specific types and volumes of the radioactive wastes envisaged for storage at this site will not create a hazardous situation at any place of the entire repository as a result of temperatures, pressures or radioactivity concentrations developing during emplacement or storage, so that the repository`s hazardous potential is assessed to be very low, both in the operational phase and during the post-sealing phase. The RSK and SSK approve of the submitted safety concept for specified normal operation, as well as the submitted regime of preventive measures for protection from accidents, and the results of the accident analyses performed. Engineered and other radiation protection measures provided for specified normal operation are found to guarantee protection of the personnel, the local population and the environment. Calculated radiation doses are below the limits given in section 44, sub-section 1, and sections 45 and 49 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV). The calculations submitted for emergency-induced radioactivity levels show compliance with the maximum acceptable doses laid down in section 28, sub-sec. 3 StrlSchV. The review of data submitted concerning the longterm safety of the site and the calculation approaches for determining individual doses by way of model calculations for radionuclide migration from the storage site to the biosphere are approved of by the commissions, who found evidence that the waste stored will not create hazardous radiation levels in a post-sealing operation phase extending over a period of 10.000 years. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] RSK und die SSK haben sich davon ueberzeugt, dass alle geplanten ueber- und

  3. Applied research using a 30 GHz free-electron maser: Experimental study of interacton of high-power pulsed radiation with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, V. G.; Vdovin, V. A.; Vikharev, A. A.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Golubev, I. I.; Golubykh, S. M.; Zaitsev, N. I.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kozlov, A. P.; Kratko, A. F.; Kryachko, I. A.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Lesnikovich, A. I.; Milevich, I. A.; Perel'shtein, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Petelin, M. I.; Sedykh, S. N.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Fedotova, Yu. A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a facility for testing the properties of different objects affected by a sequence of highpower pulses of the microwave electromagnetic field. The facility performance is implemented due to the power level and stability of the single-mode generation of a free electron maser with an output frequency of 30 GHz, which have been achieved at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This paper describes the experiments on studying of the thermal fatigue of the copper surface in a test cavity, which models the thermal regime of the accelerating structure of the CLIC project (CERN), as well as the experiments on irradiation of biological tissues, metal films, and nanoclusters.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation: questions of hazard, homeostasis, or hormesis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliney, D. [USA Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Gunpowder, MD (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The general approach taken when dealing with health issues arising from chronic human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation appear to be quite different from that taken with the safety of human exposure to ionizing radiation. The public climate for accepting scientific risk assessments of human exposure appears to be markedly different for these two types of radiation exposures. Issues relating to setting exposure guidelines, such as dose response, with arguments over ''linear-no-threshold'' or ''hormesis,'' have engendered much debate and have severely challenged the development of a consensus on how to best control the health hazards from low-level ionizing radiation exposure. By contrast, these same questions are rarely raised in the public policy arena with regard to health policies for dealing with ultraviolet, non-ionizing radiation. Ultraviolet radiation exposure is a known carcinogen, but workers and the general public willingly expose themselves routinely to levels of ultraviolet radiation exceeding health exposure guidelines. Occupational health and safety advisors are constantly challenged on how to cope with exposure of the outdoor worker to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight that can exceed health guidelines. A de facto consensus that permits workers to be exposed far above guidelines appears to exist because of the overwhelming public acceptance of the concept that ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has some benefit, despite the risk. A similar public perception generally does not exist for ionizing radiation, but are there similar risks? From a biophysical standpoint, the generally accepted target molecule is DNA and the single-hit theory would apply to both. Unlike ionizing radiation the target organs are limited to skin and eye. Furthermore, cancer of the eye in humans is virtually unknown; whereas, cancer of the skin is most common. It would be well to examine whether the potential for different outcomes

  5. Initial evaluation of the safety culture in a service of radiation physics and radiation protection; Evaluacion inicial de la cultural de seguidad en un servicio de radiofisica y proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar Perez, J.; Orellana Salas, A.; Arrocha Acevedo, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    Health care should ensure the safety of a number of people, equipment and clinical practices to achieve quality service offering. Work systems should minimize the risks of health care and the environment for patients, families and professionals, avoiding as much as possible, errors that may be committed. A rigorous and methodologically sound study of the circumstances in which errors occur will help to establish secure systems that can prevent errors regardless of the human factor, detecting latent conditions that are the root causes of the errors on the need influence.

  6. Nanosensors for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiong; Sheng, Chenxing

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed.

  7. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  8. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  9. Preoperative Y-90 microsphere selective internal radiation treatment for tumor downsizing and future liver remnant recruitment: a novel approach to improving the safety of major hepatic resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulec Seza A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended liver resections are being performed more liberally than ever. The extent of resection of liver metastases, however, is restricted by the volume of the future liver remnant (FLR. An intervention that would both accomplish tumor control and induce compensatory hypertrophy, with good patient tolerability, could improve clinical outcomes. Case presentation A 53-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer presented with a large liver mass. Subsequent biopsy indicated poorly differentiated carcinoma with necrosis suggestive of squamous cell origin. A decision was made to proceed with pre-operative chemotherapy and Y-90 microsphere SIRT with the intent to obtain systemic control over the disease, downsize the hepatic lesion, and improve the FLR. A surgical exploration was performed six months after the first SIRT (three months after the second. There was no extrahepatic disease. The tumor was found to be significantly decreased in size with central and peripheral scarring. The left lobe was satisfactorily hypertrophied. A formal right hepatic lobectomy was performed with macroscopic negative margins. Conclusion Selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT with yttrium-90 (Y-90 microspheres has emerged as an effective liver-directed therapy with a favorable therapeutic ratio. We present this case report to suggest that the portal vein radiation dose can be substantially increased with the intent of inducing portal/periportal fibrosis. Such a therapeutic manipulation in lobar Y-90 microsphere treatment could accomplish the end points of PVE with avoidance of the concern regarding tumor progression.

  10. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  11. Practical Patient Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Reynard, John; Stevenson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Following recent high profile cases of surgical error in the UK and USA, patient safety has become a key issue in healthcare, now placed at heart of junior doctor's training. Errors made by doctors are very similar to those made in other high risk organisations, such as aviation, nuclear and petrochemical industries. Practical Patient Safety aims to demonstrate how core principles of safety from these industries can be applied in surgical and medical practice, in particular throughtraining for health care professionals and healthcare managers.Whilst theoretical aspects of risk management form

  12. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  13. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  14. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  15. Hand Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  16. Novel Concepts for Radiation Shielding Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is critical that safety factors be maximized with respect to long duration, extraterrestrial space flight. Any significant improvement in radiation protection...

  17. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  18. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  19. 核与辐射风险的认知与沟通%Perception and Communication for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范育茂

    2011-01-01

    Toward the phenomenon that the public are overly sensitive to the risk of nuclear and radiation,this article presents the perception of risk and the factors that might influence the level of physical risk,and introduces the development stages and types of risk communication.Finally,some suggestions about effective strategies of risk communication are proposed.%面对公众对核与辐射风险极度敏感的现象,本文阐述了对风险的认知及影响认知程度的因素,介绍了风险沟通的发展阶段和四种类型,并给出了若干有效的风险沟通策略建议。

  20. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, C [Wayne State University, Grosse Pointe, MI (United States); Borras, C [Radiological Physics and Health Services, Washington, DC (United States); Carlson, D [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  1. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  2. The International Technical Safety Forum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The International Technical Safety Forum is a meeting of safety experts from several physics labs in Europe and the US. Since 1998 participants have been meeting every couple of years to discuss common challenges in safety matters. The Forum helps them define best practices and learn from the important lessons learned by others.   The Forum's participants in front of building 40. This year, the meeting took place at CERN from 12 to 16 April. “This year's meeting covered subjects ranging from communication and training in matters of safety, to cryogenic safety, emergency preparedness and risk analysis”, explains Ralf Trant, head of the CERN Safety Commission and organiser of this year’s Forum. Radiation protection issues are not discussed at the meeting since they involve different expertise. The goal of the Forum is to allow participants to share experience, learn lessons and acquire specific knowledge in a very open way. Round-table discussions, dedicated time for ...

  3. Operational Safety Performance Indicators and Balanced Scorecard in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol; Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Research reactors need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. The importance of a safety management in nuclear facilities and activities has been emphasized. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. Last year, HANARO prepared two indicator sets to measure and assess the safety status of the reactor's operation and utilization. One is Safety Performance Indicators (SPI) and the other is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). Through reviewing these indicators, we can obtain the following information; - Plant safety status - Safety parameter trends - Safety information, for example, reactor operation status and radiation safety HANARO will continuously pursue the trends of SPI and BSC.

  4. Safety and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, John; Gunning, Angela.

    1988-05-01

    Representatives of the supporters and opponents of civil nuclear power put forward the arguments they feel the public should consider when making up their mind about the nuclear industry. The main argument in favour of nuclear power is about the low risk in comparison with other risks and the amount of radiation received on average by the population in the United Kingdom from different sources. The aim is to show that the nuclear industry is fully committed to the cause of safety and this has resulted in a healthy workforce and a safe environment for the public. The arguments against are that the nuclear industry is deceitful, secretive and politically motivated and thus its arguments about safety, risks, etc, cannot be trusted. The question of safety is considered further - in particular the perceptions, definitions and responsibility. The economic case for nuclear electricity is not accepted. (U.K.).

  5. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  6. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  7. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner Theodor M.; Feinendegen Ludwig E.; Meineke Viktor; Fritz Thomas E.

    2005-02-28

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  8. Medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  9. Visit safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  10. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    This report contains information concerning: operational radionuclide control; occupational radiation protection, conduct of operations; initial test program; safety analysis; technical specifications; and quality assurance. (JDB)

  11. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  12. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumors Greater Than 5 cm: Safety and Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Neil M., E-mail: woodyn@ccf.org; Stephans, Kevin L.; Marwaha, Gaurav; Djemil, Toufik; Videtic, Gregory M.M.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes of patients with node-negative medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose primary tumors exceeded 5 cm and were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: We surveyed our institutional prospective lung SBRT registry to identify treated patients with tumors >5 cm. Treatment outcomes for local control (LC), locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates. Toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4. Mean pretreatment pulmonary function test values were compared to mean posttreatment values. Results: From December 2003 to July 2014, 40 patients met study criteria. Median follow-up was 10.8 months (range: 0.4-70.3 months). Median age was 76 years (range: 56-90 years), median body mass index was 24.3 (range: 17.7-37.2), median Karnofsky performance score was 80 (range: 60-90), and median Charlson comorbidity index score was 2 (range: 0-5). Median forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.41 L (range: 0.47-3.67 L), and median diffusion capacity (DLCO) was 47% of predicted (range: 29%-80%). All patients were staged by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography staging, and 47.5% underwent mediastinal staging by endobronchial ultrasonography. Median tumor size was 5.6 cm (range: 5.1-10 cm), median SBRT dose was 50 Gy (range: 30-60 Gy) in 5 fractions (range: 3-10 fractions). Eighteen-month LC, LRC, DFS, and OS rates were 91.2%, 64.4%, 34.6%, and 59.7%, respectively. Distant failure was the predominant pattern of failure (32.5%). Three patients (7.5%) experienced grade 3 or higher toxicity. Mean posttreatment FEV1 was not significantly reduced (P=.51), but a statistically significant absolute 6.5% (P=.03) reduction in DLCO was observed. Conclusions: Lung SBRT for medically inoperable node

  13. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.

  14. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  15. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; Organisationskulturen inom den finlaendska Straalsaekerhetscentralens (STUK) avdelning foer oevervakning av kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L. [VTT Automation, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  16. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  17. Safety Instructions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instructions N0 37 rev. 3 (IS 37 rev. 3) entitled ""LEVEL-3" SAFETY ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEMS" Is available on the web at the following URL: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335802 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  18. Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  19. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  20. Microwave Radiation Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Subrahmanian

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to microwave radiation could lead to biological damage. The criteria for maximum permissible exposure limits derived from experiments by several countries are discussed. Recommendations made for safety of operating personnel based on a recent protection survey are also presented.

  1. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  3. Safety analysis procedures for PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoo, Kun Joong

    2004-03-01

    The methodology of safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Canada, a vendor country, uses a combination of best-estimate physical models and conservative input parameters so as to minimize the uncertainty of the plant behavior predictions. As using the conservative input parameters, the results of the safety analyses are assured the regulatory requirements such as the public dose, the integrity of fuel and fuel channel, the integrity of containment and reactor structures, etc. However, there is not the comprehensive and systematic procedures for safety analyses for CANDU reactors in Korea. In this regard, the development of the safety analyses procedures for CANDU reactors is being conducted not only to establish the safety analyses system, but also to enhance the quality assurance of the safety assessment. In the first phase of this study, the general procedures of the deterministic safety analyses are developed. The general safety procedures are covered the specification of the initial event, selection of the methodology and accident sequences, computer codes, safety analysis procedures, verification of errors and uncertainties, etc. Finally, These general procedures of the safety analyses are applied to the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) in Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Wolsong units 2, 3, 4.

  4. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  5. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  6. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  7. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  8. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  9. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  10. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  11. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  13. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in

  14. Development of public health assurance technology by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Sang Yong; Yang, Jae Seung (and others)

    2007-07-15

    This project was performed to develop the radiation sterilization process of public health products and RT/BT fusion technology and to secure a detection and quarantine system of irradiated food. To establish the radiation sterilization of public health goods, current status of radiation sterilization of disposable medical equipment was investigated and the manufacturing process of disposable media for microbial cultivation were developed using a gamma sterilization. In addition, microbial contamination of disposable kitchen utensils was surveyed and pathogen-free organic compost was developed by radiation sterilization. The radiation responses of bacteria including Salmonella, Vibrio, E. coli, and D. radiodurans were analyzed by DNA chip and 2-D electrophoresis. To validate the safety of surviving bacteria after irradiation, the expressions of virulence genes of pathogenic bacteria were monitored using real-time PCR, and the growth of mycotoxin-producing funguses was studied after irradiation. And also, quantitative detection methods of irradiated and inactivated Salmonella using a real-time PCR and a immuno assay. To establish the quarantine and quality assurance of irradiated food and public health products, radiation technology was applied to the fermented foods, minimally processed food and dried vegetables. Radiation effects on insects was examined and the corresponding data base was constructed. We also collaborated on the preliminary test of international trade of sea food with USA or India. To establish the official detection method of irradiated food, physical, chemical and biological detection methods for irradiated food were verified. Finally, multiple range test of irradiated food was performed.

  15. [Thyroid and radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, S; Namba, H; Nagataki, S

    1993-11-20

    The topic "Thyroid and Radiation" is both an old and a new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymphnodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed.

  16. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  17. Work safety and sustainable development in enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Min-kang; ZHOU Yue; XU Jian-hong

    2005-01-01

    The nature of work safety and the way insisting on sustainable development in enterprise were analyzed. It indicates that problem of work safety in enterprise is closely related to the public's consciousness, to the development of science and technology, and to the weakening of safety management during the economic transition period. However, it is the people's questions concerned in the final analysis for the forming and development of the problem of work safety. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of work safety radically, the most basic way of insisting on the sustainable development in safety administration is to do a good job of every aspect about people. We should improve all people quality in science and culture and strengthen their safety and legal consciousness to form correct safety value concept. We should fortify safety legislation and bring close attention to approach and apply new safety technology.

  18. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  19. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Damkjær, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addtion the department...

  20. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjær, A.; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2002-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2001. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addition the department...

  1. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Back to School: Vaccines for Preteens Learn about the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  2. Safety design for medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The use of robots in medicine is increasing, leading to the call for specific safety standards. This is a challenging endeavor, however, because the patient must usually be placed in the robot's workspace and the medical staff must frequently interact with the robot. Although specific safety standards for medical robots do not yet exist, there are several medical device standards and well-established principles of risk analysis and safety design that can and should be applied. This paper presents a tutorial overview of safety design for medical robots, starting with a discussion of high-level safety requirements, followed by methods for risk assessment (or hazard analysis) and a brief discussion of some sample safety strategies.

  3. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  4. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  5. The history and evolution of laser safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliney, D. [USA Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Gunpowder, MD (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Laser safety became a concern within a year of the first successful laser operation in 1960. The first biological research studies and publications on eye hazards appeared in 1961. Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits, threshold limit values (TLVs), or simply Exposure Limits (ELs) have evolved from the mid 1960s. Regardless of the terminology applied, these limits are now virtually the same worldwide (ICNIRP, 2000; ACGIH, 2000; ANSI, 2000; IEC/EN, 2001). This wide consensus has not always existed. Several issues have remained at the forefront of all efforts to set human exposure limits for laser radiation. These issues include concerns over whether there exists any damage mechanisms that are unique to coherent laser radiation, or can one expect differences between damage produced by a laser when compared to incoherent optical radiation within the same wavelength region. Indeed, questions have always existed with regard to the dominance (within any spectral region and exposure duration) of different damage mechanisms (e.g., thermal, photochemical, thermo-acoustic, optical-breakdown) and the role played by various conventional and non-linear optical phenomena in biological tissues. Other issues relate to the geometry of heat flow, the dissipation of energy and the biological response. Practical laser safety owes much to the development of laser safety classification after it was recognized that the probability of an accidental eye injury was very remote in many applications and measurements of the primary beam did little to identify reflection hazards. Unfortunately, the probabilistic risk analysis that led to the rationale and the definitions of the early laser safety classification scheme are now too frequently overlooked. (orig.)

  6. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  7. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  8. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  9. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  10. Nuclear safety in perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Basson

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The impending operation of South Africa’s first nuclear power station, Koeberg, necessitates a thorough analysis of nuclear safety under local conditions. More is known, worldwide, about radiation effects than about any other health hazard, and international norms have already been accepted since 1928. The widespread use of X-rays and radio-isotopes, the extraction and processing of uranium, visits by nuclear-powered ships and, especially, the nuclear-reactor operation in South Africa. Consequently, the pre-operational investigations of Koeberg could be completed thoroughly, with full confidence in its safe commissioning.

  11. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  12. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  13. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  14. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent. (ACR)

  15. New Safety rule for Chemical Agents

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2010-01-01

    The following Safety rule has been issued on 08-01-2010: Safety Regulation SR-C Chemical Agents This document applies to all persons under the Director General’s authority. It sets out the minimal requirements for the protection of persons from risks to their safety and health arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents used in any CERN activity. All Safety rules are available on the web pages.

  16. The Applied Research of Construction Safety Investment Direction Based on the Improved AHP%基于改进 AHP 的建筑施工安全投资方向应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭智辉

    2014-01-01

    The construction site is a complex system for “personnel , mechanical and construction environment”, and almost every building safety accident happened results from the comprehensive effect of various factors such as man , machine , and environ-ment.To create a safe construction environment , the limited funds of the safety investment should be put into all aspects of the safe -ty management , which can use the method of evaluation system to analyze all factors influencing each other and restraint relation -ship, to find a reasonable control of the safety accidents to avoid accidents , hence it can get maximum security management efficien-cy.%建筑工程施工现场是由“人员-机械-施工环境”构成的复杂系统,几乎每一起建筑安全事故的发生都是人、机、环境等因素综合作用的结果。要创造一个安全良好的建筑施工环境,将有限的安全投资资金投入到安全管理的各个方面,可以利用模糊评价的方法系统地分析各个因素之间相互影响、相互制约的关系,最大限度地控制安全事故发生的途径,避免事故的发生,获得最大限度的安全管理效益。

  17. Hybrid regression trees applied to the monitoring of dynamic safety of isolated networks with large eolic production contribution; Utilizacao de arvores de regressao hibridas na monitorizacao da seguranca dinamica de redes isoladas com grande producao eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.A Pecas; Vasconcelos, Maria Helena O.P. de [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal). E-mail: jpl@riff.fe.up.pt; hvasconcelos@inescn.pt

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes in a synthetic manner the technology adopted to define structures used in the fast evaluation of dynamic safety of isolated network with high level of eolic production contribution. This methodology uses hybrid regression trees, which allows the quantification the endurance connected to the dynamic behavior of these networks by emulating the frequency minimum deviation that will be experienced by the system when submitted toa pre-defined perturbation. Also, new procedures for data automatic generation are presented, which will be used for construction and measurements of the evaluation structures performance. The paper describes the Terceira island - Acores archipelago network study case.

  18. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Playground Safety Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Safety Tips: Baseball Safety Tips: Basketball Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: ... it a Medical Emergency? Knowing Your Child's Medical History Nosebleeds Seizures Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Teaching Your ...

  19. Dynamic event Tress applied to sequences Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculating the frequency of exceedance of damage by integrated Safety Analysis Methodology; Arboles de sucesos dinamicos aplicados a secuencias Full Spectrum LOCA. Calculo de la frequencia de excedencia del dano mediante la metodologia Analisis Integrados de Seguridad (ISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Magan, J. J.; Fernandez, I.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Queral, C.; Gonzalez-Cadelo, J.; Montero-Mayorga, J.; Rivas, J.; Ibane-Llano, C.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Sanchez-Perea, M.; Melendez, E.; Hortal, J.

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) methodology, developed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety council (CSN), has been applied to obtain the dynamic Event Trees (DETs) for full spectrum Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) of a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR plant. The purpose of this ISA application is to obtain the Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF) for the LOCA Event Tree by taking into account the uncertainties in the break area and the operator actuation time needed to cool down and de pressurize reactor coolant system by means of steam generator. Simulations are performed with SCAIS, a software tool which includes a dynamic coupling with MAAP thermal hydraulic code. The results show the capability of the ISA methodology to obtain the DEF taking into account the time uncertainty in human actions. (Author)

  20. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  1. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  2. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  3. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  4. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  5. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  6. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  7. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs.

  8. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  9. SAFETY BULLETIN

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Bulletin no 4 (TIS 2002-04) entitled 'KNOW THE RISKS' is available on the web. Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, e-mail: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch TIS Secretariat

  10. Safety Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  11. Status of technical radiation protection units; Situacion de las Unidades Tecnicas de Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Sierra Perler, I. C.; Villarroel Gonzalez-Elipe, R.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this report is to analyse the current situation of Radiological Protection technical Units until December 2008 and to carry out an evaluation on the quality the services provided to clients in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection at nuclear facilities and radioactive and medical radiodiagnostics facilities in accordance with the function assigned to them by the CSN. these are set forth in the Rules of Health Protection against ionising radiation and the RD 1976/1999 on quality criteria applied to radiodiagnostics. (Author)

  12. Applied combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  13. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On 11 April 2008, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public...... Reference Values which was held in September 2009, 13 additional comments on the draft Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values were received from seven Member States. The main comments which were received during the public consultation related to: the need for a better...... States that related to the remit of EFSA were assessed and the Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values has been revised taking relevant comments into consideration....

  14. PSA分析技术应用于非堆核设施的研究及建议%Research and Suggestion of Probabilistic Safety Assessment Applied in Non -reactor Nuclear Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鑫; 崔春龙; 李兴义; 孔庆军

    2011-01-01

    PSA方法为明确说明复杂系统的功能因果联系提供一个规范的结构程序,用来评估失效的后果并推定工厂运行危险的数字估计。从原则上说,核动力厂PSA研究所使用的方法学与化工厂所使用的是相同的。但是,核化工厂的非反应堆核设施PSA存在着一些特点,使得相关研究非常必要。%The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) provided a formal structured procedure for defining the functional logic of eomplex systems, assessing the consequences of failure and deriving numerical estimates of risk from the operation of a plant. In princip

  15. Safety and security aspects in design of digital safety I and C in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongjian [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Waedt, Karl [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). PEAS-G

    2016-05-15

    The paper describes a safety objective oriented systematic design approach of digital (computerized) safety I and C in modern nuclear power plants which considers the plant safety requirements as well as cybersecurity needs. The defence in depth philosophy is applied by using different defence lines in the I and C architecture and protection zones in the plant IT environment.

  16. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    CERN Document Server

    Vallario, E J

    1981-01-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation.

  17. Integrated Safety Culture Model and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 孙瑞山; 刘汉辉

    2009-01-01

    A new safety culture model is constructed and is applied to analyze the correlations between safety culture and SMS. On the basis of previous typical definitions, models and theories of safety culture, an in-depth analysis on safety culture's structure, composing elements and their correlations was conducted. A new definition of safety culture was proposed from the perspective of sub-cuhure. 7 types of safety sub-culture, which are safety priority culture, standardizing culture, flexible culture, learning culture, teamwork culture, reporting culture and justice culture were defined later. Then integrated safety culture model (ISCM) was put forward based on the definition. The model divided safety culture into intrinsic latency level and extrinsic indication level and explained the potential relationship between safety sub-culture and all safety culture dimensions. Finally in the analyzing of safety culture and SMS, it concluded that positive safety culture is the basis of im-plementing SMS effectively and an advanced SMS will improve safety culture from all around.

  18. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  19. Advanced Computational Methods for Thermal Radiative Heat Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencer, John; Carlberg, Kevin Thomas; Larsen, Marvin E.; Hogan, Roy E.,

    2016-10-01

    Participating media radiation (PMR) in weapon safety calculations for abnormal thermal environments are too costly to do routinely. This cost may be s ubstantially reduced by applying reduced order modeling (ROM) techniques. The application of ROM to PMR is a new and unique approach for this class of problems. This approach was investigated by the authors and shown to provide significant reductions in the computational expense associated with typical PMR simulations. Once this technology is migrated into production heat transfer analysis codes this capability will enable the routine use of PMR heat transfer in higher - fidelity simulations of weapon resp onse in fire environments.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. Safety Note

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Note no 29 (NS 29) entitled 'Fire Prevention for Insulating Core (Sandwich) Panel Structures for Inside Use Guidelines for Selection, Installation and Use' is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/475438/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit secretariat, e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  3. Radiation practices 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.

    1997-05-01

    At the end of 1996, there were 1,762 valid safety licences in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,052 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety listed 13,360 radiation sources and 313 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.14 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 7.78 x 10{sup +13} Bq. A total of 4.02 x 10{sup +13} Bq of short-lived radionuclides were produced in Finland. There were 11,842 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,352 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of individual dosimeter readings) was 7.96 manSv in 1996, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 69% of this total. The annual dosimeter reading of ten medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and eight nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of dosimeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 242 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations where unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Report was made of 12 incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Five of these cases occurred in radiotherapy, three in use of a radiation source in industry, three in transport of radiation sources and one in use of solarium appliances. Radiation-contaminated material was found in 17 shipments of scrap. (orig.)

  4. Applied research of LiDAR technology in the safety monitoring of Qiantang River seawall construction%LiDAR技术在钱塘江海塘工程安全监测上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦雪; 刘洪庆; 许世城

    2015-01-01

    LiDAR ,as a kind of active ground observation system ,can quick access to terrain surface of three‐dimensional point cloud data ,displaying the details of characteristics .T his paper introduces the use of LiDAR system platform ,attaining the Qiantang River seawall 3D point cloud data ,processing the data to generate seawall 3D construction model through point cloud processing software ,analysing the model data , in order to make subsidence monitoring of seawall construction , and finally exploring the LiDAR technology available for the seawall construction safety monitoring .%LiDAR作为一种主动式对地观测系统,可快速获取地物的三维点云数据,显示地物特点。文中利用LiDAR系统平台,获取钱塘江海塘三维点云数据,通过点云处理软件,对三维点云进行后续处理,生成海塘工程三维模型;分析模型数据,对海塘工程进行剖面分析、沉降监测等,探索LiDAR技术在海塘工程安全监测上的应用。

  5. Research progress of applying ion mobility spectrometry in food safety rapid detection%离子迁移谱在食品安全快速检验中应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琅; 牛云蔚; 马军; 马鹏程

    2013-01-01

    食品问题日趋严重,为了食品安全,必须研究高灵敏度检测手段。离子迁移谱快速、灵敏、便捷和成本低等特点,决定其非常适合对食品中痕量物质进行检测。该文主要介绍离子迁移谱(IMS)基本工作原理和目前离子迁移谱在食品中应用研究进展情况,以期IMS在国内食品方面获得更广更深研究和发展。%With the growing problems of food,study of high-sensitivity detection means for food safety is imminent. Ion mobility spectrometry(IMS)has advantages of quickness,sensitiveness, convenience and low cost which determine that IMS is suitable for detecting trace chemical substances in food. This review summarizes the fundamental principle and the research progress in food application of ion mobility spectrometry,in order to gain a broader and deeper development in the domestic food industry.

  6. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  7. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  8. A Methodological Framework for Software Safety in Safety Critical Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Srinivas Acharyulu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Software safety must deal with the principles of safety management, safety engineering and software engineering for developing safety-critical computer systems, with the target of making the system safe, risk-free and fail-safe in addition to provide a clarified differentaition for assessing and evaluating the risk, with the principles of software risk management. Problem statement: Prevailing software quality models, standards were not subsisting in adequately addressing the software safety issues for real-time safety-critical embedded systems. At present no standard framework does exist addressing the safety management and safety engineering priniciples for the development of software safety in safety-critical computer systems. Approach: In this study we propose a methodological framework involving safety management practices, safety engineering practices and software development life cycle phases for the development of software safety. In this framework we make use of the safety management practices such as planning, defining priniciples, fixing responsibilities, creteria and targets, risk assessment, design for safety, formulating safety requirements and integrating skills and techniques to address safety issues early with a vision for assurance and so on. In this framework we have also analysed integration of applicability of generic industrial heirarchy and software development heirarchy, with derived cyclical review involving safety professionals generating a nodal point for software safety. Results: This framework is applied to safety-critical software based laboratory prototype Railroad Crossing Control System (RCCS with a limited complexity. The results have shown that all critical operations were safe and risk free. Conclusion: The development of software based on the proposed framework for RCCS have shown a clarified and improved safety-critical operations of the overall system peformance.

  9. Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Mathematics and Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science and Engineering - M and C 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Mathematics and Computation Division of the American Nuclear (ANS) and the Idaho Section of the ANS hosted the 2013 International Conference on Mathematics and Computational Methods Applied to Nuclear Science and Engineering (M and C 2013). This proceedings contains over 250 full papers with topics ranging from reactor physics; radiation transport; materials science; nuclear fuels; core performance and optimization; reactor systems and safety; fluid dynamics; medical applications; analytical and numerical methods; algorithms for advanced architectures; and validation verification, and uncertainty quantification.

  10. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  11. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  12. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalas, Dimitri

    1999-01-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics is a broad subject that cuts across many disciplines in physics and astronomy: fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, and radiative transfer, among others. The theory developed in this book by two specialists in the field can be applied to the study of such diverse astrophysical phenomena as stellar winds, supernova explosions, and the initial phases of cosmic expansion, as well as the physics of laser fusion and reentry vehicles. As such, it provides students with the basic tools for research on radiating flows.Largely self-contained,

  13. A Product Safety Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Anne Symons

    1975-01-01

    The article offers an overview of the product safety issue and offers ideas for helping students develop product safety awareness. The role of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and safety legislation are discussed. (MW)

  14. Radiation practices 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havukainen, R. [ed.

    1998-05-01

    At the end of 1997, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,065 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,839 radiation sources and 302 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 1.09 x 10{sup +16} Bq and export to 2.4 x 10{sup +13} Bq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 5.2 x 10{sup +13} Bq. There were 11,773 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,316 work sites. Of these employees, 24% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.6 Sv in 1997, with nuclear power plant workers accounting for 62% of this total. The annual dosemeter reading of thirteen medical doctors (radiologists, interventional radiologists and cardiologists) and six nuclear power plant employees was equal to or in excess of 20 mSv. Effective doses, however, did not exceed the dose limit of 50 mSv established for one-year monitoring periods. The sum of the dosemeter readings (depth dose) on the lead-rubber apron of one interventional radiologist was 253 mSv. It was verified that the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye, 150 mSv, had been exceeded in this case. This high dose was caused by the fact that the radiologist had carried out multiple examinations in which unusually high exposure to radiation was an unavoidable part of the task. Reports were made of four incidents of anomalies in the use of radiation. None of these proved to have caused significant radiation exposure to the radiation source operators. Two of these cases occurred in the medical use of radiation, one in the use of radiation sources in industry, and one in the use of solarium appliances. (orig.)

  15. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  16. Safety training

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    Habilitation électrique A course entitled "Habilitation électrique pour personnel de laboratoire" (electrical safety qualification for laboratory personnel) will be held on 22 and 23 June. Registration by e-mail to isabelle.cusato@cern.ch. Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases A course entitled "Explosion Hazards in the handling of flammable solvents and gases" given in French will be held on 18-19 June 2009. This course is obligatory for all FGSOs at CERN, and it is recommended for anyone handling flammable gas or solvents. To sign up please visit this page. For more information please contact Isabelle Cusato, tel. 73811.

  17. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2012-09-15

    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities

  18. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  19. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  20. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).