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Sample records for applying psychological theories

  1. Applying Psychological Theories to Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to the application of psychological theories to education might be referred to as domain-general and domain-specific. The domain-general approach seeks a general theory of cognitive and other skills that apply across subject-matter areas. The domain-specific approach seeks to apply specific theories within given domains, such as…

  2. Formulation in action: applying psychological theory to clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Dave; Moghaddam, Nima

    2016-01-01

    When people seek psychological support, formulation is the theory-driven methodology used by many practitioners to guide identification of the processes, mechanisms, and patterns of behaviour that appear to be contributing to the presenting difficulties. However, the process of formulating – or applying psychological theory to practice – can often seem unclear. In this volume, we present multiple demonstrations of formulation in action – written by applied psychologists embedded in clinic...

  3. The Potential of Facet Theory for Applied Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    1996-01-01

    In order to illustrate a relatively new approach to research methods and data analysis, most commonly referred to as facet theory (Gratch, 1973), the present paper describes three examples of the approach in use. The range of data types and variety of modes of analysis which can be accommodated by this approach are exemplified, starting with a simple example dealing with energy conservation in universities, then moving on to examine differences between prisoners and staff in ...

  4. 'What's Psychology got to do with it?' Applying psychological theory to understanding failures in modern healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydon-Grange, Michelle

    2015-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) has, for over four decades, been beset with numerous 'scandals' relating to poor patient care across several diverse clinical contexts. Ensuing inquiries proceed as though each scandal is unique, with recommendations highlighting the need for more staff training, a change of culture within the NHS based upon a 'duty of candour', and proposed criminal sanctions for employees believed to breach good patient care. However, mistakes reoccur and failings in patient safety continue. While inquiries describe what went awry in each case, questions of how and why such failures came to be remain unanswered. Psychology has a role in answering these questions. Applying psychological theory can guide an understanding of the causes that lead to catastrophic failures in healthcare settings. Indeed, what is often neglected in inquiries is the role of human behaviour in contributing to these failures. Drawing upon behavioural, social and cognitive theories, a psychological analysis of key factors, typically present in clinical contexts where serious failures of care occur, is presented. Applying theory and models from the field of psychology can guide further understanding of the precipitants to poor care. PMID:26401049

  5. Applied Systemic Theory and Educational Psychology: Can the Twain Ever Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the potential benefits of applying systemic theory to the work of educational psychologists (EPs). It reviews developments in systemic thinking over time, and discusses the differences between more directive "first order" versus collaborative "second order" approaches. It considers systemic theories and illustrates their…

  6. Applying psychological theory to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of taking intra-oral radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Glidewell, Liz; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Clarkson, Jan E; Walker, Anne

    2006-10-01

    This study applies psychological theory to the implementation of evidence-based clinical practice. The first objective was to see if variables from psychological frameworks (developed to understand, predict and influence behaviour) could predict an evidence-based clinical behaviour. The second objective was to develop a scientific rationale to design or choose an implementation intervention. Variables from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Self-Regulation Model, Operant Conditioning, Implementation Intentions and the Precaution Adoption Process were measured, with data collection by postal survey. The primary outcome was the number of intra-oral radiographs taken per course of treatment collected from a central fee claims database. Participants were 214 Scottish General Dental Practitioners. At the theory level, the Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 13% variance in the number of radiographs taken, Social Cognitive Theory explained 7%, Operant Conditioning explained 8%, Implementation Intentions explained 11%. Self-Regulation and Stage Theory did not predict significant variance in radiographs taken. Perceived behavioural control, action planning and risk perception explained 16% of the variance in number of radiographs taken. Knowledge did not predict the number of radiographs taken. The results suggest an intervention targeting predictive psychological variables could increase the implementation of this evidence-based practice, while influencing knowledge is unlikely to do so. Measures which predicted number of radiographs taken also predicted intention to take radiographs, and intention accounted for significant variance in behaviour (adjusted R(2)=5%: F(1,166)=10.28, pservice-level trial. Since psychological frameworks incorporate methodologies to measure and change component variables, taking a theory-based approach enabled the creation of a methodology that can be replicated for identifying factors predictive of clinical behaviour

  7. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  8. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  9. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. PMID:24627990

  10. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  11. How fear of falling can increase fall-risk in older adults: Applying psychological theory to practical observations

    OpenAIRE

    Young, WR; A Mark Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article was made available through the Brunel Open Access Fund. It is widely reported that fear of falling (FOF) has a profound and largely detrimental effect on balance performance in older adults. However, the mechanisms by which FOF influence postural stability are poorly understood. In the current article, we use psychological theory to explain FOF-related changes to postural control. First, we review literature describing associations between FOF and the 'stiffening' strategies o...

  12. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  13. The MRC Applied Psychology Unit

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This transcript considers the origins and impact of the MRC Applied Psychology Unit’s work from 1944 to 1998. Psychologists, clinicians, and industrial, ergonomic and occupational psychologists discuss the evolution of work from quite narrow postwar industrial and military concerns to more recent applications in, for example, ageing, dyslexia, depression, form design, information and semantics. Those who contributed included Professor Alan Baddeley, Dr Philip Barnard, Dr Ivan Brown, Professor...

  14. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  15. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept of...... time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  16. The Psychology of Working Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L

    2016-03-01

    In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. PMID:26937788

  17. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  18. Applied Psychology in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Galindo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a panorama of the contributions of Psychology to the International Relations (RI). It proposes five kinds of actors of RI: diplomats, international volunteers, expatriates, migrants and refugees. It defines their tasks and the inherent problems, also for the family. Then, it reviews the research fields of Psychology that can help the actors to accomplish their tasks and to resolve their problems

  19. The Master's Thesis in Applied Psychology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Kenneth S.; Kottke, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends the inclusion of a master's thesis in industrial and organizational psychology programs. Argues that the thesis serves several critical educational purposes and is relevant to applied psychology. Offers suggestions for increasing the relationship between the educational requirement and the professional tasks. (MJP)

  20. Applying Social Psychological Concepts Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Jessica L.; Wichman, Aaron L.

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates a writing assignment in which social psychology students gathered examples from outside the classroom (e.g., cartoons, movies) and analyzed them with course material. Compared to a control group, students who completed the assignment learned that it was easier to apply social psychology to the real world. A follow-up survey…

  1. [Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, R

    1983-01-01

    This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice. PMID:17093766

  2. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  3. Applied neutron resonance theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilisation of resonance theory in basic and applications-oriented neutron cross section work is reviewed. The technically important resonance formalisms, principal concepts and methods as well as representative computer programs for resonance parameter extraction from measured data, evaluation of resonance data, calculation of Doppler-broadened cross sections and estimation of level-statistical quantities from resonance parameters are described. (orig.)

  4. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  5. Applied String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    This is a review. Comments are welcome. The observation that the structure of string theory is rich enough to include the standard model in rough outline is an old one, starting with the early constructions of free field constructions, orbifold theories, and in particular Calabi-Yau compactifications in the late 1980s and early 1990s. At the time these constructions provided a large collection of different vacua, with thousands of explicitly constructed Calabi-Yau manifolds, and estimates of vast numbers of bosonic models, each one associated with its own moduli space. It was clear even then that it would be impossible to systematically search this string vacua landscape. This, however, is not a fundamental problem. Adopting the point of view that any physical theory has to describe not only our universe, but all possible consistent universes, leads to the obvious strategy of using some phenomenological input to select viable models among the ocean of models that obviously do not describe physics as we know i...

  6. Applied systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dekkers, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Offering an up-to-date account of systems theories and its applications, this book provides a different way of resolving problems and addressing challenges in a swift and practical way, without losing overview and not having a grip on the details. From this perspective, it offers a different way of thinking in order to incorporate different perspectives and to consider multiple aspects of any given problem. Drawing examples from a wide range of disciplines, it also presents worked cases to illustrate the principles. The multidisciplinary perspective and the formal approach to modelling of syst

  7. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  8. Application of Psychology Theory in Multimedia Courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Zhang; Yan Chen

    2010-01-01

    With the technology of multimedia widely used in the classroom, the requirements of multimedia courseware areincreasingly high. In this paper, the concept of multimedia teaching, necessity, problems and the application ofpsychological theory have been discussed. We try to introduce psychology theory into multimedia courseware toimprove the instruction effect of multimedia courseware.

  9. Editorial: Applying psychology: A feitschrift for Dr. Elizabeth A. Dunne

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, John; Quayle, Ethel; Aylwin, Sue; Lyddy, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of The Irish Journal of Psychology is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Elizabeth Dunne, our friend and colleague, and especially to her commitment to the application of psychology. It celebrates her particular contribution by surveying the variety of ways in which psychology is applied through, for example, practical problem solving, education, and advocacy. Applying psychology is a complex and often controversial practice; complex because most real world pr...

  10. Relational Frame Theory and Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The current paper argues that a Relational Frame Theory account of complex human behavior including an analysis of relational frames, relational networks, rules and the concept of self can provide a potentially powerful new perspective on phenomena in the applied science of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. In this article, we first…

  11. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. PMID:26173238

  12. Psychological methods as applied to NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychologists' experience in nuclear power personnel work system is described. Possibilities of practical application of scientific information, ways and methods collected in psychology, their effect when solving problems on profession orientation, personnel selection, arrangement, training and education, are shown. Necessity to take into account personnel psychological data under conditions of increased hazard of work at NPP is illustrated taking Chernobyl NPP as an example

  13. Psychoanalytic self psychology and its conceptual development in light of developmental psychology, attachment theory, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hans-Peter

    2009-04-01

    The chapter starts with a historical overview of the subject of narcissism in psychoanalysis. Some sociophilosophical definitions of narcissism are explained and the connection to self psychology is described. It is especially referred to Honneth's Struggle for Recognition, which is related to the need for selfobject experiences. An outline of different concepts concerning narcissism, especially in the European psychoanalytic tradition, follows and leads to a clearer understanding of Kohut's conception of the self and its selfobjects. Because self psychology can often be understood as applied developmental psychology, useful links to attachment research are described and the move to the level of representation by mentalization is clarified. Further development of self psychology in the direction of intersubjectivity helps to supply connections to systems theory. Recently developed theories of empathy with reference to neurobiological findings provide a dynamic perspective of the activation of empathy. Thus, empathy seems to be better understood as a sort of contagion on which cognitive cortical processes are superimposed. Finally, the therapeutic process in psychoanalytic self psychology is portrayed. This process implies a disruption and repair process by which transmuting internalization can take place. More current theories of self psychology view this process in its essence intersubjectively as a co-construction between patient and analyst. The paper concludes with some hints for a paradigm shift in the direction of a more holistic understanding of the self. PMID:19379234

  14. Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…

  15. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  16. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  17. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  18. Introduction: Expanding the boundaries of psychological resource theories

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, Marjan; Halbesleben, Jonathon; Bakker, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article introduces JOOP’s special section on expanding the boundaries of resource theories in Occupational and Organizational Psychology. After an introduction of the most relevant resource theories and their current application in Occupational and Organizational Psychology – Key resource theories, Conservation of Resources Theory, Resource Theory of Social exchange, and Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory – the opportunities and challenges for future res...

  19. Toward a Theory of Psychological Type Congruence for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Michael H.; And Others

    Focusing on the impact of advertisers' persuasive selling messages on consumers, this paper discusses topics relating to the theory of psychological type congruence. Based on an examination of persuasion theory and relevant psychological concepts, including recent cognitive stability and personality and needs theory and the older concept of…

  20. Learning to Teach Reading: A Theory-Practice Approach to Psychology Teaching in University Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, Barbara; Breunig, Katharina; Thurn, Daniela; Basten, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    The report portrays a theory-practice psychology course on reading education in a German teacher education programme. Having completed a theoretical course phase that is largely based on knowledge from cognitive and educational psychology, pre-service student-teachers applied their acquired knowledge by working with a fifth-grader in five…

  1. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  2. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  3. Semigroup theory applied to options

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Báez, D. I.; González-Rodríguez, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Black and Scholes (1973) proved that under certain assumptions about the market place, the value of a European option, as a function of the current value of the underlying asset and time, verifies a Cauchy problem. We give new conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option by using semigroup theory. For this, we choose a suitable space that verifies some conditions, what allows us that the operator that appears in the Cauchy problem is the infinitesimal gener...

  4. Semigroup theory applied to options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Cruz-Báez

    2002-01-01

    function of the current value of the underlying asset and time, verifies a Cauchy problem. We give new conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option by using semigroup theory. For this, we choose a suitable space that verifies some conditions, what allows us that the operator that appears in the Cauchy problem is the infinitesimal generator of a C0-semigroup T(t. Then we are able to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the value of a European option and we also achieve an explicit expression of that value.

  5. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.

    1993-01-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualis...

  6. Animal Concepts: Psychological Theories, Pluralism and Division of Labor.

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Charter and Heyes (1994) claim that the idea of animal concepts has no sense since it cannot fit with any of the current psychological theories of concepts (prototype, exemplar and definitional theories). But, as I claim, the problem of animal concepts is related to the problem of conditions of concept possession, which has been widely studied by philosophical theories. Psychological theories of concepts have focused on the nature of concepts; so they are inadequate for answering such problem...

  7. Employee agency: challenges and opportunities for psychological contract theory

    OpenAIRE

    Seeck, Hannele; Parzefall, Marjo-Riitta

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine what employee agency entails for psychological contract theory. The paper aims to explore how employee agency manifests itself, how it is reflected in employees' perceptions of their psychological contract obligations, and what it implies for psychological contract theory. Design/methodology/approach – The study draws on a qualitative interview study of employees from the mobile phone content production industry in Finland. The analysis is...

  8. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein), individual psychology (A. Adler), analytical psychology (C.G. Jung), concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm), social-cultural theory (K. Horney), ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters), dispositional direction (G. Allpor...

  9. The Mental Files Theory of Singular Thought: A Psychological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Murez, Michael; Smortchkova, Joulia; Strickland, Brent

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the most ambitious version of the mental files theory of singular thought, according to which mental files are a wide-ranging psychological natural kind underlying all and only singular thinking, is unsupported by the available psychological data. Nevertheless, critical examination of the theory from a psychological perspective opens up promising avenues for research, especially concerning the relationship between our perceptual capacity to individuate and track basic individual...

  10. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  11. Applied Game Theory and Strategic Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Geckil, Ilhan K

    2009-01-01

    Presenting topics from a practical point of view, "Applied Game Theory and Strategic Behavior" illustrates how game theory can be used to solve real problems in public policy and the business world. This book demonstrates the benefits of using strategic thinking that incorporates aspects of uncertainty about the behavior of other parties. It offers a rigorous definition of game theory with detailed descriptions of different forms of games, the context of game theory, and the basic assumptions of the theory. This book includes the application areas of business, management, government,

  12. The Moral Self: Applying Identity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Jan E.; Carter, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies identity theory to understand the moral self. In identity theory, individuals act on the basis of their identity meanings, and they regulate the meanings of their behavior so that those meanings are consistent with their identity meanings. An inconsistency produces negative emotions and motivates individuals to behave…

  13. THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN FUNCTIONAL STATE IN RUSSIAN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    The concept of human functional states (HFS) is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers states are discussed. Three diff erent strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplifi ed with the help of two empirical studies conce...

  14. Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

    2010-01-01

    People are capable of thinking about the future, the past, remote locations, another person's perspective, and counterfactual alternatives. Without denying the uniqueness of each process, it is proposed that they constitute different forms of traversing psychological distance. Psychological distance is egocentric: Its reference point is the self…

  15. Beliefs, Intentions and Emotions: Old versus New Psychological Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Paul Carpenter; Peter Hans Matthews

    2003-01-01

    We compare Colman's proposed "psychological game theory" with the existing literature on psychological games (Geanakoplos, Pearce and Stachetti 1989), in which beliefs and intentions assume a prominent role. We also discuss the experimental evidence on intentions, with a particular emphasis on reciprocal behavior, as well as some recent efforts to show that such behavior is consistent with social evolutions.

  16. CONCEPTS OF ENVY IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Викторовна Бескова

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the foreign and Russian theorists of personality, representing different psychological directions in which there is a reference to the problem of envy. The problem of envy is discussed in the framework of classical psychoanalysis (S. Freud, M. Klein, individual psychology (A. Adler, analytical psychology (C.G. Jung, concept ofhumanistic psychoanalysis (E. Fromm, social-cultural theory (K. Horney, ego-theory (E. Erikson, A. Peeters, dispositional direction (G. Allport, R. Cattell, humanistic psychology (A. Maslow, existential psychology (V. Frankl. It is shown that in Russian theories of personality the problem of envy is reflected in the works of A.A. Bodalev, V.N. Myasishchev, V.N. Panferov, A.V. Petrovsky.Purpose.To carry out the analysis of psychological theories of the personality to identify the specific of ideas of psychological essence and envy sources.Methodology.Theoretical analysis and systematization of scientific data.Results.Separation and heterogeneity of scientific ideas of envy is revealed, that, on the one hand, allows looking at it from different points of view, and with another – counteracts the integration of knowledge of envy into uniform theoretical system.Practical implications. Research results can be used in the practice of psychological consultation, the psycho-correction of the envious relation, the outreach activity of psychologists.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-68

  17. A Social Extension of a Psychological Interest Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Based on an individual interest theory as a sensitising theory, empirical data are used to gain social interest concepts, as there are situated collective interest and interest-dense situation. These concepts serve as a basis for a social extension of a psychological interest theory. Its construction combines social interactions, the dynamic of…

  18. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY, PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH. MCGRAW-HILL SERIES IN PSYCHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELLIS, NORMAN R.

    THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF 21 AUTHORS IN THIS VOLUME ARE DEVOTED TO ASSESSING THE STATUS OF RESEARCH AND THEORY IN MENTAL DEFICIENCY, FOCUSING ATTENTION ON THE BEHAVIOR OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. PART ONE IS CONCERNED WITH RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEORIES TO EXPLAIN MENTAL DEFICIENCY. COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES REPRESENTED INCLUDE FIELD…

  19. Rigorous diffraction theory applied to microlenses

    OpenAIRE

    Blattner, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the behaviour of small cylindrical microlenses, arranged in one-dimensional arrays and as single elements. For this purpose, we apply a standard rigorous diffraction theory, commonly used for diffraction gratings. We investigate the coupling effect between the elements. It turns out that single elements behave like periodic elements if the spacing is chosen correctly. Furthermore, we compute the complex transmission function by rigorous diffraction theory and compare...

  20. Applied game theory and optimal mechanism design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to study optimal toehold bidding strategies during takeover competition, the problem of optimal design of voting rules and the design of package bidding mechanism to implement the core allocations. It documents three different research questions that are all related to auction theory. Chapter 2 develops a two-stage takeover game to explain toehold puzzle in the context of takeover. Potential bidders are allowed to acquire target shares in the open market, subje...

  1. Belbin's Team role theory applied to musicgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Qvick, Erik Robert, 1973-

    2015-01-01

    Can R Meredith Belbin´s team role theory be applied to applied to music groups? Could team role behavior have a impact on team work and group dynamic, and also on the success and productivity of a music group? This research analyzes the application of Belbin team role theory on three music groups consisting of Icelandic professional musicians to shed light on the possibilities of such relationships. The research examine the possibilities of relationships between team role behavior and it´s im...

  2. Applied group theory selected readings in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    1968-01-01

    Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic

  3. Game Theory and Social Psychology: Conformity Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Danielle; Kilgour, D. Marc

    2011-11-01

    Game models can contribute to understanding of how social biases and pressures to conform can lead to puzzling behaviour in social groups. A model of the psychological biases false uniqueness and false consensus is set out. The model predicts the phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance, which is well-studied in social psychology, showing how it arises as a result of the prevalence of false uniqueness and the desire to conform. An efficient method is developed for finding Nash equilibria of the model under certain restrictions.

  4. Attachment Theory Applied to Juvenile Sex Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrow, Kenneth K.; Lim, Mee-Gaik

    1998-01-01

    Attachment theory is applied to identify systemic patterns encouraging juveniles to commit sexual offenses. The role of the helping system in perpetuating offenses is reviewed. The priority of family integrity and the role of professionals in breaking cycles of abuse and repairing earlier destructive emotional attachments are discussed. (EMK)

  5. Shopping around for Theories for Counseling Psychology Practice: Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2012-01-01

    Three psychotherapy theories are summarized and critiqued for their applicability to counseling psychology. The lack of attention to psychodynamic and experiential theories in the special section and the lack of theorizing by counseling psychologists in general are lamented. A plea is made for encouraging counseling psychologists to construct more…

  6. Towards applied theories based on computability logic

    CERN Document Server

    Japaridze, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a recently launched program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth that logic has more traditionally been. Formulas in it represent computational problems, "truth" means existence of an algorithmic solution, and proofs encode such solutions. Within the line of research devoted to finding axiomatizations for ever more expressive fragments of CL, the present paper introduces a new deductive system CL12 and proves its soundness and completeness with respect to the semantics of CL. Conservatively extending classical predicate calculus and offering considerable additional expressive and deductive power, CL12 presents a reasonable, computationally meaningful, constructive alternative to classical logic as a basis for applied theories. To obtain a model example of such theories, this paper rebuilds the traditional, classical-logic-based Peano arithmetic into a computability-logic-b...

  7. The Concept of Human Functional State in Russian Applied Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Leonova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human functional states (HFS is considered in the framework of activity regulation approach developed in Russian applied psychology. Aimed at the analysis of changes in regulatory mechanisms of on-going activity, structural methods for multilevel assessment of workers’ states are discussed. Three different strategies of data integration are proposed regarding the types of essential practical problems. Their usability is exemplified with the help of two empirical studies concerned with reliability of fire-fighters’ work in the Chernobyl Zone and effects of interruptions in computerized office environment. A general framework for applied HFS research is proposed in order to develop new ecologically valid psychodiagnostic procedures that can help to create efficient stress-management programs for enhancing human reliability and performance in complex job environment.

  8. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic...

  9. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  10. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Krok

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for...

  11. THE RELEVANCE OF PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES TO FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Bogdan; Ioana Teodora Mester; Dorina Nicoleta Popa; Diana Elisabeta Balaciu

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the interest that we have found in psychology sciences in order to understand better the way managers, analysts and last but not least investors behave in the decision making process our study focuses on the link between financial reporting, disclosure policies and investors judgment under uncertainty. The theoretical background describes the rational judgment of investors found in economic utility theories but also looks upon the main cognitive and social psychology for irratio...

  12. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  13. Integrating Science in Applied Psychology Programs: A Student-Operated Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius, Daniel; Brown, Adam D.; Todman, McWelling; Safran, Jeremy D.

    2007-01-01

    As a requirement of APA accreditation, many PhD programs in applied psychology subscribe to some variant of the scientist-practitioner model. However, critics have argued that integrating science into an applied psychology curriculum may be too challenging a task. This article describes the development of The New School Psychology Bulletin, a…

  14. Psychological Expected Utility Theory and Anticipatory Feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Caplin, Andrew; Leahy, John

    1997-01-01

    We extend expected utility theory to situations in which the prizes incloude feelings about living with uncertainty. We provide two examples to show the impact of these anticipatory feelings on decision making.

  15. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated. PMID:3041680

  16. Advances in cognitive-socialpersonality theory : applications to sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories and intervention techniques in sport psychology have a cognitive-behavioral emphasis, and sport psychologists have long been interested in individual differences. Recent developments in cognitive social personality theory offer new opportunities for understanding sport behavior. The finding of stable individual differences in situationbehavior relations has helped resolve the person-situation debate of past years, and idiographically-distinct behavioral signatures have now been ...

  17. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  18. Sketch of J. R. Kantor's Psychological Interbehavioral Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delprato, Dennis J.; Smith, Noel W.

    2009-01-01

    We provide a sketch of J. R. Kantor's (1959, 1971) psychological interbehavioral field (IBF) theory by identifying 9 essential points and briefly discussing each. The main emphasis of this sketch is on the foundation of Kantor's thinking, the IBF. Suggestions for further study are provided.

  19. A Hyper-Emotion Theory of Psychological Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Laird, P. N.; Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

    2006-01-01

    A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illnesses is presented. It postulates that these illnesses have an onset in which a cognitive evaluation initiates a sequence of unconscious transitions yielding a basic emotion. This emotion is appropriate for the situation but inappropriate in its intensity. Whenever it recurs, it leads individuals to a…

  20. "Asia's missing women" as a problem in applied evolutionary psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, women and children are so undervalued, neglected, abused, and so often killed, that sex ratios are now strongly male biased. In recent decades, sex-biased abortion has exacerbated the problem. In this article I highlight several important insights from evolutionary biology into both the origin and the severe societal consequences of "Asia's missing women", paying particular attention to interactions between evolution, economics and culture. Son preferences and associated cultural practices like patrilineal inheritance, patrilocality and the Indian Hindu dowry system arise among the wealthy and powerful elites for reasons consistent with models of sex-biased parental investment. Those practices then spread via imitation as technology gets cheaper and economic development allows the middle class to grow rapidly. I will consider evidence from India, China and elsewhere that grossly male-biased sex ratios lead to increased crime, violence, local warfare, political instability, drug abuse, prostitution and trafficking of women. The problem of Asia's missing women presents a challenge for applied evolutionary psychology to help us understand and ameliorate sex ratio biases and their most severe consequences. PMID:23253795

  1. Applying Bifactor Statistical Indices in the Evaluation of Psychological Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Anthony; Reise, Steven P; Haviland, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a set of rarely reported psychometric indices that, nevertheless, are important to consider when evaluating psychological measures. All can be derived from a standardized loading matrix in a confirmatory bifactor model: omega reliability coefficients, factor determinacy, construct replicability, explained common variance, and percentage of uncontaminated correlations. We calculated these indices and extended the findings of 50 recent bifactor model estimation studies published in psychopathology, personality, and assessment journals. These bifactor derived indices (most not presented in the articles) provided a clearer and more complete picture of the psychometric properties of the assessment instruments. We reached 2 firm conclusions. First, although all measures had been tagged "multidimensional," unit-weighted total scores overwhelmingly reflected variance due to a single latent variable. Second, unit-weighted subscale scores often have ambiguous interpretations because their variance mostly reflects the general, not the specific, trait. Finally, we review the implications of our evaluations and consider the limits of inferences drawn from a bifactor modeling approach. PMID:26514921

  2. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EATING FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL, SOCIAL, AND APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAI, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    In this article, eating behavior is discussed from the point of view of various areas of psychology. First, tasting food and the perception of food palatability are discussed from the viewpoints of sensory and perceptual psychology and of physiological psychology. Second, the phenomenology of some social-psychological effects on eating behavior are introduced for example, communication at the table, sociocultural variations in food liking/disliking, and emotional changes after eating. Third, ...

  3. Bundle Gerbes Applied to Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, A L; Murray, M; Carey, Alan; Mickelsson, Jouko; Murray, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on a new geometric object called a bundle gerbe and discusses some new examples arising in quantum field theory. One application is to an Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theory construction of the bundle of fermionic Fock spaces parametrized by vector potentials in odd space dimensions and a proof that this leads in a simple manner to the known Schwinger terms (Mickelsson-Faddeev cocycle) for the gauge group action. This gives an explicit computation of the Dixmier-Douady class of the associated bundle gerbe. The method works also in other cases of fermions in external fields (external gravitational field, for example) provided that the APS theorem can be applied; however, we have worked out the details only in the case of vector potentials. Another example, in which the bundle gerbe curvature plays a role, arises from the WZW model on Riemann surfaces. A further example is the `existence of string structures' question. We conclude by showing how global Hamiltonian anomalies fit with...

  4. Applying Humanistic Learning Theory: The "Art" of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Graeme J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to apply specific principles of psychology to the coaching process. More specifically, it is about becoming a productive and effective coach, who positively affects the athletic careers and lives of young people.

  5. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory - Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    2007-01-01

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to evol

  6. Five theories of voting action: strategy and structure of psychological explanation

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Max

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is an exercise in political psychology and psychologically oriented political science. The approach it takes to the study of voting is inherently psychological, yet the choice and scope of psychological theories is bounded by the discussion of voting behavior as it appears from the political science literature. Digressions into psychological theory and history provide wider perspectives and foster searches for convergences, yet the terminus of these investigations invariably...

  7. Willingness to Share Knowledge Compared with Selected Social Psychology Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krok

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is one of the key determinants in the growth and competitiveness of modern enterprises. Hence, it is essential to analyse the factors that induce employees to exchange knowledge. The problem of sharing an intangible asset — in this case, the knowledge of individuals — can be viewed from many perspectives: psychological, economic, organisational, sociological and technological. The aim of this article is to explore selected social psychology theories and to analyse the incentives for people to share knowledge. The article attempts to interpret the willingness to share knowledge through the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Impact Theory, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This analysis leads to the following conclusions: •we share our knowledge and expect a return; •we share our knowledge when we believe that the benefits of this action outweigh the costs; •we are pushed to share knowledge by the power of empathy; •workers’ willingness to share knowledge is influenced by three social processes: subordination, identification and internalisation; •the decision to share knowledge is preceded by an intention formed under the influence of an individual attitude towards that behaviour, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control; and •the decision to share knowledge is also influenced by additional components, including the knowledge and skills to implement this behaviour, environmental limitations, behavioural emphasis and habits.

  8. Imagine: towards an integrated and applied social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jackie; Walton, Chris

    2010-12-01

    This commentary does not aim to engage with the epistemological and ontological technicalities of the discursive psychology maintained by epistemological constructionism and discursive psychology reliant on ontological constructionism approaches that form the basis of the two papers under discussion; other commentators, both in this issue and in the future, are likely to do that. Instead, this commentary aims to situate both papers within a broader frame of contemporary, primarily British social psychology, to ponder the circumstances that gave rise to them and their implications for social psychologists, discursive and non-discursive, alike. We have organized this commentary into two parts. The first part considers two simple questions. First, why does Corcoran critique DPEC for failing to do things that other discursive approaches provide for? And, second, why does Corcoran take DPEC research to task for having too little potential for or made too little contribution to improving the lives and subjectivities of people in general? These two questions are not unrelated, but for clarity's sake we will try to answer them separately. The second part of this commentary will consider the influence of discursive psychology on social psychology more generally. PMID:21260961

  9. Restructuring Schools by Applying Deming's Management Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Charles A., III

    1991-01-01

    Four school districts adopted a school restructuring project using Deming's business management method. Deming offered alternative views of organizations based on psychology, systems, perceptual framework, and causes of variance. He listed 14 points for quality improvement. Evaluation indicated that key staff members willingly engaged in…

  10. Towards a Comprehensive Socio-Psychological Perspective: A Critique of Social Dominance Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Tunçgenç

    2010-01-01

    Psychology aims to understand human cognition and behavior, which necessitates making use of sociological-political theories. Social Dominance Theory (SDT) is one of the psychological theories that try to explain the individual-society relationship from a broad perspective. Yet, this theory has its shortcomings too. In an attempt to contribute to a well-grounded theory for psychological research, the paper at hand will discuss the shortcomings of SDT. The main discussion concerns following ap...

  11. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

  12. SATISFACTION OF BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS AND GOAL ORIENTATION IN YOUNG ATHLETES: A TEST OF BASIC PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    Basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) is one of six mini-theories of self-determination theory proposing that satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is essential for humans to thrive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and goal orientation, as well as to examine the contribution of these needs to goal orientation in young athletes. Two hundred and sixty-one males (64.8%) an...

  13. Making Ranking Theory useful for Psychology of Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Skovgaard Olsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    An organizing theme of the dissertation is the issue of how to make philosophical theories useful for scientific purposes. An argument for the contention is presented that it doesn’t suffice merely to theoretically motivate one’s theories, and make them compatible with existing data, but that philosophers having this aim should ideally contribute to identifying unique and hard to vary predictions of their theories.This methodological recommendation is applied to the ranking-theoretic approach...

  14. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  15. Agent-based modeling: a new approach for theory building in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot R; Conrey, Frederica R

    2007-02-01

    Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alternative approach to theory building, agent-based modeling (ABM), which involves simulation of large numbers of autonomous agents that interact with each other and with a simulated environment and the observation of emergent patterns from their interactions. The authors believe that the ABM approach is better able than prevailing approaches in the field, variable-based modeling (VBM) techniques such as causal modeling, to capture types of complex, dynamic, interactive processes so important in the social world. The article elaborates several important contrasts between ABM and VBM and offers specific recommendations for learning more and applying the ABM approach. PMID:18453457

  16. Suicidality among immigrants: Application of the interpersonal-psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kene, Prachi; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kelly, Catherine; DiCicco, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Immigrants constitute a significant percentage of the total population living in the United States; however, there is a paucity of research unique to suicidality among immigrants. The present article examines the applicability of the three variables of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior-acquired capability for suicide, sense of thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness-to conceptualize, assess, and treat suicidality among immigrants. Risk and protective factors and mechanisms are discussed in the context of 2 case studies and immigrant paradox. Clinical implications include assessment and treatment of immigrant-specific experiences. Obstacles to treatment and future research directions are presented. PMID:26890379

  17. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes the variation in psychological constructs such as perceived behavioural control. A simplified version of the Extended Model of Goal-directed Behaviour (EMGB) (Perugini & Conner, 2000) was therefor...

  18. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  19. Fairness theory applied to strategic alliance negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates negotiation processes during strategic alliance formations between venture capital firms and start-up companies by empirically assessing previous literature on negotiation theory and further developing the understanding of fairness theory. The lack of empirical evidence surrounding alliances between venture capital firms and start-up companies is the basis for this research. Cross-sectional data have been obtained from seven different successful cases of short-term in...

  20. The Evolution of Vocational Psychology: Questions for a Postmodern Applied Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieshok, Thomas S.; Motl, Thomas C.; Rutt, Benjamin T.

    2011-01-01

    Vocational psychology has a long history of acting as a lens that focuses research in basic sciences on the particular experience of work in people's lives. This article presents several areas on the ascendancy in the broader scientific literature and ask how vocational psychology might apply them to issues of work in people's lives. The authors'…

  1. Using Action Verbs as Learning Outcomes: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy in Measuring Instructional Objectives in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; McClelland, Nate

    2013-01-01

    We used a set of action verbs based on Bloom's taxonomy to assess learning outcomes in two college-level introductory psychology courses. The action verbs represented an acronym, IDEA, comprising skills relating to identifying, defining or describing, evaluating or explaining, and applying psychological knowledge. Exam performance demonstrated…

  2. Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)

  3. Quark soup al dente: applied superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, experiments have discovered an exotic new state of matter known as the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP). At present, it seems that standard theoretical tools, such as perturbation theory and lattice gauge theory, are poorly suited to understand this new phase. However, recent progress in superstring theory has provided us with a theoretical laboratory for studying very similar systems of strongly interacting hot non-Abelian plasmas. This surprising new perspective extracts the fluid properties of the sQGP from physical processes in a black hole spacetime. Hence we may find the answers to difficult particle physics questions about the sQGP from straightforward calculations in classical general relativity

  4. Decision theory applied to rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision theory that is more or less dedicated to reinforce the basis of classical statistics, seems to have reached an opposite results, strongly justifying Bayesian methods. This may lead to remove reserves to the use of probabilistic and 'statistic' methods in the case of rare events. However, a thorough examination of the theory's concepts and axioms leads to requirements that may be difficult to satisfy in the framework of the definition itself of rare events. A collective effort to respond to these requirements would be extremely desirable; it could contribute to enhance the present situation through a better consensus on risk assessment

  5. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.

  6. [Dream interpretation: theory of the "psychological apparatus" as initial consciousness theory in Freud's metapsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H

    1983-01-01

    In the "Interpretation of Dreams" (1900 a) Freud presents for the first time a purely psychologically founded theory of psychic functioning, in the centre of which stands the model of the "psychic apparatus". In the detailed reconstruction of the statements of the "Interpretation" the present study tries to elaborate the meaning of "consciousness" within a psychology of the unconscious, in order to transfer--with reference to the early writings of J.-P. Sartre--the critique of Freudian unconscious to the level of the underlying conception of consciousness. PMID:6858289

  7. Mediation theory and the problem of psychological discourse on 'inner' events: part II

    OpenAIRE

    Seebaß, Gottfried

    1982-01-01

    The present article attempts to investigate the 'philosophical foundations' of psychology and thereby of the social sciences in general with regard to a central problem, viz. the question of the 'inner'. It does this with special critical reference to an authoritative psychological theory, viz. the so-called 'mediation theory', and tries to show the necessity of interdisciplinary clarification. In the first part mediation theory was introduced as a variant of psychological behaviorism which a...

  8. Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Vol, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these sti...

  9. Identity of Comparative Psychology: Its Status and Advances in Evolutionary Theory and Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tobach, Ethel

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in theories in evolution, development and comparative psychology indicate that a redefinition of comparative psychology may be useful. A brief review of the marginalization of the scientific and academic identity of comparative psychology indicates the need to integrate contemporary thinking in evolutionary biology, genomics and developmental theory. Schneirla’s concept of integrative levels, punctuated equilibrium and exaptation theory elaborated by Eldredge, Gould, and V...

  10. Applying Adapted Big Five Teamwork Theory to Agile Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Strode, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Teamwork is a central tenet of agile software development and various teamwork theories partially explain teamwork in that context. Big Five teamwork theory is one of the most influential teamwork theories, but prior research shows that the team leadership concept in this theory it is not applicable to agile software development. This paper applies an adapted form of Big Five teamwork theory to cases of agile software development. Three independent cases were drawn from a single organisation....

  11. Engineering emergence: applied theory for game design

    OpenAIRE

    Scha, R.J.H.; Brunekreef, J.J.; Dormans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Joris Dormans ontwikkelde softwaretools om het ontwerpen van games te ondersteunen en naar een hoger plan te tillen. Toegepaste theorie voor game design, zoals Dormans die voorstelt, is er op gericht om creativiteit te ondersteunen, het ontwerpproces te versnellen, en de kwaliteit van games te verhogen. Hierbij spelen twee theoretische kaders een rol. Het eerste kader beschrijft games als systemen van spelregels, waarbij de onderlinge structuur van doorslaggevend belang is in het onvoorspelba...

  12. Applied optimal control theory of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, K A

    1993-01-01

    This book represents an extended and substantially revised version of my earlierbook, Optimal Control in Problems ofMathematical Physics,originally published in Russian in 1975. About 60% of the text has been completely revised and major additions have been included which have produced a practically new text. My aim was to modernize the presentation but also to preserve the original results, some of which are little known to a Western reader. The idea of composites, which is the core of the modern theory of optimization, was initiated in the early seventies. The reader will find here its implementation in the problem of optimal conductivity distribution in an MHD-generatorchannel flow.Sincethen it has emergedinto an extensive theory which is undergoing a continuous development. The book does not pretend to be a textbook, neither does it offer a systematic presentation of the theory. Rather, it reflects a concept which I consider as fundamental in the modern approach to optimization of dis­ tributed systems. ...

  13. TECHNOLOGIES OF VIRTUAL REALITY IN PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT OF GREAT ADVANCE: THEORY, PRACTICE AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander E. Voyskunskiy; Aleksander M. Chernorizov; Galina Ya. Men'shikova; Yuri P. Zinchenko

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of using a new experimental technology of "virtual reality" (VR) in psychological research. Methods of virtual reality actively become embedded in tooling of up-to-date experimental psychology. Next in turn there is a task of embedding of VR technologies in various areas of applied psychology like sport psychology. Application of modern computer methods dis¬covers new perspectives for sport psychology.

  14. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  15. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. PMID:26177950

  16. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  17. Psychological Theory and Method Applied to Architectural and Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    デービッド, W. ラッカム; 服部, 純子; ハットリ, スミコ; David W., Rackham; Sumiko, HATTORI

    2008-01-01

    本論文では,心理学が,健康と疾病,教育,平和と紛争解決,建築デザインを含め,広範囲に及ぶ諸問題について,理解を深め改善を図れる貢献の概要を述べる.本論では,特に,環境および建築心理学の分野に焦点をおく.多様な環境と使用者の相互作用に重きをおくデザイン過程は,使用者側に最善の効果となる機能的かつ審美的基準の見通しを,高める可能性がある.社会の基本設備の実質的なデザインは,教育および健康医療の分野で使用され,心理学的理論をデザイン過程でいかに統合させていくかが,教育および健康医療施設の使用者に意義ある恩恵をもたらす....

  18. Developing professional judgment and decision making expertise in applied sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, Amanda Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Establishing and enhancing standards of practice is important in any profession, and particularly so in a new and emerging domain such as sport psychology. Accordingly, this thesis draws on literature from teaching, medicine, and parallel disciplines such as clinical and counselling psychology to propose a Professional Judgment and Decision Making (PJDM) approach to the evaluation, reflective practice, and training of applied sport psychologists. Methods and mechanisms alrea...

  19. Nurture becomes nature: the evolving place of psychology in the theory of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    TARDITI SPAGNOLI,

    2014-01-01

    The thesis here presented establishes a triple parallelism between biology and psychology. First, through Haeckel's recapitulation theory as the source of freudian and jungian psychology. Second, from the reductionist view of science to the new phenomenology of evolutionary developmental biology. Third, by overcoming the reductionist paradigm in biology through the Extended Synthesis and in psychology though the revisited archetype theory. By establishing these parallelisms, the thesis faces ...

  20. Assessing Coverage of Maslow's Theory in Educational Psychology Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R.; Norman, Antony D.

    2010-01-01

    Although Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory (HNT) is one of the most prevalent theories in psychology, the authors argued that it is also one of the most misinterpreted or misrepresented, particularly in educational psychology textbooks. Therefore, after carefully reading Maslow's writings on HNT they conducted a content analysis of 18 educational…

  1. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  2. Psychology of totalitarianism and psychology of democracy: Theory and empirical probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klicperová-Baker, Martina

    Warsaw : Institute of Psychology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2010. [From the Totalitarianism towards Democracy in Central-Eastern Europe. Contributions of Political Psychology to Understanding of Transformation Process in the Region. 18.11.2010-20.11.2010, Warsaw] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://conference2010.home.pl/AbstractSearch.aspx

  3. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren eSwami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes.

  4. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: the case of the jewish conspiracy theory in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dimension. Further analysis showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was only significantly associated with general conspiracist ideation, but the strength of the association was weak. In Study 2, 314 participants completed the measure of belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and ideological attitudes. Results showed that belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory was associated with anti-Israeli attitudes, modern racism directed at the Chinese, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. General conspiracist ideation did not emerge as a significant predictor once other variables had been accounted for. These results suggest that there may be specific cultural and social psychological forces that drive belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory within the Malaysian context. Specifically, belief in the Jewish conspiracy theory among Malaysian Malays appears to serve ideological needs and as a mask for anti-Chinese sentiment, which may in turn reaffirm their perceived ability to shape socio-political processes. PMID:22888323

  5. Field Theory in Organizational Psychology: An Analysis of Theoretical Approaches in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph E.

    This literature review examines Kurt Lewin's influence in leadership psychology. Characteristics of field theory are described in detail and utilized in analyzing leadership research, including the trait approach, leader behavior studies, contingency theory, path-goal theory, and leader decision theory. Important trends in leadership research are…

  6. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  7. General Applied Theory of Micropolar thin Elastic Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan S.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper on the basis of asymptotically confirmed hypotheses method, depending on the values of physical size-less parameters, there are constructed general applied two-dimensional theories of micropolar shells with independent rotation, constraint rotation, and with “small shift rigidity”. Transverse shift and related deformation are completely taken into account in constructing the mentioned theories.

  8. Observation and theory in psychoanalysis: the self psychology of Heinz Kohut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, L; Spencer, J H

    1991-07-01

    The development of self psychology by Heinz Kohut illustrates the influence of observational method on theory formation in psychoanalysis. In 1959 Kohut began to emphasize empathy and introspection over the traditional combination of free association and evenly suspended attention. This became an important part of a process of revision in psychoanalytic theory which culminated in self psychology. This paper demonstrates how and why that particular change in observational method influenced that particular revision of theory. PMID:1924603

  9. Social Justice and Lesbian Feminism: Two Theories Applied to Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Levy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in contemporary social work include the use of an eclectic theory base. In an effort to incorporate multiple theories, this article will examine the social problem of homophobia using two different theoretical perspectives: John Rawls’ theory of social justice and lesbian feminist theory.Homophobia, a current social problem, can be defined as “dislike or hatred toward homosexuals, including both cultural and personal biases against homosexuals” (Sullivan, 2003, p. 2. Rawls’ theory of justice and lesbian feminist theory are especially relevant to the issue of homophobia and provide a useful lens to understanding this social problem. In this article, these two theories will be summarized, applied to the issue of homophobia, and compared and contrasted based on their utility.

  10. Why theory matters : Analytical strategies of critical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Schraube, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Based on Critical Psychology from the Standpoint of the Subject the article describes analytical concerns and strategies of critical psychology. In a first step, the development of critical psychologies is located in current discussions on the production of knowledge, and three different typical approaches and major steps toward situated critique as a practice of mutual recognition are delineated. This shift, it is argued, has led to a historically new relevance of critique, and two basic ana...

  11. How Accurately Do Introductory Psychology Textbooks Present Psychoanalytic Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarth, Janice; Hansell, James; Grove, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of the coverage of psychoanalytic content in undergraduate psychology textbooks. The authors investigated the accuracy and currency of psychoanalytic content in top-selling introductory psychology textbooks. Across the textbooks, 2% to 18% of the paragraphs with psychoanalytic content…

  12. Psychological Theory and Pedagogical Effectiveness: The Learning Promotion Potential Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. Aims: To propose an analytical or…

  13. Research on the psychological stress theory-based psychological intervention′s appli-cation effect on the emotion management of finger replantation patients%以心理应激理论为基础的心理干预策略在断指再植术后早期患者情绪管理中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正荣; 马晓煜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the psychological stress theory-based psychological in-tervention on emotion management of finger replantation patients. Methods The study was a quasi-experimental stud-y. The patients were divided into the intervention group ( n=50 ) and the control group ( n=46 ) according to the admis-sion time. The intervention group received psychological stress theory-based psychological intervention, while the control group received general management. The psychological state of the patients should be evaluated 2 weeks before the inter-vention and after surgery, so as to evauluate the effectiveness of the intervention strategy. Results The scores of SCL-90 in most dimensions and HADS had decreased after the intervention in intervention group, the differences were statis-tically significant ( P<0. 05 ); the scores of SCL-90 in most dimensions and HADS of the intervention group were signif-icantly lower than those of the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0. 05) . Conclusion The psychological stress theory-based psychological intervention can significantly improve patients′negative emotions.%目的:以心理应激理论为基础制定心理干预策略,评价该策略在管理断指再植患者术后早期负性情绪的效果。方法采用历史对照类实验研究法根据患者的入院时间将患者分为干预组(50例)和对照组(46例)。干预组患者采用以应激理论为基础制定的心理干预策略,对照组实行常规护理。于干预前和术后2周对患者的心理状态进行评估,从而评价该干预策略的有效性。结果干预组干预后症状自评量表( SCL-90)多个维度得分和医院焦虑抑郁(HADS)两个分量表得分均明显低于干预前,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后,干预组患者症状自评量表(SCL-90)多个维度得分和医院焦虑抑郁(HADS)两个分量表得分均明显低于对照

  14. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  15. Applications of nonlinear dynamic systems theory in developmental psychology: Motor and cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    Applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to psychology have led to recent advances in understanding neuromotor development and advances in theories of cognitive development. This article reviews published findings associated with a specific coherent and influential application from which a theory of adaptive, self-organized cognition has been derived and related to a theory of developmental dynamics of the neuromotor system. The review focuses on implications of two theories for q...

  16. DUALITY, OPTIMIZATION, AND MICROECONOMIC THEORY: PITFALLS FOR THE APPLIED RESEARCHER

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C. Robert

    1989-01-01

    This article graphically illustrates the one-to-one duality mapping among the production function, the product supply equation, the derived factor demand equation, and the indirect profit function for the classical profit maximization problem. This pedagogical framework is then used to illustrate how empirical application of conventional duality theory can lead to distorted empirical results if the theory (e.g. HotellingÂ’s lemma) does not apply because the firm is not a profit maximizer or b...

  17. Research quality and psychological theory in publications on school shooters with multiple victims - A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Grøndahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School shooting homicide events generate considerable attention. A substantial number of research reports have tried to explain the phenomenon. However, the outcome of these studies has produced a conflicting picture of the issue. Our systematic review explored the quality of research in publications on school shooters. Research quality was assessed concerning description of design, method and interpretation of results according to PRISMA and CRD criteria. We investigated evidence of the impact of psychological theories on how research was designed and interpreted. A total of 10 papers met the criteria for inclusion in the review. With a few exceptions, the research quality was low. Only three studies contained a separate methods section. Two out of ten studies reported from an interview with a school shooter. Secondary sources such as school, hospital and/or psychological evaluations were used in four studies, while the rest had only applied tertiary data sources. There was a void of psychological theoretical analysis to inform the creation of relevant research designs. No study discussed psychological theories to inform inference from empirical data to conclusion. Higher quality of research and enhanced focus on theoretical understanding of psychological factors in school shooting are called upon.

  18. Dynamical Mean Field Approximation Applied to Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar; Georges, Antoine; Werner, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    We apply the Dynamical Mean Field (DMFT) approximation to the real, scalar phi^4 quantum field theory. By comparing to lattice Monte Carlo calculations, perturbation theory and standard mean field theory, we test the quality of the approximation in two, three, four and five dimensions. The quantities considered in these tests are the critical coupling for the transition to the ordered phase and the associated critical exponents nu and beta. We also map out the phase diagram in four dimensions. In two and three dimensions, DMFT incorrectly predicts a first order phase transition for all bare quartic couplings, which is problematic, because the second order nature of the phase transition of lattice phi^4-theory is crucial for taking the continuum limit. Nevertheless, by extrapolating the behaviour away from the phase transition, one can obtain critical couplings and critical exponents. They differ from those of mean field theory and are much closer to the correct values. In four dimensions the transition is sec...

  19. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243246

  20. Equity valuation – Grupo Semapa : firm valuation theory applied

    OpenAIRE

    Patrão, Miguel Santos Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to value the intrinsic value of the holding Semapa, applying the Equity Valuation theory. In order to apply the most suitable methods and appropriate assumptions, this paper firstly outlines the existing valuation frameworks and techniques, along with the academic debates on the most relevant valuation topics. The valuation is done as the sum of the parts of the companies owned by Semapa – Portucel, Secil, ETSA and Supremo – using a Discounted Cash Flow approach and the...

  1. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  2. Applying Directed Graph Theory to Faculty Contact Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ernest R.; Long, John M.

    Although recent writings indicate the importance of personal contact structures in diffusing innovations and in determining perceptions, the internal contact structure of the school faculty remains unexamined. This study applies directed graph theory, a new branch of mathematics, to analyzing school contact structure. Sociometric data and…

  3. Designing IS Curricula for Practical Relevance: Applying Baseball's "Moneyball" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Nanda C.; Denton, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Baseball's "Moneyball" theory states that the baseball market undervalues some attributes (and players with these attributes) that are key contributors to wins while overvaluing other attributes. Teams who correctly evaluate attributes that contribute to wins have higher winning percentages with relatively low payrolls. We applied the Moneyball…

  4. Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpine, Elaine Clanton

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…

  5. Variation Theory Applied to Students' Conceptions of Computer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thune, Michael; Eckerdal, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The present work has its focus on university-level engineering education students that do not intend to major in computer science but still have to take a mandatory programming course. Phenomenography and variation theory are applied to empirical data from a study of students' conceptions of computer programming. A phenomenographic outcome space…

  6. Exploring the relationship between effective and reflective practice in applied sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cropley, B.; Hanton, S.; Miles, A; Niven, A

    2010-01-01

    This study offers an investigation into the concept of effective practice in applied sport psychology (ASP) with emphasis being placed upon the role that reflective practice may have in helping practitioners to develop the effectiveness of their service delivery. Focus groups (n = 2), consisting of accredited and trainee sport psychologists, were conducted to generate a working definition of effective practice, and discuss the concept of effectiveness development through engagement in reflect...

  7. Citation trends of applied journals in behavioral psychology 1981-2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, James E; Britton, Lisa N

    2003-01-01

    One variable with which to evaluate scientific journals is how often their articles are cited in the literature. Such data are amenable to longitudinal analysis and can be used as a measure of a journal's impact on research within a discipline. We evaluated multiple citation measures for a number of applied journals in behavioral psychology from 1981 to 2000. The results indicate a relatively consistent impact across these journals, with some evidence of growth.

  8. Man`s search for meaning : Applying existential psychology to rehabilitate seriously ill or injured people

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MAN`S SEARCH FOR MEANING Applying existential psychology to rehabilitate seriously ill or injured people Background During life a number of people are exposed to extreme strains in one way or another. Among these strains, serious illness or injury constitute major threats to people`s existence. When people are threatened the question about meaning may become essential. As future doctors, working with seriously ill or injured people, we wanted to find out how people cope with these conditions....

  9. Quantum theory as a tool for the description of simple psychological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2011-01-01

    We propose the consistent statistical approach for the quantitative description of simple psychological phenomena using the methods of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS). Taking as the starting point the K. Lewin's psychological field theory we show that basic concepts of this theory can be naturally represented in the language of QTOS. In particular provided that all stimuli acting on psychological system (that is individual or group of interest) are known one can associate with these stimuli corresponding operators and after that to write down the equation for evolution of density matrix of the relevant open system which allows one to find probabilities of all possible behavior alternatives. Using the method proposed we consider in detail simple model describing such interesting psychological phenomena as cognitive dissonance and the impact of competition among group members on its unity.

  10. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Maessen, M.; Bruijn, R. de; Smets, B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural contr

  11. Theory, Not Cultural Context, Will Advance American Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Kaschak, Michael P.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors agree with Arnett's call for greater attention to this issue. However, they fundamentally disagree with his position on issues related to generalizability…

  12. Design of Digital Learning Material on Social-Psychological Theories for Nutrition Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busstra, Maria C.; De Graaf, Cees; Hartog, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component of the design challenge is to implement three…

  13. Design of digital learning material on social-psychological theories for nutrition behavior research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.; Graaf, de C.; Hartog, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of digital learning material on the social--psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and its use in nutrition behavior research. The design is based on guidelines derived from theories on instructional design. The major component

  14. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  15. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity

  16. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elifritz, Thomas Lee

    1995-01-01

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence with the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  17. Applying Metacognitive Theories to Cultivating English Learner Autonomy in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of modern education is to develop students’learner autonomy and make them autonomous and life⁃long learners and many researches have found that learner autonomy is greatly influenced by metacognition. So this paper intends to analyze the present teaching and learning situation in college and give a clear picture of the relationship of learn autonomy and metacognition, trying to find the ways to cultivate learner autonomy through applying metacognitive theories college.

  18. From Optimal Tax Theory to Applied Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a perspective on the ideal tax system using insights from optimal-tax theory supplemented with empirical evidence. These insights are applied to actual policy questions regarding the progressiveness of the labor income tax, in-work tax credits, the design of the capital income tax, the taxation of housing and pensions, the role of indirect taxes, optimal environmental taxes, and corrective taxes on alcohol and tobacco.

  19. Bridging the Gap? Leadership Theories Applied in Distance Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gahlawat, Vijay Singh; Nielson, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This current global context is full of both increasing opportunities, and increasing demands that are placed both on the corporations and the employees working within them. As the physical distances between leaders and followers widens, more emphasis will need to be placed on applying traditional benchmark leadership approaches and theories to this context. The study explores and highlights the following issues connected to distance management: How is the full range leadership model, includin...

  20. Superconductivity theory applied to the periodic table of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifritz, T.L. [Information Corporation, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The modern theory of superconductivity, based upon the BCS to Bose-Einstein transition, is applied to the periodic table of the elements, in order to isolate the essential features of high temperature superconductivity and to predict its occurrence within the periodic table. It is predicted that Sodium-Ammonia, Sodium Zinc Phosphide and Bismuth (I) Iodide are promising materials for experimental explorations of high temperature superconductivity.

  1. Culture and psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    William W. Dressler; Mauro Campos Balieiro; José Ernesto dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological) influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distres...

  2. Synthesizing the Experiments and Theories of Conservation Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Osbaldiston

    2013-01-01

    Within the field of environmental psychology, there are two distinct bodies of literature. First, there are experimental studies that have evaluated techniques for getting people to perform conservation behaviors. Second, there are theoretical studies that have surveyed people to create some type of theoretical model that explains conservation behaviors. These two types of research almost never overlap. This research project attempts to bridge these two literatures. Specifically, we coded ove...

  3. A basic need theory approach to problematic Internet use and the mediating effect of psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ting Yat; Yuen, Kenneth S. L; Li, Wang On

    2015-01-01

    The Internet provides an easily accessible way to meet certain needs. Over-reliance on it leads to problematic use, which studies show can be predicted by psychological distress. Self-determination theory proposes that we all have the basic need for autonomy, competency, and relatedness. This has been shown to explain the motivations behind problematic Internet use. This study hypothesizes that individuals who are psychologically disturbed because their basic needs are not being met are more ...

  4. Psychological perspective for a theory of behavior during riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, S J

    1996-12-01

    In a riot situation some individuals actively participate in antisocial behavior, but others do not, and still others act to discourage hostile activity. Four concepts from general psychology including (1) insufficiency of internal control or lack of internalized restraints acquired through learning, (2) effects of frustration, (3) emotional excitement, and (4) precipitating incidents (one or more) are proposed as contributors to the behavioral involvement of participants. Some hypotheses and the role of such variables as emotional contagion, imitation, opportunism, and anonymity are discussed. PMID:8969079

  5. Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory applied to terrain diffraction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitteker, J. H.

    1990-09-01

    Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory is adapted to the problem of finding the diffraction attenuation at VHF and UHF over terrain profiles of arbitrary shape. Approximations are based on the assumptions of small wavelength and small diffraction angles. As a preliminary step, the theory is applied to the multiple-knife-edge problem. The field is found as a function of height above each knife edge in turn. In an application of Huygens' principle, an integration over the field above one knife edge provides the field at any point above the next. This formulation is equivalent to knife-edge formulations used in the past. Then each pair of neighboring knife edges is bridged with an imperfectly reflecting plane surface, representing the terrain. Huygens' principle is used again for the reflected wave, neglecting backscatter. The field found in this way is accurate for a good reflector but not a poor one. An analytical comparison shows agreement with rigorous diffraction theory for the problem of a plane wave incident on a perfectly reflecting wedge. Numerical comparisons with rigorous diffraction theory for a spherical Earth and for a small-radius hill (approximated with linear segments) show agreement to within 1.5 dB for the parameters chosen.

  6. Applying strategic management theories in public sector organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Ewan, Ferlie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the utility of two different strategic management theories in different types of public organizations including contemporary New Public Management-based public organizations, namely Porter's strategic positioning model and the resource-based view of strategy. We argue that...... possibiliteis for applying these theories vary depending on the type of public organizations involved, and are les appropriate in traditional settings but more relevant in autonomized and market-like service-delivery organizations. We further propose that their increased applicability depends on three specific...... conditions: the degree of administrative autonomy, performance-based budgeting and market-like competition. We give empirical examples drawn from public servives in the UK and Denmark. We call for more exploration of these (and other) strategic management approaches within contemporary public services...

  7. Modeling in applied sciences a kinetic theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pulvirenti, Mario

    2000-01-01

    Modeling complex biological, chemical, and physical systems, in the context of spatially heterogeneous mediums, is a challenging task for scientists and engineers using traditional methods of analysis Modeling in Applied Sciences is a comprehensive survey of modeling large systems using kinetic equations, and in particular the Boltzmann equation and its generalizations An interdisciplinary group of leading authorities carefully develop the foundations of kinetic models and discuss the connections and interactions between model theories, qualitative and computational analysis and real-world applications This book provides a thoroughly accessible and lucid overview of the different aspects, models, computations, and methodology for the kinetic-theory modeling process Topics and Features * Integrated modeling perspective utilized in all chapters * Fluid dynamics of reacting gases * Self-contained introduction to kinetic models * Becker–Doring equations * Nonlinear kinetic models with chemical reactions * Kinet...

  8. Roles for software technologies in advancing research and theory in educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Allyson F; Winne, Philip H; Nesbit, John C

    2005-03-01

    While reviews abound on theoretical topics in educational psychology, it is rare that we examine our field's instrumentation development, and what effects this has on educational psychology's evolution. To repair this gap, this paper investigates and reveals the implications of software technologies for researching and theorizing about core issues in educational psychology. From a set of approximately 1,500 articles published between 1999 and 2004, we sampled illustrative studies and organized them into four broad themes: (a) innovative ways to operationalize variables, (b) the changing nature of instructional interventions, (c) new fields of research in educational psychology, and (d) new constructs to be examined. In each area, we identify novel uses of these technologies and suggest how they may advance, and, in some instances, reshape theory and methodology. Overall, we demonstrate that software technologies hold significant potential to elaborate research in the field. PMID:15831178

  9. Single case studies as a means for developing psychological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, Anatoliy; Romashchuk, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Socratic function of single case studies (SCSs) is described in its relation to the problem of scientific theory development. Contrary to the traditional point of view, the single case study is not a demonstration or verification of theoretical concepts, but a method of their generation and opportunity for analysis of their interrelations. Considering the case study from the perspective of the Socratic function brings to light important conclusions about the ecological validity of theory development. The essential features of the Socratic function are illustrated using the example of the famous Romantic Essays of Alexandr Luria. PMID:26663629

  10. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management. PMID:16566496

  11. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2009-09-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs, and technologies that have been the objects of diffusion research. Early theorizing from the beginning of the 20th century was gradually displaced by post hoc empirical research that described and explained diffusion processes. By the 1950s, diffusion researchers had begun to apply the collective knowledge learned about naturalistic diffusion in tests of process interventions to affect the spread of innovations. Now, this purposive objective has given form to a science of dissemination in which evidence-based practices are designed a priori not just to result in internal validity but to increase the likelihood that external validity and diffusion both are more likely to result. Here, I review diffusion theory and focus on seven concepts-intervention attributes, intervention clusters, demonstration projects, societal sectors, reinforcing contextual conditions, opinion leadership, and intervention adaptation-with potential for accelerating the spread of evidence-based practices, programs, and policies in the field of social work. PMID:20976022

  12. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  13. Theory & practice : towards a pragmatic science of industrial and organizational psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a review of the philosophical tradition of pragmatism in response to the long standing concern that there is a gap between theory and practice in the field of Industrial and Organizational (I-O) Psychology. The theory-practice gap is a multifaceted problem that have been attributed to many causes, including the epistemological orientation of the field, the values of the researchers and the structural conditions under which scientists and practitioners operate. Pragmatism provi...

  14. Integrating social psychological theories of motivation and intention to explain health and safety behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Derwin King Chung

    2012-01-01

    The work within the thesis aimed to integrate concepts from three psychological frameworks, including self-determination theory (SDT), the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and the hierarchical model of motivation (HMM), into a model to understand the processes that underpin motivation and intention toward health and safety behaviours. The first tenet of the model (derived from SDT and HMM), namely the trans-contextual effect of motivation, hypothesised that self-determined motivation for a ...

  15. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  16. Comparison on Temperament Theory between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Le

    2002-01-01

    This study has explained and compared temperament theory between traditional Chinese medicine and modernrn psychology on five aspects of concept, characteristics, classification, influential factors and practical significance. And we thought that this study had guiding effect on clinical practice under the new medicine model.

  17. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2010-01-01

    A functional model of the acquired capability for suicide, a component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, is presented. A component of Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide is presented. The model integrates the points discussed by…

  18. "Stiff" Field Theory of Interest Rates and Psychological Future Time

    OpenAIRE

    Belal Baaquie; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud

    2004-01-01

    The simplest field theory description of the multivariate statistics of forward rate variations over time and maturities, involves a quadratic action containing a gradient squared rigidity term. However, this choice leads to a spurious kink (infinite curvature) of the normalized correlation function for coinciding maturities. Motivated by empirical results, we consider an extended action that contains a squared Laplacian term, which describes the bending stiffness of the FRC. With the extra i...

  19. Applying Total Physical Response(TPR)Theory to Teaching Chinese Children English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张院院

    2015-01-01

    Now it has become a fashion in our society that young learners aged from 6 or even younger participate in foreign language learning.With the Second Language Acquisition theories,it is believed that learning a foreign language from the childhood can facilitate the learning.Children need a teaching method which conforms to their psychological and physical characteristics.American psychologist James Asher develops Total Physical Response,which advocates leaning through physical actions.He believes that children should learn a foreign language happily and confidently,just like the process of acquiring their mother tongue.However,Total Physical Response can not be applied effectively in the teaching process due to children’s instincts and characteristics.If there is a way or strategy which takes advantage of children’s characteristics and control their behavior in class,the teaching results would be more satisfying.

  20. Applying Adult Learning and Development Theories to Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the degree of correlation that adult learning theories and adult developmental theories have with educational practice. Two adult learning theories, Malcolm Knowles' phase theories and Daniel Levinson's developmental theories, were researched to determine their relevance to three components of a nontraditional…

  1. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  2. ANTI-PSYCHOLOGISM IN WITTGENSTEIN’S PHILOSOPHY IN REFERENCE TO THEORIES OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wendland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the validity of criticism of what is known as psychologist-transmission communication  theory. It is accepted that theories which support the idea that communication is a process of conveying  (transmitting psychological content of the mental states between participants (e.g. theories of Jakobson, Hovland, Newcomb et al. are examples of the approach. There are doubts about such views, which arise from the assumptions of anti-psychologism and anti-mentalism (such as Frege, Husserl, as well as the rejection of traditional notions of subjectivity in philosophy after the linguistic turn. In order to justify the criticism the position of the “late” Wittgenstein is invoked, according to which communication activities (as well as thinking, understanding etc. need not be considered as correlated to mental acts.

  3. Difficulties implementing a mental health guideline: an exploratory investigation using psychological theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluations of interventions to improve implementation of guidelines have failed to produce a clear pattern of results favouring a particular method. While implementation depends on clinicians and managers changing a variety of behaviours, psychological theories of behaviour and behaviour change are seldom used to try to understand difficulties in implementation or to develop interventions to overcome them. Objectives This study applied psychological theory to examine explanations for difficulties in implementation. It used a theoretical framework derived from an interdisciplinary consensus exercise to code interviews across 11 theoretical domains. The focus of the study was a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's Schizophrenia guideline recommendation that family intervention should be offered to the families of people with schizophrenia. Methods Participants were recruited from community mental health teams from three United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS Trusts; 20 members (social workers, nurses, team managers, psychologists, and psychiatrists participated. Semi-structured interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Interview questions were based on the theoretical domains and addressed respondents' knowledge, attitudes and opinions regarding the guideline. Two researchers independently coded the transcript segments from each interview that were related to each theoretical domain. A score of 1 indicated that the transcript segments relating to the domain did not appear to contain description of difficulties in implementation of the family therapy guidelines; similarly a score of 0.5 indicated possible difficulties and a score of 0 indicated definite difficulties. Results Coding respondents' answers to questions related to the three domains 'beliefs about consequences,' 'social/professional role and identity,' and 'motivation' produced the three highest total scores indicating that factors relating

  4. Common prescriptions for psychology derived from dialectical materialism and chaos theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, A R

    2000-04-01

    During the entire Soviet period (1917-1991), Russian psychologists labored to create a psychology which would be consonant with Marxist-Leninist assumptions derived from dialectical materialism. Some of their early prescriptions, in particular those put forward by Konstantin N. Kornilov in the 1920s and early 1930s, are identical to strategies being advanced by contemporary American psychologists who propose that chaos theory and nonlinear meta-modeling techniques in general, given advances in computer and television technologies, can be designed for research capable of dealing with the complexities, nonlinearities, self-organizational processes, and abrupt transformations characteristic of human psychological functioning. PMID:10840901

  5. Humour Theories and the Archetype of the Trickster in Folklore: An Analytical Psychology Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Stefanova

    2012-01-01

    Humour theories describe different parts of humour as a phenomenon, obtained on the personal and community level, so difficult to be explained. The analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung may help in the explanation of why the search for the “Holy Grail of Humour” is as if trying to catch a shadow. The archetype of the trickster in folklore may help us describe some common and different parts of the universal phenomenon of humour and the specific ethno-psychological traits.The paper present...

  6. Andreev-Lifshitz Theory Applied to Normal Solids under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Matthew; Saslow, Wayne

    2011-03-01

    On letting the superfluid density go to zero, the Andreev-Lifshitz hydrodynamic theory of supersolids becomes applicable to an ordinary solid. Under applied pressure Pa , needed to produce solid He 3 and He 4 or to be of geophysical relevance, the system has both an elastic stress λik and an internal pressure P , with Pδik =Paδik +λik in equilibrium. P may be thought of as being due to a vacancy fluid. For Pa small compared to the bulk modulus, Maxwell relations give P ~Pa2 . The dynamical equations lead to three sets of propagating elastic modes (longitudinal and transverse sound) and two diffusive modes (one largely of entropy density and one largely of vacancy density -- or, more generally, defect density), all of which we study for non-zero Pa . The vacancy diffusion mode has diffusion constant DL ~Pa2 , and is diffusive because its associated internal pressure fluctuation P ' nearly cancels its lattice stress fluctuation λ 'ik . This mode permits the system to respond differently to transducers with different surface treatments. We specifically have in mind solid 4 He, which requires Pa ~ 25 bars to solidify; however, the results should apply to any solid under pressure. Supported by Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-06ER46278.

  7. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  8. "What about building 7?" A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J; Douglas, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the "conspiracy theory" label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  9. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  10. Activity Theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Jens; Mironenko, Irina

    2015-12-01

    Psychology has permanent problems of theoretical coherence and practical, analytic and critical efficiency. It is claimed that Activity Theory (AT) with roots in a long European philosophical tradition and continued in Russian AT is a first step to remedy this. A Danish version of AT may have a key to exceed some, mostly implicit, ontological restrictions in traditional AT and free it from an embracement of functionalism and mechanicism, rooted in Renaissance Physics. The analysis goes back to Aristotle's understanding of the freely moving animal in its ecology and introduces some dualities in the encounter between subject and object which replace the dualistic dichotomies traditionally splitting Psychology in Naturwissenschaft vs. Geisteswissenshaft. This also implies a "Copernican turn" of Cartesian dualism. The perspectives are to give place for a phenomenology of meaning without cutting human psyche out of Nature and to open Psychology to its domain. PMID:26001990

  11. Impact of Psychological Research on Moral Theory: Prospect Theory and the Doctrine of Doing and Allowing

    OpenAIRE

    Dreisbach, Sandra Lyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky's Prospect Theory offers a better explanation of our decision making under uncertainty than some of the most widely accepted theories to-date, including especially Expected Utility Theory. I give a sympathetic summary of the case against Expected Utility Theory, but then show how Prospect Theory has not demonstrated that it can give a better explanation of our moral decision making under uncertainty (contrary, e.g., to the claims...

  12. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice. PMID:14610999

  13. Sensitivity theory applied to a transient thermal-hydraulics problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Oblow, E.M.

    1979-10-01

    A new method for sensitivity analysis of transient nonlinear problems is developed and applied to a reactor thermal-hydraulics problem. The method resembles the differential sensitivity methods currently used in the linear problems of reactor physics, but it is applicable to nonlinear systems as well. The equations governing heat transfer and fluid flow in a fuel pin and surrounding coolant are given and used to derive a second set of equations (commonly known as the adjoint equations) used in the sensitivity analysis. Both systems contain one second-order parabolic and one first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation. Difference equations are derived to approximate both systems and the convergence properties of these discrete systems are evaluated, yielding a useful analysis of the numerical solution. The solution functions are used to derive sensitivity coefficients for any desired integral response. These sensitivity coefficients are used in a first-order perturbation theory to predict changes in a response resulting from changes in parameter values. The results of a test problem are shown, verifying that this procedure is indeed useful for a wide variety of sensitivity calculations.

  14. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  15. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  16. Person-Environment Interaction, Psychological Strain and Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of the Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gazi-Tabatabaie, Mahmood

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal panel data from Youth In Transition Project, the Person-Environment fit (P-E Fit) theory and its specific application to the area of delinquency and aggression was investigated longitudinally. Analysis of Covariance Structure Technique (LISREL) was used to address the issues of multi-dimensionality, stability, measurement of total P-E fit and to test the proposed delinquency model. The relationships between P-E fit, psychological strain, and delinquency were tested both...

  17. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind”) in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeka Maróthi; Szabolcs Kéri

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28) and bipolar disorder (n = 23) to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind”) and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics). Compared with healthy contro...

  18. Understanding Bhutanese Refugee Suicide Through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A.; Miller, Alisa B.; Shetty, Sharmila; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Geltman, Paul L.; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the...

  19. “What about Building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelJamesWood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations versus rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations.

  20. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracist commenters were more likely to argue against the opposing interpretation and less likely to argue in favor of their own interpretation, while the opposite was true of conventionalist commenters. However, conspiracist comments were more likely to explicitly put forward an account than conventionalist comments were. In addition, conspiracists were more likely to express mistrust and made more positive and fewer negative references to other conspiracy theories. The data also indicate that conspiracists were largely unwilling to apply the “conspiracy theory” label to their own beliefs and objected when others did so, lending support to the long-held suggestion that conspiracy belief carries a social stigma. Finally, conventionalist arguments tended to have a more hostile tone. These tendencies in persuasive communication can be understood as a reflection of an underlying conspiracist worldview in which the details of individual conspiracy theories are less important than a generalized rejection of official explanations. PMID:23847577

  1. Psychological behavior and economics: the need for new theories and redefinition of basic concepts in Islamic economics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Agil, Syed Omar

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to posit the nexus between psychology and economics. However it is not the purpose of the paper to focus on all aspects of psychology and its various theories. It is also not the purpose of this paper to trace the historical development of economics, its various schools and the economic ideas that emerged. It discusses only those areas that are relevant to the development of economic thought particularly with regard to motivation and psychological behaviour. It traces the ...

  2. The impact of Einsteinian relativity and quantum physics theories on conceptualizations of the self in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Elke Ruth

    1999-11-01

    Prior to the 1600s c.e., the church was the final authority for theories about the universe and humanity's role within it. However, when the mathematical theories put forth by scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo refuted traditional theological explanations about the cosmos, a shift to science as the premiere authority for theories was established, a tradition which continues to this day. In the following century, the work of Newton set forth a theory of the universe operating as a machine, where all things were potentially knowable, measurable, and predictable. His mechanistic hypotheses helped substantiate a corollary philosophy known as modernism. In the early 1900s, Einstein's theories about light and relativity began to indicate a universe significantly less absolute. His work set the stage for the development of quantum physics theories, whose hallmarks are probability, uncertainty, and complementarity. Quantum physics theories helped substantiate the philosophy known as postmodernism, where truth is nonexistent, reality is a subjectively constructed phenomenon, and the concept of an individual self is considered an illusion. Given that developments in physics have had profound impact across academic disciplines, including psychology, this study examine the effect of major revolutions in physics to corollary developments in theories about the self in psychology. It is the assertion of this work that modernist conceptualization of the self is one that is highly individualistic and defined in mechanistic terms, whereas the postmodern conceptualization of the self is significantly more socially constructed and has more interpersonally fluid, amorphous boundaries. Implications for conceptualizations of the self from either the modern or postmodern paradigm are discussed, as well as suggestions for future theory development.

  3. L'identità percepita: applicare la Grounded Theory in biblioteca Perceived Identity: applying Grounded Theory in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Faggiolani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available L'applicazione della Grounded Theory alle indagini finalizzate ad approfondire l'identità della biblioteca percepita dagli utenti è illustrata attraverso uno studio su quattro biblioteche del sistema bibliotecario comunale di Perugia. Inaugurata alla fine degli anni Sessanta, è una metodologia di ricerca sociale e un insieme di procedure capaci di generare sistematicamente una teoria fondata sui dati. È uno dei metodi interpretativi che mirano a descrivere i significati attribuiti ai fenomeni in esame, risultando particolarmente adatta all’esplorazione dei processi sociali e psicologici sottostanti. I dati passano attraverso le tre fasi di codifica - aperta, assiale, selettiva - e sono spesso elaborati con CAQDAS (Computer Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software. In biblioteca, la metodologia GT è fondamentale per la piena comprensione dello "scarto" rappresentato da ciò che viene realmente fatto dal bibliotecario e ciò che viene percepito dall'utente. La ricerca nelle biblioteche perugine, condotta attraverso focus group e interviste semi-strutturate, ha portato in primo luogo alla consapevolezza che il concetto che l'utente ha della biblioteca è legato più al "luogo" e allo "spazio" piuttosto che al "servizio". Inoltre, le esigenze riscontrate durante la ricerca riguardano primariamente i campi che si occupano del coinvolgimento dell'utente, del rapporto della biblioteca con la scuola, dell'innovazione, della promozione di collezioni a scaffale aperto, della vivacità culturale, e degli aspetti logistico-architettonici.
    This article presents a reflection on the application of Grounded Theory methodology in a study which aims at understanding how the identity of libraries is perceived by users. The Grounded Theory, elaborated in the sixties by the sociologists, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss, and widely applied today in empirical research in varied disciplines, is a methodology of social research and a combination of

  4. Big Data, Socio-Psychological Theory, Algorithmic Text Analysis and Predicting the Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Nyman; Paul Ormerod

    2014-01-01

    We describe an exercise of using Big Data to predict the Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index, a widely used indicator of the state of confidence in the US economy. We carry out the exercise from a pure ex ante perspective. We use the methodology of algorithmic text analysis of an archive of brokers' reports over the period June 2010 through June 2013. The search is directed by the social-psychological theory of agent behaviour, namely conviction narrative theory. We compare one month ahead fore...

  5. Why the binding theory doesn’t apply at LF

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the relegation of the binding theory to the C-I interface (LF) is theoretically undesirable and empirically unwarranted. Recent Minimalist research has sought to eliminate the binding theory from UG by reducing its conditions to narrow-syntactic operations (Hornstein 2000, 2006; Reuland 2001, 2006; Kayne 2002; Zwart 2002, 2006; Hicks 2006). This approach remains controversial since the canonical Minimalist binding theory (Chomsky 1993; Chomsky and Lasnik 1993) views t...

  6. Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory applied to living cells

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y S; Thiery, J P; Pérez, E; Pincet, F; Chu, Yeh-Shiu; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean Paul; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory is an accurate model for strong adhesion energies of soft slightly deformable material. Little is known about the validity of this theory on complex systems such as living cells. We have addressed this problem using a depletion controlled cell adhesion and measured the force necessary to separate the cells with a micropipette technique. We show that the cytoskeleton can provide the cells with a 3D structure that is sufficiently elastic and has a sufficiently low deformability for JKR theory to be valid. When the cytoskeleton is disrupted, JKR theory is no longer applicable.

  7. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs,…

  8. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  9. Attitude theory applied to in-store and online shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijst, M.J.; Farag, S.; Schwanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether our understanding of adoption of e-shopping and instore shopping could be advanced through the application of attitude theory. A shortcoming of the analytical frameworks and models featured in attitude theory is that they do not address the issue of what causes

  10. Applying Distributed Learning Theory in Online Business Communication Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the critical use of technology in online formats that entail relatively new teaching media. Argues that distributed learning theory is valuable for teachers of online business communication courses for several reasons. Discusses the application of distributed learning theory to the teaching of business communication online. (SG)

  11. Applying Cooperative Learning Theory in Junior Middle Schools English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong; Yan

    2014-01-01

    Since 2001, a new curriculum reform has been carried out throughout China.The develpoment of society calls for constant advance in EFL teaching in our country. The focus of language instruction has been shifted from teaher-centeredness to learner-centeredness. Cooperative learning(CL) is regarded as one of the most popular learning strategies.The author believes that the application and implementation of this teaching strategy can play an active part in improving the social and psychological atmosphere in the classroom.

  12. Social psychological theories of disordered eating in college women: review and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2011-11-01

    Because peer interaction, weight/shape, and self-concept formation are particularly salient to college women, the implications of social psychological theories may be especially far-reaching during the college years. College women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of social comparison, objectification, and uses and gratifications theories, which describe social-cognitive mechanisms that provide an individual with information regarding her own view of her body and how she perceives that others perceive her body. The current paper will review and integrate findings related to these three theories of disordered eating in college women in an effort to present a more comprehensive understanding of the social psychological mechanisms that play a role in the development and maintenance of such pathology for this group of young women. Limitations of and future directions for research on these theories will be discussed, as will their potential integration with other factors that contribute to disordered eating and implications for treatment and prevention. PMID:21903047

  13. Humour Theories and the Archetype of the Trickster in Folklore: An Analytical Psychology Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stefanova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humour theories describe different parts of humour as a phenomenon, obtained on the personal and community level, so difficult to be explained. The analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung may help in the explanation of why the search for the “Holy Grail of Humour” is as if trying to catch a shadow. The archetype of the trickster in folklore may help us describe some common and different parts of the universal phenomenon of humour and the specific ethno-psychological traits.The paper presents an overview of basic humour theories, supported by analytical psychology comments, the archetype of the trickster in Bulgarian and Russian folklore, in the folklore of Native American tribes, Kalevala and Edda (Snorri Sturluson with an attempt to explain how the traits of this “hero” provide a list of the components making something humorous for different people and what are the common traits that can be described as universal.This overview could help trace the humour phenomenon from the universal, through the community, to the individual level trying to find how important this is in searching for its characteristics.

  14. What is special about economic psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1985-01-01

    If economic psychology is supposed to study economic behavior, it has to rely on the same theories and methods as any other applied social psychology. Subdividing the broad field of applied social psychology may better be one according to tasks (e. g.; decision making, measuring attitudes and forecasting behavior, influencing people, training, resolving conflicts) than according to environmental contexts (e. g., school, courtroom, business organization, market). However, economic psychology m...

  15. Understanding NTNU's students' and employees' recycling behaviour based on intervention strategies by applying a comprehensive psychological model

    OpenAIRE

    Tobolova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    One of the solutions for the environmental problem of waste is proper waste separation by individuals. This Master’s Thesis discusses the psychological variables of individuals’ waste separation behaviour. Building on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Norm-activation Model, Habits and the Comprehensive Action Determination Model, a questionnaire was created paying close attention to the intervention strategies implemented by the project group ‘Klimafot Avfall’ at The Norwegian University of Sc...

  16. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    OpenAIRE

    Dongyu Zhang; Yu Fan; Wanyi Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky’s theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the psychological foundation for collaborative learning, the subject of this paper. This publication aims to examine SCT by assessing collaborative learning ...

  17. Learning Theories Applied to the Teaching of Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Maxine Barton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews major learning theories that can be followed by business communication instructors, including those by David Ausubel, Albert Bandura, Kurt Lewin, Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Robert Gagne. (LRA)

  18. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. PMID:27068989

  19. Metaphor in Emily Dickinson's poems applying on Cognitive linguistics Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢贝妮; 祁静卫

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor is an important device of the poetic imagination.Poets usually use metaphor to express their thoughts.Cognitive linguistics Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory.This paper takes Emily Dickinson's several poems as examples,including:I Could Not Stop for Death,I took one Draught of life,Twas warm at first like us,and analysis the metaphor about love and death in Emily's work,with conceptual metaphor theory.

  20. Decision theory applied to image quality control in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes Paula R; Caous Cristofer A; Lessa Patrícia S; Amaro Edson; de Souza Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The present work aims at the application of the decision theory to radiological image quality control (QC) in diagnostic routine. The main problem addressed in the framework of decision theory is to accept or reject a film lot of a radiology service. The probability of each decision of a determined set of variables was obtained from the selected films. Methods Based on a radiology service routine a decision probability function was determined for each considered group of c...

  1. Applying Developmental Theory and Research to the Creation of Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    The field of developmental psychology has produced abundant theory and research about the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development of children; however, to date there has been limited use of this wealth of knowledge by developers creating games for children. This chapter provides an overview of key theoretical observations and…

  2. Applying Organizational Theories to Action Research in Community Settings: A Case Study in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Keli S.; Klein, Dena A.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2007-01-01

    Action research is well grounded in the worlds of organizational and community psychology. The practice of action research within each of these fields has been shaped by their dominant settings, theories, and values; where these diverge, rich learning opportunities have been created. Each phase of the action research cycle has particular…

  3. Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    VirenSwami

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single dim...

  4. Social Psychological Origins of Conspiracy Theories: The Case of the Jewish Conspiracy Theory in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined correlates of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory among Malays in Malaysia, a culture in which state-directed conspiracism as a means of dealing with perceived external and internal threats is widespread. In Study 1, 368 participants from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed a novel measure of belief in a Jewish conspiracy theory, along with measures of general conspiracist ideation, and anomie. Initial analysis showed that the novel scale factorially reduced to a single di...

  5. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-02-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability. PMID:22854861

  6. Applying the learning theories to medical education: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Nalliah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical education of today continues to evolve to meet the challenges of the stakeholders. Medical professionals today are expected to play multiple roles besides being experts. Thus, the curriculum has to be developed in a manner that facilitates learners to achieve the intended goal of becoming a medical professional with multiple competencies. The understanding of learning theories will be helpful in designing and delivering the curriculum to meet the demands of producing a medical professional who would meet the CanMEDS model. This commentary explores and reflects on the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism as they have evolved over time and the application of these learning theories in medical education, particularly in the context of medical education in Malaysia. The authors are convinced that these three theories are not mutually exclusive but should be operationalized contextually and throughout the different stages of learning in the MBBS curriculum. Understanding these theories and their application will enhance the learning experience of students.

  7. Marketing Theory Applied to Price Discrimination in Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, James; Haley, Jean Walstrom

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of discriminatory pricing by journal publishers and its effects on libraries focuses on six prerequisites for successful discriminatory pricing that are based on marketing theory. Strategies to eliminate some of these prerequisites--and therefore eliminate discriminatory pricing--are suggested, including the need to change the attitudes…

  8. Influencing Organizations to Promote Health: Applying Stakeholder Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more…

  9. Intelligent mathematics II applied mathematics and approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Duman, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    This special volume is a collection of outstanding more applied articles presented in AMAT 2015 held in Ankara, May 28-31, 2015, at TOBB Economics and Technology University. The collection is suitable for Applied and Computational Mathematics and Engineering practitioners, also for related graduate students and researchers. Furthermore it will be a useful resource for all science and engineering libraries. This book includes 29 self-contained and well-edited chapters that can be among others useful for seminars in applied and computational mathematics, as well as in engineering.

  10. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in College Student Suicide Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Geoffrey L

    2016-04-01

    Suicide screening on campus is limited by effectiveness of existing questionnaires. This study tests whether Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) constructs may be more effective in screening than traditional risk factors measures like the Interactive Screening Protocol (ISP). Participants were 188 traditional-age students from three different campuses recruited through a subject pool and peer recruiters. IPTS risk variables as a set explained all likelihood of higher risk responses to suicidality questions that was otherwise explained by risk factors, plus additional likelihood besides. Current IPTS measures are no screening "magic bullet," but further inquiry into use of these constructs is warranted. PMID:26317690

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Mohammed Morad; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motiva...

  12. Suicidal Desire and the Capability for Suicide: Tests of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Bender, Theodore W.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (T. E. Joiner, 2005) proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless he or she has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability to do so. Three studies test the theory's hypotheses. In Study 1, the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness…

  13. Students' Personality Types, Intended Majors, and College Expectations: Further Evidence Concerning Psychological and Sociological Interpretations of Holland's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Because it focuses on the interactions between students and their environments, Holland's theory of vocational choice provides a powerful framework for studying college experiences. The present study assessed the relative merits of psychological and sociological interpretations of Holland's theory by examining the relationships among students' …

  14. Use of Theory-Driven Research in Counseling: Investigating Three Counseling Psychology Journals from 1990 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Carolyn A.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    Three major journals in counseling psychology were sampled from 1990 to 1999 to assess the percentage of quantitative, empirical articles that were theory driven. Only 43% of the studies utilized a theory or model, and 57% predicted the relation between the variables, with few studies specifying the strength of the relation. Studies sampled in the…

  15. The Theory of Neural Cognition Applied to Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Claude F. Touzet

    2015-01-01

    The Theory of neural Cognition (TnC) states that the brain does not process information, it only represents information (i.e., it is 'only' a memory). The TnC explains how a memory can become an actor pursuing various goals, and proposes explanations concerning the implementation of a large variety of cognitive abilities, such as attention, memory, language, planning, intelligence, emotions, motivation, pleasure, consciousness and personality. The explanatory power of this new framework exten...

  16. Applying the learning theories to medical education: A commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam Nalliah; Nazimah Idris

    2014-01-01

    Medical education of today continues to evolve to meet the challenges of the stakeholders. Medical professionals today are expected to play multiple roles besides being experts. Thus, the curriculum has to be developed in a manner that facilitates learners to achieve the intended goal of becoming a medical professional with multiple competencies. The understanding of learning theories will be helpful in designing and delivering the curriculum to meet the demands of ...

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Pedro U.; Custodio, Luis M. M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior T?cnico (ISR/IST) in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for "Society of Robots" and "Soccer Robots", the case study where we are test...

  18. Active Polyhedron: Surface Evolution Theory Applied to Deformable Meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Slabaugh, G. G.; Unal, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 3D deformable surface that we call an active polyhedron. Rooted in surface evolution theory, an active polyhedron is a polyhedral surface whose vertices deform to minimize a regional and/or boundarybased energy functional. Unlike continuous active surface models, the vertex motion of an active polyhedron is computed by integrating speed terms over polygonal faces of the surface. The resulting ordinary differential equations (ODEs) provide improved robustness to noi...

  19. Control theory and splines, applied to signature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, Per

    1994-01-01

    In this report the problem we are going to study is the interpolation of a set of points in the plane with the use of control theory. We will discover how different systems generate different kinds of splines, cubic and exponential, and investigate the effect that the different systems have on the tracking problems. Actually we will see that the important parameters will be the two eigenvalues of the control matrix.

  20. A Psychological Model of Translation Quality Assessment: Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to Grade English Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Pourdana; John S. Rajeski

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the possibility of grading English texts based on the psychological processes a non-native English translator might go through by applying Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain. The researchers’ primary assumption was that the difficulty of English texts would increase as the translator’s performance proceeds from translating an English text that requires their only language Knowledge through the texts requiring increasing demands of ...

  1. Organizational climate and culture:reflections on the history of the constructs in Journal of Applied Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Benjamin; González-Romá, Vicente; Ostroff, Cheri; West, Michael Alun

    2016-01-01

    We review the literature on organizational climate and culture paying specific attention to articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since its first volume in 1917. The article traces the history of the two constructs though JAP has been far more important for climate than culture research. We distinguish four main periods: the pre-1971 era, with pioneering work on exploring conceptualization and operationalizations of the climate construct; the 1971 – 1985 era, with foun...

  2. 3rd International Conference on Applied Mathematics and Approximation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Duman, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    This special volume is a collection of outstanding theoretical articles presented at the conference AMAT 2015, held in Ankara, Turkey from May 28-31, 2015, at TOBB University of Economics and Technology. The collection is suitable for a range of applications: from researchers and practitioners of applied and computational mathematics, to students in graduate-level seminars. Furthermore it will be a useful resource for all science libraries. This book includes 27 self-contained and expertly-refereed chapters that provide numerous insights into the latest developments at the intersection of applied and computational mathematics, engineering, and statistics.

  3. How to Apply the Psychological Suggestion to the Rural Junior English Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨六兰; Yang; Man’li

    2015-01-01

    In order to fill the gap between the rural and the urban junior English classroom teaching,this paper gives the suggestion to the educators to adopt psychological suggestion methods to arise the motivation of these poor students and improve their English scores when updating the knowledge structure and the teaching organization,improving teaching arts and capabilities.

  4. Applying "What Works" in Psychology to Enhancing Examination Success in Schools: The Potential Contribution of NLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis; Burden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) are described with reference to its origins, previous research and comments from critics and supporters. A case is made for this allegedly theoretical approach to provide the kind of outcomes focused intervention that psychology and psychologists can offer to schools. In…

  5. Applying Organizational Commitment and Human Capital Theories to Emigration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhohlyad, Olga; McLean, Gary N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country. Design/methodology/approach: The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human…

  6. Behavioral Theory in the Context of Applied Cancer Screening Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is challenged to provide effective, equitable, and efficient care for its citizens. The past decades have witnessed profound concern about the quality of care Americans receive, the equality of care across racial ethnic communities, and the escalating costs of private and public coverage. These concerns apply to the…

  7. Stakeholder Theory As an Ethical Approach to Effective Management: applying the theory to multiple contexts

    OpenAIRE

    JEFFREY S. HARRISON; R. Edward Freeman; Mônica Cavalcanti Sá de Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Objective – This article provides a brief overview of stakeholder theory, clears up some widely held misconceptions, explains the importance of examining stakeholder theory from a variety of international perspectives and how this type of research will advance management theory, and introduces the other articles in the special issue. Design/methodology/approach – Some of the foundational ideas of stakeholder theory are discussed, leading to arguments about the importance of the theory ...

  8. Deformation theory applied to quantization and group representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are concerned with deformations of the algebraic composition laws (pointwise product, i.e. associative algebra, or Poisson bracket, i.e. Lie algebra) of the observables of classical physics (functions or distributions on phase space). We show how such deformations (with parameter h/2π) permit an autonomous development of quantum theories on the same observables, a kind of algebraic geometric quantization without need for Hilbert space operators (nor for polarizations or half-forms): quantization is a deformation of the composition law of the classical observables, not a drastic change in their nature. Moreover, under some conditions, the formalism so obtained is unique and stable. (orig./HSI)

  9. Enhanced Thomson scattering theory applied to eight experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of an instability, such as the 2ω/sub p/ at the n/sub c//4 surface, usually leads to wave breaking and the emission of hot electron pulses which can profoundly influence instability thresholds and scattering behavior elsewhere in the plasma. In particular, enhanced Thomson scattering (via the plasma line) can occur, and this has been used to explain the observation of the SRS instability well below the theoretical threshold. A simple model of the hot electron pulses based on measured values of the hot and cold electron temperatures, T/sub h/ and T/sub c/, has yielded good agreement with experimental observation of the Raman spectral frequency bands. The agreement has continued, even for experiments which are clearly above the SRS threshold, with the enhanced noise likely acting as a ''seed'' for the SRS growth. We will show details of the successful comparison of this theory with six experiments carried out on SHIVA, ARGUS, NOVETTE(2), and GDL(2), and also with an upscattering feature seen at Garching. In addition, a recent experiment using 6 beams of OMEGA (at 0.35μ) will be discussed, and compared with the theory. The report is comprised of viewgraphs of the talks

  10. Psyche=singularity: A comparison of Carl Jung's transpersonal psychology and Leonard Susskind's holographic string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Timothy

    In this dissertation I discern what Carl Jung calls the mandala image of the ultimate archetype of unity underlying and structuring cosmos and psyche by pointing out parallels between his transpersonal psychology and Stanford physicist Leonard Susskind's string theory. Despite his atheistic, materialistically reductionist interpretation of it, I demonstrate how Susskind's string theory of holographic information conservation at the event horizons of black holes, and the cosmic horizon of the universe, corroborates the following four topics about which Jung wrote: (1) his near-death experience of the cosmic horizon after a heart attack in 1944; ( 2) his equation relating psychic energy to mass, "Psyche=highest intensity in the smallest space" (1997, 162), which I translate into the equation, Psyche=Singularity; (3) his theory that the mandala, a circle or sphere with a central point, is the symbolic image of the ultimate archetype of unity through the union of opposites, which structures both cosmos and psyche, and which rises spontaneously from the collective unconscious to compensate a conscious mind torn by irreconcilable demands (1989, 334-335, 396-397); and (4) his theory of synchronicity. I argue that Susskind's inside-out black hole model of our Big Bang universe forms a geometrically perfect mandala: a central Singularity encompassed by a two-dimensional sphere which serves as a universal memory bank. Moreover, in precise fulfillment of Jung's theory, Susskind used that mandala to reconcile the notoriously incommensurable paradigms of general relativity and quantum mechanics, providing in the process a mathematically plausible explanation for Jung's near-death experience of his past, present, and future life simultaneously at the cosmic horizon. Finally, Susskind's theory also provides a plausible cosmological model to explain Jung's theory of synchronicity--meaningful coincidences may be tied together by strings at the cosmic horizon, from which they

  11. Behavioral Theory in the Context of Applied Cancer Screening Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Jane; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is indeed challenged to provide effective, equitable, and efficient care for its citizens (Aday, Begley, Lairson, & Balkrishnan, 2004). The past decades have witnessed profound concern about the quality of care Americans receive, the equality of care across racial ethnic communities, and the escalating costs of private and public coverage. These concerns apply to the cancer care continuum, including screening. This commentary reflects on the methods, findings, and ...

  12. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Annesi, James J; Srinivasa Gorjala

    2010-01-01

    Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and ...

  13. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories

    OpenAIRE

    MichaelJamesWood

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations versus rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspira...

  14. “What about building 7?” A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Michael J.; Douglas, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into the psychology of conspiracy belief has highlighted the importance of belief systems in the acceptance or rejection of conspiracy theories. We examined a large sample of conspiracist (pro-conspiracy-theory) and conventionalist (anti-conspiracy-theory) comments on news websites in order to investigate the relative importance of promoting alternative explanations vs. rejecting conventional explanations for events. In accordance with our hypotheses, we found that conspiracis...

  15. Geometrodynamical Fluid Theory Applied to Dynamo Flows in Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayla; Miramontes, Diego; Scofield, Dillon

    2015-11-01

    Due to their reliance on a Newtonian viscous stress model, the traditional Navier-Stokes equations are of parabolic type; this in turn leads to acausal behavior of solutions to these equations, e.g., a localized disturbance at any point instantaneously affects the solution arbitrarily far away. Geometrodynamical fluid theory (GFT) avoids this problem through a relativistically covariant formulation of the flow equations. Using GFT, we derive the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the balance of energy-momentum appropriate for dynamo flows in planetary interiors. These equations include interactions between magnetic and fluid vortex fields. We derive scaling laws from these equations and compare them with scaling laws derived from the traditional approach. Finally, we discuss implications of these scalings for flows in planetary dynamos.

  16. Giving up on convergence and autonomy: Why the theories of psychology and neuroscience are codependent as well as irreconcilable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Eric

    2016-04-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states). In this paper, I argue that progress in psychology and neuroscience is contingent on the fact that both of these positions are false. Contra the convergence position, I argue that the theories of psychology and the theories of neuroscience are scientifically valuable as representational tools precisely because they cannot be integrated into a single account. However, contra the autonomy position, I propose that the theories of psychology and neuroscience are deeply dependent on one another for further refinement and improvement. In this respect, there is an irreconcilable codependence between psychology and neuroscience that is necessary for both domains to improve and progress. The two domains are forever linked while simultaneously being unable to integrate. PMID:27083093

  17. Culture and psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Dressler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distress in an urban area in Brazil. In this theory and method, culture is conceptualized as consisting of shared cultural models that are imperfectly realized in mundane behaviors. The link of cultural model and individual behavior is referred to as "cultural consonance". Here we show that cultural consonance in two different domains is associated with psychological stress, independently from covariates and possible confounding variables. Implications of the results for future research are also discussed.

  18. Utilizing Applied Projects in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Graduate Training: A Checklist To Help Ensure Successful Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.

    The scientist-practitioner model indicates graduate education must focus on application in addition to theory. Although a number of approaches may be utilized to gain applied experience for students, this paper focuses on applied projects completed as a requirement of a graduate course. Finding host organizations for class projects presents unique…

  19. Culture change in infection control: applying psychological principles to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbler, Ethan; Castillo, Leilani; Satorie, Laura; Ford, Deborah; Hagman, Jan; Hodge, Therese; Price, Lisa; Wald, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Hand hygiene occurs at the intersection of habit and culture. Psychological and social principles, including operant conditioning and peer pressure of conforming social norms, facilitate behavior change. Participatory leadership and level hierarchies are needed for sustainable patient safety culture. Application of these principles progressively and significantly improved hand hygiene compared with the hospital aggregate control. Changes to hand hygiene auditing and response processes demonstrate ability to improve and sustain adherence rates within a clinical microsystem. PMID:23669615

  20. The practice of applied sport, exercise, and performance psychology: Irish and international perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Mark; Moran, Aidan P.

    2014-01-01

    As Chapter 1 has shown, considerable disagreement exists about the boundaries between the fields of sport, exercise, and performance psychology (SEPP). Given this background of uncertainty, the present chapter will focus on establishing some common ground between these disciplines. More precisely, it will investigate Irish and international perspectives on the key skills required by effective SEPP practitioners to help people to do their best when it matters most. We have organ...

  1. One-Group Perturbation Theory Applied to Measurements with Void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formulas suitable for evaluating progressive as well as single rod substitution measurements are derived by means of one-group perturbation theory. The diffusion coefficient may depend on direction and position. By using the buckling concept one can derive expressions which are quite simple and the perturbed flux can be taken into account in a comparatively simple way. By using an unconventional definition of cells a transition region is introduced quite logically. Experiments with voids around metal rods, diam. 3.05 cm, have been analysed. The agreement between extrapolated and directly measured buckling values is excellent, the buckling difference between lattices with water-filled and voided shrouds being 0. 263 ± 0.015/m2 and 0.267 ± 0.005/m2 resp. From single-rod experiments differences between diffusion coefficients are determined to δDr/D = 0.083 ± 0.004 and δDz/D = 0.120 ± 0.018. With air-filled shrouds there is consequently anisotropy in the neutron diffusion and we have (Dz/Dr)air = 1.034 ± 0.020

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Systems Theory: Applied to Cooperative Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro U. Lima

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to the design of a population of cooperative robots based on concepts borrowed from Systems Theory and Artificial Intelligence. The research has been developed under the SocRob project, carried out by the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at the Institute for Systems and Robotics - Instituto Superior T?cnico (ISR/IST in Lisbon. The acronym of the project stands both for "Society of Robots" and "Soccer Robots", the case study where we are testing our population of robots. Designing soccer robots is a very challenging problem, where the robots must act not only to shoot a ball towards the goal, but also to detect and avoid static (walls, stopped robots and dynamic (moving robots obstacles. Furthermore, they must cooperate to defeat an opposing team. Our past and current research in soccer robotics includes cooperative sensor fusion for world modeling, object recognition and tracking, robot navigation, multi-robot distributed task planning and coordination, including cooperative reinforcement learning in cooperative and adversarial environments, and behavior-based architectures for real time task execution of cooperating robot teams.

  3. Robust Bayesian decision theory applied to optimal dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Christophe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre

    2004-04-15

    We give a model for constructing an utility function u(theta,d) in a dose prescription problem. theta and d denote respectively the patient state of health and the dose. The construction of u is based on the conditional probabilities of several variables. These probabilities are described by logistic models. Obviously, u is only an approximation of the true utility function and that is why we investigate the sensitivity of the final decision with respect to the utility function. We construct a class of utility functions from u and approximate the set of all Bayes actions associated to that class. Then, we measure the sensitivity as the greatest difference between the expected utilities of two Bayes actions. Finally, we apply these results to weighing up a chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer. This application emphasizes the importance of measuring robustness through the utility of decisions rather than the decisions themselves. PMID:15057878

  4. Applying Theory-Driven Approaches to Understanding and Modifying Clinicians' Behavior: What Do We Know?

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Matthew B.; Peter S Jensen; JACCARD, James; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been applied to understand and change clinician beha...

  5. The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory Management Style and Fulfillment of Psychological Contract: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. This paper argues that Theory Y managers are the effective leaders who could fulfill the psychological contract of employees. Therefore, psychological contract fulfillment is closely related to theory Y management’s style. Furthermore a modern idea of management style; the autocratic style of management is closely related to traditional McGregor’s theory X and the democratic is related to Theory Y management style. This area of study is suggested for future research.

  6. Thermal ignition theory applied to diesel engine autoignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.M.; Russell, S.C. [Vanderbilt Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Nashville, TN (United States); Humer, S.; Seshadri, K. [California Univ., Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The diesel community has used one-equation models for ignition delay in engines for decades. The inverse Arrhenius forms characterizing many of these expressions thus lump together liquid fuel evaporation, mixing of the vapour with the charge and the chemical delay. As a result, correlations apply only to the injector, engine and operating conditions tested. Additionally, they typically exhibit energies or temperatures of activation that can be as much as ten times lower than those obtained in well-mixed, controlled systems that isolate and study the chemical delay. Here the latter system is modelled first, using classical analysis techniques. The result is then extended to the relatively straightforward fluid mechanic environment of a laminar counterflow burner to clarify how both chemistry and mixing can be included in a more general one-equation model. This new model is validated with ignition limit data for ethane or ethene with O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} either premixed or unmixed in the counterflow arrangement and liquid diesel fuel in a pool configuration. Since the overall mixing time in this burner is known a priori, the data can be manipulated to yield global chemical ignition delay activation temperatures for these fuels. As expected, the results are equivalent to those measured in shock tubes and combustion tunnels where reactants are premixed before ignition. (Author)

  7. Self psychology as a shift away from the paranoid strain in classical analytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, David M

    2014-12-01

    Classical psychoanalytic theory has a paranoid strain. There is, in effect, an "evil other"--the id--within each individual that must be tamed in development and confronted and worked through as resistance in treatment. This last has historically endgendered an adversarial relationship between patient and analyst. This paranoid strain came from a paranoid element in Freud's personality that affected his worldview, his relationships, and his theory. Self psychology offers a different view of development and conflict. It stresses the child's need for responsiveness from and admiration of caretakers in order to develop a well-functioning self. Though severe behavioral and character problems may result from faults in the process of self-construction, the essential need is not instinctual discharge but connection. Hence the long-assumed opposition between individual needs and social institutions or between patient and analyst is no longer inevitable or universal. Rather, an understanding of the primary need for connection creates both a different interpretive stance and a more cooperative ambience. These changes in theory and technique are traced to Kohut's personal struggles to emancipate himself from his paranoid mother. PMID:25339303

  8. Social Psychology And Marketing: The Consumption Game. Understanding Marketing And Consumer Behavior Through Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina BUTNARU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodification and increased consumption are crossing the line between values and needs, production and creation, identity and capital accumulation, thus making people constantly expecting a payoff while engaging in social, cultural and economic transactions. In this article we argue that we can use the models of game theory to understand socio-economic phenomena such as consumption, B2C marketing and market dynamics.

  9. Activity Theory applied to Global Software Engineering: Theoretical Foundations and Implications for Tool Builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Although a plethora of tools are available for Global Software Engineering (GSE) teams, it is being realized increasingly that the most prevalent desktop metaphor underpinning the majority of tools have several inherent limitations. We have proposed that Activity-Based Computing (ABC) can be a...... applying activity theory to GSE. We analyze and explain the fundamental concepts of activity theory, and how they can be applied by using examples of software architecture design and evaluation processes. We describe the kind of data model and architectural support required for applying activity theory in...

  10. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  11. Thoughts on Theory Development of TCM Psychology%中医心理学发展的理论思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪卫东

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of TCM psychology, elaborated its history significance and limitations and came up with some thoughts for future theory development of TCM Psychology which brought the prospective of future work of TCM psychology. The theory development of TCM psychology would place important significance on the development of TCM theories, clinical psychology in China and the whole world.%回顾了中医心理学的发展,阐述了中医心理学产生的历史意义和局限性,对未来中医心理学理论发展提出了几种思路,是对中医心理学未来工作内容的展望.中医心理学的理论发展对中医学理论和中国临床心理学乃至世界临床心理学都具有重要意义.

  12. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  13. A Psychological Model of Translation Quality Assessment: Applying Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to Grade English Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pourdana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the possibility of grading English texts based on the psychological processes a non-native English translator might go through by applying Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain. The researchers’ primary assumption was that the difficulty of English texts would increase as the translator’s performance proceeds from translating an English text that requires their only language Knowledge through the texts requiring increasing demands of their Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Aynthesis and Evaluation abilities. To the researchers, the quality of the translation performance could be assessed based on the type of psychological processing they conduct in translating a given text. To fulfil the ultimate purpose of the research, 30 undergraduate students majoring in English translation at Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Iran took part in this investigation in 2012. In addition to Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT, the participants were given a translation essay-type test that included six short English passages of 150 to 200 words. The texts were carefully graded based on the type of behavioural objectives (i.e., psychological processes demanded of the translator and listed according to the hierarchy of Bloom’s cognitive domain. A non-parametric test of Kruskal Wallis proved that except for the fifth level, the Synthesis text, the trainee translators’ quality of performance was graded properly based on the difficulty levels expected and explored in Bloom’s levels of cognitive domain. The findings in this study are considerately practical in translation quality assessment, upgrading the reliability estimate of translation tests and teaching translation skills and strategies.Keywords: EFL, Bloom’s Cognitive Domain, Grading, Psychological Processing, Translation Quality Assessment

  14. The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory Management Style and Fulfillment of Psychological Contract: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better ...

  15. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends. PMID:7076375

  16. Applying cognitive developmental psychology to middle school physics learning: The rule assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinen, Nicole R.; Chi, Min; Chin, Doris B.; Prempeh, Joe; Blair, Kristen P.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive developmental psychology often describes children's growing qualitative understanding of the physical world. Physics educators may be able to use the relevant methods to advantage for characterizing changes in students' qualitative reasoning. Siegler developed the "rule assessment" method for characterizing levels of qualitative understanding for two factor situations (e.g., volume and mass for density). The method assigns children to rule levels that correspond to the degree they notice and coordinate the two factors. Here, we provide a brief tutorial plus a demonstration of how we have used this method to evaluate instructional outcomes with middle-school students who learned about torque, projectile motion, and collisions using different instructional methods with simulations.

  17. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: theory X, theory Y, and situational leadership applied to dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2007-08-01

    This article applies two well-known management and leadership models-Theory X and Theory Y, and Situational Leadership-to dental education. Theory X and Theory Y explain how assumptions may shape the behaviors of dental educators and lead to the development of "cop" and "coach" teaching styles. The Situational Leadership Model helps the educator to identify the teaching behaviors that are appropriate in a given situation to assist students as they move from beginner to advanced status. Together, these models provide a conceptual reference to assist in the understanding of the behaviors of both students and faculty and remind us to apply discretion in the education of our students. The implications of these models for assessing and enhancing the educational environment in dental school are discussed. PMID:17687079

  18. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  19. The Disillusionment of Students Denied Admission to a Preferred Major Viewed from the Perspective of a Psychological Theory of Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Clifton E.

    2014-01-01

    Why students respond differently when they are denied admission to a preferred academic major may be explained using a psychological theory of alienation. Using this theoretical perspective, three trajectories producing feelings of alienation are presented. The most intense of these trajectories, the process of disillusionment, is examined using a…

  20. Does Physical Environment Contribute to Basic Psychological Needs? A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Learning in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöblom, Kirsi; Mälkki, Kaisu; Sandström, Niclas; Lonka, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The role of motivation and emotions in learning has been extensively studied in recent years; however, research on the role of the physical environment still remains scarce. This study examined the role of the physical environment in the learning process from the perspective of basic psychological needs. Although self-determination theory stresses…

  1. Using the Theory of Successful Intelligence as a Basis for Augmenting AP Exams in Psychology and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steven E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence was used to create augmented exams in Advanced Placement Psychology and Statistics. Participants included 1895 high school students from 19 states and 56 schools throughout the U.S. The psychometric results support the validity of creating examinations that assess memory, analytical, creative, and…

  2. Applying behavior change theory to technology promoting veteran mental health care seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealin, Julia M; Kuhn, Eric; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Despite the availability of effective mental health interventions, the vast majority of veterans with a mental disorder underutilize psychological services. Contemporary research has revealed that several factors such as low education, stigma, stoicism, lack of knowledge, and negative beliefs about mental health services are associated with veterans' underutilization of services. In this article, the authors provide an overview of factors that affect symptomatic veterans' decisions about whether to seek mental health services. Second, they describe the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), a useful model for understanding mental health care seeking that can inform the development of technology-based interventions designed to increase veterans' willingness to seek psychological services. Third, the authors describe the development of Considering Professional Help, a personalized web-based tool developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which has been designed to promote mental health care seeking in veterans with mental health problems. PMID:25384001

  3. Development of Gerontological Nursing Theory. Applying the Man-Living-Health Theory of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Christine

    1991-01-01

    Describes Rosemary Rizzo Parse's Man-Living-Health theory that was used to describe how gerontological nursing knowledge could be developed through a nursing conceptual model that includes a defined practice and research methodology. (Author/JOW)

  4. Usage оf Capital Amount in Economical Situations While Applying Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Pazokitoroud

    2014-01-01

    Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and its methods are used in social sciences, especially in economics, engineering, political science, computer technology and philosophy. Winning in a game follows not only theory of probability but it has its own special laws and principles, and while using them in the game every player tries to get closer to victory. In the current classification of the game theory there is no group that considers the number or value of the capital involved in ...

  5. An Analysis of Oppositional Culture Theory Applied to One Suburban Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Tricia; Puchner, Laurel; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether and to what extent Ogbu and Fordham's Oppositional Culture Theory applied to African American high school students at one Midwestern suburban high school. Based on multiple interviews with six African American students, the study found support for some aspects of the theory but not for others.

  6. Masculinity Theory in Applied Research with Men and Boys with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan John; Shuttleworth, Russell; Stancliffe, Roger; Parmenter, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in intellectual disability have had limited theoretical engagement with mainstream theories of masculinity. In this article, the authors consider what mainstream theories of masculinity may offer to applied research on, and hence to therapeutic interventions with, men and boys with intellectual disability. An example from one research…

  7. Verification and Invalidation of the Theory of Symplectic Manifold with Contact Degeneracies as Applied to the Classical Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    A theory of Symplectic Manifold with Contact Degeneracies (SMCD) was developed in [Zot'ev,2007]. The symplectic geometry uses an anti-symmetric tensor (closed differential form) such as a field tensor used in the classical field theory. The SMCD theory studies degeneracies of such form. In [Zot'ev,2011] the SMCD theory was applied to study a front of an electromagnetic pulsed field propagating into a region with no field. Here, the result of [Zot'ev,2011] is compared with the problem solution obtained using the well-known method presented in Witham, G.B., Linear and nonlinear waves, 1974. It is shown that the SMCD theory prediction is not supported by the result obtained with the Witham method.

  8. Refections on the Cross-Cultural Challenge to Western Psychology : Implications for Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    David W., RACKHAM; Thomas, Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    This paper has sought to document significant aspects of the cross-cultural challenge to psychology as an academic discipline and a profession. As an academic discipline, psychology is increasingly obliged to incorporate the notions of cultural and historical context in its formulations of the dynamics of a wide range of psychological phenomena. Ethnocentric biases in such efforts must now at least be recognized if not eliminated. Those who offer psychological services in culturally pluralist...

  9. Feedback revisited : Adding perspectives based on positive psychology implications for theory and classroom practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Lia; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Simons, Robert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Teacher feedback has mainly been described from the point of view of cognitive psychology. We aim to add to the body of knowledge on teacher feedback by considering the perspective of positive psychology. We describe possible consequences of two concerns of positive psychology: (1) the importance of

  10. The Effect of Perspective on Misconceptions in Psychology: A Test of Conceptual Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Eric; Johnston, Adam; Alvarado, Elly; Kettering, Jack; Rankin, Lauren; Ward, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    To test whether students' knowledge about psychology undergoes a conceptual change when learning about the discipline, 227 Introductory Psychology students from six different classes were given the Psychology as a Science (PAS) Scale in one of two conditions. Students were randomly assigned to complete the questionnaire from their own (Self…

  11. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  12. Summaries of FY 1986 research in the Applied Plasma Physics Fusion Theory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Theory Program is charged with supporting the development of theories and models of plasmas for the fusion research effort. This work ranges from first-principles analysis of elementary plasma processes to empirical simulation of specific experiments. The Theory Program supports research by industrial contractors, US government laboratories, and universities. The university support also helps to fulfill the DOE mission of training scientists for the fusion program. The Theory Program is funded through the Fusion Theory Branch, Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The work is divided among 31 institutions, of which 19 are universities, five are industrial contractors, and seven are US government laboratories; see Table 1 for a complete list. The FY 1986 Theory Program budget was divided among theory types: toroidal, mirror, alternate concept, generic, and atomic. Device modeling is included among the other funding categories, and is not budgeted separately

  13. Preliminary Examination of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah E; Hughes, Jennifer L; King, Jessica D; Kennard, Betsy D; Westers, Nicholas J; Mayes, Taryn L; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-08-01

    This study offers a preliminary examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner 2005) in an adolescent clinical sample. The IPTS offers a nuanced framework that has many conceptual and practical merits. Although this theory has a growing base of evidence among adults, it has yet to be tested in adolescents using direct measures of its central constructs. Participants were 147 adolescents (76.2 % girls) on an inpatient psychiatric unit, who completed measures of key IPTS constructs of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, acquired capability for suicide, as well as depression severity, hopelessness, and severity of suicidal symptoms. Our findings were largely consistent with hypotheses derived from the IPTS: perceived burdensomeness, and at a marginal level, thwarted belongingness, were independently associated with current suicidal ideation. The thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness interaction marginally distinguished between adolescents with passive and active suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for suicide was associated with recent suicidal intent. Examination of all three IPTS constructs simultaneously revealed main effects of each construct (with a marginal effect of thwarted belongingness), and interaction effects for thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness by perceived burdensomeness by acquired capability for suicide in association with suicidal symptom severity. Sex, age, depression severity, and hopelessness were controlled in all analyses. This study offers strong, albeit preliminary, support of the IPTS in a clinical adolescent sample. Assessment of IPTS constructs may be useful in determining persistent risk for suicide attempt. Prospective tests of the theory, and extensions to intervention and prevention should be considered in future IPTS research. PMID:26667025

  14. Decision-Making Theories and Models: A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.

  15. On the Nature of Applied Linguistics: Theory and Practice Relationships from a Critical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, William

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between Applied Linguistics and other related disciplines concerning language use and language teaching issues. It seeks to trace the changes in the view of the relationship between theory and practice in Applied Linguistics, to explain the reason for those changes, and to discuss the implications for…

  16. Potential Performance Theory (PPT): A General Theory of Task Performance Applied to Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David; Rice, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    People can use a variety of different strategies to perform tasks and these strategies all have two characteristics in common. First, they can be evaluated in comparison with either an absolute or a relative standard. Second, they can be used at varying levels of consistency. In the present article, the authors develop a general theory of task…

  17. Applying critical chain buffer management theory in location-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for prioritizing buffers on location-based management (LBM) projects are established through the use of critical chain theory (CCT). Buffer management theory in LBM has gained little attention from the research community. CCT builds on the assumption that each task is, either consciously...... prioritization in LBM that are based on critical chain buffer management theory....... the criticisms by CCT also apply to LBM projects, CCT is based on the critical path method, and the guidelines from CCT must be adapted to the criticality principle of LBM theory. Accordingly, the contribution to the body of knowledge of this article is guidelines of buffer placement and...

  18. Changes in Theory-Based Psychological Factors Predict Weight Loss in Women with Class III Obesity Initiating Supported Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological factors' effect on weight loss is poorly understood, in general, and specifically in the severely obese. Objective. To examine whether a behavioral model based on tenets of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory will increase understanding of the relationship between exercise and weight loss. Methods. Fifty-one women with severe obesity participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition information treatment and were measured on changes in psychological factors and exercise attendance. Results. A significant portion of the variance in BMI change (adjusted for number of predictors was accounted for by the behavioral model (2adj=0.23. Entry of exercise session attendance only marginally improved the prediction to 0.27. Only 19% of the weight lost was directly attributable to caloric expenditure from exercise. Conclusions. Findings suggest that participation in an exercise program affects weight loss through psychological pathways and, thus, may be important in the behavioral treatment of severe obesity.

  19. Intuitive physics and intuitive psychology (“theory of mind” in offspring of mothers with psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Maróthi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of individuals with psychoses sometimes display an abnormal development of cognition, language, motor performance, social adaptation, and emotional functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of children of mothers with schizophrenia (n = 28 and bipolar disorder (n = 23 to understand mental states of others using the Eyes Test (folk psychology or “theory of mind” and physical causal interactions of inanimate objects (folk physics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 29, the children of mothers with schizophrenia displayed significantly impaired performances on the Eyes Test but not on the folk physics test when corrected for IQ. The children of mothers with bipolar disorder did not differ from the controls. The folk physics test showed a significant covariance with IQ, whereas the Eyes Test did not exhibit such covariance. These results suggest that the attribution of mental states, but not the interpretation of causal interaction of objects, is impaired in offspring of individuals with schizophrenia, which may contribute to social dysfunctions.

  20. Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B Heidi; Lankau, Emily W; Ao, Trong; Benson, Molly A; Miller, Alisa B; Shetty, Sharmila; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Geltman, Paul L; Cochran, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to high rates of suicide among refugees after resettlement and in particular among the Bhutanese refugees. This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. For men, stressors related to employment and providing for their families were related to feeling burdensome and/or alienated from family and friends, whereas for women, stressors such as illiteracy, family conflict, and being separated from family members were more associated. IPTS holds promise in understanding suicide in the resettled Bhutanese community. PMID:25642653

  1. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  2. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  3. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  4. Theory and practice in Industrial Psychology: Quo vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Johan C. Augustyn; Gawie G. Cillie

    2008-01-01

    This article critically evaluates the science and practice of industrial psychology. It reaches the conclusion that a major shift in paradigm and mind-set is essential for the discipline to survive. The article discusses assumptions about knowledge within the science and practice of industrial psychology and suggests ways to expand the notion of scientist and practitioner. It also discusses modes of knowledge acquisition within industrial psychology and proposes a post-modern view of the inte...

  5. No time to waste: applying social psychological methods and theories to household food waste reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Rowe, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The amount of food thrown away by UK households is substantial and, to a large extent, avoidable. Despite the obvious imperative for research to identify key factors that motivate, enable or prevent household food waste reduction, little research to date has directly addressed this objective. The research presented in this thesis had two clear aims: (1) to investigate antecedents of household food waste reduction and barriers to change, and (2) to explore whether self-affirmation techni...

  6. Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation – applied. Competing Stakeholder Theories in the Quality Management of Primary Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Heilesen, J. B.

    In the broader context of evaluation design, this paper examines and compares pros and cons of a theory-based approach to evaluation (TBE) with the Theory-Based Stakeholder evaluation (TSE) model, introduced by Morten Balle Hansen and Evert Vedung (Hansen and Vedung 2010). While most approaches to...... reports, a municipal framework to monitor and evaluate the quality in compulsory education in Denmark (EVA 2011). The paper reanalyzes the qualitative and quantitative data of the evaluation study by applying the TSE-model. The purpose is to test and elaborate on the practical use of the TSE-model, as an...

  7. On the Basis and Predicament of Applying Organizational Support Theory to Chinese Public Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huali Wu

    2009-01-01

    Organizational Support Theory emphasizes on the concerns and attentions of organizations to employees. It can arouse employees’ a sense of obligation to help organizations to reach objectives, enhancing employees’ emotional commitments to organizations, and make employees dedicate to organizations willingly. At present, this theory has already been studied and applied to Chinese enterprises’ human resource development and management field. But seldom does it be referenced by the public manage...

  8. Applying Orem's theory to the long-term care of adolescent transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, M K

    1991-02-01

    The nursing theory of Dorothea Orem is applied to the care of the adolescent transplant recipient in the long-term setting of outpatient services. The theory of self-care is used as a framework to organize and direct nursing services to this select population. The following article discusses the framework that significantly contributes to maximizing the potential and quality of life for each recipient and assures the quality and utility of professional nursing services. PMID:2003754

  9. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  10. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  11. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  12. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  13. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  14. Analysis of cognitive theories in artificial intelligence and psychology in relation to the qualitative process of emotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze selected cognitive theories in the areas of artificial intelligence (A.I.) and psychology to determine the role of emotions in the cognitive or intellectual processes. Understanding the relationship of emotions to processes of intelligence has implications for constructing theories of aesthetic response and A.I. systems in art. Psychological theories were examined that demonstrated the changing nature of the research in emotion related to cognition. The basic techniques in A.I. were reviewed and the A.I. research was analyzed to determine the process of cognition and the role of emotion. The A.I. research emphasized the digital, quantifiable character of the computer and associated cognitive models and programs. In conclusion, the cognitive-emotive research in psychology and the cognitive research in A.I. emphasized quantification methods over analog and qualitative characteristics required for a holistic explanation of cognition. Further A.I. research needs to examine the qualitative aspects of values, attitudes, and beliefs on influencing the creative thinking processes. Inclusion of research related to qualitative problem solving in art provides a more comprehensive base of study for examining the area of intelligence in computers.

  15. Audio logo recognition, reduced articulation and coding orientation: Rudiments of quantitative research integrating branding theory, social semiotics and music psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bonde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the analysis of corporate audio logos and their effectiveness regarding recognisability and identification. This is done by combining three different academic disciplines: 1 social semiotics, 2 branding theory and 3 music psychology. Admittedly, the idea of integrating sonic semiotics with marketing or branding has been proposed elsewhere (cf. Jekosch, 2005; Arning & Gordon, 2006; Winter, 2011, though it appears novel to apply this cross-disciplinary field from a social-semiotic perspective while, at the same time, focusing on musicological descriptors. We consider as a starting point Kress and Van Leeuwen’s (1996, 2006 conceptualisation of ‘modality’, which is central to their ‘visual grammar’ theory and subsequently extended to auditory expressions such as spoken language, music and sound effects (Van Leeuwen, 1999. While originally developed on the basis of linguistics and systemic-functional grammar (Halliday, 1978, 1985 and further reinforced by theories of ‘intersemiotic translation’ (cf. Jakobson, 1959; Eco, 2001 and ‘coding orientation’ (Bernstein, 1971, 1981, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s idea of modality is in this paper connected to notions of brand recognisability and brand identification, thus resulting in the concept of ‘Reduced Articulation Form’ (RAF. The concept has been tested empirically through a survey of 137 upper secondary school students. On the basis of a conditioning experiment, manipulating five existing audio logos in terms of tempo, rhythm, pitch and timbre, the students filled out a structured questionnaire and assessed at which condition they were able to recognise the logos and the corresponding brands. The results indicated that pitch is a much more recognisable trait than rhythm. Also, while timbre turned out to be a decisive element, RAF did actually cause logo and brand recognition in a substantial way. Finally, there

  16. Psychological Flexibility, ACT, and Organizational Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...

  17. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation. PMID:19569432

  18. Applying Catastrophe Theory to an Information-Processing Model of Problem Solving in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we test an information-processing model (IPM) of problem solving in science education, namely the working memory overload model, by applying catastrophe theory. Changes in students' achievement were modeled as discontinuities within a cusp catastrophe model, where working memory capacity was implemented as asymmetry and the degree…

  19. Crystal Field Theory and the Angular Overlap Model Applied to Hydrides of Main Group Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is how crystal field theory and the angular overlap model can be applied to very simple molecules which can then be used to introduce such concepts as bonding orbitals, MO diagrams, and Walsh diagrams. The main-group compounds are used as examples and a switch to the transition metal complexes. (KR)

  20. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to the Empowerment of Battered Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronister, Krista M.; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley

    2003-01-01

    Scope and consequences of domestic violence are reviewed, highlighting effects on women's career and educational well being. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) is described and applied to experiences of women living in domestic violence situations. A framework for empowering battered women and using SCCT to promote their career development and…

  1. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  2. Putting the terror in terror management theory: evidence that the awareness of death does cause anxiety and undermine psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Jacob; Routledge, Clay

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the writings of existentialists, terror management theory states that the awareness of death has the potential to create debilitating anxiety and compromise psychological well-being and that psychological buffers (e.g., self-worth) protect against these aversive effects. Hundreds of studies have supported the theory. However, until recently, little work has focused on the central assertion that the awareness of death causes anxiety and undermines well-being. We review a recent p...

  3. Re-conceptualizing Neurosis as a Degree of Egocentricity: Ethical Issues in Psychological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Segura, M; Echavarria, M F; Vitz, P C

    2015-10-01

    Psychology's historical rejection of ethics has led to an oversimplification of the origins and treatments of mental disorders. In this article, we present an analysis of how classical neurosis can be reformulated from an ethical and psychological interaction. We focus on the crucial role that egocentricity plays and argue that this term can help to clarify how ego defensive ethical decisions can undermine psychological capacities and contribute to a progressive depersonalization that can result in typical clinical disorders. In Christian anthropology, the virtues, especially humility and love have a crucial role in the positive growth of human affective and cognitive capacities. In addition, the person in his/her nature is endowed with the capacity to transcend the self and to escape egocentricity through self-giving love of God and of others. This capacity of self-giving is diametrically opposed to egocentricity and opens a new way for possible psychological recovery. PMID:25216966

  4. Estimation of Psychological Stress in Humans: A Combination of Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Takin...

  5. RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOCENTRISM: The Discourse of Islamic Psychology among Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hamim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ideas in psychology are often criticized as being dominated by the spirit and the model of secular and liberal Western thinking. They are frequently deemed to bring bias when applied to analyze the psychological problems of human beings in the context of other cultures, especially in the context of Islamic culture. This paper investigates Indonesian Muslim scientists’ offer of an alternative of grand theory in psychology formulated from a more balanced paradigm called religious anthropocentric psychology. Indonesian Muslim scientists develop this paradigm as an attempt to construct spiritual-religious psychology or Islamic psychology. The paper describes an increasing awareness among those Muslim scientists to develop theories of humanistic psychology with spiritual and religious values. This kind of psychological theory seems to be the basis for so-called Islamic psychology. Furthermore, in addition to its reference toward the anthropocentric paradigm, this kind of psychology also refers to the religious-Islamic values, theo-centric or God-centric.

  6. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  7. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL GROUNDS FOR APPLYING COMMUNICATIVE METHOD OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN HIGHER SCHOOL WITH THE PURPOSE OF REALIZATION OF STUDENTS PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yavoruk, O.; Gridneva, S.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of “professional orientation”, its components and levels. The principles of communicative method of teaching foreign languages are analyzed from psychological and pedagogical point of view. Expediency of applying the given method with the purpose of realization of students’ professional orientation is substantiated.

  8. Using psychological theory to inform methods to optimize the implementation of a hand hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscart Veronique M

    2012-08-01

    administrators reported different views. Conclusions This study highlights the benefits of using a structured approach based on psychological theory to inform an implementation plan for a behavior change intervention. This work is an essential step towards systematically identifying factors affecting nurses’ behaviour associated with HH.

  9. Socio-Psychological Capital, Values And Emigration Intentions Of Russian Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Chuvashov

    2014-01-01

    This research defines the relatively new concept of socio-psychological capital and examines the interrelation between socio-psychological capital and emigration intentions of Russian youth. Socio-psychological capital is seen as a resource of psychological relations, available to individuals belonging to a group. Socio-psychological capital includes trust, national identity, ethnic tolerance. The research also deals with the theory of planned behaviour, applied to emigration intentions. The ...

  10. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology. PMID:22739812

  11. Development of an Item Bank of Order and Graph by Applying Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somprasong Senarat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aimed to develop an item bank of Order and Graph of Mattayomsuksa 1 level (grade 7. The samples were 4,800 lower secondary students from 34 schools in northeastern area of Thailand, academic year 2011 chosen through multi-stage random sampling. The research tool used in the study was a multiple choicetest of an Order and Graph lesson by applying multidimensional item response theory. Parameter were analyzed by confi rmatory factor analysis by applying multidimensional normalogive model with guessing of the program normalogive harmonic analysis robust method (NOHARM. Discrimination power and Easiness intercept were equated through non–orthogonal procrustes method. The study results indicated that there were 59 items out of 140 passed the test standard.

    Key words: Item bank; Cognitive process; Multidimensional item response theory (MIRT

  12. Quantum theory as plausible reasoning applied to data obtained by robust experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, H; Katsnelson, M I; Michielsen, K

    2016-05-28

    We review recent work that employs the framework of logical inference to establish a bridge between data gathered through experiments and their objective description in terms of human-made concepts. It is shown that logical inference applied to experiments for which the observed events are independent and for which the frequency distribution of these events is robust with respect to small changes of the conditions under which the experiments are carried out yields, without introducing any concept of quantum theory, the quantum theoretical description in terms of the Schrödinger or the Pauli equation, the Stern-Gerlach or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. The extraordinary descriptive power of quantum theory then follows from the fact that it is plausible reasoning, that is common sense, applied to reproducible and robust experimental data. PMID:27091169

  13. Community-based preparedness programmes and the 2009 Australian bushfires: policy implications derived from applying theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Colin; Gibbs, Lisa; Clark, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    The Victorian Country Fire Authority in Australia runs the Community Fireguard (CFG) programme to assist individuals and communities in preparing for fire. The objective of this qualitative research was to understand the impact of CFG groups on their members' fire preparedness and response during the 2009 Australian bushfires. Social connectedness emerged as a strong theme, leading to an analysis of data using social capital theory. The main strength of the CFG programme was that it was driven by innovative community members; however, concerns arose regarding the extent to which the programme covered all vulnerable areas, which led the research team to explore the theory of diffusion of innovation. The article concludes by stepping back from the evaluation and using both applied theories to reflect on broad options for community fire preparedness programmes in general. The exercise produced two contrasting options for principles underlying community fire preparedness programmes. PMID:24601916

  14. The psychology of early institutional economics: The instinctive approach of Thorstein Veblen's conspicuous consumer theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Almeida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thorstein Veblen, a founder of original or old institutional economics, combined social and evolutionary thought in his institutionalist approach to dealing with psychological, social, and economic issues. The psychological content of Veblen's writings takes instinct and habits into consideration. The economic literature on the psychological content of Veblen's writings has focused on habits, despite the importance of instincts in Veblen's works. This paper attempts to discuss Veblen's notion of instincts in order to make its role clearer in his approach to conspicuous consumer decision making. It discusses the role of instincts, the instinct of workmanship, the relationship between habits and instincts, and their influence on the conspicuous consumer. Consequently, this paper contributes to a better understanding of how inner forces and socialization culminate in behavior in Veblen's conspicuous consumer approach.

  15. The theory of metal electronucleation applied to the study of fundamental properties of liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Agmo Hernández, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    This short review describes how the theory of electrochemical metal nucleation considering non-stationary effects due to the activation of latent nucleation sites has been successfully translated and applied to describe phenomena observed on lipid membranes. This rather unexpected connection is merely formal, but has resulted in a completely new approach in liposome research. It has been proposed that hydrophobic active sites spontaneously and constantly appear and disappear on lipid membrane...

  16. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Moghimbeigi; Babak Moeini; Hamid Allahverdipour; Farzad Jalilian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest ...

  17. Exact-Exchange Density Functional Theory applied to a strongly inhomogeneous electron gas

    OpenAIRE

    Rigamonti, S.; Reboredo, F. A.; Proetto, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    A recently developed quasi two-dimensional exact-exchange formalism within the framework of Density Functional Theory has been applied to a strongly inhomogeneous interacting electron gas, and the results were compared with state-of-the-art Variational Quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) numerical simulations for a three-dimensional electron gas under a strong external potential. The VMC results, extremely demanding from the computational point of view, could be considered as a benchmark for the presen...

  18. MODELLING AND SIMULATING RISKS IN THE TRAINING OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES BY APPLYING THE CHAOS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen ROTARESCU

    2012-01-01

    The article approaches the modelling and simulation of risks in the training of the human resources, as well as the forecast of the degree of human resources training impacted by risks by applying the mathematical tools offered by the Chaos Theory and mathematical statistics. We will highlight that the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of the human resources from an organization are autocorrelated in time and they depend on the level of a previous moment of the training, as well as on ...

  19. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  20. Capable of Suicide: A Functional Model of the Acquired Capability Component of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip N.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2016-01-01

    The current review aims to present a functional model of the acquired capability for suicide; a component of Joiner’s (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This review is aimed at integrating the points discussed by Joiner into a unified and specific conceptualization of acquired capability. Additionally, we offer some points of elaboration; such as the interaction between specific diatheses with life events, the role of short-term bolstering of the capability for suicide, and how contextual factors moderate the experience of painful and provocative life events; thereby leading to fearlessness and pain insensitivity to the actions and ideas involved in suicide. PMID:20560748

  1. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  2. Actions, beliefs and feelings: an experimental study on psychological game theory

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasi, Giuseppe; Nagel, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Most economic models assume that agents maximize their expected material payoff. However, subjects in the lab exhibit persistent and signi…cant deviations from this self-interested maximizing behavior. A reasonable explanation for this behavior is thatplayers can be motivated not only by material (monetary) payoffs but also by what aresometimes referred "psychological" utilities.

  3. Autistic Children's Talk about Psychological States: Deficits in the Early Acquisition of a Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples collected from six autistic and Down's Syndrome children were analyzed for language referring to various psychological states. Autistic children were comparable to Down's Syndrome controls in their talk about desire, perception, and emotion. However, they used less language to call for attention and to refer to cognitive…

  4. The use of the effect size in JCR Spanish journals of psychology: from theory to fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Juan; Ortega Campos, Elena; De la Fuente Sánchez, Leticia

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, Wilkinson and the Task Force on Statistical Inference published "Statistical Methods and Psychology: Guidelines and Explanation." The authors made several recommendations about how to improve the quality of Psychology research papers. One of these was to report some effect-size index in the results of the research. In 2001, the fifth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association included this recommendation. In Spain, in 2003, scientific journals like Psicothema or the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (IJCHP) published editorials and papers expressing the need to calculate the effect size in the research papers. The aim of this study is to determine whether the papers published from 2003 to 2008 in the four Spanish journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports have reported some effect-size index of their results. The findings indicate that, in general, the followup of the norm has been scanty, though the evolution over the analyzed period is different depending on the journal. PMID:22059347

  5. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23036391

  6. Model Selection and Psychological Theory: A Discussion of the Differences between the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) in model selection and the appraisal of psychological theory. The focus is on latent variable models, given their growing use in theory testing and construction. Theoretical statistical results in regression are discussed, and more important…

  7. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  8. Money Buys Financial Security and Psychological Need Satisfaction: Testing Need Theory in Affluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ryan T.; Kurai, Mark; Tam, Leona

    2013-01-01

    The most prominent theory to explain the curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being (SWB) is need theory, which proposes that increased income and wealth can lead to increased well-being in poverty because money is used to satisfy basic physiological needs. The present study tests the tenets of need theory by proposing that…

  9. On the construction of a psychologically based, general theory of observation: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, Göte

    2013-01-01

    The perception-related origins of physical measures and standards are considered within the framework of the general observer theory. The impact of observer characteristics on the development of observer-centric physics, physical concepts and metrics are analyzed. A preliminary theoretical approach is suggested for the construction of a general observer theory and formulation of its relationship to observer-centered physical concepts and theories. The approach makes it possible to construct a theory of the observer, intrinsic in any theory of physics.

  10. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:26107539

  11. Biological and Psychological Theories of Juveniles Delinquency in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Шостко, О. Ю.

    2016-01-01

    Biological and psychological factors play an important andsometimes decisive role in aggressive behavior of juveniles and adults, which leadsto committing various crimes against life and health of individuals. ContemporaryAmerican criminologists widely use the achievements of geneticists, biochemists,neurologists and point out on importance of their knowledge. Unfortunately,scientific works of foreign scientists are little known in Ukraine.Recent research and publication analysis. American th...

  12. A ???Schema theory??? analysis of the psychological contract formation process using repertory grid technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Ultan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This study examines the content of the psychological contract at its formation stage. Three individual antecedents were identified that were expected to influence these content dimensions (careerism, type of exchange (social/economic), level of experience). The study proceeds in two separate but overlapping stages. Firstly, in Stage A, the relationship between these individual factors and the content dimensions is investigated. Secondly, in Stage B, the effect of the three an...

  13. Social Psychology And Marketing: The Consumption Game. Understanding Marketing And Consumer Behavior Through Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina BUTNARU

    2009-01-01

    Consumer psychology provides enough evidence that consumer behavior is not just one side of our existence, but, as a matter of fact, it is a central dimension of our everyday lives, engaging us into changing and defining our identity, beliefs, attitudes and practices. In relation to this, commodification has reached us on all levels: everything that people created, produced and developed over the years, during the post-industrial era, can be commodified and sold to a specific market. Commodif...

  14. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    OpenAIRE

    V. Buško

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics t...

  15. The Old Testament Prophet Stories in the context of the Humanistic Psychology Theory of Fromm

    OpenAIRE

    KARACOŞKUN, Mustafa Doğan

    2012-01-01

    Secularism that brought the enlightenment with itself, created its own holiness instead of sacredness of religion. Psychology has been affected deeply through this systematic change of perception, alike the other branches of the science. Seeing religion as an irrational and a dogmatic field, many of the famous psychologists had approached to it in a reductive way. Erich Fromm, who is the representative of humanistic approach which can be seen as relatively moderate among these approaches, see...

  16. The viscoplasticity theory applied to the inelastic analysis at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monotonic and cyclic loading tests on strain rate changes are conducted on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 600deg C. The examination of the tensile stress-strain response suggests that the viscosity function which characterizes the rate-dependency in the viscosity theory used previously at room temperature should not only depend on the overstress but also on the strain. A new extended viscosity control function is introduced to represent such strain dependency. The material constants of this modified viscoplasticity model are determined at temperatures of 25deg C to 600deg C and the model is applied to deformation tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel carried out under time-varying temperature conditions and other conditions. The extended viscoplasticity theory is shown to reproduce such various experimentally observed stress-strain behavior at elevated temperatures. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

  18. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  19. The Analysis of the Science and Technology Enterprise Core Employee Turnover Negative Effects – Based on the theory of psychological contract

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xin; Li Lijun

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the problem of negative effect of resignation of core employees from scientific enterprise based on psychological contract theory and summary of references. It uses questionnaires to analyze the data and construct a model of negative effect of resignation caused by psychological contract violation. It also makes an analysis on resignation tendency and negative effect of resignation in two perspectives to provide a basis for reduction of the negative effect.

  20. A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design. [Statistical Decision Theory applied to aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hawk, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design is introduced. It is assumed that decisions affecting the cost effectiveness of aerospace structures fall into three basic categories: design, verification, and operation. Within these basic categories, certain decisions concerning items such as design configuration, safety factors, testing methods, and operational constraints are to be made. All or some of the variables affecting these decisions may be treated probabilistically. Bayesian statistical decision theory is used as the tool for determining the cost optimum decisions. A special case of the general problem is derived herein, and some very useful parametric curves are developed and applied to several sample structures.

  1. The Bayesian statistical decision theory applied to the optimization of generating set maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty in RCM methodology is the allocation of a new periodicity of preventive maintenance on one equipment when a critical failure has been identified: until now this new allocation has been based on the engineer's judgment, and one must wait for a full cycle of feedback experience before to validate it. Statistical decision theory could be a more rational alternative for the optimization of preventive maintenance periodicity. This methodology has been applied to inspection and maintenance optimization of cylinders of diesel generator engines of 900 MW nuclear plants, and has shown that previous preventive maintenance periodicity can be extended. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. When Psychology Went Online: Review of "Psychological Aspects of Cyberspace: Theory, Research Applications", Edited by Azy Barak (Cambridge University Press, 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Buchanan

    2008-01-01

    Azy Barak is well known for his prolific contributions to several areas of the literature dealing with psychological investigation of the Internet and related technologies, and also the exploitation of the Internet as a space in which the profession of psychology may be conducted. These efforts fall within the domain of what some call "cyberpsychology" - essentially, the application of psychology to the Internet - and that is the focus of this book. In this 300-page volume he has assembled an...

  3. Social Learning Theory and Developmental Psychology: The Legacies of Robert Sears and Albert Bandura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Social learning theory is evaluated from a historical perspective that goes up to the present. Sears and others melded psychoanalytic and stimulus-response learning theory into a comprehensive explanation of human behavior. Bandura emphasized cognitive and information-processing capacities that mediate social behavior. (LB)

  4. Objectification Theory and Psychology of Women: A Decade of Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future…

  5. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  6. Many-Electron Multiplet Theory Applied to O-Atom Vacancies in High-κ Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucovsky, Gerald; Miotti, Leonardo; Paz Bastos, Karen

    2011-04-01

    Two-electron multiplet theory has been used to develop a high-spin effective d2 model for O-vacancy spin-allowed and spin-forbidden dipole transitions, and for negative ion state traps. The transition and negative ion states have been detected by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the O K pre-edge regime of transition metal (TM) elemental oxides and complex oxides. Occupied ground and excited states of the model satisfy Hund's rules by (i) including only high-spin state arrangements and (ii) using many electron state term symbols consistent with Russell-Saunders coupling. Qualitative and quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated by using Tanabe-Sugano energy level diagrams for (i) identifying the symmetries and spin states, and (ii) determining the relative energies of intra-d-state transitions that are allowed in the presence of an intermediate strength ligand field. This includes removal of the spin degeneracy for the allowed transitions by a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect. The effective d2 model is applied to nanocrystalline thin films of ZrO2, HfO2, TiO2, and Lu2O3 and to illustrate the agreement between the new d2 model and the X-ray absorption spectroscopy data. The new model has also been applied with the same degree of success to complex TM oxides and SiO2.

  7. Mathematical model of Lame Problem for Simplified Elastic Theory applied to Controlled-Clearance Pressure Balances

    CERN Document Server

    Silvano, Saragosa

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on the original work of the master degree thesis [1] and also represents a revision of the models and the correlations with the analytical solutions given by other authors in the previous publications from 2003 to 2007. All the publications from 2003 to 2007 about simplified analytical methods applied to controlled-clearance pressure balances are not original re-elaborations (with some errors) of the thesis[1]. The analysis described in this paper starts with the mathematical model of thick-walled cylinder based on the solution of the Lame Equations applied to Mechanical theory of elastic equilibrium [5] for the formulation of the so called Simplified Elastic Theory that represents an analytical approach used in the study of the pressure balances. This analysis is well known as Lame problem. The solution of the Lame problem is used to determine the pressure distortion coefficient of controlled-clearance pressure balances. The analysis in this paper includes the case of pressure balances wi...

  8. Development of the applied mathematics originating from the group theory of physical and mathematical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, J.; Beyer, W.; Louck, J.; Metropolis, N.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Group theoretical methods are a powerful tool both in their applications to mathematics and to physics. The broad goal of this project was to use such methods to develop the implications of group (symmetry) structures underlying models of physical systems, as well as to broaden the understanding of simple models of chaotic systems. The main thrust was to develop further the complex mathematics that enters into many-particle quantum systems with special emphasis on the new directions in applied mathematics that have emerged and continue to surface in these studies. In this area, significant advances in understanding the role of SU(2) 3nj-coefficients in SU(3) theory have been made and in using combinatoric techniques in the study of generalized Schur functions, discovered during this project. In the context of chaos, the study of maps of the interval and the associated theory of words has led to significant discoveries in Galois group theory, to the classification of fixed points, and to the solution of a problem in the classification of DNA sequences.

  9. Documenting genomics: Applying archival theory to preserving the records of the Human Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The Human Genome Archive Project (HGAP) aimed to preserve the documentary heritage of the UK's contribution to the Human Genome Project (HGP) by using archival theory to develop a suitable methodology for capturing the results of modern, collaborative science. After assessing past projects and different archival theories, the HGAP used an approach based on the theory of documentation strategy to try to capture the records of a scientific project that had an influence beyond the purely scientific sphere. The HGAP was an archival survey that ran for two years. It led to ninety scientists being contacted and has, so far, led to six collections being deposited in the Wellcome Library, with additional collections being deposited in other UK repositories. In applying documentation strategy the HGAP was attempting to move away from traditional archival approaches to science, which have generally focused on retired Nobel Prize winners. It has been partially successful in this aim, having managed to secure collections from people who are not ‘big names’, but who made an important contribution to the HGP. However, the attempt to redress the gender imbalance in scientific collections and to improve record-keeping in scientific organisations has continued to be difficult to achieve. PMID:26388555

  10. Fundamental mode perturbation theory applied to reactor experiment calculations using small samples of fast multiplying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the interpretation of the reactivity experiments is presented. The method employed is the first order perturbation theory in the fondamental mode formalism. The method can be employed in the interpretation of absolute experiments (measurements of buckling, critical mass, etc) as well differential experiments. The diffusion and transport theories are parallely employed. The method is developed for different approximations of the scattering and for the geometries in one and two dimensions. The problem of the estimation of the first order approximation in the perturbation theory has been analysed. This analysis enables the definition of a new criterion which depends upon the quantities that one can calculates by means of the fondamental mode codes. Numerous problems of practical application of the method have been analysed: the elimination of parasitic effects (interface effects, streaming effects), the application of the multigroupe formalism instead of the exact formalism, etc. The method is applied to the interpretation of experiments of different types: sodium void in uranium and plutonium lattices, the substitution experiments of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and the oscillation experiments realised with plutonium samples rich in plutonium high isotopes. The use of the first order approximation enables to exploit the superposition principle; the differential effects (measured or/and calculated) may be added. This is a very interesting particularity for the interpretation as well for the practical realisation of experiments. It is shown that the class of experiments which are interpretable by this new method is very large

  11. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  12. Gender Socialization and Identity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Gender socialization is examined through a social psychological lens by applying identity theory and identity control theory. Current research from the fields of family and sociological social psychology are surveyed to provide a better conception of how the family operates as agents of socialization, and how identities that are cultivated and fostered in youth provide meaning throughout the life course and maintain the social order. The application of identity theory shows how gender is a di...

  13. From Years of Work in Psychology and Computer Science, Scientists Build Theories of Thinking and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Scientists feel that progress in artificial intelligence and the availability of thousands of experimental results make this the right time to build and test theories on how people think and learn, using the computer to model minds. (MSE)

  14. Quantitative tools for comparing animal communication systems: information theory applied to bottlenose dolphin whistle repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCOWAN; Hanser; Doyle

    1999-02-01

    Comparative analysis of nonhuman animal communication systems and their complexity, particularly in comparison to human language, has been generally hampered by both a lack of sufficiently extensive data sets and appropriate analytic tools. Information theory measures provide an important quantitative tool for examining and comparing communication systems across species. In this paper we use the original application of information theory, that of statistical examination of a communication system's structure and organization. As an example of the utility of information theory to the analysis of animal communication systems, we applied a series of information theory statistics to a statistically categorized set of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, whistle vocalizations. First, we use the first-order entropic relation in a Zipf-type diagram (Zipf 1949 Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort) to illustrate the application of temporal statistics as comparative indicators of repertoire complexity, and as possible predictive indicators of acquisition/learning in animal vocal repertoires. Second, we illustrate the need for more extensive temporal data sets when examining the higher entropic orders, indicative of higher levels of internal informational structure, of such vocalizations, which could begin to allow the statistical reconstruction of repertoire organization. Third, we propose using 'communication capacity' as a measure of the degree of temporal structure and complexity of statistical correlation, represented by the values of entropic order, as an objective tool for interspecies comparison of communication complexity. In doing so, we introduce a new comparative measure, the slope of Shannon entropies, and illustrate how it potentially can be used to compare the organizational complexity of vocal repertoires across a diversity of species. Finally, we illustrate the nature and predictive application of these higher-order entropies using a preliminary

  15. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  16. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  17. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  18. The theory of critical distances applied to problems in fracture and fatigue of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Brazel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of critical distances (TCD has been applied to predict notch-based fracture and fatigue in a wide range of materials and components. The present paper describes a series of projects in which we applied this approach to human bone. Using experimental data from the literature, combined with finite element analysis, we showed that the TCD was able to predict the effect of notches and holes on the strength of bone failing in brittle fracture due to monotonic loading, in different loading regimes. Bone also displays short crack effects, leading to R-curve data for both fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation thresholds; we showed that the TCD could predict this data. This analysis raised a number of questions for discussion, such as the significance of the L value itself in this and other materials. Finally, we applied the TCD to a practical problem in orthopaedic surgery: the management of bone defects, showing that predictions could be made which would enable surgeons to decide on whether a bone graft material would be needed to repair a defect, and to specify what mechanical properties this material should have.

  19. A Short-Term, Prospective Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Ideation in an Adolescent Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2016-06-01

    The present prospective study tested a portion of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) in an adolescent clinical sample. Participants were 143 adolescents consecutively admitted to a partial hospitalization program who completed assessments at intake and discharge from the program. Results partially supported the IPTS and suggest that (1) perceived burdensomeness may be an important socially based cognition for understanding concurrent risk for suicidal ideation (SI); (2) thwarted belongingness affects depression symptom severity over time, which indirectly predicts SI over a short follow-up time frame; and (3) the IPTS constructs may function differently in a high-risk clinical adolescent sample, compared to adults, although findings are preliminary. PMID:26456085

  20. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, E. Leigh; Wildgruber, Andreas; Kreichauf, Susanne; Vögele, Claus; Nixon, Catherine A.; Douthwaite, Wayne; Moore, Helen J; Manios, Yannis; Summerbell, Carolyn D; on behalf of the Toybox-study group

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, ‘enjoyment of food’ and ‘satiety responsiveness’. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and expe...

  1. The typological approach in child and family psychology: a review of theory, methods, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the theoretical underpinnings, major concepts, and methods of the typological approach. It was argued that the typological approach offers a systematic, empirically rigorous and reliable way to synthesize the nomothetic variable-centered approach with the idiographic case-centered approach. Recent advances in cluster analysis validation make it a promising method for uncovering natural typologies. This paper also reviewed findings from personality and family studies that have revealed 3 prototypical personalities and parenting styles: Adjusted/Authoritative, Overcontrolled/Authoritarian, and Undercontrolled/Permissive. These prototypes are theorized to be synonymous with attractor basins in psychological state space. The connection between family types and personality structure as well as future directions of typological research were also discussed. PMID:12836581

  2. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored. PMID:16094631

  3. On the biological plausibility of grandmother cells: implications for neural network theories in psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated representations. One of the putative advantages of this approach is that the theories are biologically plausible. Indeed, advocates of the PDP approach often highlight the close parallels between distributed representations learned in connectionist models and neural coding in brain and often dismiss localist (grandmother cell) theories as biologically implausible. The author reviews a range a data that strongly challenge this claim and shows that localist models provide a better account of single-cell recording studies. The author also contrast local and alternative distributed coding schemes (sparse and coarse coding) and argues that common rejection of grandmother cell theories in neuroscience is due to a misunderstanding about how localist models behave. The author concludes that the localist representations embedded in theories of perception and cognition are consistent with neuroscience; biology only calls into question the distributed representations often learned in PDP models. PMID:19159155

  4. Sender-receiver systems and applying information theory for quantitative synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena Menendez, Diego; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Isalan, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Sender-receiver (S-R) systems abound in biology, with communication systems sending information in various forms. Information theory provides a quantitative basis for analysing these processes and is being applied to study natural genetic, enzymatic and neural networks. Recent advances in synthetic biology are providing us with a wealth of artificial S-R systems, giving us quantitative control over networks with a finite number of well-characterised components. Combining the two approaches can help to predict how to maximise signalling robustness, and will allow us to make increasingly complex biological computers. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology will require moving beyond engineering the flow of information and towards building more sophisticated circuits that interpret biological meaning. PMID:25282688

  5. Optimal control theory (OWEM) applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, G. J.; Kai, T.

    1975-01-01

    A major difficulty in the practical application of linear-quadratic regulator theory is how to choose the weighting matrices in quadratic cost functions. The control system design with optimal weighting matrices was applied to a helicopter in the hover and approach phase. The weighting matrices were calculated to extremize the closed loop total system damping subject to constraints on the determinants. The extremization is really a minimization of the effects of disturbances, and interpreted as a compromise between the generalized system accuracy and the generalized system response speed. The trade-off between the accuracy and the response speed is adjusted by a single parameter, the ratio of determinants. By this approach an objective measure can be obtained for the design of a control system. The measure is to be determined by the system requirements.

  6. Applying Monte Carlo Concept and Linear Programming in Modern Portfolio Theory to Obtain Best Weighting Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpal Sihombing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is entering the era of recession when the trend is bearish and market is not so favorable. The capital markets in every major country were experiencing great amount of loss and people suffered in their investment. The Jakarta Composite Index (JCI has shown a great downturn for the past one year but the trend bearish year of the JCI. Therefore, rational investors should consider restructuring their portfolio to set bigger proportion in bonds and cash instead of stocks. Investors can apply modern portfolio theory by Harry Markowitz to find the optimum asset allocation for their portfolio. Higher return is always associated with higher risk. This study shows investors how to find out the lowest risk of a portfolio investment by providing them with several structures of portfolio weighting. By this way, investor can compare and make the decision based on risk-return consideration and opportunity cost as well.

  7. THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGY IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Chebotarova, I. G.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with psychological aspects in the process of foreign language mastering. It studies the role of Psychology in education and its relationship with Pedagogy and Linguistics. The article presents some historical facts of applying psychological theories in foreign language teaching underlining the importance of a teacher’s professional language competence, factors of accounting of educational subject particularities and individual peculiarities of learners, especially motivation...

  8. Applying the proto-theory of design to explain and modify the parameter analysis method of conceptual design

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Ehud; Koskela, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of applying the notions provided by the reconstructed proto-theory of design, based on Aristotle’s remarks, to the parameter analysis (PA) method of conceptual design. Two research questions are addressed: (1) What further clarification and explanation to the approach of PA is provided by the proto-theory? (2) Which conclusions can be drawn from the study of an empirically derived design approach through the proto-theory regarding usefulness, validity a...

  9. Design & Choice of Media by Applying the Theory of Transactional Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Kawachi

    2004-01-01

    This Paper presents a series of empirical studies involving approx.850 students to show how flexibility in course design should be informed by the student's culture and native language (L1), gender, and age, and explains how to decide on the most appropriate learning technology in course design by applying the Theory of Transactional Distance. Curves are presented to show how academic English reading rates online and offline are affected by the L1, gender, and age (over a wide age range 18 81 years old). To prevent inequitable culturally distinct overload, course design should be modified using hypertext. Choice of media--in particular synchronous versus asynchronous media--is decided according to the Theory of Transactional Distance. This theory is here extended from tutor to one student to multiple students in a group, and the masculinity can be modified. Briefly, at initial maximal distance (D-S-) early on, the community is fostered with synchronous media for cooperative group learning, followed by (D-S+) collaborative learning using one of two frameworks presented to ensure constructivism in asynchronous mode, then (D-S+) collaborative for Guided Didactic Conversation in asynchronous mode, and finally (D+ S-) cooperatively in synchronous mode for reflective sharing of course learning experiences. At each transactional distance, or in each mode, hypertext is purposively designed to complement the cooperative or collaborative style to provide self access support (additional analysis and reasoning to cooperative, and examples to collaborative) to provide equitable content and quality of learning across wide cultural and L1 ranges, to remove gender bias, and to accommodate variations due to student age. Thus, to promote student autonomy and lifelong learning.

  10. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance. PMID:26151198

  11. Microeconomic Surplus in Health Care: Applied Economic Theory in Health Care in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, S.; Nuijten, M.; Wiesner, C.; Kaier, K.; Johansson, P-O.; Oertel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care “convenience” could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. Conclusion: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: “Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings.” Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept. PMID:23423475

  12. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Okumura, Teppei [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: zvlah@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) Université de Genéve, Genéve (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  13. Microeconomic surplus in health care: Applied economic theory in health care in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care convenience could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Methods: Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analysed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands and the UK: Caesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends, drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value was calculated.Results: The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands.Conclusions: The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings. Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.

  14. When Psychology Went Online: Review of "Psychological Aspects of Cyberspace: Theory, Research Applications", Edited by Azy Barak (Cambridge University Press, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Buchanan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Azy Barak is well known for his prolific contributions to several areas of the literature dealing with psychological investigation of the Internet and related technologies, and also the exploitation of the Internet as a space in which the profession of psychology may be conducted. These efforts fall within the domain of what some call "cyberpsychology" - essentially, the application of psychology to the Internet - and that is the focus of this book. In this 300-page volume he has assembled an excellent collection of contributors, all familiar names who have done much to advance their respective fields of expertise. Many of the real pioneers in the area are represented here, bringing to the project a considerable depth and breadth of knowledge and experience. They are drawn from a variety of nations, institutions, and areas of psychology, and thus bring a variety of perspectives to the work.

  15. Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Essays in Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Carol S.

    Based on extensive research with children and young adults, this book examines adaptive and maladaptive cognitive-motivational patterns and shows how these patterns originate in people's self theories; their consequences for one's achievement, social relationships, and emotional well-being; their consequences for society; and the experiences that…

  16. Test Anxiety: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. The Series in Clinical and Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Charles D., Ed.; Vagg, Peter R., Ed.

    It is not surprising that a broad array of treatment programs have been developed to reduce test anxiety, since the consequences can be serious. The contributions in this volume review and evaluate the theory of test anxiety, its measurement, its manifestations, and possible treatments and their outcomes. The following chapters are included: (1)…

  17. Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

  18. Psychological theory in an interdisciplinary context: psychological, demographic, health-related, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in a representative cohort of community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sniehotta, Falko F; Gellert, Paul; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T.; Crombie, Iain K; McMurdo, Marion ET

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in older adults is influenced by a range of environmental, demographic, health-related, social, and psychological variables. Social cognitive psychological models assume that all influences on behaviour operate indirectly through the models constructs, i.e., via intention and self-efficacy. We evaluated direct, indirect, and moderating relationships of a broad range of external variables with physical activity levels alongside intention and self-efficacy. Met...

  19. TITIK TEMU TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Khadijah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1 what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2 in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especially psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the deepest meaning of human behavior with a tendency to override the meaning of physical aspect. Behaviorism has been strongly influenced by pure science. In fact, research on the human psyche aspect cannot be done simply by applying pure science. Meanwhile, transpersonal psychology tries to fundamentally reinforce and develop human potential, both physical and mental aspects. Moreover, this approach reaches supernatural and spiritual aspects of human beings. The writer tends to argue that the common ground shared by the mystical aspects of the Western world, in the perspective of transpersonal psychology, and Sufism in Islam lays in the fact that each entity puts great emphasis on managing and increasing the spiritual aspect of human.Keywords: transpersonal psychology, tasawuf, common ground.

  20. Critical Reflections on Evolutionary Psychology and Sexual Selection Theory as Explanatory Account of Emergence of Sex Differences in Psychopathology: Comment on Martel (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Martel (2013) proposed a meta-theory, based on sexual selection theory and broad evolutionary psychological (EP) principles, to account for well-known sex differences in the emergence of common behavioral and certain internalizing disorders across childhood and adolescence, respectively. This Comment first enumerates several strengths and then offers two primary critiques about Martel’s proposal. Martel provides an exceptional, integrative review that organizes several disparate literatures t...

  1. Multidisciplinary Assessment and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability: Integration of Psychological and Biological Theory and Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Hurwitz, Sarah; Morriss, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the psychological (largely behavioral) and biological [neurochemical, medical (including genetic), and pharmacological] theories and approaches that contribute to current thinking about the etiology and treatment of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and/or…

  2. The Impact of a Brief Training on Suicide for Graduate Students in Psychology, Incorporating Thomas Joiner's Theory of Why People Die by Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherbee, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that there is a lack of formal training in suicide for mental health professionals in graduate psychology programs (Bongar & Harmatz, 1991; Batista, 2007). Suicide is a public health issue, with one suicide occurring approximately every 16 minutes in the United States (www.cdc.gov). A recently developed theory on why people die…

  3. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  4. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hrisos, S.; Eccles, M.P.; Francis, J.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Dijkstra, R.F.; Johnston, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kaner, E.F.; Steen, I.N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theori

  5. Applying Dynamical Systems Theory to Optimize Libration Point Orbit Stationkeeping Maneuvers for WIND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan M.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's WIND mission has been operating in a large amplitude Lissajous orbit in the vicinity of the interior libration point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system since 2004. Regular stationkeeping maneuvers are required to maintain the orbit due to the instability around the collinear libration points. Historically these stationkeeping maneuvers have been performed by applying an incremental change in velocity, or (delta)v along the spacecraft-Sun vector as projected into the ecliptic plane. Previous studies have shown that the magnitude of libration point stationkeeping maneuvers can be minimized by applying the (delta)v in the direction of the local stable manifold found using dynamical systems theory. This paper presents the analysis of this new maneuver strategy which shows that the magnitude of stationkeeping maneuvers can be decreased by 5 to 25 percent, depending on the location in the orbit where the maneuver is performed. The implementation of the optimized maneuver method into operations is discussed and results are presented for the first two optimized stationkeeping maneuvers executed by WIND.

  6. Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, F. M.; Schmidt, M.; Maziero, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Dimensional analysis and extended hydrodynamic theory applied to long-rod penetration of ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Clayton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Principles of dimensional analysis are applied in a new interpretation of penetration of ceramic targets subjected to hypervelocity impact. The analysis results in a power series representation – in terms of inverse velocity – of normalized depth of penetration that reduces to the hydrodynamic solution at high impact velocities. Specifically considered are test data from four literature sources involving penetration of confined thick ceramic targets by tungsten long rod projectiles. The ceramics are AD-995 alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, and boron carbide. Test data can be accurately represented by the linear form of the power series, whereby the same value of a single fitting parameter applies remarkably well for all four ceramics. Comparison of the present model with others in the literature (e.g., Tate's theory demonstrates a target resistance stress that depends on impact velocity, linearly in the limiting case. Comparison of the present analysis with recent research involving penetration of thin ceramic tiles at lower typical impact velocities confirms the importance of target properties related to fracture and shear strength at the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL only in the latter. In contrast, in the former (i.e., hypervelocity and thick target experiments, the current analysis demonstrates dominant dependence of penetration depth only by target mass density. Such comparisons suggest transitions from microstructure-controlled to density-controlled penetration resistance with increasing impact velocity and ceramic target thickness.

  8. Some reflections on the influence of Chinese thought on Jung and his psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Murray

    2005-04-01

    Jung claimed that Richard Wilhelm, whose masterful translations of Chinese wisdom literature into a European language (German) and thence into Western consciousness have brought Chinese modes of thinking to so many, was one of the most important influences on his own life and work. The contacts between the two men, which took place from the early 1920's until Wilhelm's death in 1930, were few but intense and for Jung decisive in several ways. Wilhelm's translations of the I Ching and The Secret of the Golden Flower opened new avenues for Jung that had far-reaching consequences on his research and writing after 1930. The latter opened the door to the study of alchemy as a key to the archetypal process of individuation as rooted in the collective unconscious. 'Synchronicity' is a term that grew out of his contact with Chinese thought, in particular with the I Ching. From his contact with Chinese thought, additionally, he received confirmation of the view, independently arrived at, that adult psychological development is not linear but rather circular and spiral-like. The letters between Jung and Wilhelm illuminate the great importance Jung ascribed to Wilhelm's contribution toward bridging East and West and the potential value of Chinese philosophy for psychotherapy. PMID:15817043

  9. Transactional stress and coping theory in accounting for psychological states measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buško

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a relative predictive value of some stable individual attributes and the processes of cognitive appraisals and coping with stress in accounting for specific components of anxiety state measures. Self-report instruments for the measurement of selected psychological constructs, i.e. perceived incompetence, externality, stress intensity and duration, situation-specific coping strategies, and the two anxiety state components, were taken in a sample of 449 male military basics trainees, ranging in age from 18-27. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the set of predictors employed could account for statistically, as well as theoretically and practically a significant part of variance in cognitive anxiety component (45,5%, and in visceral-emotional component (32,2% of the anxiety state. The extent of anxiety reactions assessed by both scales could primarily be explained by general perception of personal incompetence, as a relatively stable dimension of general self-concept. Of the ways of coping examined, reinterpretation of stressful events was the only strategy contributing to low level, whereas passivization, wishful thinking, and seeking social support contributed to higher levels of anxiety measured by both scales. The results give partial support to the basic hypotheses on the mediating role of coping in the relationships among particular components of the stress and coping models.

  10. 试用心理学原理治疗失眠症%Treatment of Insomnia Based on Psychological Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶

    2012-01-01

      随着现代生活节奏的不断加快,人际竞争日益加剧,人们的精神始终处于高度紧张状态。部分心理素质较差人群,面对生活和工作中的困难和压力不能采取积极正确的应对方式,而忧虑、紧张、激动、思虑过多,进而造成失眠症。失眠给患者带来巨大的生理心理苦恼,更严重危害患者健康。失眠是睡眠主要障碍之一,主要从经典性条件反射、操作性条件反射和森田疗法的原理讨论失眠症的心理治疗问题。%  Insomnia is a primary type of sleep disorder. In the current research, the author tried to discuss treatment of insomnia based on psychological principles including classical conditioning theory, classical conditioning theory, and Morita therapy.

  11. Applying Fear Appeals Theory for Preventing Drug Abuse among Male High School Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Witte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.

  12. On Applying of Attitude Theory to the Teaching of College Ideological and Political Theory Course%论态度理论在高校思想政治理论课教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶湘虹

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of college ideological and political theory course is not only the essence of knowledge education bu also a kind of value and belief education. Peopleˊs belief formation involves a person-al attitude change. The attitude theory is an important content part in social psychology. In this paper,firstly examines the problems of college ideological and political theory course teaching, secondly introduces the basic model of persuasion, thirdly introduces the three stage theory of attitude changing process, finally ap-plies the attitude theory to college ideological and political theory course teaching through four aspects: the educator, the information, the students and the situation of attitude change.%一个人信仰的形成涉及到态度的改变。高校思想政治理论课教学,它是知识教育,也是价值信仰教育。态度理论是社会心理学中一个重要的研究内容。论文先用态度理论对高校思想政治理论课教学所存在问题进行审视,而后介绍态度改变的基本说服模型,进而介绍态度改变的三阶段理论,第四部分则论述了态度改变中的四个因素:教育者、所传递信息、受教育者和情境,以及如何将态度理论应用于高校思想政治理论课教学中。

  13. Rethinking Diffusion Theory in an Applied Context: Role of Environmental Values in Adoption of Home Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Susanna Hornig; Greenhalgh, Ted; Neill, Helen R.; Young, Gabriel Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion theory, developed and popularized within communication research by Everett Rogers, is a venerable approach with much to recommend it as a theoretical foundation for applied communication research. In developing an applied project for a home energy conservation (energy efficiency retrofit) program in the state of Nevada, we utilized key…

  14. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Tardy

    Full Text Available Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection

  15. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  16. Applying systemic-structural activity theory to design of human-computer interaction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bedny, Gregory Z; Bedny, Inna

    2015-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field that has gained recognition as an important field in ergonomics. HCI draws on ideas and theoretical concepts from computer science, psychology, industrial design, and other fields. Human-Computer Interaction is no longer limited to trained software users. Today people interact with various devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops. How can you make such interaction user friendly, even when user proficiency levels vary? This book explores methods for assessing the psychological complexity of computer-based tasks. It also p

  17. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8t...

  18. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  19. Adaptation of learning resources based on the MBTI theory of psychological types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Behaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the resources available on the web increases significantly. The motivation for the dissemination of knowledge and their acquisition by learners is central to learning. However, learners show differences between the ways of learning that suits them best. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to study how it is possible to integrate models from cognitive theories and ontologies for the adaptation of educational resources. The goal is to provide the system capabilities to conduct reasoning on descriptions obtained in order to automatically adapt the resources to a learner according to his preferences. We rely on the model MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator for the consideration of learning styles of learners as a criterion for adaptation.

  20. H∞ Control Theory Applied to Xenon Control for Load-Following Operation of a Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust controller is designed by applying the H∞ optimal control theory to the xenon control for the load-following operation of a nuclear reactor. The set of reactor model equations for controller design is a stiff system. This singularly perturbed system arises from the interaction of slow dynamics modes (iodine and xenon concentrations) and fast dynamics modes (neutron density, fuel and coolant temperatures). The singular perturbation technique is used to overcome this stiffness problem. The design specifications are incorporated by the frequency weights using the mixed-sensitivity problem approach. The robustness of H∞ control is demonstrated by comparing it with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control in the case of a measurement delay of the power measurement system.Since the gains and phase margins of H∞ control are larger than those of LQG control, the H∞ control is expected to provide excellent stability robustness and performance robustness against external disturbances and noises, model parameter variations, and modeling errors as well as hardware failures. It may also provide a practical design method because the design specifications can be easily implemented by the frequency weights

  1. Applying cognitive load theory to the redesign of a conventional database systems course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Raina; Seton, Carolyn; Cooper, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) was used to redesign a Database Systems course for Information Technology students. The redesign was intended to address poor student performance and low satisfaction, and to provide a more relevant foundation in database design and use for subsequent studies and industry. The original course followed the conventional structure for a database course, covering database design first, then database development. Analysis showed the conventional course content was appropriate but the instructional materials used were too complex, especially for novice students. The redesign of instructional materials applied CLT to remove split attention and redundancy effects, to provide suitable worked examples and sub-goals, and included an extensive re-sequencing of content. The approach was primarily directed towards mid- to lower performing students and results showed a significant improvement for this cohort with the exam failure rate reducing by 34% after the redesign on identical final exams. Student satisfaction also increased and feedback from subsequent study was very positive. The application of CLT to the design of instructional materials is discussed for delivery of technical courses.

  2. Textures of Superfluid 3He-B in Applied Flow and Comparison with Hydrostatic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    de Graaf, R; Hosio, J J; Heikkinen, P J; Krusius, M

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the order parameter texture of rotating superfluid 3He-B have been performed as a function of the applied azimuthal counterflow velocity down to temperatures of 0.2Tc. The results are compared to the hydrostatic theory of 3He-B. Good agreement is found at all measured temperatures and rotation velocities when the flow anisotropy contribution to the textural free energy is adjusted. This gives a superfluid energy gap Delta(T) which agrees with that measured by Todoshchenko et al., with Delta(0)=1.97kBTc at 29.0 bar. The B-phase susceptibility, longitudinal resonance frequency, and textural phase transition have been extracted from the measurements as a function of temperature and azimuthal counterflow velocity. Owing to decreasing absorption intensities the present measuring method, based on the line shape analysis of the NMR spectrum, loses its sensitivity with decreasing temperature. However, we find that in practice the measurement of vortex numbers and counterflow velocities is still feasib...

  3. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  4. Adoption of M-commerce in India: Applying Theory of Planned Behaviour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITA MISHRA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, with the development in wireless and mobile technologies, Mobile Commerce (m-commerce is expected to make substantial impact on the business landscape. The mobile cellular market is the fastest growing telecommunication market in terms of subscriber numbers and popularity in India. Mobile Commerce market in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 71.06 percent by the year 2016. The substantial increase of the mobile users is linked with greater adoption for mobile-commerce in India. At present, Indian users indulge in mobile purchases for low value transactions such as entertainment services, games, and music downloads. Mobile commerce is quite popular in the developed countries but in India it is in nascent stage and yet to take off. This study captures users’ acceptance behaviour towards M-commerce by applying theory of planned behaviour (TPB model developed by Ajzen (1991. Results indicate that attitude and perceived behavioural control have positive and significant impact on individual’s intention while subjective norm has a positive but not significant impact on intention. Further, intention is found to be significantly and positively related with behaviour.

  5. Multivariable control theory applied to hierarchial attitude control for planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, J. S., III; Russell, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Multivariable control theory is applied to the design of a hierarchial attitude control system for the CARD space vehicle. The system selected uses reaction control jets (RCJ) and control moment gyros (CMG). The RCJ system uses linear signal mixing and a no-fire region similar to that used on the Skylab program; the y-axis and z-axis systems which are coupled use a sum and difference feedback scheme. The CMG system uses the optimum steering law and the same feedback signals as the RCJ system. When both systems are active the design is such that the torques from each system are never in opposition. A state-space analysis was made of the CMG system to determine the general structure of the input matrices (steering law) and feedback matrices that will decouple the axes. It is shown that the optimum steering law and proportional-plus-rate feedback are special cases. A derivation of the disturbing torques on the space vehicle due to the motion of the on-board television camera is presented. A procedure for computing an upper bound on these torques (given the system parameters) is included.

  6. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  7. Theory and design of broadband matching networks applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    1976-01-01

    Theory and Design of Broadband Matching Networks centers on the network theory and its applications to the design of broadband matching networks and amplifiers. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with a description of the foundation of network theory. Chapter 2 gives a fairly complete exposition of the scattering matrix associated with an n-port network. Chapter 3 considers the approximation problem along with a discussion of the approximating functions. Chapter 4 explains the Youla's theory of broadband matching by illustrating every phase of the theory with fully worked out examp

  8. An effective correlated mean-field theory applied in the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto Viana, J.; Salmon, Octávio R. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A.; Padilha, Igor T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, Manaus 69077-000, AM (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We developed a new treatment for mean-field theory applied in spins systems, denominated effective correlated mean-field (ECMF). We apply this theory to study the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model with nearest-neighbor interactions on a square lattice. We use clusters of finite sizes and study the criticality of the ferromagnetic system, where we obtain a convergence of critical temperature for the value k{sub B}T{sub c}/J≃2.27905±0.00141. Also the behavior of magnetic and thermodynamic properties, using the condition of minimum energy of the physical system is obtained. - Highlights: • We developed spin models to study real magnetic systems. • We study the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetism. • We enhanced a mean-field theory applied in spins models.

  9. An effective correlated mean-field theory applied in the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a new treatment for mean-field theory applied in spins systems, denominated effective correlated mean-field (ECMF). We apply this theory to study the spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnetic model with nearest-neighbor interactions on a square lattice. We use clusters of finite sizes and study the criticality of the ferromagnetic system, where we obtain a convergence of critical temperature for the value kBTc/J≃2.27905±0.00141. Also the behavior of magnetic and thermodynamic properties, using the condition of minimum energy of the physical system is obtained. - Highlights: • We developed spin models to study real magnetic systems. • We study the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the ferromagnetism. • We enhanced a mean-field theory applied in spins models

  10. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  11. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Hasnan Ahmad,1 Suzana Shahar,2 Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng,2 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Noor Ibrahim Mohd Sakian,3 Baharudin Omar41Centre of Nutrition Epidemiology Research, Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dietetics Program, 3Occupational Therapy Program, 4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala ­Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men and 66.1±5.1 (women years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1 exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women; and 2 the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women. Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB’s model, attitude (ß=0.60 and perceived behavioral control (ß=0.24 were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (ß=0.82 was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men’s, ß=0.68; women’s, ß=0.24 and subjective norm (men’s, ß=0.12; women’s, ß=0.87 were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. “Feels healthier with exercise” was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (ß=0.36 and women (ß=0.49. “Not motivated to perform exercise” was the main barrier among men’s intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and

  12. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  13. Implicit theories of online trolling: Evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with increased psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. PMID:26403842

  14. The Journey Towards Africanising Psychology in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has come a long way since its origin in Africa and Ghana in particular. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the current state of psychological knowledge in Ghana as well as the associated problems in the application of such knowledge. It was concluded that the approach to the study and application of psychological knowledge and tests has been too Eurocentric and westernized. As a result, it limits the applicability of the approach to the African setting, and yet, Western theorists may expect African psychologists to apply the theories to Africans. On the basis of this criticism, the scope of Pan-African psychology is defined and suggestions for pursuing an Africanisation project are presented. It is expected that the strategies that this paper advocates for indigenizing psychology in Africa can equally be useful to psychologists in other developing regions of the world.

  15. Work & Health. Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress applied in an organisational setting

    OpenAIRE

    Svensen, Erling

    2007-01-01

    Most models of occupational stress propose that stressors in the work environment lead to negative psychological, physical, and behavioural changes in the individual employee (Jex & Bliese, 1999). This thesis focuses on three potential stressors in the work environment; downsizing, poor work environment in general, and poor leadership. What are the characteristics of these stressors, and can they be causes of ill health? Does a focus on the individual interpretation of the envi...

  16. Volunteers and conditions under which crowd-out effect could appear. An empirical evidence of psychological self-determination theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses if monetary rewards to continuative Italian volunteers decrease their intrinsic motivation undermining the satisfaction of psychological needs for autonomy and competence. It uses a Survey on Employment in the Social Care and Educational Services conducted by FIVOL-FEO in 1998. The paper shows that monetary rewards increase the satisfaction of psychological needs for autonomy and competence, but the satisfaction of psychological needs for autonomy and competence does not me...

  17. Applying the Theory of the Firm to Examine a Technology Startup at the Investment Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ayukawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The investment stage of a new technology firm is when resources, opportunities, investors, and early customers first converge. Currently, technology entrepreneurs make many expensive mistakes. They invest in assets and develop capabilities that prove to have limited value. They take too long to discover and validate the product-market fit for their firms during the investment stage and run out of time and money. Understanding how theory can help entrepreneurs make decisions during the investment stage is important to accelerate new-firm formation and growth as well as to reduce the uncertainty of founders and stakeholders of technology firms. This article introduces a model developed to examine deal making during the investment stage of a new technology firm. It is an extension of a model of lateral firm scope proposed by Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom. The extensions come from considering a technology firm as being both a deal-making entity and a pool of resources during the investment stage. A deal is the result of a decision the entrepreneur and others make to coordinate (i.e., work together to achieve a common objective. Benefits from a deal include cash profits for the firm and private benefits for the entrepreneur. This extended model is then applied to examine the author’s firm which is still in the investment stage. Application of the extended model to a real-life situation generated two important insights: i when private benefits include learning from experimentation, the number of deals increases and ii at the start of the investment stage, private benefits drive deal-making, whereas at the end of the investment stage, cash profits derived from asset ownership drive deal-making.

  18. Applying theory of planned behavior to predict exercise maintenance in sarcopenic elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Shahar, Suzana; Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohd; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors associated with exercise behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among the sarcopenic elderly people in Cheras, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 65 subjects with mean ages of 67.5±5.2 (men) and 66.1±5.1 (women) years participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) exercise group (n=34; 25 men, nine women); and 2) the control group (n=31; 22 men, nine women). Structural equation modeling, based on TPB components, was applied to determine specific factors that most contribute to and predict actual behavior toward exercise. Based on the TPB's model, attitude (β=0.60) and perceived behavioral control (β=0.24) were the major predictors of intention to exercise among men at the baseline. Among women, the subjective norm (β=0.82) was the major predictor of intention to perform the exercise at the baseline. After 12 weeks, attitude (men's, β=0.68; women's, β=0.24) and subjective norm (men's, β=0.12; women's, β=0.87) were the predictors of the intention to perform the exercise. "Feels healthier with exercise" was the specific factor to improve the intention to perform and to maintain exercise behavior in men (β=0.36) and women (β=0.49). "Not motivated to perform exercise" was the main barrier among men's intention to exercise. The intention to perform the exercise was able to predict actual behavior regarding exercise at the baseline and at 12 weeks of an intervention program. As a conclusion, TPB is a useful model to determine and to predict maintenance of exercise in the sarcopenic elderly. PMID:25258524

  19. Applying Portfolio Theory to EU Electricity Planning and Policy-Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awerbuch, Shimon; Berger, Martin

    2003-02-01

    This study introduces mean-variance portfolio theory and evaluates its potential application to the development of efficient (optimal) European Union (EU-15) generating portfolios that enhance energy security and diversification objectives. The analysis extends to European countries the previous work done by Awerbuch in the US, and applies a significantly more detailed portfolio model that reflects the risk of the relevant generating cost streams: fuel, operation and maintenance and construction period costs. It illustrates the portfolio effects of different generating mixes. The study offers preliminary findings on the effects of including more renewable energy sources in the typical EU portfolio mix and suggests interesting directions for further study. The study arises from the perception that these standard, finance-oriented analyses may offer valuable enhancements to energy planning, and concepts of energy security and diversity. Clearly the combination of better portfolio construction and more accurate pricing should lead to more optimal decisions in the round. This study, therefore, represents an effort to complement traditional approaches and point researchers and planners into new territory. The results generally indicate that the existing and projected EU generating mixes are sub optimal - though slightly - from a risk-return perspective, which implies that feasible portfolios with lower cost and risk exist. These can be developed by adjusting the conventional mix and by including larger shares of wind or similar renewable technologies. The results of the portfolio analysis suggest that fixed cost technologies such as renewables must be a part of any efficient generating portfolio. Our assessment of all technologies is limited to risk and cost measures, although other benefits, including low externality costs and sustainability, are often cited for renewables.

  20. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Proenvironmental Behaviour: The Case of Energy Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to propose and validate a model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in order to explain consumers’ pro-environmental behaviour regarding energy conservation. The model was constructed using the five variables from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (behaviour, intention, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and attitude) to which a variable adapted from Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT) was added (“awareness of the consequences and the need”) in orde...

  1. Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application of Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Emotional and Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    The field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) has increasingly come to be associated with the treatment of autism in young children. This phenomenon is largely the result of empirical research demonstrating effective treatment outcomes in this population. The same cannot be said with regard to the treatment of conditions often referred to as…

  2. An empirical test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour applied to contraceptive use in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2014-12-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health-behaviour-change theories to contraceptive use among this population. This study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour's ability to predict contraceptive-use-related behaviours among post-partum women in rural Uganda. Results gave modest support to the theory's application and suggest an urgent need for improved theory-based interventions to promote contraceptive use in the populations of developing countries. PMID:23928989

  3. Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...

  4. A Computational Theory of Selection by Consequences Applied to Concurrent Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.; Kulubekova, Saule; Berg, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual organisms animated by a computational theory of selection by consequences responded on symmetrical and asymmetrical concurrent schedules of reinforcement. The theory instantiated Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation such that a population of potential behaviors evolved under the selection pressure exerted by…

  5. Sociocultural Theory Applied to Second Language Learning: Collaborative Learning with Reference to the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…

  6. Building and Applying "Insularity Theory": Review on Knapp's Prehistoric and Protohistoric Cyprus, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou-Tzeveleki, Stella

    on the search for the exception or difference in material culture as the secure way to describe any certain cultural identity. When Knapp applies his theory to Cyprus, he divides the period under examination into two general chronological horizons, and introduces two interesting neologisms: the prehistoric Bronze Age (down to 1650) and the protohistoric Bronze Age (1650-10th century BC), the conventional boundary between them being the appearance of literary sources. Unfortunately, we find that there is no reference to the Chalcolithic, Neolithic and Epipalaeolithic prehistory of Cyprus, since he axiomatically takes the end of the Cypriot Chalcolithic (the Philia culture) as a point of catalytic social change. I believe, however, that one thought (and here we have a challenge to future research) is missing: the contribution made by the earlier societies of the island to the formation of its later tradition, since Knapp himself repeatedly accepts in his book the historical-comparative dimension of identity in the long term, and ultimately resorts to hybridization, in which the local tradition contributes equally as the intrusive factors do. I welcome the distinction of the Bronze Age in prehistoric and protohistoric. Concerning the term protohistory, familiar in Cypriot archaeology since Peltenburg (1982), I strongly recommend it to Greek archaeologists who have enough textual evidence to finally decide to distinguish the proto-literary Late Bronze Age from the vast depths of the Early-Middle Bronze Age, Neolithic and Palaeolithic prehistory of Greece. As for the prehistoric Bronze Age of Cyprus (Late Chalcolithic-1650 BC), Knapp adopts a social/socio-economic approach that involves aspects of elite formation, copper production and exchange, gender representations and individuality. He eschews references to evolutionary typologies and revises Webb and Frankel's (1999) theory of direct migration or colonization from Anatolia, in favour of hybridization, repeating that

  7. Audio Logo Recognition, Reduced Articulation and Coding Orientation:Rudiments of Quantitative Research Integrating Branding Theory, Social Semiotics, and Music Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Bonde; Allan Grutt Hansen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the analysis of corporate audio logos and their effectiveness regarding recognisability and identification. This is done by combining three different academic disciplines: 1) social semiotics, 2) branding theory and 3) music psychology. Admittedly, the idea of integrating sonic semiotics with marketing or branding has been proposed elsewhere (cf. Jekosch, 2005; Arning & Gordon, 2006; Winter, 2011), though it appears n...

  8. Answer First: Applying the Heuristic-Analytic Theory of Reasoning to Examine Student Intuitive Thinking in the Context of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after…

  9. Case Study: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior as Interventions to Increase Sponsored Project Proposal Submissions from Liberal Arts Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic climate, many colleges and universities face similar challenges: the need to increase external sponsorship for research activities and the need to benefit from additional indirect cost recovery. Preparing funding proposals for submission to sponsors is a faculty behavior that can be modified by applying behavioral theory to…

  10. Leadership of Education Psychological Services: Fit for Purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Roger

    2013-01-01

    At a time of great change for educational psychology services in England, this paper reviews current theories of leadership and proposes how an integration of key aspects of these can be applied to support a self review of leadership practice, both by individual leaders and by services. The message from current theory is that in the midst of…

  11. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. PMID:25995656

  12. Field theory methods applied for the study of superconductivity in one-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the Froehlich's hamiltonian in one spatial dimension is identical to that of an exactly solvable field Theory. The spectrum of the theory is computed. A critical coupling is found above which the system becomes unstable, indicating a superconducting transition. It is also proposed and investigated a renormalizable relativistic field theory model in two space-time dimensions, with quartic self-interaction among N species of fermions, which undergoes dynamical generation of a superconducting gap and is asymptotically free. A finite temperature is introduced and, for N -> ∞ a critical value Tc is found above which the gap vanishes. (author)

  13. The Harmony of Physics, Mathematics, and Music: A discovery in mathematical music theory is found to apply in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack

    2009-10-01

    Although it is common practice to borrow tools from mathematics to apply to physics or music, it is unusual to use tools developed in music theory to mathematically describe physical phenomena. So called ``Maximally Even Set'' theory fits this unusual case. In this poster, we summarize, by example, the theory of Maximally Even (ME) sets and show how this formalism leads to the distribution of black and white keys on the piano keyboard. We then show how ME sets lead to a generalization of the well-known ``Cycle-of-Fifths'' in music theory. Subsequently, we describe ordering in one-dimensional spin-1/2 anti-ferromagnets using ME sets showing that this description leads to a fractal ``Devil's Staircase'' magnetic phase diagram. Finally, we examine an extension of ME sets, ``Iterated Maximally Even'' sets that describes chord structure in music.

  14. Multivalley effective mass theory for donors in Si under applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective mass theory is presented for donors in Si subject to a unaxial stress along the (100) direction. An expression for the donor ground state energy suitable for variational calculation is presented, taking into account the Umklapp terms which are neglected in the conventional effective mass theory. The effect of stress on the conduction band valleys is handled as valley repopulation effect on the lines of Wilson and Feher. (author)

  15. Applying attachment theory to effective practice with hard-to-reach youth: the AMBIT approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bevington, D.; Fuggle, P.; Fonagy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) is a developing approach to working with "hard-to-reach" youth burdened with multiple co-occurring morbidities. This article reviews the core features of AMBIT, exploring applications of attachment theory to understand what makes young people "hard to reach," and provide routes toward increased security in their attachment to a worker. Using the theory of the pedagogical stance and epistemic ("pertaining to knowledge") trust, we sho...

  16. An Empirical Test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Contraceptive Use in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Hopwood, Sarah; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2013-01-01

    There is a high unmet need for contraceptives in developing countries such as Uganda, with high population growth, where efforts are needed to promote family planning and contraceptive use. Despite this high need, little research has investigated applications of health behaviour change theories to contraceptive use amongst this population. The present study tested the Theory of Planned Behaviour’s ability to predict contraceptive use-related behaviours among postpartum women in rural Uganda. ...

  17. Effect of Multiple Intelligence Theory Applied for Reproduction Systems on Student Academic Success

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Murat; Aysel TEMELLİ

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of biology teaching based on multiple intelligence theory, on academic success of students. Study group was selected from 10th grade science students of Erzurum Boydak Anadolu Lisesi in the 2008-2009 academic years. One group of students receiving classical teaching was chosen as control, while a second group receiving multiple intelligence theory based teaching was chosen as experiment group. Reproduction System Success Test was used to determine...

  18. A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF SELECTION BY CONSEQUENCES APPLIED TO CONCURRENT SCHEDULES

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, J. J; Caron, Marcia L; Kulubekova, Saule; Berg, John P

    2008-01-01

    Virtual organisms animated by a computational theory of selection by consequences responded on symmetrical and asymmetrical concurrent schedules of reinforcement. The theory instantiated Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation such that a population of potential behaviors evolved under the selection pressure exerted by reinforcement from the environment. The virtual organisms' steady-state behavior was well described by the power function matching equation, and the param...

  19. On collective behavior in western social psychology theory%集群行为的西方社会心理学理论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严磊; 胡修银

    2012-01-01

    按照时间顺序,集群行为的西方社会心理学理论可分为早期、中期和后期三个阶段,早期重视分析群体中个体心理的不同特点,中期重视分析集群行为中个体间的社会互动和社会影响,后期以社会认知为核心整合了个体心理和社会变迁两方面的因素。从社会心理学的研究本质、社会认知以及理性与非理性之辨等三个角度对以上理论进行反思,可以阐明社会心理学对于集群行为的研究逻辑,促进我国社会心理学界对集群行为的深入研究。%The western social psychological circles on collective behavior researches has a long history , which can be divided into early, middle and late stages according to the time sequence and the collective behavior of western social psychology theory. The early researches stressed on the analysis of different mental characters of individuals in group. The middle researches stressed on analysis on social interaction and social impact of individuals in the collec- tive behavior. And the later researches stressed on the integration of individual psychology and social changes factors with the social cognition as the core. Rethink profoundly from the social psychology essence, social cognition, and the rational and irrational parts, we can clarify the research logic of social psychology to collective behavior and promote our research of social psychology circles on the behavior of the duster.

  20. Analytical methods applied to the study of lattice gauge and spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of interactions between quarks and gluons is presented. Certain difficulties of the quantum chromodynamics to explain the behaviour of quarks has given origin to the technique of lattice gauge theories. First the phase diagrams of the discrete space-time theories are studied. The analysis of the phase diagrams is made by numerical and analytical methods. The following items were investigated and studied: a) A variational technique was proposed to obtain very accurated values for the ground and first excited state energy of the analyzed theory; b) A mean-field-like approximation for lattice spin models in the link formulation which is a generalization of the mean-plaquette technique was developed; c) A new method to study lattice gauge theories at finite temperature was proposed. For the first time, a non-abelian model was studied with analytical methods; d) An abelian lattice gauge theory with fermionic matter at the strong coupling limit was analyzed. Interesting results applicable to non-abelian gauge theories were obtained. (M.E.L.)

  1. The interacting boson model, BSC-RPA theory and the theory of pairing interactions applied to Ge nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low lying states and especialy the extraordinary behaviour of the first excited O+ state as a function of neutron number in the sequence of nuclei, 68Ge, 70Ge, 72Ge, 74Ge, 76Ge, are described (except for 76Ge) by introducing a s'-boson into the interacting boson model (IBM) which usually involves only s- and d-bosons. This introduction could be understood by considering results from BCS-RPA calculations in the neutron configuration only. BCS-RPA theory is, however, shown to be a poor approximation in the case under consideration. Results from the exact diagonalisation of the Hamiltonian for the charge independant pairing interaction in both the proton and neutron configuration are discussed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs

  2. Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Heylighen, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach to the study of the mind that is founded on Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. It assumes that our mental abilities, emotions and preferences are adapted specifically for solving problems of survival and reproduction in humanity’s ancestral environment, and derives testable predictions from this assumption. This has important implications for our understanding of the conditions for human well-being.

  3. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  4. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the ...

  5. Applying the expectancy disconfirmation and regret theories to online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chechen; Liu, Chuang-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ping; To, Pui-Lai; Lin, Hong-Nan

    2011-04-01

    This study synthesizes the expectancy disconfirmation theory with empirical theories pertaining to customer regret in an e-commerce environment. The study begins by examining the roles that information quality (IQ), system quality (SYQ), and service quality (SEQ) play in determining customer regret and satisfaction. Then the consequences of regret and satisfaction on reuse intention are examined. Survey data collected from 445 respondents are analyzed using structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS-Graph 3.0) to provide support for the hypothesized links. Results show that IQ disconfirmation, SYQ disconfirmation and SEQ disconfirmation are related to regret and satisfaction. Both regret and satisfaction are related to reuse intention. In addition, satisfaction mediates the effect of regret on reuse intention. Based on these results, implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:21067306

  6. Lagrangian neoclassical transport theory applied to the region near the magnetic axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoclassical transport theory around the magnetic axis of a tokamak is studied, in which relatively wide ''potato'' orbits play an important role in transport. Lagrangian formulation of transport theory, which has been investigated to reflect finiteness of guiding-center orbit widths to transport equations, is developed in order to analyze neoclassical transport near the axis for a low-collisionality plasma. The treatment of self-collision term in Lagrangian formulation is revised to retain momentum conservation property of it. With directly reflecting the orbital properties of all the types of orbits in calculation, the ion thermal conductivity around the axis is found to decrease than from that predicted by conventional neoclassical theory. This result supports recent numerical simulations which show the reduction of thermal conductivity near the magnetic axis. (author)

  7. Developing the master learner: applying learning theory to the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Daniel J; Englander, Robert; Carraccio, Carol

    2013-11-01

    As a result of the paradigm shift to a competency-based framework, both self-directed lifelong learning and learner-centeredness have become essential tenets of medical education. In the competency-based framework, learners drive their own educational process, and both learners and teachers share the responsibility for the path and content of learning. This learner-centered emphasis requires each physician to develop and maintain lifelong learning skills, which the authors propose culminate in becoming a "master leaner." To better understand the development of these skills and the attainment of that goal, the authors explore how learning theories inform the development of master learners and how to translate these theories into practical strategies for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment so as to optimize this development.The authors begin by exploring self-determination theory, which lays the groundwork for understanding the motivation to learn. They next consider the theories of cognitive load and situated cognition, which inform the optimal context and environment for learning. Building from this foundation, the authors consider key educational theories that affect learners' abilities to serve as primary drivers of their learning, including self-directed learning (SDL); the self-assessment skills necessary for SDL; factors affecting self-assessment (self-concept, self-efficacy, illusory superiority, gap filling); and ways to mitigate the inaccuracies of self-assessment (reflection, self-monitoring, external information seeking, and self-directed assessment seeking).For each theory, they suggest practical action steps for the learner, the teacher, and the learning environment in an effort to provide a road map for developing master learners. PMID:24072107

  8. Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed

  9. Time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory applied to laser-driven H$_2^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Hanusch, A; Brics, M; Bauer, D

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural orbital theory (TDRNOT) is extended towards a multi-component approach in order to describe H$_2^+$ beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two kinds of natural orbitals, describing the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom are introduced, and the exact equations of motion for them are derived. The theory is benchmarked by comparing numerically exact results of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for a H$_2^+$ model system with the corresponding TDRNOT predictions. Ground state properties, linear response spectra, fragmentation, and high-order harmonic generation are investigated.

  10. Applying Game Theory to the Incremental Funding Method in Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maciel da Cunha Mattos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Game theory has been successfully used to analyze situations in several areas, such as economics, politics, sociology and biology. The Incremental Funding Method (IFM is a well known technique for optimizing the financial return of software projects under monopolistic conditions.This paper presents a new approach for the maximization of software projects’ financial returns under duopolistic situations, based on the application of game theory concepts to the IFM. It provides decision makers with policies, which demonstrate how and when the product, divided into modules, should be developed and launched in order to maximize return on investment of a project.

  11. Time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory applied to laser-driven H2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusch, A.; Rapp, J.; Brics, M.; Bauer, D.

    2016-04-01

    Recently introduced time-dependent renormalized-natural-orbital theory (TDRNOT) is extended towards a multicomponent approach in order to describe H2 + beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Two kinds of natural orbitals, describing the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom are introduced, and the exact equations of motion for them are derived. The theory is benchmarked by comparing numerically exact results of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an H2 + model system with the corresponding TDRNOT predictions. Ground-state properties, linear-response spectra, fragmentation, and high-order harmonic generation are investigated.

  12. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  14. Industrial Psychology: An Identity Crisis And Future Direction1

    OpenAIRE

    Mike L. Watkins

    2001-01-01

    The ontological and epistemological dimensions of Industrial Psychology originated from disparate psychology theories and multi-disciplinary attempts at solving problems related to employee satisfaction and productivity. From these developments, two notional clusters of competencies emerged to represent Personnel Psychology and Organisational Psychology. Industrial Psychology teaching, however, includes conflicting psychological theories which may potentially create something akin to an ident...

  15. Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…

  16. Determinants of Business Student Satisfaction and Retention in Higher Education: Applying Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShields, Oscar W., Jr.; Kara, Ali; Kaynak, Erdener

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper focuses on the determinants of student satisfaction and retention in a college or university that are assumed to impact students' college experience. Design/methodology/approach: Using empirical data and Herzberg's two-factor theory, a modified version of the questionnaire developed by Keaveney and Young was administered to…

  17. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  18. The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Search Engines as a Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Search engines have been developed for helping learners to seek online information. Based on theory of planned behaviour approach, this research intends to investigate the behaviour of using search engines as a learning tool. After factor analysis, the results suggest that perceived satisfaction of search engine, search engines as an information…

  19. Hydraulic theory of sea straits applied to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Theory for the dynamics of flow in sea straits holds promise to provide, in addition to geological evidence, insight into the configuration of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This paper, for the first time, systematic

  20. Erikson's Theory of Human Development as it Applies to the Aged: Wisdom as Contradictive Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Vivian

    1975-01-01

    Erikson's theory of human development is discussed; the question is raised as to whether most elderly individuals resolve the crisis between integrity and despair which signals the last stage of the life cycle. It is concluded that most individuals seek foreclosure or enter prolonged moratoriums after adolescence, never reaching this stage. (JMB)

  1. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  2. Applying Cognitive Load Theory to the Redesign of a Conventional Database Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Raina; Seton, Carolyn; Cooper, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive load theory (CLT) was used to redesign a Database Systems course for Information Technology students. The redesign was intended to address poor student performance and low satisfaction, and to provide a more relevant foundation in database design and use for subsequent studies and industry. The original course followed the conventional…

  3. Structure and Measurement of Depression in Youths: Applying Item Response Theory to Clinical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A.; Cai, Li; Martin, Nina C.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Garber, Judy; Curry, John F.; Hyde, Janet S.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Compas, Bruce E.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Rohde, Paul; Stark, Kevin D.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Forehand, Rex

    2011-01-01

    Our goals in this article were to use item response theory (IRT) to assess the relation of depressive symptoms to the underlying dimension of depression and to demonstrate how IRT-based measurement strategies can yield more reliable data about depression severity than conventional symptom counts. Participants were 3,403 children and adolescents…

  4. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  5. TITIK TEMU TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY DAN TASAWUF

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijah Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to introduce transpersonal psychology approach, especially its meeting point with the world of Sufism in Islam. The article tries to answer the following questions, are: 1) what is the difference between transpersonal psychology and other psycho-logical theories, and; 2) in what aspect transpersonal psychology shares a common ground with Sufism? The writer finds that there is a significant difference between transpersonal psychology and other psychological theories, especial...

  6. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H; Sisay Mitike M; Moland Karen; Åstrøm Anne N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009...

  7. Positive Psychology As Applied to Group Counseling for Drug Abstainers%积极心理学在戒毒人员团体辅导中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晓歆; 耿文秀; 姜永; 张衍

    2012-01-01

    戒毒人员的心理干预与矫治正日益受到重视。积极心理学关注人们发掘自身的积极品质和积极力量,戒毒人员同样拥有积极力量。本研究对上海市某强制隔离戒毒所的戒毒人员开展了以积极心理学为理论基础的团体心理辅导。团体辅导之后,实验组在正性情感和乐观上的得分都显著高于团体辅导前,对照组在团体辅导前后则没有显著变化。可见,将积极心理学应用于戒毒人员的团体辅导具有积极意义,团体辅导是一种有效的戒毒心理矫治方式。%Positive psychology is a scientific study of positive experiences, individual traits and institutions that facilitate development. Psychological intervention has been applied to drug abstainers to help them quit drugs in recent years. However, nowadays, in the field of psychological intervention, group counseling is not a common way for drug abstainers. So we conducted the study to assess the effectiveness of group counseling in helping drug abstainers. In the study, we designed a series of courses and activities applying positive psychology and focusing on the positive strength of drug abstainers as our intervention program. A sample of 28 subjects (2 of them quitted because of their sickness during the study) from a drug rehabilitation center in Shanghai was selected to participate in the study. Their ages ranged from 22 to 40 years old( average age = 30. 9). 13 of them were randomly chosen as the experimental group and the other 13 as the control group. They completed the Affect Scale and the Life Orientation Test (LOT) before and after the group counse- ling. The experimental group took part in the group counseling for 4 months, once every week. Each course lasted about 2 hours. The 16 courses included topics of family love, thanksgiving, positive communication, optimism, confidence and hope, etc. The group members shared their past life experiences and family lives

  8. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Purchase of Organic Food

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Martić Kuran; Mihić Mirela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to define factors which influence the purchase intention involving organic food among Croatian consumers. In order to create a theoretical base, this research adopted the theory of planned behavior. The model examines the impact of several independent variables on the intention to purchase organic foods. The study was conducted on a sample of 331 respondents in the territory of Republic of Croatia. Research results indicate that consumer attitudes towards o...

  9. Optimizing Physicians’ Instruction of PACS Through E-Learning: Cognitive Load Theory Applied

    OpenAIRE

    DEVOLDER, PIETER; Pynoo, Bram; VOET, TONY; Adang, Luk; Vercruysse, Jan; Duyck, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the strategy used by our hospital to maximize the knowledge transfer to referring physicians on using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). We developed an e-learning platform underpinned by the cognitive load theory (CLT) so that in depth knowledge of PACS’ abilities becomes attainable regardless of the user’s prior experience with computers. The application of the techniques proposed by CLT optimizes the learning of the new actions necessary to obtain an...

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior as Applied to Preoperative Smoking Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Shi; Shawna Ehlers; Warner, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstinence from smoking on the morning of surgery may improve outcomes. This study examined the explicatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior on the morning of surgery, testing the hypothesis that the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) will predict intent to abstain from smoking the morning of surgery, and that intent will predict behavior. TPB constructs were assessed in 169 pre-surgical patients. Smoking be...

  11. Applying Educational Theory to Simulation-Based Training and Assessment in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Sheila W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made regarding the range of simulator technologies and simulation formats. Similarly, results from research in human learning and behavior have facilitated the development of best practices in simulation-based training (SBT) and surgical education. Today, SBT is a common curriculum component in surgical education that can significantly complement clinical learning, performance, and patient care experiences. Beginning with important considerations for selecting appropriate forms of simulation, several relevant educational theories of learning are described. PMID:26210964

  12. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to healthy eating behaviors in urban Native American youth

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chery; Fila Stefanie A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict healthy eating behavior in a group of urban Native American youth. Methods Native American boys and girls (n = 139), ages 9–18 years old, were given a self-administered survey to assess eating behavior using the TBP constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm, barriers, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control). Youth were also measured for height and weight and body mass index (BMI)...

  13. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Entrepreneurship within a University Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Inés Rueda Sampedro; Ana Fernández-Laviada; Ángel Herrero Crespo

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of the perceived advantages and disadvantages of entrepreneurship surrounding the starting of a new business and it is based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. The sample contains 274 students of the Faculty of Business and Economics (University of Cantabria). A structural equation approach is used to test the research hypotheses. The results obtained show that the entrepreneurship advantages influence a college student’s attitude and later have an impact on thei...

  14. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, co...

  15. The Determinants of Medical Tourism Intentions: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Martin, David S; Martin, Warren S

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the theory of planned behavior to health care marketers by extending and replicating a prior study that predicted student's intention to engage in medical tourism. Based on a sample of 164 usable survey responses, our findings suggested that the MEDTOUR scale (developed and introduced a prior study) is robust and works reasonably well with a national sample. Based on these findings, MEDTOUR appears to be worthy of further consideration by health marketing scholars. PMID:26075544

  16. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting Proenvironmental Behaviour: The Case of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose and validate a model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in order to explain consumers’ pro-environmental behaviour regarding energy conservation. The model was constructed using the five variables from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB (behaviour, intention, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and attitude to which a variable adapted from Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT was added (“awareness of the consequences and the need” in order to create a unique model adapted for the special case of energy conservation behaviour. Further, a survey was conducted and the data collected were analysed using structural equation modelling. The first step of data analysis confirmed that all the constructs have good reliability, internal consistency and validity. The results of the structural equation analysis validated the proposed model, with all the model fit and quality indices having very good values. In the analysis of consumers’ proenvironmental behaviour regarding energy conservation and their intention to behave in a proenvironmental manner, this model proved to have a strong predictive power. Five of seven hypotheses were validated, the newly introduced variable proving to be a success. The proposed model is unique and will offer companies and organizations a valuable green marketing tool which can be used in the fight for environment protection and energy conservation.

  17. RELIGIOUS ANTHROPOCENTRISM: The Discourse of Islamic Psychology among Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hamim

    2010-01-01

    Ideas in psychology are often criticized as being dominated by the spirit and the model of secular and liberal Western thinking. They are frequently deemed to bring bias when applied to analyze the psychological problems of human beings in the context of other cultures, especially in the context of Islamic culture. This paper investigates Indonesian Muslim scientists’ offer of an alternative of grand theory in psychology formulated from a more balanced paradigm called religious anthropocentri...

  18. Applying Customer Satisfaction Theory to Community College Planning of Counseling Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard C.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses a framework in which a researcher may apply a customer satisfaction model to the planning of counseling services at the community college level. It also reviews some historical work on satisfaction research with the unique environment of student services in two-year colleges. The article suggests that readers could benefit…

  19. Conspiracist ideation in Britain and Austria: evidence of a monological belief system and associations between individual psychological differences and real-world and fictitious conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Coles, Rebecca; Stieger, Stefan; Pietschnig, Jakob; Furnham, Adrian; Rehim, Sherry; Voracek, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Despite evidence of widespread belief in conspiracy theories, there remains a dearth of research on the individual difference correlates of conspiracist ideation. In two studies, we sought to overcome this limitation by examining correlations between conspiracist ideation and a range of individual psychological factors. In Study 1, 817 Britons indicated their agreement with conspiracist ideation concerning the July 7, 2005 (7/7), London bombings, and completed a battery of individual difference scales. Results showed that stronger belief in 7/7 conspiracy theories was predicted by stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, greater exposure to conspiracist ideation, higher political cynicism, greater support for democratic principles, more negative attitudes to authority, lower self-esteem, and lower Agreeableness. In Study 2, 281 Austrians indicated their agreement with an entirely fictitious conspiracy theory and completed a battery of individual difference measures not examined in Study 1. Results showed that belief in the entirely fictitious conspiracy theory was significantly associated with stronger belief in other real-world conspiracy theories, stronger paranormal beliefs, and lower crystallized intelligence. These results are discussed in terms of the potential of identifying individual difference constellations among conspiracy theorists. PMID:21751999

  20. The Light-Front Coupled-Cluster Method Applied to ϕ41+1 Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the light-front coupled-cluster (LFCC) method to compute the odd-parity massive eigenstate of ϕ41+1 theory. A standard Fock-space truncation of the eigenstate yields a finite set of linear equations for a finite number of wave functions. The LFCC method replaces Fock-space truncation with a more sophisticated truncation; the eigenvalue problem is reduced to a finite set of nonlinear equations without any restriction on Fock space, but with restrictions on the Fock wave functions. We compare our results with those obtained with a Fock-space truncation. (author)